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Sample records for complexity tier development

  1. Development of a Tiered Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W.; Pfeiler, Erika A.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  2. Development of a tiered multilocus sequence typing scheme for members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Padmini; Lacher, David W; Pfeiler, Erika A; Elkins, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are associated with functional foods and dietary supplements because of purported health benefits they impart to the consumer. Many characteristics of these microorganisms are reported to be strain specific. Therefore, proper strain typing is essential for safety assessment and product labeling, and also for monitoring strain integrity for industrial production purposes. Fifty-two strains of the L. acidophilus complex (L. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. crispatus, L. gallinarum, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii) were genotyped using two established methods and compared to a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the hsp60 gene with AluI and TaqI successfully clustered 51 of the 52 strains into the six species examined, but it lacked strain-level discrimination. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) targeting the M13 sequence resulted in highly discriminatory profiles but lacked reproducibility. In this study, an MLST scheme was developed using the conserved housekeeping genes fusA, gpmA, gyrA, gyrB, lepA, pyrG, and recA, which identified 40 sequence types that successfully clustered all of the strains into the six species. Analysis of the observed alleles suggests that nucleotide substitutions within five of the seven MLST loci have reached saturation, a finding that emphasizes the highly diverse nature of the L. acidophilus complex and our unconventional application of a typically intraspecies molecular typing tool. Our MLST results indicate that this method could be useful for characterization and strain discrimination of a multispecies complex, with the potential for taxonomic expansion to a broader collection of Lactobacillus species. PMID:24038697

  3. Development and Application of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Secondary Students' Understanding of Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the development and application of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (or three-tier test) on the nature and propagation of waves. A question in a three-tier test comprises the "content tier", which measures content knowledge; the "reason tier", which measures explanatory knowledge; and the "confidence tier", which…

  4. Developing a Classroom Management Plan Using a Tiered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Brown, Monica R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a response-to-intervention (RTI) framework that both special and general education teachers can use in evaluating existing class structures and developing comprehensive classroom management plans for the purpose of managing challenging behaviors. They applied the concept of a three-tiered model of support at…

  5. Professional Development to Differentiate Kindergarten Tier 1 Instruction: Can Already Effective Teachers Improve Student Outcomes by Differentiating Tier 1 Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Waesche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers'…

  6. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C.; Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven

    2002-06-01

    Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included

  7. Development of a Tier-1 assay for assessing the toxicity of insecticidal substances against Coleomegilla maculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Tier-1 laboratory testing system was developed to assess the potential dietary effects of insecticidal substances on the predacious ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata. Artificial diets utilizing shrimp eggs were developed, and a Tier-1 bioassay examining C. maculata development and survival wa...

  8. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  9. The JINR Tier1 Site Simulation for Research and Development Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenkov, V.; Nechaevskiy, A.; Ososkov, G.; Pryahina, D.; Trofimov, V.; Uzhinskiy, A.; Voytishin, N.

    2016-02-01

    Distributed complex computing systems for data storage and processing are in common use in the majority of modern scientific centers. The design of such systems is usually based on recommendations obtained via a preliminary simulated model used and executed only once. However big experiments last for years and decades, and the development of their computing system is going on, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Even with the substantial efforts invested in the design phase to understand the systems configuration, it would be hard enough to develop a system without additional research of its future evolution. The developers and operators face the problem of the system behaviour predicting after the planned modifications. A system for grid and cloud services simulation is developed at LIT (JINR, Dubna). This simulation system is focused on improving the effciency of the grid/cloud structures development by using the work quality indicators of some real system. The development of such kind of software is very important for making a new grid/cloud infrastructure for such big scientific experiments like the JINR Tier1 site for WLCG. The simulation of some processes of the Tier1 site is considered as an example of our application approach.

  10. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  11. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  12. CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L.; Stallings, Christina L.; Galburt, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    CarD is an essential and global transcriptional regulator in mycobacteria. While its biological role is unclear, CarD functions by interacting directly with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme promoter complexes. Here, using a fluorescent reporter of open complex, we quantitate RPo formation in real time and show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD has a dramatic effect on the energetics of RNAP bound complexes on the M. tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal RNA promoter. The data reveal that Mycobacterium bovis RNAP exhibits an unstable RPo that is stabilized by CarD and suggest that CarD uses a two-tiered, concentration-dependent mechanism by associating with open and closed complexes with different affinities. Specifically, the kinetics of open-complex formation can be explained by a model where, at saturating concentrations of CarD, the rate of bubble collapse is slowed and the rate of opening is accelerated. The kinetics and open-complex stabilities of CarD mutants further clarify the roles played by the key residues W85, K90 and R25 previously shown to affect CarD-dependent gene regulation in vivo. In contrast to M. bovis RNAP, Escherichia coli RNAP efficiently forms RPo on rrnAP3, suggesting an important difference between the polymerases themselves and highlighting how transcriptional machinery can vary across bacterial genera. PMID:25697505

  13. Development of a Three-Tier Test to Assess Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesman, Haki; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to propose a valid and reliable diagnostic instrument by developing a three-tier test on simple electric circuits. Based on findings from the interviews, open-ended questions, and the related literature, the test was developed and administered to 124 high school students. In addition to some qualitative techniques for…

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  15. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  16. Development of a Tier 3 Curriculum to Teach Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Hommel, Annie; McMahon, Rose; Aguayo, Katherine Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Children with the lowest oral language and early literacy skills at entry to kindergarten are the most vulnerable to poor literacy outcomes. This article describes the programmatic development of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention for preschool children who are most in need of intensive support to achieve early literacy outcomes. The…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A TIER II ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR TEST GUIDELINE FOR MULTI-GENERATIONAL EXPOSURES OF THE ESTUARINE FISH, SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW TO REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) developed a two-tiered screening approach for identifying and characterizing endocrine effects of pesticides, industrial substances and environmental contaminants. Tier II tests include development of transgenerational (t...

  18. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-02-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 (n = 90) and Grade 5 (n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  20. DEVELOPMENT, STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF THE MAMMALIAN IN VIVO ASSAYS IN THE PROPOSED TIER I SCREENING BATTERY FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research directly supports the development, standardization and validation of several Tier 1 screening mammalian in vivo assays. Through the development and use of many of these assays for testing specific hypothesis in their respective research programs, these investigato...

  1. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  2. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  3. Developing the Capacity to Implement Tier 2 and Tier 3 Supports: How Do We Support Our Faculty and Staff in Preparing for Sustainability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Germer, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    School-site and district-level leadership teams rely on the existing knowledge base to select, implement, and evaluate evidence-based practices meeting students' multiple needs within the context of multitiered systems of support. The authors focus on the stages of implementation science as applied to Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports; the…

  4. Four Tiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    This paper posits a classification of tertiary education institutions into four tiers: world research universities, selecting universities, recruiting universities, and vocational institutes. The distinguishing characteristic of world research universities is their research strength, the distinguishing characteristic of selecting universities is…

  5. The ATLAS Tier-3 in Geneva and the Trigger Development Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadomski, S.; Meunier, Y.; Pasche, P.; Baud, J.-P.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS Tier-3 farm at the University of Geneva provides storage and processing power for analysis of ATLAS data. In addition the facility is used for development, validation and commissioning of the High Level Trigger of ATLAS [1]. The latter purpose leads to additional requirements on the availability of latest software and data, which will be presented. The farm is also a part of the WLCG [2], and is available to all members of the ATLAS Virtual Organization. The farm currently provides 268 CPU cores and 177 TB of storage space. A grid Storage Element, implemented with the Disk Pool Manager software [3], is available and integrated with the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system [4]. The batch system can be used directly by local users, or with a grid interface provided by NorduGrid ARC middleware [5]. In this article we will present the use cases that we support, as well as the experience with the software and the hardware we are using. Results of I/O benchmarking tests, which were done for our DPM Storage Element and for the NFS servers we are using, will also be presented.

  6. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  7. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, liposomal amphotericin B (for visceral leishmaniasis), and pneumococcal vaccines. Discussion We found several critical shortcomings to tiered pricing: it is inferior to competition for achieving the lowest sustainable prices; it often involves arbitrary divisions between markets and/or countries, which can lead to very high prices for middle-income markets; and it leaves a disproportionate amount of decision-making power in the hands of sellers vis-à-vis consumers. In many developing countries, resources are often stretched so tight that affordability can only be approached by selling medicines at or near the cost of production. Policies that "de-link" the financing of R&D from the price of medicines merit further attention, since they can reward innovation while exploiting robust competition in production to generate the lowest sustainable prices. However, in special cases - such as when market volumes are very small or multi-source production capacity is lacking - tiered pricing may offer the only practical option to meet short-term needs for access to a product. In such cases, steps should be taken to ensure affordability and availability in the longer-term. Summary To ensure access to medicines for populations in need, alternate strategies should be explored that harness the power of competition, avoid arbitrary market segmentation, and/or recognize government responsibilities. Competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior

  8. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  9. Complex System Assembly Underlies a Two-Tiered Model of Highly Delocalized Electrons.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Laurents, Douglas V

    2016-05-19

    Amyloid fibrils are exceptionally stable oligomeric structures with extensive, highly cooperative H-bonding networks whose physical origin remains elusive. While nonpolar systems benefit from both H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions, we found that highly polar sequences containing glutamine and asparagine amino acid residues form hyperpolarized H-bonds. This feature, observed by density functional theory calculations, encodes the origin of these polar oligomers' high stability. These results are explained in a theoretical model for complex amyloid assembly based on two different types of cooperative effects resulting from highly delocalized electrons, one of which is always present in both polar and hydrophobic systems. Experimental electric conductivity measurements, ThT fluorescence enhancement, and NMR spectroscopy support this proposal and reveal the conditions for disassembly. PMID:27139835

  10. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  11. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  12. The Science behind Curriculum Development and Evaluation: Taking a Design Science Approach in the Production of a Tier 2 Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2015-01-01

    The production of an effective mathematics curriculum begins with a scientific development, evaluation, and revision framework. The purpose of this study was to conduct an initial investigation of a recently developed Tier 2 mathematics curriculum designed to improve the outcomes of first grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD).…

  13. Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

  14. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

  15. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  16. Self-Regulated Strategy Development at Tier 2 for Second-Grade Students with Writing and Behavioral Difficulties: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Harris, Karen; Graham, Steve; Driscoll, Steven; Sandmel, Karin; Morphy, Paul; Hebert, Michael; House, Emily; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which strategies instruction, using the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model, would enhance the writing, engagement during writing, and behavior of 44 second-grade students identified as having behavioral and writing difficulties. This study occurred within a comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered model of…

  17. Tier 1, Teacher-Implemented Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with and without Behavioral Challenges: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Driscoll, Steven A.; Graham, Steve; Wilson, Kristen; Sandmel, Karin; Brindle, Mary; Schatschneider, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in the context of schools collaborating with a local university to implement an evidence-based, 3-tiered model of prevention and supports targeting academic, behavioral, and social goals. We examined whether Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction, delivered by grade 2 and 3 general education teachers to all…

  18. R5 Clade C SHIV Strains with Tier 1 or 2 Neutralization Sensitivity: Tools to Dissect Env Evolution and to Develop AIDS Vaccines in Primate Models

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Watkins, Jennifer D.; Wassermann, Klemens J.; Song, Ruijiang; Wang, Wendy; Kramer, Victor G.; Lakhashe, Samir; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Montefiori, David C.; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1) HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2) phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an “early,” recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a “late” form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM) with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to “late” SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2). After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. Conclusions/Significance SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates. PMID:20657739

  19. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  20. Development of a tiered and binned genetic counseling model for informed consent in the era of multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Long, Jessica; Powers, Jacquelyn; Stopfer, Jill; Forman, Andrea; Rybak, Christina; Mattie, Kristin; Brandt, Amanda; Chambers, Rachelle; Chung, Wendy K.; Churpek, Jane; Daly, Mary B.; Digiovanni, Laura; Farengo-Clark, Dana; Fetzer, Dominique; Ganschow, Pamela; Grana, Generosa; Gulden, Cassandra; Hall, Michael; Kohler, Lynne; Maxwell, Kara; Merrill, Shana; Montgomery, Susan; Mueller, Rebecca; Nielsen, Sarah; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Rainey, Kimberly; Seelaus, Christina; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multiplex genetic testing, including both moderate- and high-penetrance genes for cancer susceptibility, is associated with greater uncertainty than traditional testing, presenting challenges to informed consent and genetic counseling. We sought to develop a new model for informed consent and genetic counseling for four ongoing studies. Methods Drawing from professional guidelines, literature, conceptual frameworks, and clinical experience, a multidisciplinary group developed a tiered-binned genetic counseling approach proposed to facilitate informed consent and improve outcomes of cancer susceptibility multiplex testing. Results In this model, tier 1 “indispensable” information is presented to all patients. More specific tier 2 information is provided to support variable informational needs among diverse patient populations. Clinically relevant information is “binned” into groups to minimize information overload, support informed decision making, and facilitate adaptive responses to testing. Seven essential elements of informed consent are provided to address the unique limitations, risks, and uncertainties of multiplex testing. Conclusion A tiered-binned model for informed consent and genetic counseling has the potential to address the challenges of multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility and to support informed decision making and adaptive responses to testing. Future prospective studies including patient-reported outcomes are needed to inform how to best incorporate multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility into clinical practice. PMID:25297947

  1. A novel approach for the development of tiered use biological criteria for rivers and streams in an ecologically diverse landscape.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, R William; Niemela, Scott; Genet, John A; Yoder, Chris O; Sandberg, John; Chirhart, Joel W; Feist, Mike; Lundeen, Benjamin; Helwig, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Water resource protection goals for aquatic life are often general and can result in under protection of some high quality water bodies and unattainable expectations for other water bodies. More refined aquatic life goals known as tiered aquatic life uses (TALUs) provide a framework to designate uses by setting protective goals for high quality water bodies and establishing attainable goals for water bodies altered by legally authorized legacy activities (e.g., channelization). Development of biological criteria or biocriteria typically requires identification of a set of least- or minimally-impacted reference sites that are used to establish a baseline from which goals are derived. Under a more refined system of stream types and aquatic life use goals, an adequate set of reference sites is needed to account for the natural variability of aquatic communities (e.g., landscape differences, thermal regime, and stream size). To develop sufficient datasets, Minnesota employed a reference condition approach in combination with an approach based on characterizing a stream's response to anthropogenic disturbance through development of a Biological Condition Gradient (BCG). These two approaches allowed for the creation of ecologically meaningful and consistent biocriteria within a more refined stream typology and solved issues related to small sample sizes and poor representation of minimally- or least-disturbed conditions for some stream types. Implementation of TALU biocriteria for Minnesota streams and rivers will result in consistent and protective goals that address fundamental differences among waters in terms of their potential for restoration. PMID:26920130

