Science.gov

Sample records for complexity tier development

  1. Development of a Tiered Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W.; Pfeiler, Erika A.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  2. Development of a tiered multilocus sequence typing scheme for members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W; Pfeiler, Erika A; Elkins, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  3. Development and Application of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Secondary Students' Understanding of Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the development and application of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (or three-tier test) on the nature and propagation of waves. A question in a three-tier test comprises the "content tier", which measures content knowledge; the "reason tier", which measures explanatory knowledge; and the "confidence tier", which…

  4. Developing a Classroom Management Plan Using a Tiered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Brown, Monica R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a response-to-intervention (RTI) framework that both special and general education teachers can use in evaluating existing class structures and developing comprehensive classroom management plans for the purpose of managing challenging behaviors. They applied the concept of a three-tiered model of support at…

  5. Professional Development to Differentiate Kindergarten Tier 1 Instruction: Can Already Effective Teachers Improve Student Outcomes by Differentiating Tier 1 Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Waesche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers'…

  6. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included

  7. Development of a Tier-1 assay for assessing the toxicity of insecticidal substances against Coleomegilla maculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Tier-1 laboratory testing system was developed to assess the potential dietary effects of insecticidal substances on the predacious ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata. Artificial diets utilizing shrimp eggs were developed, and a Tier-1 bioassay examining C. maculata development and survival wa...

  8. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  9. The JINR Tier1 Site Simulation for Research and Development Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenkov, V.; Nechaevskiy, A.; Ososkov, G.; Pryahina, D.; Trofimov, V.; Uzhinskiy, A.; Voytishin, N.

    2016-02-01

    Distributed complex computing systems for data storage and processing are in common use in the majority of modern scientific centers. The design of such systems is usually based on recommendations obtained via a preliminary simulated model used and executed only once. However big experiments last for years and decades, and the development of their computing system is going on, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Even with the substantial efforts invested in the design phase to understand the systems configuration, it would be hard enough to develop a system without additional research of its future evolution. The developers and operators face the problem of the system behaviour predicting after the planned modifications. A system for grid and cloud services simulation is developed at LIT (JINR, Dubna). This simulation system is focused on improving the effciency of the grid/cloud structures development by using the work quality indicators of some real system. The development of such kind of software is very important for making a new grid/cloud infrastructure for such big scientific experiments like the JINR Tier1 site for WLCG. The simulation of some processes of the Tier1 site is considered as an example of our application approach.

  10. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  11. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  12. CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L.; Stallings, Christina L.; Galburt, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    CarD is an essential and global transcriptional regulator in mycobacteria. While its biological role is unclear, CarD functions by interacting directly with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme promoter complexes. Here, using a fluorescent reporter of open complex, we quantitate RPo formation in real time and show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD has a dramatic effect on the energetics of RNAP bound complexes on the M. tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal RNA promoter. The data reveal that Mycobacterium bovis RNAP exhibits an unstable RPo that is stabilized by CarD and suggest that CarD uses a two-tiered, concentration-dependent mechanism by associating with open and closed complexes with different affinities. Specifically, the kinetics of open-complex formation can be explained by a model where, at saturating concentrations of CarD, the rate of bubble collapse is slowed and the rate of opening is accelerated. The kinetics and open-complex stabilities of CarD mutants further clarify the roles played by the key residues W85, K90 and R25 previously shown to affect CarD-dependent gene regulation in vivo. In contrast to M. bovis RNAP, Escherichia coli RNAP efficiently forms RPo on rrnAP3, suggesting an important difference between the polymerases themselves and highlighting how transcriptional machinery can vary across bacterial genera. PMID:25697505

  13. Development of a Three-Tier Test to Assess Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesman, Haki; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to propose a valid and reliable diagnostic instrument by developing a three-tier test on simple electric circuits. Based on findings from the interviews, open-ended questions, and the related literature, the test was developed and administered to 124 high school students. In addition to some qualitative techniques for…

  14. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  15. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  16. Development of a Tier 3 Curriculum to Teach Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Hommel, Annie; McMahon, Rose; Aguayo, Katherine Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Children with the lowest oral language and early literacy skills at entry to kindergarten are the most vulnerable to poor literacy outcomes. This article describes the programmatic development of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention for preschool children who are most in need of intensive support to achieve early literacy outcomes. The…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A TIER II ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR TEST GUIDELINE FOR MULTI-GENERATIONAL EXPOSURES OF THE ESTUARINE FISH, SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW TO REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) developed a two-tiered screening approach for identifying and characterizing endocrine effects of pesticides, industrial substances and environmental contaminants. Tier II tests include development of transgenerational (t...

  18. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-02-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 (n = 90) and Grade 5 (n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  20. DEVELOPMENT, STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF THE MAMMALIAN IN VIVO ASSAYS IN THE PROPOSED TIER I SCREENING BATTERY FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research directly supports the development, standardization and validation of several Tier 1 screening mammalian in vivo assays. Through the development and use of many of these assays for testing specific hypothesis in their respective research programs, these investigato...

  1. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  2. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  3. Developing the Capacity to Implement Tier 2 and Tier 3 Supports: How Do We Support Our Faculty and Staff in Preparing for Sustainability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Germer, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    School-site and district-level leadership teams rely on the existing knowledge base to select, implement, and evaluate evidence-based practices meeting students' multiple needs within the context of multitiered systems of support. The authors focus on the stages of implementation science as applied to Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports; the…

  4. Four Tiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    This paper posits a classification of tertiary education institutions into four tiers: world research universities, selecting universities, recruiting universities, and vocational institutes. The distinguishing characteristic of world research universities is their research strength, the distinguishing characteristic of selecting universities is…

  5. The ATLAS Tier-3 in Geneva and the Trigger Development Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadomski, S.; Meunier, Y.; Pasche, P.; Baud, J.-P.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS Tier-3 farm at the University of Geneva provides storage and processing power for analysis of ATLAS data. In addition the facility is used for development, validation and commissioning of the High Level Trigger of ATLAS [1]. The latter purpose leads to additional requirements on the availability of latest software and data, which will be presented. The farm is also a part of the WLCG [2], and is available to all members of the ATLAS Virtual Organization. The farm currently provides 268 CPU cores and 177 TB of storage space. A grid Storage Element, implemented with the Disk Pool Manager software [3], is available and integrated with the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system [4]. The batch system can be used directly by local users, or with a grid interface provided by NorduGrid ARC middleware [5]. In this article we will present the use cases that we support, as well as the experience with the software and the hardware we are using. Results of I/O benchmarking tests, which were done for our DPM Storage Element and for the NFS servers we are using, will also be presented.

  6. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  7. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, liposomal amphotericin B (for visceral leishmaniasis), and pneumococcal vaccines. Discussion We found several critical shortcomings to tiered pricing: it is inferior to competition for achieving the lowest sustainable prices; it often involves arbitrary divisions between markets and/or countries, which can lead to very high prices for middle-income markets; and it leaves a disproportionate amount of decision-making power in the hands of sellers vis-à-vis consumers. In many developing countries, resources are often stretched so tight that affordability can only be approached by selling medicines at or near the cost of production. Policies that "de-link" the financing of R&D from the price of medicines merit further attention, since they can reward innovation while exploiting robust competition in production to generate the lowest sustainable prices. However, in special cases - such as when market volumes are very small or multi-source production capacity is lacking - tiered pricing may offer the only practical option to meet short-term needs for access to a product. In such cases, steps should be taken to ensure affordability and availability in the longer-term. Summary To ensure access to medicines for populations in need, alternate strategies should be explored that harness the power of competition, avoid arbitrary market segmentation, and/or recognize government responsibilities. Competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior

  8. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  9. Complex System Assembly Underlies a Two-Tiered Model of Highly Delocalized Electrons.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Laurents, Douglas V

    2016-05-19

    Amyloid fibrils are exceptionally stable oligomeric structures with extensive, highly cooperative H-bonding networks whose physical origin remains elusive. While nonpolar systems benefit from both H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions, we found that highly polar sequences containing glutamine and asparagine amino acid residues form hyperpolarized H-bonds. This feature, observed by density functional theory calculations, encodes the origin of these polar oligomers' high stability. These results are explained in a theoretical model for complex amyloid assembly based on two different types of cooperative effects resulting from highly delocalized electrons, one of which is always present in both polar and hydrophobic systems. Experimental electric conductivity measurements, ThT fluorescence enhancement, and NMR spectroscopy support this proposal and reveal the conditions for disassembly. PMID:27139835

  10. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  11. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  12. The Science behind Curriculum Development and Evaluation: Taking a Design Science Approach in the Production of a Tier 2 Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2015-01-01

    The production of an effective mathematics curriculum begins with a scientific development, evaluation, and revision framework. The purpose of this study was to conduct an initial investigation of a recently developed Tier 2 mathematics curriculum designed to improve the outcomes of first grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD).…

  13. Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

  14. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

  15. Tier 1, Teacher-Implemented Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with and without Behavioral Challenges: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Driscoll, Steven A.; Graham, Steve; Wilson, Kristen; Sandmel, Karin; Brindle, Mary; Schatschneider, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in the context of schools collaborating with a local university to implement an evidence-based, 3-tiered model of prevention and supports targeting academic, behavioral, and social goals. We examined whether Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction, delivered by grade 2 and 3 general education teachers to all…

  16. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  17. Self-Regulated Strategy Development at Tier 2 for Second-Grade Students with Writing and Behavioral Difficulties: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Harris, Karen; Graham, Steve; Driscoll, Steven; Sandmel, Karin; Morphy, Paul; Hebert, Michael; House, Emily; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which strategies instruction, using the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model, would enhance the writing, engagement during writing, and behavior of 44 second-grade students identified as having behavioral and writing difficulties. This study occurred within a comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered model of…

  18. R5 Clade C SHIV Strains with Tier 1 or 2 Neutralization Sensitivity: Tools to Dissect Env Evolution and to Develop AIDS Vaccines in Primate Models

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Watkins, Jennifer D.; Wassermann, Klemens J.; Song, Ruijiang; Wang, Wendy; Kramer, Victor G.; Lakhashe, Samir; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Montefiori, David C.; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1) HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2) phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an “early,” recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a “late” form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM) with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to “late” SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2). After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. Conclusions/Significance SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates. PMID:20657739

  19. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  20. Development of a tiered and binned genetic counseling model for informed consent in the era of multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Long, Jessica; Powers, Jacquelyn; Stopfer, Jill; Forman, Andrea; Rybak, Christina; Mattie, Kristin; Brandt, Amanda; Chambers, Rachelle; Chung, Wendy K.; Churpek, Jane; Daly, Mary B.; Digiovanni, Laura; Farengo-Clark, Dana; Fetzer, Dominique; Ganschow, Pamela; Grana, Generosa; Gulden, Cassandra; Hall, Michael; Kohler, Lynne; Maxwell, Kara; Merrill, Shana; Montgomery, Susan; Mueller, Rebecca; Nielsen, Sarah; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Rainey, Kimberly; Seelaus, Christina; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multiplex genetic testing, including both moderate- and high-penetrance genes for cancer susceptibility, is associated with greater uncertainty than traditional testing, presenting challenges to informed consent and genetic counseling. We sought to develop a new model for informed consent and genetic counseling for four ongoing studies. Methods Drawing from professional guidelines, literature, conceptual frameworks, and clinical experience, a multidisciplinary group developed a tiered-binned genetic counseling approach proposed to facilitate informed consent and improve outcomes of cancer susceptibility multiplex testing. Results In this model, tier 1 “indispensable” information is presented to all patients. More specific tier 2 information is provided to support variable informational needs among diverse patient populations. Clinically relevant information is “binned” into groups to minimize information overload, support informed decision making, and facilitate adaptive responses to testing. Seven essential elements of informed consent are provided to address the unique limitations, risks, and uncertainties of multiplex testing. Conclusion A tiered-binned model for informed consent and genetic counseling has the potential to address the challenges of multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility and to support informed decision making and adaptive responses to testing. Future prospective studies including patient-reported outcomes are needed to inform how to best incorporate multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility into clinical practice. PMID:25297947

  1. A novel approach for the development of tiered use biological criteria for rivers and streams in an ecologically diverse landscape.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, R William; Niemela, Scott; Genet, John A; Yoder, Chris O; Sandberg, John; Chirhart, Joel W; Feist, Mike; Lundeen, Benjamin; Helwig, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Water resource protection goals for aquatic life are often general and can result in under protection of some high quality water bodies and unattainable expectations for other water bodies. More refined aquatic life goals known as tiered aquatic life uses (TALUs) provide a framework to designate uses by setting protective goals for high quality water bodies and establishing attainable goals for water bodies altered by legally authorized legacy activities (e.g., channelization). Development of biological criteria or biocriteria typically requires identification of a set of least- or minimally-impacted reference sites that are used to establish a baseline from which goals are derived. Under a more refined system of stream types and aquatic life use goals, an adequate set of reference sites is needed to account for the natural variability of aquatic communities (e.g., landscape differences, thermal regime, and stream size). To develop sufficient datasets, Minnesota employed a reference condition approach in combination with an approach based on characterizing a stream's response to anthropogenic disturbance through development of a Biological Condition Gradient (BCG). These two approaches allowed for the creation of ecologically meaningful and consistent biocriteria within a more refined stream typology and solved issues related to small sample sizes and poor representation of minimally- or least-disturbed conditions for some stream types. Implementation of TALU biocriteria for Minnesota streams and rivers will result in consistent and protective goals that address fundamental differences among waters in terms of their potential for restoration. PMID:26920130