  2. The Legnaro-Padova distributed Tier-2: challenges and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoer, Simone; Biasotto, Massimo; Costa, Fulvia; Crescente, Alberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Ferrari, Roberto; Gulmini, Michele; Maron, Gaetano; Michelotto, Michele; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Toniolo, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    The Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 is a computing facility serving the ALICE and CMS LHC experiments. It also supports other High Energy Physics experiments and other virtual organizations of different disciplines, which can opportunistically harness idle resources if available. The unique characteristic of this Tier-2 is its topology: the computational resources are spread in two different sites, about 15 km apart: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova unit, connected through a 10 Gbps network link (it will be soon updated to 20 Gbps). Nevertheless these resources are seamlessly integrated and are exposed as a single computing facility. Despite this intrinsic complexity, the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 ranks among the best Grid sites for what concerns reliability and availability. The Tier-2 comprises about 190 worker nodes, providing about 26000 HS06 in total. Such computing nodes are managed by the LSF local resource management system, and are accessible using a Grid-based interface implemented through multiple CREAM CE front-ends. dCache, xrootd and Lustre are the storage systems in use at the Tier-2: about 1.5 PB of disk space is available to users in total, through multiple access protocols. A 10 Gbps network link, planned to be doubled in the next months, connects the Tier-2 to WAN. This link is used for the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) and for other general purpose traffic. In this paper we discuss about the experiences at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2: the problems that had to be addressed, the lessons learned, the implementation choices. We also present the tools used for the daily management operations. These include DOCET, a Java-based webtool designed, implemented and maintained at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2, and deployed also in other sites, such as the LHC Italian T1. DOCET provides an uniform interface to manage all the information about the physical resources of a computing center. It is also used as documentation repository available to

  3. Towards a ‘Good Life’ for Farm Animals: Development of a Resource Tier Framework to Achieve Positive Welfare for Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne L.; Mullan, Siobhan M.; Pritchard, Joy C.; McFarlane, Una J. C.; Main, David C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Farm animals can be said to have a ‘good life’ if their quality of life is substantially higher than the current legal minimum and includes positive experiences such as pleasure. In commercial farms, animals can be provided with different resources such as bedding, exercise areas and enrichment objects. We used scientific evidence and expert opinion to determine which resources laying hens need to contribute to a ‘good life’. These resources were organised into three tiers, of increasing welfare, leading towards a ‘good life’. We describe how we developed the resource tiers and suggest how the overall framework might be used to promote a ‘good life’ for farm animals. Abstract The concept of a ‘good life’ recognises the distinction that an animal’s quality of life is beyond that of a ‘life worth living’, representing a standard of welfare substantially higher than the legal minimum (FAWC, 2009). We propose that the opportunities required for a ‘good life’ could be used to structure resource tiers that lead to positive welfare and are compatible with higher welfare farm assurance schemes. Published evidence and expert opinion was used to define three tiers of resource provision (Welfare +, Welfare ++ and Welfare +++) above those stipulated in UK legislation and codes of practice, which should lead to positive welfare outcomes. In this paper we describe the principles underpinning the framework and the process of developing the resource tiers for laying hens. In doing so, we summarise expert opinion on resources required to achieve a ‘good life’ in laying hens and discuss the philosophical and practical challenges of developing the framework. We present the results of a pilot study to establish the validity, reliability and feasibility of the draft laying hen tiers on laying hen production systems. Finally, we propose a generic welfare assessment framework for farm animals and suggest directions for implementation

  4. The development and validation of a three-tier diagnostic test measuring pre-service elementary education and secondary science teachers' understanding of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows test-takers to select how confident they are in their answers for the first two tiers. The second goal of this study was to diagnose any alternative conceptions PSTs might have about the water cycle. The Water Cycle Diagnostic Test (WCDT) was developed using the theoretical framework by Treagust (1986, 1988, and 1995), and in similar studies that developed diagnostic tests (e.g., Calean & Subramaniam, 2010a; Odom & Barrow, 2007; Pesman & Eryilmaz, 2010). The final instrument consisted of 15 items along with a demographic survey that examined PSTs' weather-related experiences that may or may not have affected the PSTs' understanding of the water cycle. The WCDT was administered to 77 PSTs enrolled in science methods courses during the fall of 2012. Among the 77 participants, 37 of the PSTs were enrolled in elementary education (EPST) and 40 in secondary science (SPST). Using exploratory factor analysis, five categories were factored out for the WCDT: Phase Change of Water; Condensation and Storage; Clouds; Global Climate Change; and Movement through the Water Cycle. Analysis of the PSTs' responses demonstrated acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.62) for the instrument, and acceptable difficulty indices and discrimination indices for 12 of the items. Analysis indicated that the majority of the PSTs had a limited understanding of the water cycle. Of the PSTs sampled, SPSTs were significantly more confident in their answers' on the WCDT than the EPSTs. Completion of an undergraduate atmospheric science and/or meteorology course, as well as a higher interest in listening and/or viewing weather-related programs, resulted in PSTs

  5. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction. The development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development. Misconception data were collected from interviews and multiple-choice questions with free response answers. The data were used to develop 12 two-tier multiple choice items in which the first tier examined content knowledge and the second examined understanding of that knowledge. The conceptual knowledge examined was the particulate and random nature of matter, concentration and tonicity, the influence of life forces on diffusion and osmosis, membranes, kinetic energy of matter, the process of diffusion, and the process of osmosis. The diagnostic instrument was administered to 240 students (123 non-biology majors and 117 biology majors) enrolled in a college freshman biology laboratory course. The students had completed a unit on diffusion and osmosis. The content taught was carefully defined by propositional knowledge statements, and was the same content that defined the content boundaries of the test. The split-half reliability was .74. Difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and discrimination indices ranged from 0.21 to 0.65. Each item was analyzed to determine student understanding of, and identify misconceptions about, diffusion and osmosis.Received: 18 June 1993; Revised: 16 February 1994;

  6. Strength-Based RTI: Conceptualizing a Multi-Tiered System for Developing Gifted Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of a strength-based Response to Intervention (RTI) model for developing and identifying gifted potential. Although much has been written about the promises and challenges of RTI in recent years, the utility of RTI for meeting the needs of gifted learners has not been fully explored. This article seeks to…

  7. The Looming Danger of a Two-Tiered Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    If professional development relies on scripts and mandates rather than on learning communities and continuous improvement, it can actually hinder teachers' growth. The author expresses his fear that the teachers most likely to receive such inferior training are the ones who work with the student population most in need of high-quality teaching.…

  8. Development of an early-tier laboratory bioassay for assessing the impact of orally-active insecticidal compounds on larvae of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Pálinkás, Zoltan; Bigler, Franz; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    Early-tier studies are the initial step in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered plants on nontarget arthropods. They are conducted in the laboratory where surrogate species are exposed to higher concentrations of the arthropod-active compound than those expected to occur in the field. Thus, early-tier tests provide robust data and allow to make general conclusions about the susceptibility of the surrogate to the test substance. We have developed an early-tier test for assessing the toxicity of orally-active insecticidal compounds to larvae of the ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Using potassium arsenate and the protease inhibitor E-64 as model compounds, we validated the bioassay set-up for C. septempunctata. Sucrose solution containing the test compound was offered to larvae for 24 h on the first day of each of its four larval instars. Subsequently, larvae were fed ad libitum with Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Both compounds negatively affected C. septempunctata larval survival and development, and adult weight, indicating that the bioassay setup was able to detect dietary effects of insecticidal substances on the ladybird. Power analyses revealed that sample sizes of 20 or 45 per treatment are sufficient to detect 50 or 20% differences between the control and treatment groups, respectively, for the various measurement endpoints. PMID:23321119

  9. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  10. Developing an Educational Computer Game for Migratory Bird Identification Based on a Two-Tier Test Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although educational computer games have been recognized as being a promising approach, previous studies have indicated that, without supportive models, students might only show temporary interest during the game-based learning process, and their learning performance is often not as good as expected. Therefore, in this paper, a two-tier test…

  11. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  12. Tier 2 safety Basis Document for the B151 Complex (B151, B152, and B154)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G A

    2006-12-07

    This Safety Basis Document (SBD) has been prepared for the B151 Complex at Site 200 to meet the current contractual requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). B151 Complex consists of three separate complex and distinct buildings: B151, B152, and B154, represented within this document as facility segments. Based upon its chemical and radiological inventories, Segment B151 is classified as a Low Hazard facility segment. All other hazards associated with Segment B151 operations have been determined to be LSI. Based upon their inventories, Segment B152 and Segment B154 are each classified as LSI facility segments. However, for operational flexibility involving radiological materials, CMS chooses to classify each of these as Low Hazard facility segments. Changes in operations, maximum inventories, materials, or release potential that could result in larger consequences, or that could negatively impact the safety of the facility, will necessitate a re-evaluation of these facility classifications. This SBD is governed by the LLNL Non-Nuclear Work Smart Standards (WSSs) requirements including the ES&H Manual, Document 3.1, Non-Nuclear Safety Basis Program [LLNL, 2004a] and the DOE Explosives Safety Manual (ESM) [LLNL, 2004b]. This SBD demonstrates that the three segments of B151 Complex can be operated as Low Hazard facility segments without undue risks to co-located workers, the public, or the environment. This SBD: (1) Provides a systematic identification of the safety and health hazards associated with operations in the B151 Complex, (2) Compares facility inventories of explosives, biological materials, chemicals, radioisotopes with LLNL threshold values for each facility hazard classification criteria, (3) Examines standard and non-standard industrial hazards, (4) Examines the hazards of greatest significance, (5) Qualitatively discusses the programs that evaluate and control these hazards to ensure the protection of co-located workers, the public

  13. Development and use of a three-tier diagnostic test to assess high school students' misconceptions about the photoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2016-05-01

    Background: In the last few decades, researchers have turned their attention to students' understanding of scientific concepts at different school levels. The results indicate that the learners have different ideas, and most of them are inaccurate in terms of those generally accepted by the scientific community. Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the development, validation and use of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (PEMT) to reveal Turkish high school students' common misconceptions in terms of the photoelectric effect. Sample: In this study, 243 students (male=86, female=137) from six high schools made up the sample which comprised approximately 76% of the 11th grade population. Design and Methods: Based on findings from the literature, open-ended questions and interviews, the PEMT was developed and administered to 243 students. The data was analysed descriptively. Results: The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scores was estimated as .83. Construct, content and face validities were established by senior experts and through the use of statistical techniques. The findings denoted that the test is a valid and reliable measure of students' qualitative understanding of the photoelectric concept. The results revealed that the majority of the students demonstrated a limited understanding of the photoelectric effect and have five prevalent misconceptions. These are: (1) an increase in intensity would provide the photon with enough energy to release electrons; (2) the photoelectric effect results from the ionization of atoms through the interaction with light; (3) a light beam whose photons have smaller energies than the work function would release electrons with the help of a voltage source; (4) the number of photoelectrons depends on the energy of the photon and (5) the photon has kinetic energy and it depends on the colour of light. The last two misconceptions were discovered in the current study. Conclusion: The findings

  14. A distributed Tier-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, L.; Grønager, M.; Kleist, J.; Smirnova, O.

    2008-07-01

    The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: firstly, it is not located at one or a few premises, but instead is distributed throughout the Nordic countries; secondly, it is not under the governance of a single organization but instead is a meta-center built of resources under the control of a number of different national organizations. We present some technical implications of these aspects as well as the high-level design of this distributed Tier-1. The focus will be on computing services, storage and monitoring.

  15. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and utilization of an undergraduate diagnostic test of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-11-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement model, we extend this to a multi-tiered approach which supports multiple interpretations. Using a sample of 130 undergraduate students from two colleges, we utilize the Rasch model to place students and items along traditional one-, two-, and three-tiered scales as well as a misconceptions scale. In the three-tiered and misconceptions scales, high confidence was indicative of mastery. In the latter scale, a 'misconception' was defined as mastery of an incorrect concept. We found that integrating confidence into mastery did little to change item functioning; however, three-tiered usage resulted in higher reliability and lower student ability estimates than two-tiered usage. The misconceptions scale showed high efficacy in predicting items on which particular students were likely to express misconceptions, and revealed several tenacious misconceptions that all students were likely to express regardless of ability. Previous coursework on the water cycle did little to change the prevalence of undergraduates' misconceptions.

  16. Recent developments in complex scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Rescigno, T.N.

    1980-12-15

    Some recent developments in the use of complex basis function techniques to study resonance as well as certain types of non-resonant, scattering phenomena are discussed. Complex scaling techniques and other closely related methods have continued to attract the attention of computational physicists and chemists and have now reached a point of development where meaningful calculations on many-electron atoms and molecules are beginning to appear feasible.

  17. Multi-tier approach for data acquisition programming in the TJ-II remote participation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; Portas, A.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; López, S.

    2004-10-01

    Programming software to setup acquisition channels during device operation has been developed for the TJ-II remote participation system. The software follows a three-tier model. A first tier (client tier) groups client software containing only user interface code. A second tier (middle tier) includes code for authorization, authentication, and query processing. A third tier (data tier) consists of a relational database server for managing configurations. Multi-platform characteristics are provided by web browsers (client tier) and web servers (middle tier). This architecture avoids that data acquisition system controllers provide access control, database support, or graphic user interface resources. Therefore, computation capabilities of these systems can mainly be devoted to data handling. LabView (from National Instruments) has been used as programming language in the acquisition systems. This design allows a very transparent management of signals, independently on hardware modules and systems.

  18. Cultural complexities and scientific development.

    PubMed

    Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2007-03-01

    Methodological issues in psychology consist of a key aspect for the scientific development of the discipline. In this paper I elaborate on the reasons why I partially agree with Toomela's ideas, and why I also disagree with some of his arguments. The convergence refers to the need for a radical change concerning the widespread use of methodologies that has been typical of mainstream psychology, which still flavors too positivist and pseudo-quantitative, overlooking the central relevance of theory for scientific development. The divergence resides in Toomela's insistence to oppose what he designates as "the North American" to "the German-Austrian" scientific thinking: from my perspective, the misuse of cultural categories can only lead to misguided and unconstructive dichotomies that entails a naive concept of culture, and do not contribute to scientific development. From a contemporary systemic approach, complex issues deserve more sophisticated analysis. PMID:17992868

  19. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-Based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and Utilization of an Undergraduate Diagnostic Test of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement…

  20. Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, Rotimi; Fawale, Bimbo Michael; Busari, Olusegun Adesola; Ogunmola, Jeffery Olarinde; Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Ojewola, Rufus Wale; Yusuf, Musah; Obajolowo, Omotola; Soje, Michael; Gbadegesin, Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative. Methods A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted. Results Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P < 0.05), and this cohort is less likely to be aware of organ donation (P < 0.05). At each level of care, permission by religion to donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P < 0.05) and not willingness to donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P < 0.05) and women (P > 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P < 0.05) and counseling of families of potential donors (P > 0.05). Conclusions Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation. PMID:27500245

  1. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…

  2. Addressing Instructional Avoidance with Tier II Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Turtura, Jessica; Parry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a 3-tiered, prevention-oriented framework, Tier II (secondary, targeted) interventions are designed for students whose problem behaviors have not responded to Tier I but are not severe enough to warrant an individualized Tier III intervention. Tier II interventions are implemented similarly across students receiving the intervention and can be…

  3. Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobyshev, A.; DeMar, P.; Grigaliunas, V.; Bigrow, J.; Hoeft, B.; Reymund, A.

    2012-12-01

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: • Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state • Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers • Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers • Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities • Network virtualization

  4. INTEGRATED IN VITRO TESTING AND QSAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT TO RANK AND PRIORITIZE CHEMICALS FOR TIERED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL (EDC) TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this research is to develop and validate an integrate suite of in vitro bioassays that may serve as the basis for models to rank and prioritize large inventories of chemicals for EDC activity. The assays will be developed using an aquatic species and foc...

  5. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument to Assess Middle-Years Students' Proportional Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2013-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional methods appropriately and that they often erroneously…

  6. Tiered Pricing: Implications for Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Karla

    2005-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of publishers have adopted tiered pricing of journals. The design and implications of tiered-pricing models, however, are poorly understood. Tiered pricing can be modeled using several variables. A survey of current tiered-pricing models documents the range of key variables used. A sensitivity analysis…

  7. 40 CFR 79.54 - Tier 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier 3. 79.54 Section 79.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.54 Tier 3. (a) General Criteria for Requiring Tier 3 Testing. (1) Tier 3...

  8. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject...

  9. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. (a) Basic and cable programming service tier rates. Basic service tier and cable programming service rates shall be subject...

  10. Tier Two Interventions Implemented within the Context of a Tiered Prevention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barbara S.; Stormont, Melissa; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence demonstrating the value of Tier 1 and Tier 3 interventions, significantly less is known about Tier 2 level treatments when they are added within the context of a tiered continuum of support. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the existing research base for Tier 2 small group intervention…

  11. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lauret, J.; Lauret, J.; Chaloupka, P.; Jakl, P.; Kapitan, J.; Zerola, M.

    2010-05-28

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called 'Golias'. It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  12. Tiers of intervention in kindergarten through third grade.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rollanda E; Harty, Kristin R; Fulmer, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the effects of increasing levels of intervention in reading for a cohort of children in Grades K through 3 to determine whether the severity of reading disability (RD) could be significantly reduced in the catchment schools. Tier 1 consisted of professional development for teachers of reading. The focus of this study is on additional instruction that was provided as early as kindergarten for children whose achievement fell below average. Tier 2 intervention consisted of small-group reading instruction 3 times per week, and Tier 3 of daily instruction delivered individually or in groups of two. A comparison of the reading achievement of third-grade children who were at risk in kindergarten showed moderate to large differences favoring children in the tiered interventions in decoding, word identification, fluency, and reading comprehension. PMID:16392695

  13. Implementation of Grid Tier 2 and Tier 3 facilities on a Distributed OpenStack Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limosani, Antonio; Boland, Lucien; Coddington, Paul; Crosby, Sean; Huang, Joanna; Sevior, Martin; Wilson, Ross; Zhang, Shunde

    2014-06-01

    The Australian Government is making a AUD 100 million investment in Compute and Storage for the academic community. The Compute facilities are provided in the form of 30,000 CPU cores located at 8 nodes around Australia in a distributed virtualized Infrastructure as a Service facility based on OpenStack. The storage will eventually consist of over 100 petabytes located at 6 nodes. All will be linked via a 100 Gb/s network. This proceeding describes the development of a fully connected WLCG Tier-2 grid site as well as a general purpose Tier-3 computing cluster based on this architecture. The facility employs an extension to Torque to enable dynamic allocations of virtual machine instances. A base Scientific Linux virtual machine (VM) image is deployed in the OpenStack cloud and automatically configured as required using Puppet. Custom scripts are used to launch multiple VMs, integrate them into the dynamic Torque cluster and to mount remote file systems. We report on our experience in developing this nation-wide ATLAS and Belle II Tier 2 and Tier 3 computing infrastructure using the national Research Cloud and storage facilities.

  14. Using a Two-Tier Test to Assess Students' Understanding and Alternative Conceptions of Cyber Copyright Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Chan, Pei-Shan; Wu, Huan-Chueh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of cyber copyright laws. This study developed a two-tier test with 10 two-level multiple-choice questions. The first tier presented a real-case scenario and asked whether the conduct was acceptable whereas the second-tier provided reasons to justify the conduct. Students in Taiwan…

  15. Physician Tiering by Health Plans in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Wadgaonkar, Ajay D.; Schneider, Eric C.; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physician tiering is an emerging health-care strategy that purports to grade physicians on the basis of cost-efficiency and quality-performance measures. We investigated the consistency of tiering of orthopaedic surgeons by examining tier agreement between health plans and physician factors associated with top-tier ranking. Methods: Health plan tier, demographic, and training data were collected on 615 licensed orthopaedic surgeons who accepted one or more of three health plans and practiced in Massachusetts. We then computed the concordance of physician tier rankings between the health plans. We further examined the factors associated with top-tier ranking, such as malpractice claims and socioeconomic conditions of the practice area. Results: The concordance of physician tiering between health plans was poor to fair (range, 8% to 28%, κ = 0.06 to 0.25). The percentage of physicians ranked as top-tier varied widely among the health plans, from 21% to 62%. Thirty-eight percent of physicians were not rated top-tier by any of the health plans, whereas only 5.2% of physicians were rated top-tier by all three health plans. Multivariate analysis showed that board certification, accepting Medicaid, and practicing in a suburban location were the independent factors associated with being ranked in the top tier. More years in practice or fewer malpractice claims were not related to tier. Conclusions: Current methods of physician tiering have low consistency and manifest evidence of geographic and demographic biases. PMID:20844163

  16. 32 CFR 989.10 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.10 Tiering. The Air Force should use tiered (40 CFR 1502.20) environmental... the same issues and to focus on the issues relating to specific actions. If the Air Force...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.327 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 may consider the concept of tiering in the preparation of... issues specific to the action under consideration. Tiering can be used when the sequence of analysis...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 1508.28 Section 1508.28 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering refers to the coverage of general matters in broader environmental impact statements (such as...

  19. 40 CFR 1502.20 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 1502.20 Section 1502.20 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.20 Tiering. Agencies are encouraged to tier their environmental impact statements to eliminate repetitive...

  20. 6 CFR 27.220 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tiering. 27.220 Section 27.220 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.220 Tiering. (a) Preliminary Determination of Risk-Based Tiering. Based...

  1. Can complexity science inform physician leadership development?

    PubMed

    Grady, Colleen Marie

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe research that examined physician leadership development using complexity science principles. Design/methodology/approach Intensive interviewing of 21 participants and document review provided data regarding physician leadership development in health-care organizations using five principles of complexity science (connectivity, interdependence, feedback, exploration-of-the-space-of-possibilities and co-evolution), which were grouped in three areas of inquiry (relationships between agents, patterns of behaviour and enabling functions). Findings Physician leaders are viewed as critical in the transformation of healthcare and in improving patient outcomes, and yet significant challenges exist that limit their development. Leadership in health care continues to be associated with traditional, linear models, which are incongruent with the behaviour of a complex system, such as health care. Physician leadership development remains a low priority for most health-care organizations, although physicians admit to being limited in their capacity to lead. This research was based on five principles of complexity science and used grounded theory methodology to understand how the behaviours of a complex system can provide data regarding leadership development for physicians. The study demonstrated that there is a strong association between physician leadership and patient outcomes and that organizations play a primary role in supporting the development of physician leaders. Findings indicate that a physician's relationship with their patient and their capacity for innovation can be extended as catalytic behaviours in a complex system. The findings also identified limiting factors that impact physicians who choose to lead, such as reimbursement models that do not place value on leadership and medical education that provides minimal opportunity for leadership skill development. Practical Implications This research provides practical

  2. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  3. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  4. Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

  5. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  6. A Four-Tier Differentiation Model: Engage All Students in the Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrelko, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    This study details the creation of a four-tiered format designed to help preservice teachers write differentiated lesson plans. A short history of lesson plan differentiation models is described and how the four-tier approach was developed through collaboration with classroom teachers and university faculty. The unifying element for the format…

  7. Building a Tier 2 Intervention: A Glimpse behind the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the development process and data-driven decisions that characterized a 5-year iterative process of development and evaluation of a Tier 2 early language curriculum, "Story Friends." This curriculum was specifically designed to be effective and feasible for high fidelity implementation in preschool settings.…

  8. Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Draft Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA's participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop a human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  9. Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Final Tier 2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the International Space Station (ISS) has been prepared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and follows NASA's Record of Decision on the Final Tier 1 EIS for the Space Station Freedom. The Tier 2 EIS provides an updated evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the alternatives considered: the Proposed Action and the No-Action alternative. The Proposed Action is to continue U.S. participation in the assembly and operation of ISS. The No-Action alternative would cancel NASA!s participation in the Space Station Program. ISS is an international cooperative venture between NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, the Russian Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The purpose of the NASA action would be to further develop human presence in space; to meet scientific, technological, and commercial research needs; and to foster international cooperation.

  10. Emergent behaviour in a chlorophenol-mineralising three-tiered microbial 'food web'.

    PubMed

    Wade, M J; Pattinson, R W; Parker, N G; Dolfing, J

    2016-01-21

    Anaerobic digestion enables the water industry to treat wastewater as a resource for generating energy and recovering valuable by-products. The complexity of the anaerobic digestion process has motivated the development of complex models. However, this complexity makes it intractable to pin-point stability and emergent behaviour. Here, the widely used Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has been reduced to its very backbone, a syntrophic two-tiered microbial 'food chain' and a slightly more complex three-tiered microbial 'food web', with their stability analysed as a function of the inflowing substrate concentration and dilution rate. Parameterised for phenol and chlorophenol degradation, steady-states were always stable and non-oscillatory. Low input concentrations of chlorophenol were sufficient to maintain chlorophenol- and phenol-degrading populations but resulted in poor conversion and a hydrogen flux that was too low to sustain hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The addition of hydrogen and phenol boosted the populations of all three organisms, resulting in the counterintuitive phenomena that (i) the phenol degraders were stimulated by adding hydrogen, even though hydrogen inhibits phenol degradation, and (ii) the dechlorinators indirectly benefitted from measures that stimulated their hydrogenotrophic competitors; both phenomena hint at emergent behaviour. PMID:26551153

  11. Emergent behaviour in a chlorophenol-mineralising three-tiered microbial ‘food web’

    PubMed Central

    Wade, M.J.; Pattinson, R.W.; Parker, N.G.; Dolfing, J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion enables the water industry to treat wastewater as a resource for generating energy and recovering valuable by-products. The complexity of the anaerobic digestion process has motivated the development of complex models. However, this complexity makes it intractable to pin-point stability and emergent behaviour. Here, the widely used Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) has been reduced to its very backbone, a syntrophic two-tiered microbial ‘food chain’ and a slightly more complex three-tiered microbial ‘food web’, with their stability analysed as a function of the inflowing substrate concentration and dilution rate. Parameterised for phenol and chlorophenol degradation, steady-states were always stable and non-oscillatory. Low input concentrations of chlorophenol were sufficient to maintain chlorophenol- and phenol-degrading populations but resulted in poor conversion and a hydrogen flux that was too low to sustain hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The addition of hydrogen and phenol boosted the populations of all three organisms, resulting in the counterintuitive phenomena that (i) the phenol degraders were stimulated by adding hydrogen, even though hydrogen inhibits phenol degradation, and (ii) the dechlorinators indirectly benefitted from measures that stimulated their hydrogenotrophic competitors; both phenomena hint at emergent behaviour. PMID:26551153

  12. Complex Dynamic Development of Poliovirus Membranous Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vinod; Hansen, Bryan T.; Hoyt, Forrest H.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Replication of all positive-strand RNA viruses is intimately associated with membranes. Here we utilize electron tomography and other methods to investigate the remodeling of membranes in poliovirus-infected cells. We found that the viral replication structures previously described as “vesicles” are in fact convoluted, branching chambers with complex and dynamic morphology. They are likely to originate from cis-Golgi membranes and are represented during the early stages of infection by single-walled connecting and branching tubular compartments. These early viral organelles gradually transform into double-membrane structures by extension of membranous walls and/or collapsing of the luminal cavity of the single-membrane structures. As the double-membrane regions develop, they enclose cytoplasmic material. At this stage, a continuous membranous structure may have double- and single-walled membrane morphology at adjacent cross-sections. In the late stages of the replication cycle, the structures are represented mostly by double-membrane vesicles. Viral replication proteins, double-stranded RNA species, and actively replicating RNA are associated with both double- and single-membrane structures. However, the exponential phase of viral RNA synthesis occurs when single-membrane formations are predominant in the cell. It has been shown previously that replication complexes of some other positive-strand RNA viruses form on membrane invaginations, which result from negative membrane curvature. Our data show that the remodeling of cellular membranes in poliovirus-infected cells produces structures with positive curvature of membranes. Thus, it is likely that there is a fundamental divergence in the requirements for the supporting cellular membrane-shaping machinery among different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:22072780

  13. Development of simulation computer complex specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Training Simulation Computer Complex Study was one of three studies contracted in support of preparations for procurement of a shuttle mission simulator for shuttle crew training. The subject study was concerned with definition of the software loads to be imposed on the computer complex to be associated with the shuttle mission simulator and the development of procurement specifications based on the resulting computer requirements. These procurement specifications cover the computer hardware and system software as well as the data conversion equipment required to interface the computer to the simulator hardware. The development of the necessary hardware and software specifications required the execution of a number of related tasks which included, (1) simulation software sizing, (2) computer requirements definition, (3) data conversion equipment requirements definition, (4) system software requirements definition, (5) a simulation management plan, (6) a background survey, and (7) preparation of the specifications.