  2. The Legnaro-Padova distributed Tier-2: challenges and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoer, Simone; Biasotto, Massimo; Costa, Fulvia; Crescente, Alberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Ferrari, Roberto; Gulmini, Michele; Maron, Gaetano; Michelotto, Michele; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Toniolo, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    The Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 is a computing facility serving the ALICE and CMS LHC experiments. It also supports other High Energy Physics experiments and other virtual organizations of different disciplines, which can opportunistically harness idle resources if available. The unique characteristic of this Tier-2 is its topology: the computational resources are spread in two different sites, about 15 km apart: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova unit, connected through a 10 Gbps network link (it will be soon updated to 20 Gbps). Nevertheless these resources are seamlessly integrated and are exposed as a single computing facility. Despite this intrinsic complexity, the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 ranks among the best Grid sites for what concerns reliability and availability. The Tier-2 comprises about 190 worker nodes, providing about 26000 HS06 in total. Such computing nodes are managed by the LSF local resource management system, and are accessible using a Grid-based interface implemented through multiple CREAM CE front-ends. dCache, xrootd and Lustre are the storage systems in use at the Tier-2: about 1.5 PB of disk space is available to users in total, through multiple access protocols. A 10 Gbps network link, planned to be doubled in the next months, connects the Tier-2 to WAN. This link is used for the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) and for other general purpose traffic. In this paper we discuss about the experiences at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2: the problems that had to be addressed, the lessons learned, the implementation choices. We also present the tools used for the daily management operations. These include DOCET, a Java-based webtool designed, implemented and maintained at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2, and deployed also in other sites, such as the LHC Italian T1. DOCET provides an uniform interface to manage all the information about the physical resources of a computing center. It is also used as documentation repository available to

  3. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  4. The development and validation of a three-tier diagnostic test measuring pre-service elementary education and secondary science teachers' understanding of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows test-takers to select how confident they are in their answers for the first two tiers. The second goal of this study was to diagnose any alternative conceptions PSTs might have about the water cycle. The Water Cycle Diagnostic Test (WCDT) was developed using the theoretical framework by Treagust (1986, 1988, and 1995), and in similar studies that developed diagnostic tests (e.g., Calean & Subramaniam, 2010a; Odom & Barrow, 2007; Pesman & Eryilmaz, 2010). The final instrument consisted of 15 items along with a demographic survey that examined PSTs' weather-related experiences that may or may not have affected the PSTs' understanding of the water cycle. The WCDT was administered to 77 PSTs enrolled in science methods courses during the fall of 2012. Among the 77 participants, 37 of the PSTs were enrolled in elementary education (EPST) and 40 in secondary science (SPST). Using exploratory factor analysis, five categories were factored out for the WCDT: Phase Change of Water; Condensation and Storage; Clouds; Global Climate Change; and Movement through the Water Cycle. Analysis of the PSTs' responses demonstrated acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.62) for the instrument, and acceptable difficulty indices and discrimination indices for 12 of the items. Analysis indicated that the majority of the PSTs had a limited understanding of the water cycle. Of the PSTs sampled, SPSTs were significantly more confident in their answers' on the WCDT than the EPSTs. Completion of an undergraduate atmospheric science and/or meteorology course, as well as a higher interest in listening and/or viewing weather-related programs, resulted in PSTs

  5. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction. The development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development. Misconception data were collected from interviews and multiple-choice questions with free response answers. The data were used to develop 12 two-tier multiple choice items in which the first tier examined content knowledge and the second examined understanding of that knowledge. The conceptual knowledge examined was the particulate and random nature of matter, concentration and tonicity, the influence of life forces on diffusion and osmosis, membranes, kinetic energy of matter, the process of diffusion, and the process of osmosis. The diagnostic instrument was administered to 240 students (123 non-biology majors and 117 biology majors) enrolled in a college freshman biology laboratory course. The students had completed a unit on diffusion and osmosis. The content taught was carefully defined by propositional knowledge statements, and was the same content that defined the content boundaries of the test. The split-half reliability was .74. Difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and discrimination indices ranged from 0.21 to 0.65. Each item was analyzed to determine student understanding of, and identify misconceptions about, diffusion and osmosis.Received: 18 June 1993; Revised: 16 February 1994;

  6. The Looming Danger of a Two-Tiered Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    If professional development relies on scripts and mandates rather than on learning communities and continuous improvement, it can actually hinder teachers' growth. The author expresses his fear that the teachers most likely to receive such inferior training are the ones who work with the student population most in need of high-quality teaching.…

  7. Strength-Based RTI: Conceptualizing a Multi-Tiered System for Developing Gifted Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of a strength-based Response to Intervention (RTI) model for developing and identifying gifted potential. Although much has been written about the promises and challenges of RTI in recent years, the utility of RTI for meeting the needs of gifted learners has not been fully explored. This article seeks to…

  8. Development of an early-tier laboratory bioassay for assessing the impact of orally-active insecticidal compounds on larvae of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Pálinkás, Zoltan; Bigler, Franz; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    Early-tier studies are the initial step in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered plants on nontarget arthropods. They are conducted in the laboratory where surrogate species are exposed to higher concentrations of the arthropod-active compound than those expected to occur in the field. Thus, early-tier tests provide robust data and allow to make general conclusions about the susceptibility of the surrogate to the test substance. We have developed an early-tier test for assessing the toxicity of orally-active insecticidal compounds to larvae of the ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Using potassium arsenate and the protease inhibitor E-64 as model compounds, we validated the bioassay set-up for C. septempunctata. Sucrose solution containing the test compound was offered to larvae for 24 h on the first day of each of its four larval instars. Subsequently, larvae were fed ad libitum with Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Both compounds negatively affected C. septempunctata larval survival and development, and adult weight, indicating that the bioassay setup was able to detect dietary effects of insecticidal substances on the ladybird. Power analyses revealed that sample sizes of 20 or 45 per treatment are sufficient to detect 50 or 20% differences between the control and treatment groups, respectively, for the various measurement endpoints. PMID:23321119

  9. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  10. Developing an Educational Computer Game for Migratory Bird Identification Based on a Two-Tier Test Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although educational computer games have been recognized as being a promising approach, previous studies have indicated that, without supportive models, students might only show temporary interest during the game-based learning process, and their learning performance is often not as good as expected. Therefore, in this paper, a two-tier test…

  11. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  12. Tier 2 safety Basis Document for the B151 Complex (B151, B152, and B154)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G A

    2006-12-07

    This Safety Basis Document (SBD) has been prepared for the B151 Complex at Site 200 to meet the current contractual requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). B151 Complex consists of three separate complex and distinct buildings: B151, B152, and B154, represented within this document as facility segments. Based upon its chemical and radiological inventories, Segment B151 is classified as a Low Hazard facility segment. All other hazards associated with Segment B151 operations have been determined to be LSI. Based upon their inventories, Segment B152 and Segment B154 are each classified as LSI facility segments. However, for operational flexibility involving radiological materials, CMS chooses to classify each of these as Low Hazard facility segments. Changes in operations, maximum inventories, materials, or release potential that could result in larger consequences, or that could negatively impact the safety of the facility, will necessitate a re-evaluation of these facility classifications. This SBD is governed by the LLNL Non-Nuclear Work Smart Standards (WSSs) requirements including the ES&H Manual, Document 3.1, Non-Nuclear Safety Basis Program [LLNL, 2004a] and the DOE Explosives Safety Manual (ESM) [LLNL, 2004b]. This SBD demonstrates that the three segments of B151 Complex can be operated as Low Hazard facility segments without undue risks to co-located workers, the public, or the environment. This SBD: (1) Provides a systematic identification of the safety and health hazards associated with operations in the B151 Complex, (2) Compares facility inventories of explosives, biological materials, chemicals, radioisotopes with LLNL threshold values for each facility hazard classification criteria, (3) Examines standard and non-standard industrial hazards, (4) Examines the hazards of greatest significance, (5) Qualitatively discusses the programs that evaluate and control these hazards to ensure the protection of co-located workers, the public

  13. Development and use of a three-tier diagnostic test to assess high school students' misconceptions about the photoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2016-05-01

    Background: In the last few decades, researchers have turned their attention to students' understanding of scientific concepts at different school levels. The results indicate that the learners have different ideas, and most of them are inaccurate in terms of those generally accepted by the scientific community. Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the development, validation and use of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (PEMT) to reveal Turkish high school students' common misconceptions in terms of the photoelectric effect. Sample: In this study, 243 students (male=86, female=137) from six high schools made up the sample which comprised approximately 76% of the 11th grade population. Design and Methods: Based on findings from the literature, open-ended questions and interviews, the PEMT was developed and administered to 243 students. The data was analysed descriptively. Results: The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scores was estimated as .83. Construct, content and face validities were established by senior experts and through the use of statistical techniques. The findings denoted that the test is a valid and reliable measure of students' qualitative understanding of the photoelectric concept. The results revealed that the majority of the students demonstrated a limited understanding of the photoelectric effect and have five prevalent misconceptions. These are: (1) an increase in intensity would provide the photon with enough energy to release electrons; (2) the photoelectric effect results from the ionization of atoms through the interaction with light; (3) a light beam whose photons have smaller energies than the work function would release electrons with the help of a voltage source; (4) the number of photoelectrons depends on the energy of the photon and (5) the photon has kinetic energy and it depends on the colour of light. The last two misconceptions were discovered in the current study. Conclusion: The findings

  14. A distributed Tier-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, L.; Grønager, M.; Kleist, J.; Smirnova, O.

    2008-07-01

    The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: firstly, it is not located at one or a few premises, but instead is distributed throughout the Nordic countries; secondly, it is not under the governance of a single organization but instead is a meta-center built of resources under the control of a number of different national organizations. We present some technical implications of these aspects as well as the high-level design of this distributed Tier-1. The focus will be on computing services, storage and monitoring.

  15. Recent developments in complex scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Rescigno, T.N.

    1980-12-15

    Some recent developments in the use of complex basis function techniques to study resonance as well as certain types of non-resonant, scattering phenomena are discussed. Complex scaling techniques and other closely related methods have continued to attract the attention of computational physicists and chemists and have now reached a point of development where meaningful calculations on many-electron atoms and molecules are beginning to appear feasible.

  16. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and utilization of an undergraduate diagnostic test of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-11-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement model, we extend this to a multi-tiered approach which supports multiple interpretations. Using a sample of 130 undergraduate students from two colleges, we utilize the Rasch model to place students and items along traditional one-, two-, and three-tiered scales as well as a misconceptions scale. In the three-tiered and misconceptions scales, high confidence was indicative of mastery. In the latter scale, a 'misconception' was defined as mastery of an incorrect concept. We found that integrating confidence into mastery did little to change item functioning; however, three-tiered usage resulted in higher reliability and lower student ability estimates than two-tiered usage. The misconceptions scale showed high efficacy in predicting items on which particular students were likely to express misconceptions, and revealed several tenacious misconceptions that all students were likely to express regardless of ability. Previous coursework on the water cycle did little to change the prevalence of undergraduates' misconceptions.

  17. Multi-tier approach for data acquisition programming in the TJ-II remote participation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; Portas, A.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.

    2004-10-01

    Programming software to setup acquisition channels during device operation has been developed for the TJ-II remote participation system. The software follows a three-tier model. A first tier (client tier) groups client software containing only user interface code. A second tier (middle tier) includes code for authorization, authentication, and query processing. A third tier (data tier) consists of a relational database server for managing configurations. Multi-platform characteristics are provided by web browsers (client tier) and web servers (middle tier). This architecture avoids that data acquisition system controllers provide access control, database support, or graphic user interface resources. Therefore, computation capabilities of these systems can mainly be devoted to data handling. LabView (from National Instruments) has been used as programming language in the acquisition systems. This design allows a very transparent management of signals, independently on hardware modules and systems.

  18. Cultural complexities and scientific development.

    PubMed

    Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2007-03-01

    Methodological issues in psychology consist of a key aspect for the scientific development of the discipline. In this paper I elaborate on the reasons why I partially agree with Toomela's ideas, and why I also disagree with some of his arguments. The convergence refers to the need for a radical change concerning the widespread use of methodologies that has been typical of mainstream psychology, which still flavors too positivist and pseudo-quantitative, overlooking the central relevance of theory for scientific development. The divergence resides in Toomela's insistence to oppose what he designates as "the North American" to "the German-Austrian" scientific thinking: from my perspective, the misuse of cultural categories can only lead to misguided and unconstructive dichotomies that entails a naive concept of culture, and do not contribute to scientific development. From a contemporary systemic approach, complex issues deserve more sophisticated analysis. PMID:17992868

  19. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-Based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and Utilization of an Undergraduate Diagnostic Test of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement…

  20. Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, Rotimi; Fawale, Bimbo Michael; Busari, Olusegun Adesola; Ogunmola, Jeffery Olarinde; Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Ojewola, Rufus Wale; Yusuf, Musah; Obajolowo, Omotola; Soje, Michael; Gbadegesin, Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative. Methods A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted. Results Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P < 0.05), and this cohort is less likely to be aware of organ donation (P < 0.05). At each level of care, permission by religion to donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P < 0.05) and not willingness to donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P < 0.05) and women (P > 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P < 0.05) and counseling of families of potential donors (P > 0.05). Conclusions Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation. PMID:27500245

  1. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…

  2. Addressing Instructional Avoidance with Tier II Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Turtura, Jessica; Parry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a 3-tiered, prevention-oriented framework, Tier II (secondary, targeted) interventions are designed for students whose problem behaviors have not responded to Tier I but are not severe enough to warrant an individualized Tier III intervention. Tier II interventions are implemented similarly across students receiving the intervention and can be…

  3. Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobyshev, A.; DeMar, P.; Grigaliunas, V.; Bigrow, J.; Hoeft, B.; Reymund, A.