  14. Do Students Know What They Know and What They Don't Know? Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a four-tier multiple-choice (4TMC) diagnostic instrument, which has not been reported in the literature. It is an enhanced version of the two-tier multiple-choice (2TMC) test. As in 2TMC tests, its answer and reason tiers measure students' content knowledge and explanatory knowledge,…

  15. Tier 3 DarkStar on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project utilized Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) to supply responsive and sustained surveillance and reconnaissance data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, it had a wing span of 69 feet and was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The DarkStar's unusual shape was dictated by the requirement to orbit its target conducting surveillance while still remaining stealthy. Whereas aircraft like the F-117 are designed to be more stealthy from the front, the DarkStar is designed to be more stealthy from the sides.

  16. Ensuring Safety of Navigation: A Three-Tiered Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. D.; Thompson, M.; Brazier, D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary responsibility of the Hydrographic Department at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is to support US Navy surface and sub-surface Safety of Navigation (SoN) requirements. These requirements are interpreted, surveys are conducted, and accurate products are compiled and archived for future exploitation. For a number of years NAVOCEANO has employed a two-tiered data-basing structure to support SoN. The first tier (Data Warehouse, or DWH) provides access to the full-resolution sonar and lidar data. DWH preserves the original data such that any scale product can be built. The second tier (Digital Bathymetric Database - Variable resolution, or DBDB-V) served as the final archive for SoN chart scale, gridded products compiled from source bathymetry. DBDB-V has been incorporated into numerous DoD tactical decision aids and serves as the foundation bathymetry for ocean modeling. With the evolution of higher density survey systems and the addition of high-resolution gridded bathymetry product requirements, a two-tiered model did not provide an efficient solution for SoN. The two-tiered approach required scientists to exploit full-resolution data in order to build any higher resolution product. A new perspective on the archival and exploitation of source data was required. This new perspective has taken the form of a third tier, the Navigation Surface Database (NSDB). NSDB is an SQLite relational database populated with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), S-102 compliant Bathymetric Attributed Grids (BAGs). BAGs archived within NSDB are developed at the highest resolution that the collection sensor system can support and contain nodal estimates for depth, uncertainty, separation values and metadata. Gridded surface analysis efforts culminate in the generation of the source resolution BAG files and their storage within NSDB. Exploitation of these resources eliminates the time and effort needed to re-grid and re-analyze native source file formats.

  17. Middle School Students' Responses to Two-Tier Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haja, Shajahan; Clarke, David

    2011-01-01

    The structure of two-tier testing is such that the first tier consists of a multiple-choice question and the second tier requires justifications for choices of answers made in the first tier. This study aims to evaluate two-tier tasks in "proportion" in terms of students' capacity to write and select justifications and to examine the effect of…

  18. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will...

  19. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86... (BIG) PROGRAM How States Apply for Grants § 86.53 What are funding tiers? (a) This grant program will consist of two tiers of funding. (i) You may apply for one or both tiers. (ii) The two tiers will...

  20. Using Tiered Assignments to Engage Learners in Advanced Placement Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents lesson plans that incorporate tiered objectives and brainstorming techniques as means for differentiating instruction and ensuring that learners are challenged at levels commensurate with their abilities even though they are developing an understanding of the same physics concepts. A listing of materials and resources…

  1. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Cary, Mari Strand

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were…

  2. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  3. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers. 76.922 Section 76.922 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.922 Rates for the basic service tier...

  4. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  5. A tiered, probabilistic approach for defining allowable contaminant releases based on risk

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, E.; Beyeler, W.; Davis, P.; Duran, F.; Greenblott, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modification to federal environmental regulations has been strongly advocated by some who feel that current regulations dictate large costs to solve problems that pose no risk. Consequently, regulators are faced with re-assessing existing regulations and the process for developing new regulations. The authors will present a multi-tiered, hierarchical approach that addresses both regulatory safety and associated costs. In this approach, regulatory compliance can be demonstrated by performing one of several sets of calculations. For example in a three tiered approach, the first tier might consist of conservative models and parameters developed by the regulatory agency with the applicant providing only information on the source of contamination. If these first tier calculations show regulatory compliance then work is complete. If the site fails, the applicant can either perform a second tier calculation or initiate remediation. A second tier calculation might require identification and justification of site-specific parameters but use the same tier one models. If the site fails then a third tier analysis can be performed using site-specific parameters and site-specific models. As models or parameters change in later tier calculations they must be documented and justified by the applicant. This approach maintains regulatory protectiveness, imposes small costs on simple, safe sites, and allows the applicant flexibility. Careful design of the models and parameters for each tier of the hierarchy is critical. A probabilistic approach can be designed to allow regulators to choose the balance between safety and overall regulatory cost, while allowing applicants to control compliance costs by tailoring their regulatory approach to site conditions.

  6. 40 CFR 1502.20 - Tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.20 Tiering. Agencies are encouraged to tier their environmental impact statements to eliminate repetitive discussions... review (§ 1508.28). Whenever a broad environmental impact statement has been prepared (such as a...

  7. Internal fabric development in complex lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Závada, Prokop; Kratinová, Zuzana; Kusbach, Vladimír; Schulmann, Karel

    2009-03-01

    Viscous lava extrusions were modeled using plaster of Paris with admixed magnetite dust which served as a tracer of the internal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric in model lava domes. Used analogue material showed pseudoplastic behavior and yield strength level proportional to increasing mixing ratio of plaster powder and water. A series of models ranging from simple gravity flows to complex lava domes showing combined endogenous and exogenous growth were created by intrusion of plaster into a sandbox. The similarity of model bodies is compared with natural lava domes on the basis of dynamic scaling analysis. Growth dynamics, exogenous growth and internal fabric development in natural lava domes is critically discussed using the experimental results.

  8. A tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent in personal genome testing.

    PubMed

    Bunnik, Eline M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, developments in genomics technologies have led to the rise of commercial personal genome testing (PGT): broad genome-wide testing for multiple diseases simultaneously. While some commercial providers require physicians to order a personal genome test, others can be accessed directly. All providers advertise directly to consumers and offer genetic risk information about dozens of diseases in one single purchase. The quantity and the complexity of risk information pose challenges to adequate pre-test and post-test information provision and informed consent. There are currently no guidelines for what should constitute informed consent in PGT or how adequate informed consent can be achieved. In this paper, we propose a tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent. First, the proposed model is tiered as it offers choices between categories of diseases that are associated with distinct ethical, personal or societal issues. Second, the model distinguishes layers of information with a first layer offering minimal, indispensable information that is material to all consumers, and additional layers offering more detailed information made available upon request. Finally, the model stages informed consent as a process by feeding information to consumers in each subsequent stage of the process of undergoing a test, and by accommodating renewed consent for test result updates, resulting from the ongoing development of the science underlying PGT. A tiered-layered-staged model for informed consent with a focus on the consumer perspective can help overcome the ethical problems of information provision and informed consent in direct-to-consumer PGT. PMID:23169494

  9. Development of the Communication Complexity Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Olswang, Lesley; Dowden, Patricia; Saunders, Muriel D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate description of an individual's communication status is critical in both research and practice. Describing the communication status of individuals with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities is difficult because these individuals often communicate with presymbolic means that may not be readily recognized. Our goal was to design a communication scale and summary score for interpretation that could be applied across populations of children and adults with limited (often presymbolic) communication forms. Methods The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) was developed by a team of researchers and tested with 178 participants with varying levels of presymbolic and early symbolic communication skills. Correlations between standardized and informant measures were completed, and expert opinions were obtained regarding the CCS. Results CCS scores were within expected ranges for the populations studied and inter-rater reliability was high. Comparison across other measures indicated significant correlations with standardized tests of language. Scores on informant report measures tended to place children at higher levels of communication. Expert opinions generally favored the development of the CCS. Clinical implications The scale appears to be useful for describing a given individual's level of presymbolic or early symbolic communication. Further research is needed to determine if it is sensitive to developmental growth in communication. PMID:22049404

  10. Tier 2 Supports to Improve Motivation and Performance of Elementary Students with Behavioral Challenges and Poor Work Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cox, Meredith; Magrane, Ashley; Jenkins, Abbie; Hankins, Katy

    2012-01-01

    We offer a methodological illustration for researchers and practitioners of how to conduct a development study consistent with the parameters delineated by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES; U.S. Department of Education [USDE], 2010) to explore the utility of an existing Tier 1 intervention applied as a Tier 2 support within a three-tiered…

  11. The retromer complex in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiuan; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    The retromer complex is a multimeric protein complex involved in recycling proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network or plasma membrane. It thus regulates the abundance and subcellular distribution of its cargo within cells. Studies using model organisms show that the retromer complex is involved in specific developmental processes. Moreover, a number of recent studies implicate aberrant retromer function in photoreceptor degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of retromer-mediated protein trafficking, highlighting key examples of retromer function in vivo. PMID:26199408

  12. Optimal Resource Allocation under Fair QoS in Multi-tier Server Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hirokazu; Ushio, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Naoki

    Recent development of network technology realizes multi-tier server systems, where several tiers perform functionally different processing requested by clients. It is an important issue to allocate resources of the systems to clients dynamically based on their current requests. On the other hand, Q-RAM has been proposed for resource allocation in real-time systems. In the server systems, it is important that execution results of all applications requested by clients are the same QoS(quality of service) level. In this paper, we extend Q-RAM to multi-tier server systems and propose a method for optimal resource allocation with fairness of the QoS levels of clients’ requests. We also consider an assignment problem of physical machines to be sleep in each tier sothat the energy consumption is minimized.

  13. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Fien, Hank; Strand Cary, Mari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. Gain scores of at-risk intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers, and the gains of at-risk treatment students were greater than the gains of peers not at risk, effectively reducing the achievement gap. Implications for Tier 2 mathematics instruction in a response to intervention (RtI) model are discussed. PMID:24944163

  14. Cautionary Notes on a Global Tiered Pricing Framework for Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Owain D.; Ooms, Gorik

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a policy momentum toward creating a global tiered pricing framework, which would provide differentiated prices for medicines globally, based on each country’s capacity to pay. We studied the most influential proposals for a tiered pricing framework since the 1995 World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. We synthesized 6 critical questions to be addressed for a global framework to function and explored the many challenges of implementation. Although we acknowledge that there is the potential for an exceptional global commitment that would benefit both producers and those in developing countries in need of wider access to medicines, our greatest concern is to ensure that a global framework does not price out the poor from pharmaceutical markets nor threaten current flexibilities within the international patent regime. PMID:25973806

  15. Cautionary Notes on a Global Tiered Pricing Framework for Medicines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Owain D; Ooms, Gorik; Hill, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    Recently, there has been a policy momentum toward creating a global tiered pricing framework, which would provide differentiated prices for medicines globally, based on each country's capacity to pay. We studied the most influential proposals for a tiered pricing framework since the 1995 World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. We synthesized 6 critical questions to be addressed for a global framework to function and explored the many challenges of implementation. Although we acknowledge that there is the potential for an exceptional global commitment that would benefit both producers and those in developing countries in need of wider access to medicines, our greatest concern is to ensure that a global framework does not price out the poor from pharmaceutical markets nor threaten current flexibilities within the international patent regime. PMID:25973806

  16. Fears for Tiers: Are Candidates Being Appropriately Rewarded for Their Performance in Tiered Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheadon, Christopher; Beguin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Tiering is a multi-stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16. This study uses Item Response Theory number-correct…

  17. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6... Tier 8 NOX standards apply as described in this paragraph (c)(3) beginning January 1, 2014. See paragraph (d) of this section for provisions related to models introduced before January 1, 2014 apply...

  18. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  19. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard, as described in § 87.60. The tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions... the NOX emission standards. (a) New turboprop aircraft engines with rated output at or above 1,000... excepted without request from the otherwise applicable Tier 6 NOX emission standard. To be eligible...

  20. The CMS TierO goes Cloud and Grid for LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threaded framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. This contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.

  1. The CMS Tier0 goes cloud and grid for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threaded framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. Furthermore, this contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.

  2. The CMS Tier0 goes cloud and grid for LHC Run 2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    In 2015, CMS will embark on a new era of collecting LHC collisions at unprecedented rates and complexity. This will put a tremendous stress on our computing systems. Prompt Processing of the raw data by the Tier-0 infrastructure will no longer be constrained to CERN alone due to the significantly increased resource requirements. In LHC Run 2, we will need to operate it as a distributed system utilizing both the CERN Cloud-based Agile Infrastructure and a significant fraction of the CMS Tier-1 Grid resources. In another big change for LHC Run 2, we will process all data using the multi-threadedmore » framework to deal with the increased event complexity and to ensure efficient use of the resources. Furthermore, this contribution will cover the evolution of the Tier-0 infrastructure and present scale testing results and experiences from the first data taking in 2015.« less

  3. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of the Chemistry Underlying Climate Science and the Development of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3) project, we have developed a chemistry of climate science diagnostic instrument for use in general chemistry courses based on twenty-four student interviews. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2009). The undergraduate student interviews elicited their understanding of the greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather, and the findings from these interviews informed and guided the development of the multiple-choice diagnostic instrument. Our analysis and findings from the interviews indicate that students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer and in terms of chemistry concepts, the students lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Details of the findings from the interviews, development of diagnostic instrument, and preliminary findings from the full implementation of the diagnostic instrument will be shared.

  4. Making Educational Development and Change Sustainable: Insights from Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the challenge of sustainable change and development in education from the perspective of complexity theory. Complexity theory's concept of emergence implies that, given a significant degree of complexity in a particular environment, new properties and behaviours emerge that are not necessarily contained in the essence of the…

  5. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. PMID:26184512

  6. A tiered approach for assessing children's exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, T W; Hushka, L J; Tell, J G; Zaleski, R T

    2000-01-01

    Recently, intense attention has been given to children's health issues, particularly in the use of consumer products. Because of this attention, researchers have been planning and initiating studies specifically aimed at developing both toxicology data and exposure data directed to improve our understanding of industrial and consumer product chemical impacts on children's health. To ensure that this research is focused on the highest priority chemicals, we present a methodology for determining and prioritizing the higher hazard chemicals and scenarios for which children could be disproportionately or highly exposed. This tiered approach includes a screening step for initial chemical selection, a hazard assessment based on no- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels, and a margin of exposure (MOE) calculation. The initial chemical screen focuses on the chemical presence in specific media that are special to children, such as foods children regularly eat and drink, residential or school air, products children use, and soil and dust in and around residences. Data from the literature or from models serve as the initial exposure estimate. This methodology would allow us to focus on those chemicals to which children are most exposed that are also associated with, potentially, the highest risk. Use of the MOE calculation allows for comparison among chemicals, prioritization of chemicals for evaluation and testing, and identification of significant data gaps. PMID:10856018

  7. Fully developed turbulence and complex time singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombre, T.; Gagne, Y.; Hopfinger, E.

    The hypothesis of Frisch and Morf (1981), relating intermittent bursts observed in high-pass-filtered turbulent-flow data to complex time singularities in the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, is tested experimentally. Velocity signals filtered at high-pass frequency 1 kHz and low-pass frequency 6 kHz are recorded for 7 min at sampling frequency 20 kHz in a flow of mean velocity 6.1 m/s, with mesh length d = 7.5 cm, observation point x/d = 40, R sub lambda = 67, dissipation length eta = 0.5 mm, and Kolmogorov frequency fK = about 2 kHz. The results are presented in graphs, and it is shown that the exponential behavior of the energy spectrum settles well before fK, the spectra of individual bursts having exponential behavior and delta(asterisk) values consistent with the Frisch-Morf hypothesis, at least for high-amplitude events.

  8. Making Practice Visible: A Collaborative Self-Study of Tiered Teaching in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbett, Dawn; Heap, Rena

    2011-01-01

    In this article we document the impact of tiered teaching on making the complexity of pedagogy transparent when teaching science education to pre-service primary teachers. Teaching science methods classes together and researching our teaching has enabled us to reframe our assumptions and move beyond the simplistic and misleading idea that teacher…

  9. 76 FR 71623 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2012 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on...

  10. 75 FR 73166 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2011 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad...

  11. 77 FR 71481 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2013 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad...

  12. 78 FR 71039 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for calendar year 2014 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. section 3241). Tier 2 taxes on...

  13. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  14. Systematic Implementation of a Tier 2 Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Pool, Juli L.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are increasingly adopting tiered models of prevention to meet the needs of diverse populations of students. This article outlines the steps involved in designing and implementing a systematic Tier 2 behavior intervention within a tiered service delivery model. An elementary school example is provided to outline the identification,…

  15. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiered partnership structures. 1.1446-5 Section...-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1446-5 Tiered partnership structures. (a) In general. The rules of this section... prescribes rules applicable to a publicly traded partnership in a tiered partnership structure. Paragraph...

  16. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers...

  17. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  20. SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. Version 2.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, B.; Barrett, S.; Eber, L.; George, H.; Horner, R.; Lewis, T.; Putnam, B.; Swain-Bradway, J.; McIntosh, K.; Sugai, G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) is to provide a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the extent to which school personnel are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). The TFI is divided into three sections (Tier I: Universal SWPBIS Features; Tier II: Targeted…

  1. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered partnership structures. 1.1446-5 Section... Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1446-5 Tiered partnership structures. (a) In general. The rules of this section shall apply in cases where a partnership (lower-tier partnership) that has...

  2. Beyond Tier-Based Bigrams: An Artificial Grammar Learning Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Hahn; Oh, Young-il

    2013-01-01

    Some of recently proposed phonotactic learners are tier-based bigram learners that restrict their hypothesis space to patterns between two segments that are adjacent at the tier level. This assumption is understandable considering that typologically frequent nonadjacent sound patterns are predominantly those that hold between two tier-adjacent…

  3. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  4. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  5. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  6. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  7. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  8. 20 CFR 226.11 - Employee tier II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee tier II. 226.11 Section 226.11... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.11 Employee tier II... September 1981, the tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The product obtained by multiplying...

  9. 40 CFR 79.53 - Tier 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comparable to that provided by such testing. (3) The test animals shall be rodents, preferably a strain of... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.53 Tier 2. (a) Generally. Subject to... subject to testing under this subpart must be tested in accordance with each of the testing guidelines...

  10. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  11. Tiered Evaluation in Large Ensemble Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of a tiered evaluation system (TES) that allows students to work at different levels, enables teachers to assess progress objectively, and presents students with appropriate challenges in the music ensembles. Focuses on how TES works and its advantages, considers the challenges and flexibility of TES, and provides samples. (CMK)

  12. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  13. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  14. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  15. Application of Complex Systems Research To Efforts of International Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Hans-Peter

    Fundamental research on complex systems has shown relevance to efforts of international development. This paper canvasses some practitioner friendly approaches to international development. Development is about interventions in a highly complex system, the society. Complex systems research tells us that development interventions should not be overly planned, rather the fundamental uncertainty of a changing social system requires a diversity of interventions, and rapid learning from development success and failure. Developing economies are functioning at a low level of effectiveness and resource use. Complex systems are change resistant, and intervention requires understanding the autocatalytic nature of a process of change. International development is about the stimulation of a society's innate autocatalytic / self-organizing processes through interventions that stimulate enough to overcome change resistance, but which do not overwhelm the system. Since the size of financial interventions may in some cases be a substantial fraction of the existing economic activity, disruption is a likely outcome. Crucially, one must avoid having the socio-economic activity organized around the intervention itself, since then an undesirable dependency of the economy on the intervention arises. Stimulation of the innate modes of activity results in the development of socio-economic organization around energy, material and financial flows. The primary generator of effectiveness is an appropriate network structure of interactions and relationships. This paper summarizes traditional development efforts and their outcomes as well as a plausible description of the process of complex systems motivated interventions. Examples are given of recent approaches which aim to appropriately stimulate international development.

  16. The Impact of Tiered Physician Networks on Patient Choices

    PubMed Central

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether patient choice of physician or health plan was affected by physician tier-rankings. Data Sources Administrative claims and enrollment data on 171,581 nonelderly beneficiaries enrolled in Massachusetts Group Insurance Commission health plans that include a tiered physician network and who had an office visit with a tiered physician. Study Design We estimate the impact of tier-rankings on physician market share within a plan of new patients and on the percent of a physician's patients who switch to other physicians with fixed effects regression models. The effect of tiering on consumer plan choice is estimated using logistic regression and a pre–post study design. Principal Findings Physicians in the bottom (least-preferred) tier, particularly certain specialist physicians, had lower market share of new patient visits than physicians with higher tier-rankings. Patients whose physician was in the bottom tier were more likely to switch health plans. There was no effect of tier-ranking on patients switching away from physicians whom they have seen previously. Conclusions The effect of tiering appears to be among patients who choose new physicians and at the lower end of the distribution of tiered physicians, rather than moving patients to the “best” performers. These findings suggest strong loyalty of patients to physicians more likely to be considered their personal doctor. PMID:24611599

  17. Educational Development in the UK: A Complex and Contradictory Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, David

    2009-01-01

    At a time when questions are being asked about the identity and purpose of academic development, this paper seeks to address these questions within the context of one country in which educational development has been actively supported. This study considers a narrative of the complex and contradictory reality of educational development in the…

  18. Can recent pan-tropical biomass maps be used to derive alternative Tier 1 values for reporting REDD+ activities under UNFCCC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC Guidelines propose 3 Tier levels for greenhouse gas monitoring within the forest land category with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy, data requirements and complexity. Due to missing data and/or capacities, many developing countries, potentially interested in the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, have to rely on Tier 1 default values with highest uncertainties. A possible way to increase the credibility of uncertain estimates is to apply a conservative approach, for which standard statistical information is needed. However, such information is currently not available for the IPCC values. In our study we combine a recent global forest mask, an ecological zoning map and the pan-tropical AGB datasets of Saatchi and Baccini to derive mean forest AGB values per ecological zone and continent as well as their corresponding confidence intervals. Such analysis can be considered transparent as the datasets/methodologies are well documented. Our study leads to alternative Tier 1 values and allows the application of statistically-based conservative approaches. Our AGB estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets are 35% and 24% lower respectively than the IPCC values. When restricting the analysis to intact forest landscapes resulting ABG estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets get closer to the IPCC values with 13% and 1% differences respectively (underestimation). This suggests that the IPCC default values are mainly based on plots in mature forest stands. However, as tropical forests generally consist of a mixture of intact and degraded stands, the use of IPCC values may not properly reflect the reality. Finally, we propose to use the average composite of the Saatchi and Baccini datasets to produce improved alternative IPCC Tier 1 values. The values derived from such approach can easily be updated when newer and/or improved pan-tropical AGB maps will be available.

  19. Progress in landslide susceptibility mapping over Europe using Tier-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Hervás, Javier; Reichenbach, Paola; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection aims, among other objectives, to ensure a sustainable use of soil. The legal instrument of the strategy, the proposed Framework Directive, suggests identifying priority areas of several soil threats including landslides using a coherent and compatible approach based on the use of common thematic data. In a first stage, this can be achieved through landslide susceptibility mapping using geographically nested, multi-step tiered approaches, where areas identified as of high susceptibility by a first, synoptic-scale Tier ("Tier 1") can then be further assessed and mapped at larger scale by successive Tiers. In order to identify areas prone to landslides at European scale ("Tier 1"), a number of thematic terrain and environmental data sets already available for the whole of Europe can be used as input for a continental scale susceptibility model. However, since no coherent landslide inventory data is available at the moment over the whole continent, qualitative heuristic zonation approaches are proposed. For "Tier 1" a preliminary, simplified model has been developed. It consists of an equally weighting combination of a reduced, continent-wide common dataset of landslide conditioning factors including soil parent material, slope angle and land cover, to derive a landslide susceptibility index using raster mapping units consisting of 1 x 1 km pixels. A preliminary European-wide susceptibility map has thus been produced at 1:1 Million scale, since this is compatible with that of the datasets used. The map has been validated by means of a ratio of effectiveness using samples from landslide inventories in Italy, Austria, Hungary and United Kingdom. Although not differentiated for specific geomorphological environments or specific landslide types, the experimental model reveals a relatively good performance in many European regions at a 1:1 Million scale. An additional "Tier 1" susceptibility map at the same scale and using

  20. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  1. Tiered Internship Model for Undergraduate Students in Geospatial Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopteva, Irina A.; Arkowski, Donna; Craft, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of a tiered internship program for undergraduate students in geospatial science and technology (TIMSGeoTech). The internship program assists education programs in providing skill development that is relevant and useful, and it aligns graduates and their skills with industry…

  2. Supporting Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Models of Prevention in Schools: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Carter, Erik W.; Jenkins, Abbie; Dwiggins, Lauren; Germer, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    We report findings from a statewide survey of 365 site-level administrators developed to (a) learn about the extent to which schools across the state were implementing components of multi-tiered systems of support and (b) determine the areas in which these schools might need professional development or resources to support them. At least half of…

  3. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  4. Risk based tiered approach (RBTASM) for pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C

    1997-11-01

    Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis. PMID:9433667

  5. WHALE, a management tool for Tier-2 LCG sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, L. M.; Organtini, G.; Talamo, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    The LCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is a grid-based hierarchical computing distributed facility, composed of more than 140 computing centers, organized in 4 tiers, by size and offer of services. Every site, although indipendent for many technical choices, has to provide services with a well-defined set of interfaces. For this reason, different LCG sites need frequently to manage very similar situations, like jobs behaviour on the batch system, dataset transfers between sites, operating system and experiment software installation and configuration, monitoring of services. In this context we created WHALE (WHALE Handles Administration in an LCG Environment), a software actually used at the T2_IT_Rome site, an LCG Tier-2 for the CMS experiment. WHALE is a generic, site independent tool written in Python: it allows administrator to interact in a uniform and coherent way with several subsystems using a high level syntax which hides specific commands. The architecture of WHALE is based on the plugin concept and on the possibility of connecting the output of a plugin to the input of the next one, in a pipe-like system, giving the administrator the possibility of making complex functions by combining the simpler ones. The core of WHALE just handles the plugin orchestrations, while even the basic functions (eg. the WHALE activity logging) are performed by plugins, giving the capability to tune and possibly modify every component of the system. WHALE already provides many plugins useful for a LCG site and some more for a Tier-2 of the CMS experiment, especially in the field of job management, dataset transfer and analysis of performance results and availability tests (eg. Nagios tests, SAM tests). Thanks to its architecture and the provided plugins WHALE makes easy to perform tasks that, even if logically simple, are technically complex or tedious, like eg. closing all the worker nodes with a job-failure rate greater than a given threshold. Finally, thanks to the

  6. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  7. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  8. Tier 3- DarkStar on ramp from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The second Darkstar prototype (article #696) made five flights between June 29, 1998 and January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  9. Mediator Complex Dependent Regulation of Cardiac Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for CVD include environmental and genetic components. Human mutations in genes involved in most aspects of cardiovascular function have been identified, many of which are involved in transcriptional regulation. The Mediator complex serves as a pivotal transcriptional regulator that functions to integrate diverse cellular signals by multiple mechanisms including recruiting RNA polymerase II, chromatin modifying proteins and non-coding RNAs to promoters in a context dependent manner. This review discusses components of the Mediator complex and the contribution of the Mediator complex to normal and pathological cardiac development and function. Enhanced understanding of the role of this core transcriptional regulatory complex in the heart will help us gain further insights into CVD. PMID:23727265

  10. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  11. Benchmarking of Decision-Support Tools Used for Tiered Sustainable Remediation Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan W N; Kerrison, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable remediation comprises soil and groundwater risk-management actions that are selected, designed, and operated to maximize net environmental, social, and economic benefit (while assuring protection of human health and safety). This paper describes a benchmarking exercise to comparatively assess potential differences in environmental management decision making resulting from application of different sustainability appraisal tools ranging from simple (qualitative) to more quantitative (multi-criteria and fully monetized cost-benefit analysis), as outlined in the SuRF-UK framework. The appraisal tools were used to rank remedial options for risk management of a subsurface petroleum release that occurred at a petrol filling station in central England. The remediation options were benchmarked using a consistent set of soil and groundwater data for each tier of sustainability appraisal. The ranking of remedial options was very similar in all three tiers, and an environmental management decision to select the most sustainable options at tier 1 would have been the same decision at tiers 2 and 3. The exercise showed that, for relatively simple remediation projects, a simple sustainability appraisal led to the same remediation option selection as more complex appraisal, and can be used to reliably inform environmental management decisions on other relatively simple land contamination projects. PMID:24482545

  12. Measuring system complexity to support development cost estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Wolfarth, L.