    2012-12-01

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: • Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state • Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers • Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers • Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities • Network virtualization

  4. INTEGRATED IN VITRO TESTING AND QSAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT TO RANK AND PRIORITIZE CHEMICALS FOR TIERED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL (EDC) TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this research is to develop and validate an integrate suite of in vitro bioassays that may serve as the basis for models to rank and prioritize large inventories of chemicals for EDC activity. The assays will be developed using an aquatic species and foc...

  5. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument to Assess Middle-Years Students' Proportional Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2013-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional methods appropriately and that they often erroneously…

  6. Tiered Pricing: Implications for Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Karla

    2005-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of publishers have adopted tiered pricing of journals. The design and implications of tiered-pricing models, however, are poorly understood. Tiered pricing can be modeled using several variables. A survey of current tiered-pricing models documents the range of key variables used. A sensitivity analysis…

  7. 40 CFR 79.54 - Tier 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier 3. 79.54 Section 79.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.54 Tier 3. (a) General Criteria for Requiring Tier 3 Testing. (1) Tier 3...

  8. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject...

  9. Tier Two Interventions Implemented within the Context of a Tiered Prevention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barbara S.; Stormont, Melissa; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence demonstrating the value of Tier 1 and Tier 3 interventions, significantly less is known about Tier 2 level treatments when they are added within the context of a tiered continuum of support. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the existing research base for Tier 2 small group intervention…

  10. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject...

  11. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lauret, J.; Lauret, J.; Chaloupka, P.; Jakl, P.; Kapitan, J.; Zerola, M.

    2010-05-28

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called 'Golias'. It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  12. Tiers of intervention in kindergarten through third grade.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rollanda E; Harty, Kristin R; Fulmer, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the effects of increasing levels of intervention in reading for a cohort of children in Grades K through 3 to determine whether the severity of reading disability (RD) could be significantly reduced in the catchment schools. Tier 1 consisted of professional development for teachers of reading. The focus of this study is on additional instruction that was provided as early as kindergarten for children whose achievement fell below average. Tier 2 intervention consisted of small-group reading instruction 3 times per week, and Tier 3 of daily instruction delivered individually or in groups of two. A comparison of the reading achievement of third-grade children who were at risk in kindergarten showed moderate to large differences favoring children in the tiered interventions in decoding, word identification, fluency, and reading comprehension. PMID:16392695

  13. Implementation of Grid Tier 2 and Tier 3 facilities on a Distributed OpenStack Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limosani, Antonio; Boland, Lucien; Coddington, Paul; Crosby, Sean; Huang, Joanna; Sevior, Martin; Wilson, Ross; Zhang, Shunde

    2014-06-01

    The Australian Government is making a AUD 100 million investment in Compute and Storage for the academic community. The Compute facilities are provided in the form of 30,000 CPU cores located at 8 nodes around Australia in a distributed virtualized Infrastructure as a Service facility based on OpenStack. The storage will eventually consist of over 100 petabytes located at 6 nodes. All will be linked via a 100 Gb/s network. This proceeding describes the development of a fully connected WLCG Tier-2 grid site as well as a general purpose Tier-3 computing cluster based on this architecture. The facility employs an extension to Torque to enable dynamic allocations of virtual machine instances. A base Scientific Linux virtual machine (VM) image is deployed in the OpenStack cloud and automatically configured as required using Puppet. Custom scripts are used to launch multiple VMs, integrate them into the dynamic Torque cluster and to mount remote file systems. We report on our experience in developing this nation-wide ATLAS and Belle II Tier 2 and Tier 3 computing infrastructure using the national Research Cloud and storage facilities.

  14. Using a Two-Tier Test to Assess Students' Understanding and Alternative Conceptions of Cyber Copyright Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Chan, Pei-Shan; Wu, Huan-Chueh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of cyber copyright laws. This study developed a two-tier test with 10 two-level multiple-choice questions. The first tier presented a real-case scenario and asked whether the conduct was acceptable whereas the second-tier provided reasons to justify the conduct. Students in Taiwan…

  15. Physician Tiering by Health Plans in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Wadgaonkar, Ajay D.; Schneider, Eric C.; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physician tiering is an emerging health-care strategy that purports to grade physicians on the basis of cost-efficiency and quality-performance measures. We investigated the consistency of tiering of orthopaedic surgeons by examining tier agreement between health plans and physician factors associated with top-tier ranking. Methods: Health plan tier, demographic, and training data were collected on 615 licensed orthopaedic surgeons who accepted one or more of three health plans and practiced in Massachusetts. We then computed the concordance of physician tier rankings between the health plans. We further examined the factors associated with top-tier ranking, such as malpractice claims and socioeconomic conditions of the practice area. Results: The concordance of physician tiering between health plans was poor to fair (range, 8% to 28%, κ = 0.06 to 0.25). The percentage of physicians ranked as top-tier varied widely among the health plans, from 21% to 62%. Thirty-eight percent of physicians were not rated top-tier by any of the health plans, whereas only 5.2% of physicians were rated top-tier by all three health plans. Multivariate analysis showed that board certification, accepting Medicaid, and practicing in a suburban location were the independent factors associated with being ranked in the top tier. More years in practice or fewer malpractice claims were not related to tier. Conclusions: Current methods of physician tiering have low consistency and manifest evidence of geographic and demographic biases. PMID:20844163

  16. 7 CFR 1940.327 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 may consider the concept of tiering in the preparation of... issues specific to the action under consideration. Tiering can be used when the sequence of analysis...

  17. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20) environmental... the same issues and to focus on the issues relating to specific actions. If the Air Force...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 1508.28 Section 1508.28 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering refers to the coverage of general matters in broader environmental impact statements (such as...

  19. 40 CFR 1502.20 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 1502.20 Section 1502.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.20 Tiering. Agencies are encouraged to tier their environmental impact statements to eliminate repetitive...

  20. 6 CFR 27.220 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tiering. 27.220 Section 27.220 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.220 Tiering. (a) Preliminary Determination of Risk-Based Tiering. Based...

  1. Can complexity science inform physician leadership development?

    PubMed

    Grady, Colleen Marie

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe research that examined physician leadership development using complexity science principles. Design/methodology/approach Intensive interviewing of 21 participants and document review provided data regarding physician leadership development in health-care organizations using five principles of complexity science (connectivity, interdependence, feedback, exploration-of-the-space-of-possibilities and co-evolution), which were grouped in three areas of inquiry (relationships between agents, patterns of behaviour and enabling functions). Findings Physician leaders are viewed as critical in the transformation of healthcare and in improving patient outcomes, and yet significant challenges exist that limit their development. Leadership in health care continues to be associated with traditional, linear models, which are incongruent with the behaviour of a complex system, such as health care. Physician leadership development remains a low priority for most health-care organizations, although physicians admit to being limited in their capacity to lead. This research was based on five principles of complexity science and used grounded theory methodology to understand how the behaviours of a complex system can provide data regarding leadership development for physicians. The study demonstrated that there is a strong association between physician leadership and patient outcomes and that organizations play a primary role in supporting the development of physician leaders. Findings indicate that a physician's relationship with their patient and their capacity for innovation can be extended as catalytic behaviours in a complex system. The findings also identified limiting factors that impact physicians who choose to lead, such as reimbursement models that do not place value on leadership and medical education that provides minimal opportunity for leadership skill development. Practical Implications This research provides practical

  2. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  3. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  4. Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

  5. A Four-Tier Differentiation Model: Engage All Students in the Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrelko, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    This study details the creation of a four-tiered format designed to help preservice teachers write differentiated lesson plans. A short history of lesson plan differentiation models is described and how the four-tier approach was developed through collaboration with classroom teachers and university faculty. The unifying element for the format…

  6. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  7. Building a Tier 2 Intervention: A Glimpse behind the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the development process and data-driven decisions that characterized a 5-year iterative process of development and evaluation of a Tier 2 early language curriculum, "Story Friends." This curriculum was specifically designed to be effective and feasible for high fidelity implementation in preschool settings.…

  8. Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  9. Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  10. Complex Dynamic Development of Poliovirus Membranous Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vinod; Hansen, Bryan T.; Hoyt, Forrest H.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Replication of all positive-strand RNA viruses is intimately associated with membranes. Here we utilize electron tomography and other methods to investigate the remodeling of membranes in poliovirus-infected cells. We found that the viral replication structures previously described as “vesicles” are in fact convoluted, branching chambers with complex and dynamic morphology. They are likely to originate from cis-Golgi membranes and are represented during the early stages of infection by single-walled connecting and branching tubular compartments. These early viral organelles gradually transform into double-membrane structures by extension of membranous walls and/or collapsing of the luminal cavity of the single-membrane structures. As the double-membrane regions develop, they enclose cytoplasmic material. At this stage, a continuous membranous structure may have double- and single-walled membrane morphology at adjacent cross-sections. In the late stages of the replication cycle, the structures are represented mostly by double-membrane vesicles. Viral replication proteins, double-stranded RNA species, and actively replicating RNA are associated with both double- and single-membrane structures. However, the exponential phase of viral RNA synthesis occurs when single-membrane formations are predominant in the cell. It has been shown previously that replication complexes of some other positive-strand RNA viruses form on membrane invaginations, which result from negative membrane curvature. Our data show that the remodeling of cellular membranes in poliovirus-infected cells produces structures with positive curvature of membranes. Thus, it is likely that there is a fundamental divergence in the requirements for the supporting cellular membrane-shaping machinery among different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:22072780

  11. Development of simulation computer complex specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Training Simulation Computer Complex Study was one of three studies contracted in support of preparations for procurement of a shuttle mission simulator for shuttle crew training. The subject study was concerned with definition of the software loads to be imposed on the computer complex to be associated with the shuttle mission simulator and the development of procurement specifications based on the resulting computer requirements. These procurement specifications cover the computer hardware and system software as well as the data conversion equipment required to interface the computer to the simulator hardware. The development of the necessary hardware and software specifications required the execution of a number of related tasks which included, (1) simulation software sizing, (2) computer requirements definition, (3) data conversion equipment requirements definition, (4) system software requirements definition, (5) a simulation management plan, (6) a background survey, and (7) preparation of the specifications.

  12. Emergent behaviour in a chlorophenol-mineralising three-tiered microbial ‘food web’

    PubMed Central

    Wade, M.J.; Pattinson, R.W.; Parker, N.G.; Dolfing, J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion enables the water industry to treat wastewater as a resource for generating energy and recovering valuable by-products. The complexity of the anaerobic digestion process has motivated the development of complex models. However, this complexity makes it intractable to pin-point stability and emergent behaviour. Here, the widely used Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has been reduced to its very backbone, a syntrophic two-tiered microbial ‘food chain’ and a slightly more complex three-tiered microbial ‘food web’, with their stability analysed as a function of the inflowing substrate concentration and dilution rate. Parameterised for phenol and chlorophenol degradation, steady-states were always stable and non-oscillatory. Low input concentrations of chlorophenol were sufficient to maintain chlorophenol- and phenol-degrading populations but resulted in poor conversion and a hydrogen flux that was too low to sustain hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The addition of hydrogen and phenol boosted the populations of all three organisms, resulting in the counterintuitive phenomena that (i) the phenol degraders were stimulated by adding hydrogen, even though hydrogen inhibits phenol degradation, and (ii) the dechlorinators indirectly benefitted from measures that stimulated their hydrogenotrophic competitors; both phenomena hint at emergent behaviour. PMID:26551153

  13. Emergent behaviour in a chlorophenol-mineralising three-tiered microbial 'food web'.

    PubMed

    Wade, M J; Pattinson, R W; Parker, N G; Dolfing, J

    2016-01-21

    Anaerobic digestion enables the water industry to treat wastewater as a resource for generating energy and recovering valuable by-products. The complexity of the anaerobic digestion process has motivated the development of complex models. However, this complexity makes it intractable to pin-point stability and emergent behaviour. Here, the widely used Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has been reduced to its very backbone, a syntrophic two-tiered microbial 'food chain' and a slightly more complex three-tiered microbial 'food web', with their stability analysed as a function of the inflowing substrate concentration and dilution rate. Parameterised for phenol and chlorophenol degradation, steady-states were always stable and non-oscillatory. Low input concentrations of chlorophenol were sufficient to maintain chlorophenol- and phenol-degrading populations but resulted in poor conversion and a hydrogen flux that was too low to sustain hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The addition of hydrogen and phenol boosted the populations of all three organisms, resulting in the counterintuitive phenomena that (i) the phenol degraders were stimulated by adding hydrogen, even though hydrogen inhibits phenol degradation, and (ii) the dechlorinators indirectly benefitted from measures that stimulated their hydrogenotrophic competitors; both phenomena hint at emergent behaviour. PMID:26551153

  14. Do Students Know What They Know and What They Don't Know? Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a four-tier multiple-choice (4TMC) diagnostic instrument, which has not been reported in the literature. It is an enhanced version of the two-tier multiple-choice (2TMC) test. As in 2TMC tests, its answer and reason tiers measure students' content knowledge and explanatory knowledge,…

  15. Tier 3 DarkStar on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project utilized Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) to supply responsive and sustained surveillance and reconnaissance data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, it had a wing span of 69 feet and was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The DarkStar's unusual shape was dictated by the requirement to orbit its target conducting surveillance while still remaining stealthy. Whereas aircraft like the F-117 are designed to be more stealthy from the front, the DarkStar is designed to be more stealthy from the sides.