    Systems and System-of-Systems (SoS) are being used more frequently either as a design element of stand alone systems or architectural frameworks. Consequently, a programmatic need has arisen to understand and measure systems complexity in order to estimate more accurately development plans and life-cycle costs. In a prior paper, we introduced the System Readiness Level (SRL) concept as a composite function of both Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs) and touched on system complexity. While the SRL approach provides a repeatable, process-driven method to assess the maturity of a system or SoS, it does not capture all aspects of system complexity. In this paper we assess the concept of cyclomatic complexity as a system complexity metric and consider its utility as an approach for estimating the life-cycle costs and cost growth of complex systems. We hypothesize that the greater the number of technologies and integration tasks, the more complex the system and the higher its cost to develop and maintain. We base our analysis on historical data from DoD programs that have experienced significant cost growth, including some that have been cancelled due to unsustainable cost (and schedule) growth. We begin by describing the original implementation of the cyclomatic method, which was developed to estimate the effort to maintain system software. We then describe how the method can be generalized and applied to systems. Next, we show how to estimate the cyclomatic number (CN) and show the statistical significance between a system's CN metric and its cost. We illustrate the method with an example. Last, we discuss opportunities for future research.

  13. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-01-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10…

  14. Diagnosing Students' Misconceptions in Number Sense via a Web-Based Two-Tier Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2016-01-01

    A web-based two-tier test (WTTT-NS) which combined the advantages of traditional written tests and interviews in assessing number sense was developed and applied to assess students' answers and reasons for the questions. In addition, students' major misconceptions can be detected. A total of 1,248 sixth graders in Taiwan were selected to…

  15. Web-Based Two-Tier Diagnostic Test and Remedial Learning Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Chen, Deng-Jyi

    2010-01-01

    Offering a series of diagnosis and individual remedial learning activities for a general class by means of web and multimedia technology can overcome the dilemma of conventional diagnosis and remedial instruction. The study proposes a three-layer conceptual framework and adopts a two-tier diagnostic test theory to develop a web-based two-tier…

  16. A Three-Tiered Model of Career Counseling Services: ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Ralph; Conger, Stuart

    The need for lifelong career development in Canada is becoming increasingly evident as more people switch jobs. To meet this need, it has been suggested that counseling services for adults should be organized in a three-tiered structure. Such a structure would ensure that individuals have access to a counselor in accordance with their level of…

  17. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested...

  18. Student Assistance Team (SAT) and the Three Tier Model of Student Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblock, Kathleen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The term three-tier model of intervention is a model consisting of three well-defined and separate processes running on different levels within a system. In New Mexico, this principle has been applied to develop a model of student intervention for school-aged students. The model has three distinct levels of instructional interventions that account…

  19. Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

  20. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  1. The impact of tiered physician networks on patient choices.

    PubMed

    Blecker, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Patients exhibited strong loyalty to their physicians. There was no impact of tiering on whether patients decided to switch away from a physician who they'd seen previously. (2) Tiering affected the choices of patients who were selecting new physicians. When patients visited a doctor for the first time, they were less likely to choose doctors in the bottom or non-preferred tier. (3) Patients of the lowest-ranked physicians were more likely to switch health plans following the introduction of tiered networks. PMID:25244712

  2. Developing a complex endovascular fenestrated and branched aortic program.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, Andres; Baril, Donald; Robinson, William P; Simons, Jessica P; Aiello, Francesco A; Messina, Louis M

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the top priority in our division's 5-year strategic plan was "to become an internationally recognized center of excellence for the endovascular treatment of complex aortic pathology extending from the aortic valve to the external iliac artery." Five components were identified as "most critical" to achieve this strategic priority: (1) training at centers of excellence in complex endovascular repair; (2) industry partnership to improve access to developing technologies; (3) a fully integrated team approach with one leader involved in all steps of all cases; (4) prospective data collection; and (5) development and implementation of a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption for juxtarenal, pararenal, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms. We have now performed 49 repairs (16 commercially manufactured devices, 33 physician-modified devices) for 3 common iliac, 20 juxtarenal, 9 pararenal, and 17 thoracoabdominal aneurysms, using 142 fenestrations, branches, and scallops. All patients had complete 30-day follow-up for calculation of 30-day events. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate 1-year events. In 5 years, we developed a successful complex endovascular aortic program that uses fenestrated/branched repair techniques. A focused team strategic planning approach to program development is an effective way for vascular surgery divisions to gain experience and expertise with new complex technologies while ensuring acceptable patient outcomes. PMID:25595400

  3. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  4. Environmental Complexity and Central Nervous System Development and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental restriction or deprivation early in development can induce social, cognitive, affective, and motor abnormalities similar to those associated with autism. Conversely, rearing animals in larger, more complex environments results in enhanced brain structure and function, including increased brain weight, dendritic branching,…

  5. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa; Nishi, Stephanie K.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences. PMID:26703721

  6. Tier 2 Team Processes and Decision-Making in a Comprehensive Three-Tiered Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Deborah Russell; Johnson, Evelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    Three-tiered models of academic and behavioral support are being increasingly adopted across the nation, and with that adoption has come an increasing message that designing and implementing effective practices alone is not enough. Systems are needed to help staff to collectively implement best practices. These systems, as well as effective…

  7. Fractional tiers in fast multipole method calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christopher A.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    1996-08-01

    One defining characteristic of the fast multipole calculation is the number of tiers (depth of tree) used to group the particles. For three dimensions, the standard boxing scheme restricts the number of lowest level boxes to be a power of eight. We present a method which through a simple scaling of the particle coordinates allows an arbitrary number of lowest level boxes. Consequently, one can better balance the near-field and far-field work by minimizing the variation in the number of particles per lowest level box from its optimal value. Test calculations show systems where this method gives a speedup approaching two times.

  8. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis. PMID:15047903

  9. Developing a complex approach to health phenomena (step 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Myriam Patricia

    Health is a complex object for science and operative levels, partly because there are many approaches defining it but not scientifically sufficient or operatively accepted. This is relevant for health understanding but also for decision making on health related problems. "Determinants of Health" as a widely accepted theoretical proposal, identifies as problematic the reductionist view of health as the disease opposite, attempting to develop it positively according to WHO's definition, proposing a set of factors determining health outcomes. Though this allows a larger comprehension of health causes and effects, still has insufficiently defined theoretical statements and unproved assumptions which difficult understanding and effective actions orientation. Complexity deductive modeling since the insufficiently formalized frameworks, implies incorporating unmanageable object assumptions or reducing health broadness. Taking profit of Bogotá government adherence to DH proposal leading a health information system development, was possible inductive modeling since a systemic massive database (690.000 registries). In this way, DH theoretical statements about health components connectedness were explored by classic statistic approach, and by learning Bayesian networks from data (data mining). First approach showed understanding difficulties. Second was advantageous in approximating within and between determinants relationship structure. However, though DH introduces a systemic approach in considering diverse interacting elements is not empirically satisfactory to exhibit all the meaning of health complexity, because just matches analytic fashioned constructs depending on data expression. A strong networked model developing health complexity, needs the orientation by theoretical constructs as human agency and organization, to explore and understand emergent patterns of health.

  10. A multi-tiered wavefront sensor using binary optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Smith, T.G.; Rosenthal, R.R.; McKechnie, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Wavefront sensors have been used to make measurements in fluid- dynamics and for closed loop control of adaptive optics. In most common Shack-Hartmann wavefront wavefront sensors, the light is broken up into series of rectangular or hexagonal apertures that divide the light into a series of focal spots. The position of these focal spots is used to determine the wavefront slopes over each subaperture. Using binary optics technology, we have developed a hierarchical or fractal wavefront sensor that divides the subapertures up on a more optimal fashion. We have demonstrated this concept for up to four tiers and developed the wavefront reconstruction methods for both segmented adaptive optics and continous wavefront measurement.

  11. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  12. Estimation of the incidence of a rare genetic disease through a two-tier mutation survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Srinivasan, M.R. ); Raskin, S. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba )

    1993-06-01

    Recent attempts to detect mutations involving single base changes or small deletions that are specific to genetic diseases provide an opportunity to develop a two-tier mutation-screening program through which incidence of rare genetic disorders and gene carriers may be precisely estimated. A two-tier survey consists of mutation screening in a sample of patients with specific genetic disorders and in a second sample of newborns from the same population in which mutation frequency is evaluated. The authors provide the statistical basis for evaluating the incidence of affected and gene carriers in such two-tier mutation-screening surveys, from which the precision of the estimates is derived. Sample-size requirements of such two-tier mutation-screening surveys are evaluated. Considering examples of cystic fibrosis (CF) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD), the two most frequent autosomal recessive diseases in Caucasian populations and the two most frequent mutations ([Delta]F508 and G985) that occur on these disease allele-bearing chromosomes, the authors show that, with 50--100 patients and a 20-fold larger sample of newborns screened for these mutations, the incidence of such diseases and their gene carriers in a population may be quite reliably estimated. The theory developed here is also applicable to rare autosomal dominant diseases for which disease-specific mutations are found. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. The EYA-SO/SIX complex in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pin-Xian

    2013-06-01

    Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO/SIX) proteins function as transcriptional activation complexes and play essential roles in organogenesis during embryonic development in regulating cell proliferation and survival and coordination of particular differentiation programs. Mutations of the Eya and So/Six genes cause profound developmental defects in organisms as diverse as flies, frogs, fish, mice, and humans. EYA proteins also possess an intrinsic phosphatase activity, which is essential for normal development. Here, we review crucial roles of EYA and SO/SIX in development and disease in mice and humans. PMID:22806561

  14. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, George S.; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  16. Insect Antimicrobial Peptide Complexes Prevent Resistance Development in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chernysh, Sergey; Gordya, Natalia; Suborova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as natural antibiotics, which are presumably protected from resistance development in bacteria. However, experimental evolution studies have revealed prompt resistance increase in bacteria to any individual AMP tested. Here we demonstrate that naturally occurring compounds containing insect AMP complexes have clear advantage over individual peptide and small molecule antibiotics in respect of drug resistance development. As a model we have used the compounds isolated from bacteria challenged maggots of Calliphoridae flies. The compound isolated from blow fly Calliphora vicina was found to contain three distinct families of cell membrane disrupting/permeabilizing peptides (defensins, cecropins and diptericins), one family of proline rich peptides and several unknown antimicrobial substances. Resistance changes under long term selective pressure of the compound and reference antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and polymyxin B were tested using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. All the strains readily developed resistance to the reference antibiotics, while no signs of resistance growth to the compound were registered. Similar results were obtained with the compounds isolated from 3 other fly species. The experiments revealed that natural compounds containing insect AMP complexes, in contrast to individual AMP and small molecule antibiotics, are well protected from resistance development in bacteria. Further progress in the research of natural AMP complexes may provide novel solutions to the drug resistance problem. PMID:26177023

  17. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  18. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  19. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  20. Positive Behavior Supports: Tier 2 Interventions in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Carol G.; Marshall, Kathleen J.; Yell, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    School personnel are using Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports in public schools throughout the United States. A number of studies have evaluated the universal level, or Tier 1, of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the interventions offered as options for use for Tier 2 in middle schools…

  1. Action Research: Tiered Instruction in a High School Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courville, Keith

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) This article describes the use of tiered instruction, a specific form of differentiation, within the author's high school Physics classroom. A background and discussion on the nature of tiered instruction is also included. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the necessity of differentiation within the classroom; (2)…

  2. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  3. Using Brief Experimental Analysis to Intensify Tier 3 Reading Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Wagner, Dana

    2015-01-01

    As implementation of multi-tiered systems of support becomes common practice across the nation, practitioners continue to need strategies for intensifying interventions and supports for the subset of students who fail to make adequate progress despite strong programs at Tiers 1 and 2. Experts recommend making several changes to the structure and…

  4. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1605 - New product tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tier. 76.1605 Section 76.1605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1605 New product tier. (a) Within 30 days of the offering of...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  7. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  8. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  9. 47 CFR 76.1618 - Basic tier availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic tier availability. 76.1618 Section 76.1618 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1618 Basic tier availability. A cable...

  10. Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Tier 2 Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ben; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Doabler, Chris; Cary, Mari Strand; Chard, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study, funded by the "Institute for Education Sciences" under the "Mathematics and Science Education" topic, was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 intervention curriculum, "ROOTS", when implemented under rigorous experimental conditions. In this study all classrooms implemented a validated Tier 1 core curriculum (Clarke et al.,…

  11. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small...

  12. 26 CFR 1.444-4 - Tiered structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiered structure. 1.444-4 Section 1.444-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.444-4 Tiered structure. (a) Electing small business trusts....