  16. Ensuring Safety of Navigation: A Three-Tiered Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. D.; Thompson, M.; Brazier, D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary responsibility of the Hydrographic Department at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is to support US Navy surface and sub-surface Safety of Navigation (SoN) requirements. These requirements are interpreted, surveys are conducted, and accurate products are compiled and archived for future exploitation. For a number of years NAVOCEANO has employed a two-tiered data-basing structure to support SoN. The first tier (Data Warehouse, or DWH) provides access to the full-resolution sonar and lidar data. DWH preserves the original data such that any scale product can be built. The second tier (Digital Bathymetric Database - Variable resolution, or DBDB-V) served as the final archive for SoN chart scale, gridded products compiled from source bathymetry. DBDB-V has been incorporated into numerous DoD tactical decision aids and serves as the foundation bathymetry for ocean modeling. With the evolution of higher density survey systems and the addition of high-resolution gridded bathymetry product requirements, a two-tiered model did not provide an efficient solution for SoN. The two-tiered approach required scientists to exploit full-resolution data in order to build any higher resolution product. A new perspective on the archival and exploitation of source data was required. This new perspective has taken the form of a third tier, the Navigation Surface Database (NSDB). NSDB is an SQLite relational database populated with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), S-102 compliant Bathymetric Attributed Grids (BAGs). BAGs archived within NSDB are developed at the highest resolution that the collection sensor system can support and contain nodal estimates for depth, uncertainty, separation values and metadata. Gridded surface analysis efforts culminate in the generation of the source resolution BAG files and their storage within NSDB. Exploitation of these resources eliminates the time and effort needed to re-grid and re-analyze native source file formats.

  17. Middle School Students' Responses to Two-Tier Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haja, Shajahan; Clarke, David

    2011-01-01

    The structure of two-tier testing is such that the first tier consists of a multiple-choice question and the second tier requires justifications for choices of answers made in the first tier. This study aims to evaluate two-tier tasks in "proportion" in terms of students' capacity to write and select justifications and to examine the effect of…

  18. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will...

  19. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will...

  20. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  1. Using Tiered Assignments to Engage Learners in Advanced Placement Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents lesson plans that incorporate tiered objectives and brainstorming techniques as means for differentiating instruction and ensuring that learners are challenged at levels commensurate with their abilities even though they are developing an understanding of the same physics concepts. A listing of materials and resources…

  2. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Cary, Mari Strand

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were…

  3. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier...

  4. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  5. A tiered, probabilistic approach for defining allowable contaminant releases based on risk

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, E.; Beyeler, W.; Davis, P.; Duran, F.; Greenblott, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modification to federal environmental regulations has been strongly advocated by some who feel that current regulations dictate large costs to solve problems that pose no risk. Consequently, regulators are faced with re-assessing existing regulations and the process for developing new regulations. The authors will present a multi-tiered, hierarchical approach that addresses both regulatory safety and associated costs. In this approach, regulatory compliance can be demonstrated by performing one of several sets of calculations. For example in a three tiered approach, the first tier might consist of conservative models and parameters developed by the regulatory agency with the applicant providing only information on the source of contamination. If these first tier calculations show regulatory compliance then work is complete. If the site fails, the applicant can either perform a second tier calculation or initiate remediation. A second tier calculation might require identification and justification of site-specific parameters but use the same tier one models. If the site fails then a third tier analysis can be performed using site-specific parameters and site-specific models. As models or parameters change in later tier calculations they must be documented and justified by the applicant. This approach maintains regulatory protectiveness, imposes small costs on simple, safe sites, and allows the applicant flexibility. Careful design of the models and parameters for each tier of the hierarchy is critical. A probabilistic approach can be designed to allow regulators to choose the balance between safety and overall regulatory cost, while allowing applicants to control compliance costs by tailoring their regulatory approach to site conditions.

  6. 40 CFR 1502.20 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.20 Tiering. Agencies are encouraged to tier their environmental impact statements to eliminate repetitive discussions... review (§ 1508.28). Whenever a broad environmental impact statement has been prepared (such as a...

  7. Internal fabric development in complex lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Závada, Prokop; Kratinová, Zuzana; Kusbach, Vladimír; Schulmann, Karel

    2009-03-01

    Viscous lava extrusions were modeled using plaster of Paris with admixed magnetite dust which served as a tracer of the internal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric in model lava domes. Used analogue material showed pseudoplastic behavior and yield strength level proportional to increasing mixing ratio of plaster powder and water. A series of models ranging from simple gravity flows to complex lava domes showing combined endogenous and exogenous growth were created by intrusion of plaster into a sandbox. The similarity of model bodies is compared with natural lava domes on the basis of dynamic scaling analysis. Growth dynamics, exogenous growth and internal fabric development in natural lava domes is critically discussed using the experimental results.

  8. A tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent in personal genome testing.

    PubMed

    Bunnik, Eline M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, developments in genomics technologies have led to the rise of commercial personal genome testing (PGT): broad genome-wide testing for multiple diseases simultaneously. While some commercial providers require physicians to order a personal genome test, others can be accessed directly. All providers advertise directly to consumers and offer genetic risk information about dozens of diseases in one single purchase. The quantity and the complexity of risk information pose challenges to adequate pre-test and post-test information provision and informed consent. There are currently no guidelines for what should constitute informed consent in PGT or how adequate informed consent can be achieved. In this paper, we propose a tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent. First, the proposed model is tiered as it offers choices between categories of diseases that are associated with distinct ethical, personal or societal issues. Second, the model distinguishes layers of information with a first layer offering minimal, indispensable information that is material to all consumers, and additional layers offering more detailed information made available upon request. Finally, the model stages informed consent as a process by feeding information to consumers in each subsequent stage of the process of undergoing a test, and by accommodating renewed consent for test result updates, resulting from the ongoing development of the science underlying PGT. A tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent with a focus on the consumer perspective can help overcome the ethical problems of information provision and informed consent in direct-to-consumer PGT. PMID:23169494

  9. Development of the Communication Complexity Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Olswang, Lesley; Dowden, Patricia; Saunders, Muriel D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate description of an individual's communication status is critical in both research and practice. Describing the communication status of individuals with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities is difficult because these individuals often communicate with presymbolic means that may not be readily recognized. Our goal was to design a communication scale and summary score for interpretation that could be applied across populations of children and adults with limited (often presymbolic) communication forms. Methods The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) was developed by a team of researchers and tested with 178 participants with varying levels of presymbolic and early symbolic communication skills. Correlations between standardized and informant measures were completed, and expert opinions were obtained regarding the CCS. Results CCS scores were within expected ranges for the populations studied and inter-rater reliability was high. Comparison across other measures indicated significant correlations with standardized tests of language. Scores on informant report measures tended to place children at higher levels of communication. Expert opinions generally favored the development of the CCS. Clinical implications The scale appears to be useful for describing a given individual's level of presymbolic or early symbolic communication. Further research is needed to determine if it is sensitive to developmental growth in communication. PMID:22049404

  10. The retromer complex in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiuan; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    The retromer complex is a multimeric protein complex involved in recycling proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network or plasma membrane. It thus regulates the abundance and subcellular distribution of its cargo within cells. Studies using model organisms show that the retromer complex is involved in specific developmental processes. Moreover, a number of recent studies implicate aberrant retromer function in photoreceptor degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of retromer-mediated protein trafficking, highlighting key examples of retromer function in vivo. PMID:26199408

  11. Tier 2 Supports to Improve Motivation and Performance of Elementary Students with Behavioral Challenges and Poor Work Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cox, Meredith; Magrane, Ashley; Jenkins, Abbie; Hankins, Katy

    2012-01-01

    We offer a methodological illustration for researchers and practitioners of how to conduct a development study consistent with the parameters delineated by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES; U.S. Department of Education [USDE], 2010) to explore the utility of an existing Tier 1 intervention applied as a Tier 2 support within a three-tiered…

  12. Optimal Resource Allocation under Fair QoS in Multi-tier Server Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hirokazu; Ushio, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Naoki

    Recent development of network technology realizes multi-tier server systems, where several tiers perform functionally different processing requested by clients. It is an important issue to allocate resources of the systems to clients dynamically based on their current requests. On the other hand, Q-RAM has been proposed for resource allocation in real-time systems. In the server systems, it is important that execution results of all applications requested by clients are the same QoS(quality of service) level. In this paper, we extend Q-RAM to multi-tier server systems and propose a method for optimal resource allocation with fairness of the QoS levels of clients’ requests. We also consider an assignment problem of physical machines to be sleep in each tier sothat the energy consumption is minimized.

  13. Cautionary Notes on a Global Tiered Pricing Framework for Medicines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Owain D; Ooms, Gorik; Hill, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    Recently, there has been a policy momentum toward creating a global tiered pricing framework, which would provide differentiated prices for medicines globally, based on each country's capacity to pay. We studied the most influential proposals for a tiered pricing framework since the 1995 World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. We synthesized 6 critical questions to be addressed for a global framework to function and explored the many challenges of implementation. Although we acknowledge that there is the potential for an exceptional global commitment that would benefit both producers and those in developing countries in need of wider access to medicines, our greatest concern is to ensure that a global framework does not price out the poor from pharmaceutical markets nor threaten current flexibilities within the international patent regime. PMID:25973806

  14. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Fien, Hank; Strand Cary, Mari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. Gain scores of at-risk intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers, and the gains of at-risk treatment students were greater than the gains of peers not at risk, effectively reducing the achievement gap. Implications for Tier 2 mathematics instruction in a response to intervention (RtI) model are discussed. PMID:24944163

  15. Cautionary Notes on a Global Tiered Pricing Framework for Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Owain D.; Ooms, Gorik

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a policy momentum toward creating a global tiered pricing framework, which would provide differentiated prices for medicines globally, based on each country’s capacity to pay. We studied the most influential proposals for a tiered pricing framework since the 1995 World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. We synthesized 6 critical questions to be addressed for a global framework to function and explored the many challenges of implementation. Although we acknowledge that there is the potential for an exceptional global commitment that would benefit both producers and those in developing countries in need of wider access to medicines, our greatest concern is to ensure that a global framework does not price out the poor from pharmaceutical markets nor threaten current flexibilities within the international patent regime. PMID:25973806

  16. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6... Tier 8 NOX standards apply as described in this paragraph (c)(3) beginning January 1, 2014. See paragraph (d) of this section for provisions related to models introduced before January 1, 2014 apply...

  17. Fears for Tiers: Are Candidates Being Appropriately Rewarded for Their Performance in Tiered Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheadon, Christopher; Beguin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Tiering is a multi-stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16. This study uses Item Response Theory number-correct…

  18. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard, as described in § 87.60. The tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions... the NOX emission standards. (a) New turboprop aircraft engines with rated output at or above 1,000... excepted without request from the otherwise applicable Tier 6 NOX emission standard. To be eligible...

  19. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  20. The CMS TierO goes Cloud and Grid for LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threaded framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. This contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.

  1. The CMS Tier0 goes cloud and grid for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threaded framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. Furthermore, this contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.

  2. The CMS Tier0 goes cloud and grid for LHC Run 2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threadedmore » framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. Furthermore, this contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.« less

  3. Making Educational Development and Change Sustainable: Insights from Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the challenge of sustainable change and development in education from the perspective of complexity theory. Complexity theory's concept of emergence implies that, given a significant degree of complexity in a particular environment, new properties and behaviours emerge that are not necessarily contained in the essence of the…

  4. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of the Chemistry Underlying Climate Science and the Development of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3) project, we have developed a chemistry of climate science diagnostic instrument for use in general chemistry courses based on twenty-four student interviews. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2009). The undergraduate student interviews elicited their understanding of the greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather, and the findings from these interviews informed and guided the development of the multiple-choice diagnostic instrument. Our analysis and findings from the interviews indicate that students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer and in terms of chemistry concepts, the students lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Details of the findings from the interviews, development of diagnostic instrument, and preliminary findings from the full implementation of the diagnostic instrument will be shared.

  5. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. PMID:26184512

  6. A tiered approach for assessing children's exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, T W; Hushka, L J; Tell, J G; Zaleski, R T

    2000-01-01

    Recently, intense attention has been given to children's health issues, particularly in the use of consumer products. Because of this attention, researchers have been planning and initiating studies specifically aimed at developing both toxicology data and exposure data directed to improve our understanding of industrial and consumer product chemical impacts on children's health. To ensure that this research is focused on the highest priority chemicals, we present a methodology for determining and prioritizing the higher hazard chemicals and scenarios for which children could be disproportionately or highly exposed. This tiered approach includes a screening step for initial chemical selection, a hazard assessment based on no- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels, and a margin of exposure (MOE) calculation. The initial chemical screen focuses on the chemical presence in specific media that are special to children, such as foods children regularly eat and drink, residential or school air, products children use, and soil and dust in and around residences. Data from the literature or from models serve as the initial exposure estimate. This methodology would allow us to focus on those chemicals to which children are most exposed that are also associated with, potentially, the highest risk. Use of the MOE calculation allows for comparison among chemicals, prioritization of chemicals for evaluation and testing, and identification of significant data gaps. PMID:10856018

  7. Fully developed turbulence and complex time singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombre, T.; Gagne, Y.; Hopfinger, E.