  13. A Tiered Framework for Risk-Relevant Characterization and Ranking of Chemical Exposures: Applications to the National Children’s Study (NCS)

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Brinkerhoff, Christopher J.; Isukapalli, Sastry; Dellarco, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge for large-scale environmental health investigations such as the National Children’s Study (NCS), is characterizing exposures to multiple, co-occurring chemical agents with varying spatiotemporal concentrations and consequences modulated by biochemical, physiological, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. Such investigations can benefit from systematic retrieval, analysis, and integration of diverse extant information on both contaminant patterns and exposure-relevant factors. This requires development, evaluation, and deployment of informatics methods that support flexible access and analysis of multiattribute data across multiple spatiotemporal scales. A new “Tiered Exposure Ranking” (TiER) framework, developed to support various aspects of risk-relevant exposure characterization, is described here, with examples demonstrating its application to the NCS. TiER utilizes advances in informatics computational methods, extant database content and availability, and integrative environmental/exposure/biological modeling to support both “discovery-driven” and “hypothesis-driven” analyses. “Tier 1” applications focus on “exposomic” pattern recognition for extracting information from multidimensional data sets, whereas second and higher tier applications utilize mechanistic models to develop risk-relevant exposure metrics for populations and individuals. In this article, “tier 1” applications of TiER explore identification of potentially causative associations among risk factors, for prioritizing further studies, by considering publicly available demographic/socioeconomic, behavioral, and environmental data in relation to two health endpoints (preterm birth and low birth weight). A “tier 2” application develops estimates of pollutant mixture inhalation exposure indices for NCS counties, formulated to support risk characterization for these endpoints. Applications of TiER demonstrate the feasibility of developing risk

  14. Macrocyclic metal complexes for metalloenzyme mimicry and sensor development.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tanmaya; Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone

    2015-08-18

    Examples of proteins that incorporate one or more metal ions within their structure are found within a broad range of classes, including oxidases, oxidoreductases, reductases, proteases, proton transport proteins, electron transfer/transport proteins, storage proteins, lyases, rusticyanins, metallochaperones, sporulation proteins, hydrolases, endopeptidases, luminescent proteins, iron transport proteins, oxygen storage/transport proteins, calcium binding proteins, and monooxygenases. The metal coordination environment therein is often generated from residues inherent to the protein, small exogenous molecules (e.g., aqua ligands) and/or macrocyclic porphyrin units found, for example, in hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome C, cytochrome C oxidase, and vitamin B12. Thus, there continues to be considerable interest in employing macrocyclic metal complexes to construct low-molecular weight models for metallobiosites that mirror essential features of the coordination environment of a bound metal ion without inclusion of the surrounding protein framework. Herein, we review and appraise our research exploring the application of the metal complexes formed by two macrocyclic ligands, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen), and their derivatives in biological inorganic chemistry. Taking advantage of the kinetic inertness and thermodynamic stability of their metal complexes, these macrocyclic scaffolds have been employed in the development of models that aid the understanding of metal ion-binding natural systems, and complexes with potential applications in biomolecule sensing, diagnosis, and therapy. In particular, the focus has been on "coordinatively unsaturated" metal complexes that incorporate a kinetically inert and stable metal-ligand moiety, but which also contain one or more weakly bound ligands, allowing for the reversible binding of guest molecules via the formation and dissociation of coordinate bonds. With regards to mimicking

  15. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development. PMID:24611053

  16. The development of complex tooth shape in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Buchtova, Marcela; Dosedelova, Hana; Tucker, Abigail S

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles have a diverse array of tooth shapes, from simple unicuspid to complex multicuspid teeth, reflecting functional adaptation to a variety of diets and eating styles. In addition to cusps, often complex longitudinal labial and lingual enamel crests are widespread and contribute to the final shape of reptile teeth. The simplest shaped unicuspid teeth have been found in piscivorous or carnivorous ancestors of recent diapsid reptiles and they are also present in some extant carnivores such as crocodiles and snakes. However, the ancestral tooth shape for squamate reptiles is thought to be bicuspid, indicating an insectivorous diet. The development of bicuspid teeth in lizards has recently been published, indicating that the mechanisms used to create cusps and crests are very distinct from those that shape cusps in mammals. Here, we introduce the large variety of tooth shapes found in lizards and compare the morphology and development of bicuspid, tricuspid, and pentacuspid teeth, with the aim of understanding how such tooth shapes are generated. Next, we discuss whether the processes used to form such morphologies are conserved between divergent lizards and whether the underlying mechanisms share similarities with those of mammals. In particular, we will focus on the complex teeth of the chameleon, gecko, varanus, and anole lizards using SEM and histology to compare the tooth crown morphology and embryonic development. PMID:24611053

  17. Using pan-tropical biomass maps to improve IPCC Tier 1 default level emission factors - a case study for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    The IPCC proposes three Tier levels for greenhouse gas emission monitoring with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy as well as data requirements/complexity. While Tier 1 provides default above-ground biomass (AGB) values per ecological zone and continent, Tier 2 and 3 are either based on country-specific remote sensing or permanent sample-plot data. Due to missing capacities most developing countries have to rely on Tier 1 default values, which show highest uncertainties. Furthermore, IPCC Tier 1 values lack transparency as they are based on a variety of studies that have been repeatedly updated and combined with expert opinions, thus blurring the original data sources. A possible way to increase credibility is a conservative monitoring approach, following the principle of conservativeness, thus reducing the likelihood of unjustified payments for emission reductions not reflecting reality. For the implementation of that principle knowledge about the distribution of the biomass within each ecological zone is essential. However, such information is not available for the IPCC Tier 1 values, which only provide mean values and/or AGB ranges that are not based on a common statistical analysis. Using the pan-tropical datasets of Saatchi et al (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 108, 9899-9904, 2011; 1km spatial resolution) and Baccini et al (Nat Climate Change, 2:182-185, 2012; 500m spatial resolution) we calculated the mean AGB values as well as their 50% confidence intervals for each ecological zone within the DRC using Globcover2009 as forest/non-forest mask and the FAO ecological zones dataset. Such analysis is more transparent while at the same time leading to "statistically improved" Tier 1 values, potentially allowing a conservative monitoring approach by selecting the lower bound of the confidence interval for emission estimation during the reference period and the higher bound for the assessment period. Within the DRC Baccini generally delivers higher AGB estimates

  18. Nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways from a carbon nanotube-copper composite with high conductivity, ampacity and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    New lithographically processable materials with high ampacity are in demand to meet the increasing requirement for high operational current density at high temperatures existing in current pathways within electronic devices. To meet this demand, we report an approach to fabricate a high ampacity (~100 times higher than Cu) carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composite into a variety of complex nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways. The approach involved the use of a two-stage electrodeposition of copper into a pre-patterned template of porous, thin CNT sheets acting as the electrode. The versatility of this approach enabled the realization of completely suspended multi-tier, dielectric-less `air-gap' CNT-Cu circuits that could be electrically isolated from each other and are challenging to fabricate with pure Cu or any metal. Importantly, all such complex structures, ranging from 500 nm to 20 μm in width, exhibited ~100-times higher ampacity than any known metal, with comparable electrical conductivity as Cu. In addition, CNT-Cu structures also exhibited a superior temperature stability compared to the ~10-times wider Cu counterparts. We believe that the combination of our approach and the properties demonstrated here are vital achievements for the future development of efficient and powerful electrical devices.

  19. Nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways from a carbon nanotube-copper composite with high conductivity, ampacity and stability.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2016-02-21

    New lithographically processable materials with high ampacity are in demand to meet the increasing requirement for high operational current density at high temperatures existing in current pathways within electronic devices. To meet this demand, we report an approach to fabricate a high ampacity (∼100 times higher than Cu) carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composite into a variety of complex nano-scale, planar and multi-tiered current pathways. The approach involved the use of a two-stage electrodeposition of copper into a pre-patterned template of porous, thin CNT sheets acting as the electrode. The versatility of this approach enabled the realization of completely suspended multi-tier, dielectric-less 'air-gap' CNT-Cu circuits that could be electrically isolated from each other and are challenging to fabricate with pure Cu or any metal. Importantly, all such complex structures, ranging from 500 nm to 20 μm in width, exhibited ∼100-times higher ampacity than any known metal, with comparable electrical conductivity as Cu. In addition, CNT-Cu structures also exhibited a superior temperature stability compared to the ∼10-times wider Cu counterparts. We believe that the combination of our approach and the properties demonstrated here are vital achievements for the future development of efficient and powerful electrical devices. PMID:26486752

  20. New models for the In vitro assessment of neurotoxicity in the nervous system and the preliminary validation stages of a 'tiered-test' model.

    PubMed

    Atterwill, C K; Davenport-Jones, J; Goonetilleke, S; Johnston, H; Purcell, W; Thomas, S M; West, M; Williams, S

    1993-09-01

    Many cell culture models are available for the in vitro assessment of neurotoxicity. The use of three culture types has been investigated: neuroblastoma cell lines, primary cultures of rat and chick midbrain, and organotypic whole brain reaggregate cultures. A tiered system has been proposed involving hierarchical testing through three layers of different neural complexities. This scheme is currently undergoing validation under the auspices of FRAME/EC using 40 test chemicals. To determine the performance and suitability of these culture models studies on selected neurotoxins have been performed: ethylcholine mustard aziridinium, vincristine, aluminium, glutamate, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and T(3)-deprivation. Aspects of this work are described, including mechanistic investigations in rat brain reaggregate cultures. In vitro exposure of xenobiotics through a tiered testing system (ranging from simple cell-based assays measuring cytotoxicological parameters to more complex markers in organotypic cultures) may permit detection of central nervous system neurotoxicity in the contexts of both 'screening' and mechanistics. The degree of simplicity, automaticity and transportability of the tests requires consideration as will the possibility of endpoints for specific classes of chemicals, for example cholinesterase for organophosphorus insecticides. Factors such as extrapolation from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system, metabolic activation, the blood-brain barrier, degree of neural cell activation, repair mechanisms, and developing versus adult nervous systems are considered. PMID:20732253

  1. The Development and Study of Surface Bound Ruthenium Organometallic Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey Reuben

    The focus of this project has been on the use of mono-diimine ruthenium organometallic complexes, of the general structure [H(Ru)(CO)(L)2(L') 2][PF6] (L=PPh3, DPPENE and L'=Bpy, DcBpy, MBpyC, Phen, AminoPhen) bound to surfaces as luminescent probes. Both biological and inorganic/organic hybrid surfaces have been studied. The complexes were characterized both bound and unbound using standard analytical techniques such as NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography, as well as through several photophysical methods as well. Initially the study focused on how the photophyscial properties of the complexes were affected by incorporation into biological membranes. It was found that by conjugating the probes to a more rigid cholesterol moiety that luminescence was conserved, compared to conjugation with a far more flexible lipid moiety, where luminescence was either lost or reduced. Both the cholesterol and lipid conjugates were able to insert into a lipid membrane, and in the more rigid environment some of the lipid conjugates regained some of their luminescence, but often blue shifted and reduced, depending on the conjugation site. Silica Polyamine Composites (SPCs) were a hybrid material developed in the Rosenberg Lab as useful metal separation materials, that could be easily modified, and had several benefits over current commercially available polymers, or inorganic materials. These SPCs also provided an opportunity for the development of a heterogeneous platform for luminescent complexes as either catalysts or sensors. Upon binding of the luminescent Ru complexes to the surface no loss, or major change in luminescence was seen, however, when bound to the rigid surface a significant increase in excited state lifetime was measured. It is likely that through binding and interacting with the surface that the complexes lost non-radiative decay pathways, resulting in the increase in lifetime, however, these interactions do not seem to affect the energy level of the MLCT band in a

  2. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  3. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-10-15

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.

  4. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  5. Multi-tiered system of support incorporating the R.E.N.E.W. process and its relationship to perception of school safety and office discipline referrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Molly M.

    This study examined the relationship between the fidelity of multi-tier school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and staff perception of school safety and office discipline referrals. This research provided a case study on multi-tier supports and interventions, and the RENEW person-centered planning process in an alternative special education center following the implementation of a multi-tier SWPBIS model. Pennsylvania is one of several states looking to adopt an effective Tier III behavioral tool. The research described the results of an analysis of implementation fidelity on a multi-tiered school-wide positive behavior support model developed at a special education center operated by a public school system entity. This research explored the fidelity of SWPBIS implementation; analyzed the relationship of SWPBIS to school climate as measured by staff perceptions and reduction of office discipline referrals (ODR); explored tier III supports incorporating a process Rehabilitation and Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education and Work (RENEW); and investigated the potential sustainability of the RENEW process as a multi-tier system of support. This study investigated staff perceptions on integrated supports between schools and communities and identified the degree of relationship to school risk factors, school protective factors, and office discipline referrals following the building of cooperative partnerships between Systems of Care and Local Education Agencies.

  6. Complex geology spurs intensive development in Zhongyuan fields

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The Zhongyuan producing region of Eastern China is located some 310 mi south of Beijing and 60 mi southeast of the city of Anyang in Henan Province. An intensive infill drilling program utilizing 78 rigs is underway in the area to maximize production. Continuing development drilling in the 10 oil fields scattered over the area is required because reservoirs are highly faulted. The resulting small fault blocks also have a high water content (water production appears quickly in a new well), resulting in a relatively short producing life. This article presents details of the Zhongyuan complex.

  7. STAR load balancing and tiered-storage infrastructure strategy for ultimate db access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.; Didenko, L.; Van Buren, G.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the STAR experiment's database demands have grown in accord not only with simple facility growth, but also with a growing physics program. In addition to the accumulated metadata from a decade of operations, refinements to detector calibrations force user analysis to access database information post data production. Users may access any year's data at any point in time, causing a near random access of the metadata queried, contrary to time-organized production cycles. Moreover, complex online event selection algorithms created a query scarcity ("sparsity") scenario for offline production further impacting performance. Fundamental changes in our hardware approach were hence necessary to improve query speed. Initial strategic improvements were focused on developing fault-tolerant, load-balanced access to a multi-slave infrastructure. Beyond that, we explored, tested and quantified the benefits of introducing a Tiered storage architecture composed of conventional drives, solid-state disks, and memory-resident databases as well as leveraging the use of smaller database services fitting in memory. The results of our extensive testing in real life usage are presented.