    The hypothesis of Frisch and Morf (1981), relating intermittent bursts observed in high-pass-filtered turbulent-flow data to complex time singularities in the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, is tested experimentally. Velocity signals filtered at high-pass frequency 1 kHz and low-pass frequency 6 kHz are recorded for 7 min at sampling frequency 20 kHz in a flow of mean velocity 6.1 m/s, with mesh length d = 7.5 cm, observation point x/d = 40, R sub lambda = 67, dissipation length eta = 0.5 mm, and Kolmogorov frequency fK = about 2 kHz. The results are presented in graphs, and it is shown that the exponential behavior of the energy spectrum settles well before fK, the spectra of individual bursts having exponential behavior and delta(asterisk) values consistent with the Frisch-Morf hypothesis, at least for high-amplitude events.

  8. Making Practice Visible: A Collaborative Self-Study of Tiered Teaching in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbett, Dawn; Heap, Rena

    2011-01-01

    In this article we document the impact of tiered teaching on making the complexity of pedagogy transparent when teaching science education to pre-service primary teachers. Teaching science methods classes together and researching our teaching has enabled us to reframe our assumptions and move beyond the simplistic and misleading idea that teacher…

  9. Beyond Tier-Based Bigrams: An Artificial Grammar Learning Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Hahn; Oh, Young-il

    2013-01-01

    Some of recently proposed phonotactic learners are tier-based bigram learners that restrict their hypothesis space to patterns between two segments that are adjacent at the tier level. This assumption is understandable considering that typologically frequent nonadjacent sound patterns are predominantly those that hold between two tier-adjacent…

  10. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  11. Systematic Implementation of a Tier 2 Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Pool, Juli L.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are increasingly adopting tiered models of prevention to meet the needs of diverse populations of students. This article outlines the steps involved in designing and implementing a systematic Tier 2 behavior intervention within a tiered service delivery model. An elementary school example is provided to outline the identification,…

  12. 76 FR 71623 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2012 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on...

  13. 75 FR 73166 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2011 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad...

  14. 77 FR 71481 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2013 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad...

  15. 78 FR 71039 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2014 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on...

  16. SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. Version 2.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, B.; Barrett, S.; Eber, L.; George, H.; Horner, R.; Lewis, T.; Putnam, B.; Swain-Bradway, J.; McIntosh, K.; Sugai, G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) is to provide a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the extent to which school personnel are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). The TFI is divided into three sections (Tier I: Universal SWPBIS Features; Tier II: Targeted…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered partnership structures. 1.1446-5 Section... Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1446-5 Tiered partnership structures. (a) In general. The rules of this section shall apply in cases where a partnership (lower-tier partnership) that has...

  18. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers...

  19. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  2. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  3. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiered partnership structures. 1.1446-5 Section...-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1446-5 Tiered partnership structures. (a) In general. The rules of this section... prescribes rules applicable to a publicly traded partnership in a tiered partnership structure. Paragraph...

  4. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  5. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  6. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  7. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  8. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  9. Tiered Evaluation in Large Ensemble Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of a tiered evaluation system (TES) that allows students to work at different levels, enables teachers to assess progress objectively, and presents students with appropriate challenges in the music ensembles. Focuses on how TES works and its advantages, considers the challenges and flexibility of TES, and provides samples. (CMK)

  10. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comparable to that provided by such testing. (3) The test animals shall be rodents, preferably a strain of... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.53 Tier 2. (a) Generally. Subject to... subject to testing under this subpart must be tested in accordance with each of the testing guidelines...

  11. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  12. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  13. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  14. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  15. Application of Complex Systems Research To Efforts of International Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Hans-Peter

    Fundamental research on complex systems has shown relevance to efforts of international development. This paper canvasses some practitioner friendly approaches to international development. Development is about interventions in a highly complex system, the society. Complex systems research tells us that development interventions should not be overly planned, rather the fundamental uncertainty of a changing social system requires a diversity of interventions, and rapid learning from development success and failure. Developing economies are functioning at a low level of effectiveness and resource use. Complex systems are change resistant, and intervention requires understanding the autocatalytic nature of a process of change. International development is about the stimulation of a society's innate autocatalytic / self-organizing processes through interventions that stimulate enough to overcome change resistance, but which do not overwhelm the system. Since the size of financial interventions may in some cases be a substantial fraction of the existing economic activity, disruption is a likely outcome. Crucially, one must avoid having the socio-economic activity organized around the intervention itself, since then an undesirable dependency of the economy on the intervention arises. Stimulation of the innate modes of activity results in the development of socio-economic organization around energy, material and financial flows. The primary generator of effectiveness is an appropriate network structure of interactions and relationships. This paper summarizes traditional development efforts and their outcomes as well as a plausible description of the process of complex systems motivated interventions. Examples are given of recent approaches which aim to appropriately stimulate international development.

  16. Educational Development in the UK: A Complex and Contradictory Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, David

    2009-01-01

    At a time when questions are being asked about the identity and purpose of academic development, this paper seeks to address these questions within the context of one country in which educational development has been actively supported. This study considers a narrative of the complex and contradictory reality of educational development in the…

  17. The Impact of Tiered Physician Networks on Patient Choices

    PubMed Central

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether patient choice of physician or health plan was affected by physician tier-rankings. Data Sources Administrative claims and enrollment data on 171,581 nonelderly beneficiaries enrolled in Massachusetts Group Insurance Commission health plans that include a tiered physician network and who had an office visit with a tiered physician. Study Design We estimate the impact of tier-rankings on physician market share within a plan of new patients and on the percent of a physician's patients who switch to other physicians with fixed effects regression models. The effect of tiering on consumer plan choice is estimated using logistic regression and a pre–post study design. Principal Findings Physicians in the bottom (least-preferred) tier, particularly certain specialist physicians, had lower market share of new patient visits than physicians with higher tier-rankings. Patients whose physician was in the bottom tier were more likely to switch health plans. There was no effect of tier-ranking on patients switching away from physicians whom they have seen previously. Conclusions The effect of tiering appears to be among patients who choose new physicians and at the lower end of the distribution of tiered physicians, rather than moving patients to the “best” performers. These findings suggest strong loyalty of patients to physicians more likely to be considered their personal doctor. PMID:24611599

  18. Can recent pan-tropical biomass maps be used to derive alternative Tier 1 values for reporting REDD+ activities under UNFCCC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC Guidelines propose 3 Tier levels for greenhouse gas monitoring within the forest land category with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy, data requirements and complexity. Due to missing data and/or capacities, many developing countries, potentially interested in the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, have to rely on Tier 1 default values with highest uncertainties. A possible way to increase the credibility of uncertain estimates is to apply a conservative approach, for which standard statistical information is needed. However, such information is currently not available for the IPCC values. In our study we combine a recent global forest mask, an ecological zoning map and the pan-tropical AGB datasets of Saatchi and Baccini to derive mean forest AGB values per ecological zone and continent as well as their corresponding confidence intervals. Such analysis can be considered transparent as the datasets/methodologies are well documented. Our study leads to alternative Tier 1 values and allows the application of statistically-based conservative approaches. Our AGB estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets are 35% and 24% lower respectively than the IPCC values. When restricting the analysis to intact forest landscapes resulting ABG estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets get closer to the IPCC values with 13% and 1% differences respectively (underestimation). This suggests that the IPCC default values are mainly based on plots in mature forest stands. However, as tropical forests generally consist of a mixture of intact and degraded stands, the use of IPCC values may not properly reflect the reality. Finally, we propose to use the average composite of the Saatchi and Baccini datasets to produce improved alternative IPCC Tier 1 values. The values derived from such approach can easily be updated when newer and/or improved pan-tropical AGB maps will be available.

  19. Progress in landslide susceptibility mapping over Europe using Tier-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Hervás, Javier; Reichenbach, Paola; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection aims, among other objectives, to ensure a sustainable use of soil. The legal instrument of the strategy, the proposed Framework Directive, suggests identifying priority areas of several soil threats including landslides using a coherent and compatible approach based on the use of common thematic data. In a first stage, this can be achieved through landslide susceptibility mapping using geographically nested, multi-step tiered approaches, where areas identified as of high susceptibility by a first, synoptic-scale Tier ("Tier 1") can then be further assessed and mapped at larger scale by successive Tiers. In order to identify areas prone to landslides at European scale ("Tier 1"), a number of thematic terrain and environmental data sets already available for the whole of Europe can be used as input for a continental scale susceptibility model. However, since no coherent landslide inventory data is available at the moment over the whole continent, qualitative heuristic zonation approaches are proposed. For "Tier 1" a preliminary, simplified model has been developed. It consists of an equally weighting combination of a reduced, continent-wide common dataset of landslide conditioning factors including soil parent material, slope angle and land cover, to derive a landslide susceptibility index using raster mapping units consisting of 1 x 1 km pixels. A preliminary European-wide susceptibility map has thus been produced at 1:1 Million scale, since this is compatible with that of the datasets used. The map has been validated by means of a ratio of effectiveness using samples from landslide inventories in Italy, Austria, Hungary and United Kingdom. Although not differentiated for specific geomorphological environments or specific landslide types, the experimental model reveals a relatively good performance in many European regions at a 1:1 Million scale. An additional "Tier 1" susceptibility map at the same scale and using

  20. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  1. Supporting Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Models of Prevention in Schools: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Carter, Erik W.; Jenkins, Abbie; Dwiggins, Lauren; Germer, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    We report findings from a statewide survey of 365 site-level administrators developed to (a) learn about the extent to which schools across the state were implementing components of multi-tiered systems of support and (b) determine the areas in which these schools might need professional development or resources to support them. At least half of…

  2. Tiered Internship Model for Undergraduate Students in Geospatial Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopteva, Irina A.; Arkowski, Donna; Craft, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of a tiered internship program for undergraduate students in geospatial science and technology (TIMSGeoTech). The internship program assists education programs in providing skill development that is relevant and useful, and it aligns graduates and their skills with industry…

  3. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  4. Risk based tiered approach (RBTASM) for pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C

    1997-11-01

    Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis. PMID:9433667

  5. WHALE, a management tool for Tier-2 LCG sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, L. M.; Organtini, G.; Talamo, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    The LCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is a grid-based hierarchical computing distributed facility, composed of more than 140 computing centers, organized in 4 tiers, by size and offer of services. Every site, although indipendent for many technical choices, has to provide services with a well-defined set of interfaces. For this reason, different LCG sites need frequently to manage very similar situations, like jobs behaviour on the batch system, dataset transfers between sites, operating system and experiment software installation and configuration, monitoring of services. In this context we created WHALE (WHALE Handles Administration in an LCG Environment), a software actually used at the T2_IT_Rome site, an LCG Tier-2 for the CMS experiment. WHALE is a generic, site independent tool written in Python: it allows administrator to interact in a uniform and coherent way with several subsystems using a high level syntax which hides specific commands. The architecture of WHALE is based on the plugin concept and on the possibility of connecting the output of a plugin to the input of the next one, in a pipe-like system, giving the administrator the possibility of making complex functions by combining the simpler ones. The core of WHALE just handles the plugin orchestrations, while even the basic functions (eg. the WHALE activity logging) are performed by plugins, giving the capability to tune and possibly modify every component of the system. WHALE already provides many plugins useful for a LCG site and some more for a Tier-2 of the CMS experiment, especially in the field of job management, dataset transfer and analysis of performance results and availability tests (eg. Nagios tests, SAM tests). Thanks to its architecture and the provided plugins WHALE makes easy to perform tasks that, even if logically simple, are technically complex or tedious, like eg. closing all the worker nodes with a job-failure rate greater than a given threshold. Finally, thanks to the

  6. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  7. Mediator Complex Dependent Regulation of Cardiac Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for CVD include environmental and genetic components. Human mutations in genes involved in most aspects of cardiovascular function have been identified, many of which are involved in transcriptional regulation. The Mediator complex serves as a pivotal transcriptional regulator that functions to integrate diverse cellular signals by multiple mechanisms including recruiting RNA polymerase II, chromatin modifying proteins and non-coding RNAs to promoters in a context dependent manner. This review discusses components of the Mediator complex and the contribution of the Mediator complex to normal and pathological cardiac development and function. Enhanced understanding of the role of this core transcriptional regulatory complex in the heart will help us gain further insights into CVD. PMID:23727265

  8. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  9. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  10. Tier 3- DarkStar on ramp from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The second Darkstar prototype (article #696) made five flights between June 29, 1998 and January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  11. Benchmarking of Decision-Support Tools Used for Tiered Sustainable Remediation Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan W N; Kerrison, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable remediation comprises soil and groundwater risk-management actions that are selected, designed, and operated to maximize net environmental, social, and economic benefit (while assuring protection of human health and safety). This paper describes a benchmarking exercise to comparatively assess potential differences in environmental management decision making resulting from application of different sustainability appraisal tools ranging from simple (qualitative) to more quantitative (multi-criteria and fully monetized cost-benefit analysis), as outlined in the SuRF-UK framework. The appraisal tools were used to rank remedial options for risk management of a subsurface petroleum release that occurred at a petrol filling station in central England. The remediation options were benchmarked using a consistent set of soil and groundwater data for each tier of sustainability appraisal. The ranking of remedial options was very similar in all three tiers, and an environmental management decision to select the most sustainable options at tier 1 would have been the same decision at tiers 2 and 3. The exercise showed that, for relatively simple remediation projects, a simple sustainability appraisal led to the same remediation option selection as more complex appraisal, and can be used to reliably inform environmental management decisions on other relatively simple land contamination projects. PMID:24482545

  12. Measuring system complexity to support development cost estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Wolfarth, L.

    Systems and System-of-Systems (SoS) are being used more frequently either as a design element of stand alone systems or architectural frameworks. Consequently, a programmatic need has arisen to understand and measure systems complexity in order to estimate more accurately development plans and life-cycle costs. In a prior paper, we introduced the System Readiness Level (SRL) concept as a composite function of both Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs) and touched on system complexity. While the SRL approach provides a repeatable, process-driven method to assess the maturity of a system or SoS, it does not capture all aspects of system complexity. In this paper we assess the concept of cyclomatic complexity as a system complexity metric and consider its utility as an approach for estimating the life-cycle costs and cost growth of complex systems. We hypothesize that the greater the number of technologies and integration tasks, the more complex the system and the higher its cost to develop and maintain. We base our analysis on historical data from DoD programs that have experienced significant cost growth, including some that have been cancelled due to unsustainable cost (and schedule) growth. We begin by describing the original implementation of the cyclomatic method, which was developed to estimate the effort to maintain system software. We then describe how the method can be generalized and applied to systems. Next, we show how to estimate the cyclomatic number (CN) and show the statistical significance between a system's CN metric and its cost. We illustrate the method with an example. Last, we discuss opportunities for future research.

  13. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-01-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10…

  14. Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Number Sense via a Web-Based Two-Tier Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2016-01-01

    A web-based two-tier test (WTTT-NS) which combined the advantages of traditional written tests and interviews in assessing number sense was developed and applied to assess students' answers and reasons for the questions. In addition, students' major misconceptions can be detected. A total of 1,248 sixth graders in Taiwan were selected to…

  15. Web-Based Two-Tier Diagnostic Test and Remedial Learning Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Chen, Deng-Jyi

    2010-01-01

    Offering a series of diagnosis and individual remedial learning activities for a general class by means of web and multimedia technology can overcome the dilemma of conventional diagnosis and remedial instruction. The study proposes a three-layer conceptual framework and adopts a two-tier diagnostic test theory to develop a web-based two-tier…

  16. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  17. Student Assistance Team (SAT) and the Three Tier Model of Student Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblock, Kathleen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The term three-tier model of intervention is a model consisting of three well-defined and separate processes running on different levels within a system. In New Mexico, this principle has been applied to develop a model of student intervention for school-aged students. The model has three distinct levels of instructional interventions that account…

  18. Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

  19. A Three-Tiered Model of Career Counseling Services: ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Ralph; Conger, Stuart

    The need for lifelong career development in Canada is becoming increasingly evident as more people switch jobs. To meet this need, it has been suggested that counseling services for adults should be organized in a three-tiered structure. Such a structure would ensure that individuals have access to a counselor in accordance with their level of…

  20. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested...

  1. The impact of tiered physician networks on patient choices.

    PubMed

    Blecker, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Patients exhibited strong loyalty to their physicians. There was no impact of tiering on whether patients decided to switch away from a physician who they'd seen previously. (2) Tiering affected the choices of patients who were selecting new physicians. When patients visited a doctor for the first time, they were less likely to choose doctors in the bottom or non-preferred tier. (3) Patients of the lowest-ranked physicians were more likely to switch health plans following the introduction of tiered networks. PMID:25244712

  2. Developing a complex endovascular fenestrated and branched aortic program.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, Andres; Baril, Donald; Robinson, William P; Simons, Jessica P; Aiello, Francesco A; Messina, Louis M

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the top priority in our division's 5-year strategic plan was "to become an internationally recognized center of excellence for the endovascular treatment of complex aortic pathology extending from the aortic valve to the external iliac artery." Five components were identified as "most critical" to achieve this strategic priority: (1) training at centers of excellence in complex endovascular repair; (2) industry partnership to improve access to developing technologies; (3) a fully integrated team approach with one leader involved in all steps of all cases; (4) prospective data collection; and (5) development and implementation of a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption for juxtarenal, pararenal, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms. We have now performed 49 repairs (16 commercially manufactured devices, 33 physician-modified devices) for 3 common iliac, 20 juxtarenal, 9 pararenal, and 17 thoracoabdominal aneurysms, using 142 fenestrations, branches, and scallops. All patients had complete 30-day follow-up for calculation of 30-day events. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate 1-year events. In 5 years, we developed a successful complex endovascular aortic program that uses fenestrated/branched repair techniques. A focused team strategic planning approach to program development is an effective way for vascular surgery divisions to gain experience and expertise with new complex technologies while ensuring acceptable patient outcomes. PMID:25595400

  3. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  4. Environmental Complexity and Central Nervous System Development and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental restriction or deprivation early in development can induce social, cognitive, affective, and motor abnormalities similar to those associated with autism. Conversely, rearing animals in larger, more complex environments results in enhanced brain structure and function, including increased brain weight, dendritic branching,…

  5. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa; Nishi, Stephanie K.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences. PMID:26703721

  6. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis. PMID:15047903

  7. Tier 2 Team Processes and Decision-Making in a Comprehensive Three-Tiered Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Johnson, Evelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    Three-tiered models of academic and behavioral support are being increasingly adopted across the nation, and with that adoption has come an increasing message that designing and implementing effective practices alone is not enough. Systems are needed to help staff to collectively implement best practices. These systems, as well as effective…

  8. Fractional tiers in fast multipole method calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christopher A.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    1996-08-01

    One defining characteristic of the fast multipole calculation is the number of tiers (depth of tree) used to group the particles. For three dimensions, the standard boxing scheme restricts the number of lowest level boxes to be a power of eight. We present a method which through a simple scaling of the particle coordinates allows an arbitrary number of lowest level boxes. Consequently, one can better balance the near-field and far-field work by minimizing the variation in the number of particles per lowest level box from its optimal value. Test calculations show systems where this method gives a speedup approaching two times.

  9. Developing a complex approach to health phenomena (step 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Myriam Patricia

    Health is a complex object for science and operative levels, partly because there are many approaches defining it but not scientifically sufficient or operatively accepted. This is relevant for health understanding but also for decision making on health related problems. "Determinants of Health" as a widely accepted theoretical proposal, identifies as problematic the reductionist view of health as the disease opposite, attempting to develop it positively according to WHO's definition, proposing a set of factors determining health outcomes. Though this allows a larger comprehension of health causes and effects, still has insufficiently defined theoretical statements and unproved assumptions which difficult understanding and effective actions orientation. Complexity deductive modeling since the insufficiently formalized frameworks, implies incorporating unmanageable object assumptions or reducing health broadness. Taking profit of Bogotá government adherence to DH proposal leading a health information system development, was possible inductive modeling since a systemic massive database (690.000 registries). In this way, DH theoretical statements about health components connectedness were explored by classic statistic approach, and by learning Bayesian networks from data (data mining). First approach showed understanding difficulties. Second was advantageous in approximating within and between determinants relationship structure. However, though DH introduces a systemic approach in considering diverse interacting elements is not empirically satisfactory to exhibit all the meaning of health complexity, because just matches analytic fashioned constructs depending on data expression. A strong networked model developing health complexity, needs the orientation by theoretical constructs as human agency and organization, to explore and understand emergent patterns of health.

  10. A multi-tiered wavefront sensor using binary optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Smith, T.G.; Rosenthal, R.R.; McKechnie, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Wavefront sensors have been used to make measurements in fluid- dynamics and for closed loop control of adaptive optics. In most common Shack-Hartmann wavefront wavefront sensors, the light is broken up into series of rectangular or hexagonal apertures that divide the light into a series of focal spots. The position of these focal spots is used to determine the wavefront slopes over each subaperture. Using binary optics technology, we have developed a hierarchical or fractal wavefront sensor that divides the subapertures up on a more optimal fashion. We have demonstrated this concept for up to four tiers and developed the wavefront reconstruction methods for both segmented adaptive optics and continous wavefront measurement.

  11. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  12. The EYA-SO/SIX complex in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pin-Xian

    2013-06-01

    Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO/SIX) proteins function as transcriptional activation complexes and play essential roles in organogenesis during embryonic development in regulating cell proliferation and survival and coordination of particular differentiation programs. Mutations of the Eya and So/Six genes cause profound developmental defects in organisms as diverse as flies, frogs, fish, mice, and humans. EYA proteins also possess an intrinsic phosphatase activity, which is essential for normal development. Here, we review crucial roles of EYA and SO/SIX in development and disease in mice and humans. PMID:22806561

  13. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, George S.; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors.

  14. Estimation of the incidence of a rare genetic disease through a two-tier mutation survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Srinivasan, M.R. ); Raskin, S. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba )

    1993-06-01

    Recent attempts to detect mutations involving single base changes or small deletions that are specific to genetic diseases provide an opportunity to develop a two-tier mutation-screening program through which incidence of rare genetic disorders and gene carriers may be precisely estimated. A two-tier survey consists of mutation screening in a sample of patients with specific genetic disorders and in a second sample of newborns from the same population in which mutation frequency is evaluated. The authors provide the statistical basis for evaluating the incidence of affected and gene carriers in such two-tier mutation-screening surveys, from which the precision of the estimates is derived. Sample-size requirements of such two-tier mutation-screening surveys are evaluated. Considering examples of cystic fibrosis (CF) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD), the two most frequent autosomal recessive diseases in Caucasian populations and the two most frequent mutations ([Delta]F508 and G985) that occur on these disease allele-bearing chromosomes, the authors show that, with 50--100 patients and a 20-fold larger sample of newborns screened for these mutations, the incidence of such diseases and their gene carriers in a population may be quite reliably estimated. The theory developed here is also applicable to rare autosomal dominant diseases for which disease-specific mutations are found. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Insect Antimicrobial Peptide Complexes Prevent Resistance Development in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chernysh, Sergey; Gordya, Natalia; Suborova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as natural antibiotics, which are presumably protected from resistance development in bacteria. However, experimental evolution studies have revealed prompt resistance increase in bacteria to any individual AMP tested. Here we demonstrate that naturally occurring compounds containing insect AMP complexes have clear advantage over individual peptide and small molecule antibiotics in respect of drug resistance development. As a model we have used the compounds isolated from bacteria challenged maggots of Calliphoridae flies. The compound isolated from blow fly Calliphora vicina was found to contain three distinct families of cell membrane disrupting/permeabilizing peptides (defensins, cecropins and diptericins), one family of proline rich peptides and several unknown antimicrobial substances. Resistance changes under long term selective pressure of the compound and reference antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and polymyxin B were tested using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. All the strains readily developed resistance to the reference antibiotics, while no signs of resistance growth to the compound were registered. Similar results were obtained with the compounds isolated from 3 other fly species. The experiments revealed that natural compounds containing insect AMP complexes, in contrast to individual AMP and small molecule antibiotics, are well protected from resistance development in bacteria. Further progress in the research of natural AMP complexes may provide novel solutions to the drug resistance problem. PMID:26177023

  16. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  17. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  18. Macrocyclic metal complexes for metalloenzyme mimicry and sensor development.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tanmaya; Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone

    2015-08-18

    Examples of proteins that incorporate one or more metal ions within their structure are found within a broad range of classes, including oxidases, oxidoreductases, reductases, proteases, proton transport proteins, electron transfer/transport proteins, storage proteins, lyases, rusticyanins, metallochaperones, sporulation proteins, hydrolases, endopeptidases, luminescent proteins, iron transport proteins, oxygen storage/transport proteins, calcium binding proteins, and monooxygenases. The metal coordination environment therein is often generated from residues inherent to the protein, small exogenous molecules (e.g., aqua ligands) and/or macrocyclic porphyrin units found, for example, in hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome C, cytochrome C oxidase, and vitamin B12. Thus, there continues to be considerable interest in employing macrocyclic metal complexes to construct low-molecular weight models for metallobiosites that mirror essential features of the coordination environment of a bound metal ion without inclusion of the surrounding protein framework. Herein, we review and appraise our research exploring the application of the metal complexes formed by two macrocyclic ligands, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen), and their derivatives in biological inorganic chemistry. Taking advantage of the kinetic inertness and thermodynamic stability of their metal complexes, these macrocyclic scaffolds have been employed in the development of models that aid the understanding of metal ion-binding natural systems, and complexes with potential applications in biomolecule sensing, diagnosis, and therapy. In particular, the focus has been on "coordinatively unsaturated" metal complexes that incorporate a kinetically inert and stable metal-ligand moiety, but which also contain one or more weakly bound ligands, allowing for the reversible binding of guest molecules via the formation and dissociation of coordinate bonds. With regards to mimicking

  19. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  20. Using Brief Experimental Analysis to Intensify Tier 3 Reading Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Wagner, Dana

    2015-01-01

    As implementation of multi-tiered systems of support becomes common practice across the nation, practitioners continue to need strategies for intensifying interventions and supports for the subset of students who fail to make adequate progress despite strong programs at Tiers 1 and 2. Experts recommend making several changes to the structure and…

  1. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1605 - New product tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tier. 76.1605 Section 76.1605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1605 New product tier. (a) Within 30 days of the offering of...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  7. Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Tier 2 Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Doabler, Chris; Cary, Mari Strand; Chard, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study, funded by the "Institute for Education Sciences" under the "Mathematics and Science Education" topic, was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 intervention curriculum, "ROOTS", when implemented under rigorous experimental conditions. In this study all classrooms implemented a validated Tier 1 core curriculum (Clarke et al.,…

  8. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  9. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  10. Positive Behavior Supports: Tier 2 Interventions in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Carol G.; Marshall, Kathleen J.; Yell, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    School personnel are using Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports in public schools throughout the United States. A number of studies have evaluated the universal level, or Tier 1, of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the interventions offered as options for use for Tier 2 in middle schools…

  11. Action Research: Tiered Instruction in a High School Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courville, Keith

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) This article describes the use of tiered instruction, a specific form of differentiation, within the author's high school Physics classroom. A background and discussion on the nature of tiered instruction is also included. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the necessity of differentiation within the classroom; (2)…

  12. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  13. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small business trusts....

  14. A Tiered Framework for Risk-Relevant Characterization and Ranking of Chemical Exposures: Applications to the National Children’s Study (NCS)

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Brinkerhoff, Christopher J.; Isukapalli, Sastry; Dellarco, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge for large-scale environmental health investigations such as the National Children’s Study (NCS), is characterizing exposures to multiple, co-occurring chemical agents with varying spatiotemporal concentrations and consequences modulated by biochemical, physiological, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. Such investigations can benefit from systematic retrieval, analysis, and integration of diverse extant information on both contaminant patterns and exposure-relevant factors. This requires development, evaluation, and deployment of informatics methods that support flexible access and analysis of multiattribute data across multiple spatiotemporal scales. A new “Tiered Exposure Ranking” (TiER) framework, developed to support various aspects of risk-relevant exposure characterization, is described here, with examples demonstrating its application to the NCS. TiER utilizes advances in informatics computational methods, extant database content and availability, and integrative environmental/exposure/biological modeling to support both “discovery-driven” and “hypothesis-driven” analyses. “Tier 1” applications focus on “exposomic” pattern recognition for extracting information from multidimensional data sets, whereas second and higher tier applications utilize mechanistic models to develop risk-relevant exposure metrics for populations and individuals. In this article, “tier 1” applications of TiER explore identification of potentially causative associations among risk factors, for prioritizing further studies, by considering publicly available demographic/socioeconomic, behavioral, and environmental data in relation to two health endpoints (preterm birth and low birth weight). A “tier 2” application develops estimates of pollutant mixture inhalation exposure indices for NCS counties, formulated to support risk characterization for these endpoints. Applications of TiER demonstrate the feasibility of developing risk

  15. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development. PMID:24611053

  16. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development. PMID:24611053

  17. Using pan-tropical biomass maps to improve IPCC Tier 1 default level emission factors - a case study for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    The IPCC proposes three Tier levels for greenhouse gas emission monitoring with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy as well as data requirements/complexity. While Tier 1 provides default above-ground biomass (AGB) values per ecological zone and continent, Tier 2 and 3 are either based on country-specific remote sensing or permanent sample-plot data. Due to missing capacities most developing countries have to rely on Tier 1 default values, which show highest uncertainties. Furthermore, IPCC Tier 1 values lack transparency as they are based on a variety of studies that have been repeatedly updated and combined with expert opinions, thus blurring the original data sources. A possible way to increase credibility is a conservative monitoring approach, following the principle of conservativeness, thus reducing the likelihood of unjustified payments for emission reductions not reflecting reality. For the implementation of that principle knowledge about the distribution of the biomass within each ecological zone is essential. However, such information is not available for the IPCC Tier 1 values, which only provide mean values and/or AGB ranges that are not based on a common statistical analysis. Using the pan-tropical datasets of Saatchi et al (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 108, 9899-9904, 2011; 1km spatial resolution) and Baccini et al (Nat Climate Change, 2:182-185, 2012; 500m spatial resolution) we calculated the mean AGB values as well as their 50% confidence intervals for each ecological zone within the DRC using Globcover2009 as forest/non-forest mask and the FAO ecological zones dataset. Such analysis is more transparent while at the same time leading to "statistically improved" Tier 1 values, potentially allowing a conservative monitoring approach by selecting the lower bound of the confidence interval for emission estimation during the reference period and the higher bound for the assessment period. Within the DRC Baccini generally delivers higher AGB estimates

  18. The Development and Study of Surface Bound Ruthenium Organometallic Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey Reuben

    The focus of this project has been on the use of mono-diimine ruthenium organometallic complexes, of the general structure [H(Ru)(CO)(L)2(L') 2][PF6] (L=PPh3, DPPENE and L'=Bpy, DcBpy, MBpyC, Phen, AminoPhen) bound to surfaces as luminescent probes. Both biological and inorganic/organic hybrid surfaces have been studied. The complexes were characterized both bound and unbound using standard analytical techniques such as NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography, as well as through several photophysical methods as well. Initially the study focused on how the photophyscial properties of the complexes were affected by incorporation into biological membranes. It was found that by conjugating the probes to a more rigid cholesterol moiety that luminescence was conserved, compared to conjugation with a far more flexible lipid moiety, where luminescence was either lost or reduced. Both the cholesterol and lipid conjugates were able to insert into a lipid membrane, and in the more rigid environment some of the lipid conjugates regained some of their luminescence, but often blue shifted and reduced, depending on the conjugation site. Silica Polyamine Composites (SPCs) were a hybrid material developed in the Rosenberg Lab as useful metal separation materials, that could be easily modified, and had several benefits over current commercially available polymers, or inorganic materials. These SPCs also provided an opportunity for the development of a heterogeneous platform for luminescent complexes as either catalysts or sensors. Upon binding of the luminescent Ru complexes to the surface no loss, or major change in luminescence was seen, however, when bound to the rigid surface a significant increase in excited state lifetime was measured. It is likely that through binding and interacting with the surface that the complexes lost non-radiative decay pathways, resulting in the increase in lifetime, however, these interactions do not seem to affect the energy level of the MLCT band in a

  19. New models for the In vitro assessment of neurotoxicity in the nervous system and the preliminary validation stages of a 'tiered-test' model.

    PubMed

    Atterwill, C K; Davenport-Jones, J; Goonetilleke, S; Johnston, H; Purcell, W; Thomas, S M; West, M; Williams, S

    1993-09-01

    Many cell culture models are available for the in vitro assessment of neurotoxicity. The use of three culture types has been investigated: neuroblastoma cell lines, primary cultures of rat and chick midbrain, and organotypic whole brain reaggregate cultures. A tiered system has been proposed involving hierarchical testing through three layers of different neural complexities. This scheme is currently undergoing validation under the auspices of FRAME/EC using 40 test chemicals. To determine the performance and suitability of these culture models studies on selected neurotoxins have been performed: ethylcholine mustard aziridinium, vincristine, aluminium, glutamate, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and T(3)-deprivation. Aspects of this work are described, including mechanistic investigations in rat brain reaggregate cultures. In vitro exposure of xenobiotics through a tiered testing system (ranging from simple cell-based assays measuring cytotoxicological parameters to more complex markers in organotypic cultures) may permit detection of central nervous system neurotoxicity in the contexts of both 'screening' and mechanistics. The degree of simplicity, automaticity and transportability of the tests requires consideration as will the possibility of endpoints for specific classes of chemicals, for example cholinesterase for organophosphorus insecticides. Factors such as extrapolation from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system, metabolic activation, the blood-brain barrier, degree of neural cell activation, repair mechanisms, and developing versus adult nervous systems are considered. PMID:20732253

  20. Nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways from a carbon nanotube-copper composite with high conductivity, ampacity and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    New lithographically processable materials with high ampacity are in demand to meet the increasing requirement for high operational current density at high temperatures existing in current pathways within electronic devices. To meet this demand, we report an approach to fabricate a high ampacity (~100 times higher than Cu) carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composite into a variety of complex nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways. The approach involved the use of a two-stage electrodeposition of copper into a pre-patterned template of porous, thin CNT sheets acting as the electrode. The versatility of this approach enabled the realization of completely suspended multi-tier, dielectric-less `air-gap' CNT-Cu circuits that could be electrically isolated from each other and are challenging to fabricate with pure Cu or any metal. Importantly, all such complex structures, ranging from 500 nm to 20 μm in width, exhibited ~100-times higher ampacity than any known metal, with comparable electrical conductivity as Cu. In addition, CNT-Cu structures also exhibited a superior temperature stability compared to the ~10-times wider Cu counterparts. We believe that the combination of our approach and the properties demonstrated here are vital achievements for the future development of efficient and powerful electrical devices.

  1. Nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways from a carbon nanotube-copper composite with high conductivity, ampacity and stability.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2016-02-21

    New lithographically processable materials with high ampacity are in demand to meet the increasing requirement for high operational current density at high temperatures existing in current pathways within electronic devices. To meet this demand, we report an approach to fabricate a high ampacity (∼100 times higher than Cu) carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composite into a variety of complex nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways. The approach involved the use of a two-stage electrodeposition of copper into a pre-patterned template of porous, thin CNT sheets acting as the electrode. The versatility of this approach enabled the realization of completely suspended multi-tier, dielectric-less 'air-gap' CNT-Cu circuits that could be electrically isolated from each other and are challenging to fabricate with pure Cu or any metal. Importantly, all such complex structures, ranging from 500 nm to 20 μm in width, exhibited ∼100-times higher ampacity than any known metal, with comparable electrical conductivity as Cu. In addition, CNT-Cu structures also exhibited a superior temperature stability compared to the ∼10-times wider Cu counterparts. We believe that the combination of our approach and the properties demonstrated here are vital achievements for the future development of efficient and powerful electrical devices. PMID:26486752

  2. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  3. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  4. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-10-15

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.

  5. Complex geology spurs intensive development in Zhongyuan fields

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The Zhongyuan producing region of Eastern China is located some 310 mi south of Beijing and 60 mi southeast of the city of Anyang in Henan Province. An intensive infill drilling program utilizing 78 rigs is underway in the area to maximize production. Continuing development drilling in the 10 oil fields scattered over the area is required because reservoirs are highly faulted. The resulting small fault blocks also have a high water content (water production appears quickly in a new well), resulting in a relatively short producing life. This article presents details of the Zhongyuan complex.

  6. Multi-tiered system of support incorporating the R.E.N.E.W. process and its relationship to perception of school safety and office discipline referrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Molly M.

    This study examined the relationship between the fidelity of multi-tier school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and staff perception of school safety and office discipline referrals. This research provided a case study on multi-tier supports and interventions, and the RENEW person-centered planning process in an alternative special education center following the implementation of a multi-tier SWPBIS model. Pennsylvania is one of several states looking to adopt an effective Tier III behavioral tool. The research described the results of an analysis of implementation fidelity on a multi-tiered school-wide positive behavior support model developed at a special education center operated by a public school system entity. This research explored the fidelity of SWPBIS implementation; analyzed the relationship of SWPBIS to school climate as measured by staff perceptions and reduction of office discipline referrals (ODR); explored tier III supports incorporating a process Rehabilitation and Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education and Work (RENEW); and investigated the potential sustainability of the RENEW process as a multi-tier system of support. This study investigated staff perceptions on integrated supports between schools and communities and identified the degree of relationship to school risk factors, school protective factors, and office discipline referrals following the building of cooperative partnerships between Systems of Care and Local Education Agencies.

  7. STAR load balancing and tiered-storage infrastructure strategy for ultimate db access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.; Didenko, L.; Van Buren, G.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the STAR experiment's database demands have grown in accord not only with simple facility growth, but also with a growing physics program. In addition to the accumulated metadata from a decade of operations, refinements to detector calibrations force user analysis to access database information post data production. Users may access any year's data at any point in time, causing a near random access of the metadata queried, contrary to time-organized production cycles. Moreover, complex online event selection algorithms created a query scarcity ("sparsity") scenario for offline production further impacting performance. Fundamental changes in our hardware approach were hence necessary to improve query speed. Initial strategic improvements were focused on developing fault-tolerant, load-balanced access to a multi-slave infrastructure. Beyond that, we explored, tested and quantified the benefits of introducing a Tiered storage architecture composed of conventional drives, solid-state disks, and memory-resident databases as well as leveraging the use of smaller database services fitting in memory. The results of our extensive testing in real life usage are presented.

  8. Two- and Three-Tiered Stacked Architectures by Covalent Assembly.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fengfeng; Day, Kody J; Hartley, C Scott

    2016-07-18

    Simple discotic cores functionalized with reactive arms have been assembled into two- and three-tiered covalent stacks through imine formation. The targets are obtained in good yields, but competing formation of misassembled byproducts highlights some of the challenges inherent to the thermodynamically controlled assembly of rigid, compact, three-dimensional architectures. The structures comprise a central stack of arenes surrounded by a triple helix of interconnected arms. The racemization rate is strongly dependent on the number of tiers, suggesting cooperative conformational coupling in these multi-tiered structures. PMID:27297833

  9. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  10. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  11. SLA-based optimisation of virtualised resource for multi-tier web applications in cloud data centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jing; Yuan, Haitao; Tie, Ming; Tan, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic virtualised resource allocation is the key to quality of service assurance for multi-tier web application services in cloud data centre. In this paper, we develop a self-management architecture of cloud data centres with virtualisation mechanism for multi-tier web application services. Based on this architecture, we establish a flexible hybrid queueing model to determine the amount of virtual machines for each tier of virtualised application service environments. Besides, we propose a non-linear constrained optimisation problem with restrictions defined in service level agreement. Furthermore, we develop a heuristic mixed optimisation algorithm to maximise the profit of cloud infrastructure providers, and to meet performance requirements from different clients as well. Finally, we compare the effectiveness of our dynamic allocation strategy with two other allocation strategies. The simulation results show that the proposed resource allocation method is efficient in improving the overall performance and reducing the resource energy cost.

  12. Tier 2 Interventions in Positive Behavior Support: A Survey of School Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Loman, Sheldon L.; Borgmeier, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As increasing numbers of schools implement Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS), schools are looking for and implementing evidence-based practices for students whose needs are not fully met by Tier 1 supports. Although there is relative consistency and clarity in what constitutes Tier 1 behavior support within MTSS, Tier 2 supports may be more…

  13. Characterization of SCF-Complex during Bovine Preimplantation Development

    PubMed Central

    Benesova, Veronika; Kinterova, Veronika; Kanka, Jiri; Toralova, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of maternal proteins is one of the most important events during early development, and it is presumed to be essential for embryonic genome activation (EGA), but the precise mechanism is still not known. It is thought that a large proportion of the degradation of maternal proteins is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteolytic system. In this study we focused on the expression of the Skp1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) complex, a modular RING-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase, during bovine preimplantation development. The complex consists of three invariable components—Cul1, Skp1, Rbx1 and F-box protein, which determines the substrate specificity. The protein level and mRNA expression of all three invariable members were determined. Cul1 and Skp1 mRNA synthesis was activated at early embryonic stages, at the 4c and early 8c stage, respectively, which suggests that these transcripts are necessary for preparing the embryo for EGA. CUL1 protein level increased from MII to the morula stage, with a significant difference between MII and L8c, and between MII and the morula. The CUL1 protein was localized primarily to nuclei and to a lesser extent to the cytoplasm, with a lower signal in the inner cell mass (ICM) compared to the trophectoderm (TE) at the blastocyst stage. The level of SKP1 protein significantly increased from MII oocytes to 4c embryos, but then significantly decreased again. The localization of the SKP1 protein was analysed throughout the cell and similarly to CUL1 at the blastocyst stage, the staining was less intensive in the ICM. There were no statistical differences in RBX1 protein level and localization. The active SCF-complex, which is determined by the interaction of Cul1 and Skp1, was found throughout the whole embryo during preimplantation development, but there was a difference at the blastocyst stage, which exhibits a much stronger signal in the TE than in the ICM. These results suggest that all these genes could play an important role during

  14. Arabidopsis flower development-of protein complexes, targets, and transport.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Ehlers, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past 25 years or more of research on the molecular mechanisms of floral organ identity, patterning, and development. While collections of floral homeotic mutants of Antirrhinum majus laid the foundation already at the beginning of the previous century, it was the genetic analysis of these mutants in A. majus and Arabidopsis thaliana that led to the development of the ABC model of floral organ identity more than 20 years ago. This intuitive model kick-started research focused on the genetic mechanisms regulating flower development, using mainly A. thaliana as a model plant. In recent years, interactions among floral homeotic proteins have been elucidated, and their direct and indirect target genes are known to a large extent. Here, we provide an overview over the advances in understanding the molecular mechanism orchestrating A. thaliana flower development. We focus on floral homeotic protein complexes, their target genes, evidence for their transport in floral primordia, and how these new results advance our view on the processes downstream of floral organ identity, such as organ boundary formation or floral organ patterning. PMID:25845756

  15. A Team-Based Process for Designing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Models of Prevention: How Does My School-Site Leadership Team Design a CI3T Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Jenkins, Abbie; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models are context specific and developed by school-site teams according to the core values held by the school community. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step, team-based process for designing comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention that integrate academic, behavioral, and…

  16. 4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for hanging tobacco to cure. - Edgewood Farm, Tobacco Barn, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  17. Simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site with MONARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zach, Č.; Betev, L.; Adamová, D.; ALICE Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The MONARC (MOdels of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers) framework has been developed and designed with the aim to provide a tool for realistic simulations of large scale distributed computing systems, with a special focus on the Grid systems of the experiments at the CERN LHC. In this paper, we describe a usage of the MONARC framework and tools for a simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site.

  18. Interoperating AliEn and ARC for a Distributed Tier1 in the Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Philippe; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Lindemann, Jonas; Saiz, Pablo; Zarochentsev, Andrey

    To reach its large computing needs, the ALICE experiment at CERN has developed its own middleware called AliEn, centralised and relying on pilot jobs. One of its strength is the automatic installation of the required packages. The Nordic countries have offered a distributed Tier-1 centre for the CERN experiments, where the job management should be done with the NorduGrid middleware ARC.

  19. The “NetBoard”: Network Monitoring Tools Integration for INFN Tier-1 Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Girolamo, D.; dell'Agnello and, L.; Zani, S.

    2012-12-01

    The monitoring and alert system is fundamental for the management and the operation of the network in a large data center such as an LHC Tier-1. The network of the INFN Tier-1 at CNAF is a multi-vendor environment: for its management and monitoring several tools have been adopted and different sensors have been developed. In this paper, after an overview on the different aspects to be monitored and the tools used for them (i.e. MRTG, Nagios, Arpwatch, NetFlow, Syslog, etc), we will describe the “NetBoard”, a monitoring toolkit developed at the INFN Tier-1. NetBoard, developed for a multi-vendor network, is able to install and auto-configure all tools needed for its monitoring, either via network devices discovery mechanism or via configuration file or via wizard. In this way, we are also able to activate different types of sensors and Nagios checks according to the equipment vendor specifications. Moreover, when a new device is connected in the LAN, NetBoard can detect where it is plugged. Finally the NetBoard web interface allows to have the overall status of the entire network “at a glance”, both the local and the geographical (including the LHCOPN and the LHCONE) link utilization, health status of network devices (with active alerts) and flow analysis.

  20. Xenoendocrine disrupters-tiered screening and testing: filling key data gaps.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E; Ostby, J; Wilson, V; Lambright, C; Bobseine, K; Hartig, P; Hotchkiss, A; Wolf, C; Furr, J; Price, M; Parks, L; Cooper, R L; Stoker, T E; Laws, S C; Degitz, S J; Jensen, K M; Kahl, M D; Korte, J J; Makynen, E A; Tietge, J E; Ankley, G T

    2002-12-27

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen (ER), androgen (AR) and thyroid hormone synthesis and AR and ER receptor-mediated effects in mammals and other animals. High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery and chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S includes in vitro ER and AR receptor binding and/or gene expression, an assessment of steroidogenesis and mammalian (rat) and nonmammalian in vivo assays (Table 1). In vivo, the uterotropic assay detects estrogens and antiestrogens, while steroidogenesis, antithyroid activity, (anti)estrogenicity and HPG function are assessed in a 'Pubertal Female Assay'. (Anti-) androgens are detected in the Hershberger Assay (weight of AR-dependent tissues in castrate-immature-male rats). Fish and amphibian assays also are being developed. The fathead minnow assay can identify EDCs displaying several mechanisms of concern, including AR and ER receptor agonists and antagonists and inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis. An amphibian metamorphosis assay is being developed to detect thyroid-active substances. Several alternative mammalian in vivo assays have been proposed. Of these, a short-term pubertal male rat assay appears most promising. An in utero-lactational screening protocol also is being evaluated. For Tier 2, the numbers of endocrine sensitive endpoints and offspring (F1) examined in multigenerational tests need to be expanded for EDCs. Consideration should be given to tailoring T2, based on the results of T1S. Tier 1 and 2 also should examine relevant mixtures of EDCs. Toxicants that induce malformations in AR-dependent tissues produce cumulative effects even when two chemicals act via different mechanisms of action. PMID:12505339

  1. Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Jansky, Bohumir

    2015-04-01

    Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks Falátková, K., Šobr, M., Engel, Z., Janský, B. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech republic Glacier complex Adygine (3,400-4,200 m asl) is situated on the northern flank of the Kyrgyz Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The valley downstream is part of National Park Ala Archa, which is popular with tourists, and is heading towards the country's capital - Bishkek. At the study site there is a glacier which is observed since 1960's. The glacier has been monitored by satellite imagery and in last 10 years by on-site geodetic measurement as well. Due to glacier shrinkage several glacial lakes of different genetic types (moraine-dammed, moraine- and rock-dammed, termokarst) have appeared at the site. Nowadays, the lakes are situated on three levels in front of the glacier's terminus and form a cascade, they are also hydrologically connected. The lakes were subjected to detailed bathymetric measurement and some parts of the dams were surveyed by geophysical methods. Especially the newest lakes in proximity of the terminus has been undergoing dynamic changes and may pose a threat in the near future. The risks arising together with changing climatic conditions and retreat of the glacier are associated with mainly three of the lakes. The largest one with area of 3.2 ha is dammed by a rock step overlaid by a moraine. Geophysical research of the dam revealed buried ice and seepage channels in its western part. It is the capacity of these subsurface channels, which are draining the lake throughout the year that represents a weak point in terms of dam stability. The second lake, a termokarst one, is a similar case but drained solely by subsurface channels. Very steep slopes of the lake basin are covered with loose material which could slide down and block the drainage channels. The lake would then fill all the basin (approx. 50,000 m3) very quickly as it is supplied with water from the

  2. Identifying Students for Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Efforts: How Do We Determine Which Students Have Tier 2 and Tier 3 Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    In comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models, it is essential to have a systematic method for identifying students who need supports at Tier 2 or Tier 3. This article provides explicit information on how to use multiple sources of data to determine which students might benefit from these supports. First, the authors provide an overview of how…

  3. Pros and Cons of 1-tiered versus 2-tiered Seasonal Forecast Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, D. G.; Goddard, L.; Li, S.

    2005-05-01

    All reasonable seasonal forecast systems have advantages and disadvantages.Some advantages/disadvantages may be theoretical; others may be practical. A clear understanding of where the limitations of a particular forecast system lie is helpful in making the most of the tool(s) in hand. In this presentation we examine the good, the bad and the ugly in both 1-tiered forecast systems (i.e. coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models or CGCMs) and 2-tiered forecast systems (i.e. atmospheric general circulation models or AGCMs). AGCMs are potentially hindered by unphysical air-sea fluxes in the mid-latitudes and warm pool regions, where the observations suggest that the atmosphere forces changes in the ocean, rather than the other way around. In CGCMs the ocean and atmosphere evolve harmoniously, but that is no guarantee that their air-sea fluxes are correct.And indeed, CGCMs have problems with climate drift and large-scale systematic biases because of difficulties in getting the proper air-sea fluxes. To what extent these physical limitations limit skill in seasonal climate prediction will be presented. Suggestions will be offered for how one might capitalize on the strengths of both types of dynamical forecast systems, while minimizing the weaknesses, in constructing a seasonal climate forecast.

  4. The Etiology of Top-Tier Publications in Management: A Status Attainment Perspective on Academic Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Matthew; Schultz, Kaitlyn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a comprehensive model of personal and institutional input variables, composed of elements describing status-based antecedents, job/organizational context antecedents, and individual level antecedents, which may contribute to the production of significant (top-tier) research outputs in the…

  5. Testing a multi-tiered stress-gradient model for risk assessment using sediment constituents from coral reef environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, B.H.; Hallock, P.

    2000-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened worldwide by stresses ranging from local to global in extent. One of the major challenges in studies of reef decline is understanding how to distinguish between changes resulting from natural, anthropogenic, local, and global environmental perturbations. As such, a conceptual risk-assessment model is developed that includes tiers for natural stresses, global/regional stresses, and local anthropogenic stresses.

  6. Efficacy of a Tier 2 Supplemental Root Word Vocabulary and Decoding Intervention with Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were…

  7. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... from inventories developed for the Final Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (76 FR 48208, August 8, 2011... reductions. \\7\\ 65 FR 6698 (February 10, 2000). The proposed Tier 3 standards include new light- and heavy... emissions standards.\\10\\ \\8\\ 77 FR 62623 (October 15, 2012). \\9\\ These states include Connecticut,...

  8. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...This document announces the final second list of 109 chemicals identified for Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). The EDSP is established under section 408(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), which requires EPA to develop a chemical screening program using appropriate validated test systems and other scientifically relevant information......

  9. Convective cell development and propagation in a mesoscale convective complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    A case study was made of the mesoscale convective complex (MCC) which occurred over southern Oklahoma and northern Texas on 27 May 1981. This storm moved in an eastsoutheasterly direction and during much of its lifetime was observable by radars at Oklahoma City, Ok. and Stephenville, Tx. It was found that the direction of cell (VIP level 3 or more reflectivity) propagation was somewhat erratic but approximately the same as the system (VIP level 1 reflectivity) movement and the ambient wind. New cells developed along and behind the gust front make it appear that once the MCC is initiated, a synergistic relationship exists between the gust front and the MCC. The relationship between rainfall patterns and amounts and the infrared (IR) temperature field in the satellite imagery were examined. The 210 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery was found to encompass the rain area of the storm. The heaviest rainfall was in the vicinity of the VIP level 3 cells and mostly contained within the 205 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery.

  10. The Knowledges of Teacher Education: Developing a Critical Complex Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of the pedagogical process and the intricacies of a rigorous teacher education are central concerns of this article. What is a critical complex teacher education? What types of knowledges should professional educators possess? The author states that, in a climate as hostile as the first decade of the twenty-first century, the…