  8. Two- and Three-Tiered Stacked Architectures by Covalent Assembly.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fengfeng; Day, Kody J; Hartley, C Scott

    2016-07-18

    Simple discotic cores functionalized with reactive arms have been assembled into two- and three-tiered covalent stacks through imine formation. The targets are obtained in good yields, but competing formation of misassembled byproducts highlights some of the challenges inherent to the thermodynamically controlled assembly of rigid, compact, three-dimensional architectures. The structures comprise a central stack of arenes surrounded by a triple helix of interconnected arms. The racemization rate is strongly dependent on the number of tiers, suggesting cooperative conformational coupling in these multi-tiered structures. PMID:27297833

  9. SLA-based optimisation of virtualised resource for multi-tier web applications in cloud data centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jing; Yuan, Haitao; Tie, Ming; Tan, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic virtualised resource allocation is the key to quality of service assurance for multi-tier web application services in cloud data centre. In this paper, we develop a self-management architecture of cloud data centres with virtualisation mechanism for multi-tier web application services. Based on this architecture, we establish a flexible hybrid queueing model to determine the amount of virtual machines for each tier of virtualised application service environments. Besides, we propose a non-linear constrained optimisation problem with restrictions defined in service level agreement. Furthermore, we develop a heuristic mixed optimisation algorithm to maximise the profit of cloud infrastructure providers, and to meet performance requirements from different clients as well. Finally, we compare the effectiveness of our dynamic allocation strategy with two other allocation strategies. The simulation results show that the proposed resource allocation method is efficient in improving the overall performance and reducing the resource energy cost.

  10. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  11. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  12. Tier 2 Interventions in Positive Behavior Support: A Survey of School Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Loman, Sheldon L.; Borgmeier, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As increasing numbers of schools implement Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS), schools are looking for and implementing evidence-based practices for students whose needs are not fully met by Tier 1 supports. Although there is relative consistency and clarity in what constitutes Tier 1 behavior support within MTSS, Tier 2 supports may be more…

  13. Characterization of SCF-Complex during Bovine Preimplantation Development

    PubMed Central

    Benesova, Veronika; Kinterova, Veronika; Kanka, Jiri; Toralova, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of maternal proteins is one of the most important events during early development, and it is presumed to be essential for embryonic genome activation (EGA), but the precise mechanism is still not known. It is thought that a large proportion of the degradation of maternal proteins is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteolytic system. In this study we focused on the expression of the Skp1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) complex, a modular RING-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase, during bovine preimplantation development. The complex consists of three invariable components—Cul1, Skp1, Rbx1 and F-box protein, which determines the substrate specificity. The protein level and mRNA expression of all three invariable members were determined. Cul1 and Skp1 mRNA synthesis was activated at early embryonic stages, at the 4c and early 8c stage, respectively, which suggests that these transcripts are necessary for preparing the embryo for EGA. CUL1 protein level increased from MII to the morula stage, with a significant difference between MII and L8c, and between MII and the morula. The CUL1 protein was localized primarily to nuclei and to a lesser extent to the cytoplasm, with a lower signal in the inner cell mass (ICM) compared to the trophectoderm (TE) at the blastocyst stage. The level of SKP1 protein significantly increased from MII oocytes to 4c embryos, but then significantly decreased again. The localization of the SKP1 protein was analysed throughout the cell and similarly to CUL1 at the blastocyst stage, the staining was less intensive in the ICM. There were no statistical differences in RBX1 protein level and localization. The active SCF-complex, which is determined by the interaction of Cul1 and Skp1, was found throughout the whole embryo during preimplantation development, but there was a difference at the blastocyst stage, which exhibits a much stronger signal in the TE than in the ICM. These results suggest that all these genes could play an important role during

  14. A Team-Based Process for Designing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Models of Prevention: How Does My School-Site Leadership Team Design a CI3T Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Jenkins, Abbie; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models are context specific and developed by school-site teams according to the core values held by the school community. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step, team-based process for designing comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention that integrate academic, behavioral, and…

  15. 4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for hanging tobacco to cure. - Edgewood Farm, Tobacco Barn, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  16. Arabidopsis flower development-of protein complexes, targets, and transport.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Ehlers, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past 25 years or more of research on the molecular mechanisms of floral organ identity, patterning, and development. While collections of floral homeotic mutants of Antirrhinum majus laid the foundation already at the beginning of the previous century, it was the genetic analysis of these mutants in A. majus and Arabidopsis thaliana that led to the development of the ABC model of floral organ identity more than 20 years ago. This intuitive model kick-started research focused on the genetic mechanisms regulating flower development, using mainly A. thaliana as a model plant. In recent years, interactions among floral homeotic proteins have been elucidated, and their direct and indirect target genes are known to a large extent. Here, we provide an overview over the advances in understanding the molecular mechanism orchestrating A. thaliana flower development. We focus on floral homeotic protein complexes, their target genes, evidence for their transport in floral primordia, and how these new results advance our view on the processes downstream of floral organ identity, such as organ boundary formation or floral organ patterning. PMID:25845756

  17. Simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site with MONARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zach, Č.; Betev, L.; Adamová, D.; ALICE Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The MONARC (MOdels of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers) framework has been developed and designed with the aim to provide a tool for realistic simulations of large scale distributed computing systems, with a special focus on the Grid systems of the experiments at the CERN LHC. In this paper, we describe a usage of the MONARC framework and tools for a simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site.

  18. Interoperating AliEn and ARC for a Distributed Tier1 in the Nordic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Philippe; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Lindemann, Jonas; Saiz, Pablo; Zarochentsev, Andrey

    To reach its large computing needs, the ALICE experiment at CERN has developed its own middleware called AliEn, centralised and relying on pilot jobs. One of its strength is the automatic installation of the required packages. The Nordic countries have offered a distributed Tier-1 centre for the CERN experiments, where the job management should be done with the NorduGrid middleware ARC.

  19. The “NetBoard”: Network Monitoring Tools Integration for INFN Tier-1 Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Girolamo, D.; dell'Agnello and, L.; Zani, S.

    2012-12-01

    The monitoring and alert system is fundamental for the management and the operation of the network in a large data center such as an LHC Tier-1. The network of the INFN Tier-1 at CNAF is a multi-vendor environment: for its management and monitoring several tools have been adopted and different sensors have been developed. In this paper, after an overview on the different aspects to be monitored and the tools used for them (i.e. MRTG, Nagios, Arpwatch, NetFlow, Syslog, etc), we will describe the “NetBoard”, a monitoring toolkit developed at the INFN Tier-1. NetBoard, developed for a multi-vendor network, is able to install and auto-configure all tools needed for its monitoring, either via network devices discovery mechanism or via configuration file or via wizard. In this way, we are also able to activate different types of sensors and Nagios checks according to the equipment vendor specifications. Moreover, when a new device is connected in the LAN, NetBoard can detect where it is plugged. Finally the NetBoard web interface allows to have the overall status of the entire network “at a glance”, both the local and the geographical (including the LHCOPN and the LHCONE) link utilization, health status of network devices (with active alerts) and flow analysis.

  20. Xenoendocrine disrupters-tiered screening and testing: filling key data gaps.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E; Ostby, J; Wilson, V; Lambright, C; Bobseine, K; Hartig, P; Hotchkiss, A; Wolf, C; Furr, J; Price, M; Parks, L; Cooper, R L; Stoker, T E; Laws, S C; Degitz, S J; Jensen, K M; Kahl, M D; Korte, J J; Makynen, E A; Tietge, J E; Ankley, G T

    2002-12-27

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen (ER), androgen (AR) and thyroid hormone synthesis and AR and ER receptor-mediated effects in mammals and other animals. High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery and chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S includes in vitro ER and AR receptor binding and/or gene expression, an assessment of steroidogenesis and mammalian (rat) and nonmammalian in vivo assays (Table 1). In vivo, the uterotropic assay detects estrogens and antiestrogens, while steroidogenesis, antithyroid activity, (anti)estrogenicity and HPG function are assessed in a 'Pubertal Female Assay'. (Anti-) androgens are detected in the Hershberger Assay (weight of AR-dependent tissues in castrate-immature-male rats). Fish and amphibian assays also are being developed. The fathead minnow assay can identify EDCs displaying several mechanisms of concern, including AR and ER receptor agonists and antagonists and inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis. An amphibian metamorphosis assay is being developed to detect thyroid-active substances. Several alternative mammalian in vivo assays have been proposed. Of these, a short-term pubertal male rat assay appears most promising. An in utero-lactational screening protocol also is being evaluated. For Tier 2, the numbers of endocrine sensitive endpoints and offspring (F1) examined in multigenerational tests need to be expanded for EDCs. Consideration should be given to tailoring T2, based on the results of T1S. Tier 1 and 2 also should examine relevant mixtures of EDCs. Toxicants that induce malformations in AR-dependent tissues produce cumulative effects even when two chemicals act via different mechanisms of action. PMID:12505339

  1. Identifying Students for Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Efforts: How Do We Determine Which Students Have Tier 2 and Tier 3 Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    In comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models, it is essential to have a systematic method for identifying students who need supports at Tier 2 or Tier 3. This article provides explicit information on how to use multiple sources of data to determine which students might benefit from these supports. First, the authors provide an overview of how…

  2. Pros and Cons of 1-tiered versus 2-tiered Seasonal Forecast Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, D. G.; Goddard, L.; Li, S.

    2005-05-01

    All reasonable seasonal forecast systems have advantages and disadvantages.Some advantages/disadvantages may be theoretical; others may be practical. A clear understanding of where the limitations of a particular forecast system lie is helpful in making the most of the tool(s) in hand. In this presentation we examine the good, the bad and the ugly in both 1-tiered forecast systems (i.e. coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models or CGCMs) and 2-tiered forecast systems (i.e. atmospheric general circulation models or AGCMs). AGCMs are potentially hindered by unphysical air-sea fluxes in the mid-latitudes and warm pool regions, where the observations suggest that the atmosphere forces changes in the ocean, rather than the other way around. In CGCMs the ocean and atmosphere evolve harmoniously, but that is no guarantee that their air-sea fluxes are correct.And indeed, CGCMs have problems with climate drift and large-scale systematic biases because of difficulties in getting the proper air-sea fluxes. To what extent these physical limitations limit skill in seasonal climate prediction will be presented. Suggestions will be offered for how one might capitalize on the strengths of both types of dynamical forecast systems, while minimizing the weaknesses, in constructing a seasonal climate forecast.

  3. Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Jansky, Bohumir

    2015-04-01

    Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks Falátková, K., Šobr, M., Engel, Z., Janský, B. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech republic Glacier complex Adygine (3,400-4,200 m asl) is situated on the northern flank of the Kyrgyz Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The valley downstream is part of National Park Ala Archa, which is popular with tourists, and is heading towards the country's capital - Bishkek. At the study site there is a glacier which is observed since 1960's. The glacier has been monitored by satellite imagery and in last 10 years by on-site geodetic measurement as well. Due to glacier shrinkage several glacial lakes of different genetic types (moraine-dammed, moraine- and rock-dammed, termokarst) have appeared at the site. Nowadays, the lakes are situated on three levels in front of the glacier's terminus and form a cascade, they are also hydrologically connected. The lakes were subjected to detailed bathymetric measurement and some parts of the dams were surveyed by geophysical methods. Especially the newest lakes in proximity of the terminus has been undergoing dynamic changes and may pose a threat in the near future. The risks arising together with changing climatic conditions and retreat of the glacier are associated with mainly three of the lakes. The largest one with area of 3.2 ha is dammed by a rock step overlaid by a moraine. Geophysical research of the dam revealed buried ice and seepage channels in its western part. It is the capacity of these subsurface channels, which are draining the lake throughout the year that represents a weak point in terms of dam stability. The second lake, a termokarst one, is a similar case but drained solely by subsurface channels. Very steep slopes of the lake basin are covered with loose material which could slide down and block the drainage channels. The lake would then fill all the basin (approx. 50,000 m3) very quickly as it is supplied with water from the

  4. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... from inventories developed for the Final Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (76 FR 48208, August 8, 2011... reductions. \\7\\ 65 FR 6698 (February 10, 2000). The proposed Tier 3 standards include new light- and heavy... emissions standards.\\10\\ \\8\\ 77 FR 62623 (October 15, 2012). \\9\\ These states include Connecticut,...

  5. The Etiology of Top-Tier Publications in Management: A Status Attainment Perspective on Academic Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Matthew; Schultz, Kaitlyn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a comprehensive model of personal and institutional input variables, composed of elements describing status-based antecedents, job/organizational context antecedents, and individual level antecedents, which may contribute to the production of significant (top-tier) research outputs in the…

  6. Testing a multi-tiered stress-gradient model for risk assessment using sediment constituents from coral reef environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, B.H.; Hallock, P.

    2000-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened worldwide by stresses ranging from local to global in extent. One of the major challenges in studies of reef decline is understanding how to distinguish between changes resulting from natural, anthropogenic, local, and global environmental perturbations. As such, a conceptual risk-assessment model is developed that includes tiers for natural stresses, global/regional stresses, and local anthropogenic stresses.

  7. Efficacy of a Tier 2 Supplemental Root Word Vocabulary and Decoding Intervention with Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a Tier 2 standard protocol supplemental intervention designed simultaneously to develop root word vocabulary and reinforce decoding skills being taught to all students in the core beginning reading program with kindergarten Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs). Participating students were…

  8. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...This document announces the final second list of 109 chemicals identified for Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). The EDSP is established under section 408(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), which requires EPA to develop a chemical screening program using appropriate validated test systems and other scientifically relevant information......

  9. Convective cell development and propagation in a mesoscale convective complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    A case study was made of the mesoscale convective complex (MCC) which occurred over southern Oklahoma and northern Texas on 27 May 1981. This storm moved in an eastsoutheasterly direction and during much of its lifetime was observable by radars at Oklahoma City, Ok. and Stephenville, Tx. It was found that the direction of cell (VIP level 3 or more reflectivity) propagation was somewhat erratic but approximately the same as the system (VIP level 1 reflectivity) movement and the ambient wind. New cells developed along and behind the gust front make it appear that once the MCC is initiated, a synergistic relationship exists between the gust front and the MCC. The relationship between rainfall patterns and amounts and the infrared (IR) temperature field in the satellite imagery were examined. The 210 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery was found to encompass the rain area of the storm. The heaviest rainfall was in the vicinity of the VIP level 3 cells and mostly contained within the 205 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery.

  10. Collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query in tiered wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Dong, Lei; Peng, Hui; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Suyun; Li, Cuiping

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are indispensable building blocks for the Internet of Things (IoT). With the development of WSNs, privacy issues have drawn more attention. Existing work on the privacy-preserving range query mainly focuses on privacy preservation and integrity verification in two-tiered WSNs in the case of compromisedmaster nodes, but neglects the damage of node collusion. In this paper, we propose a series of collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query protocols in two-tiered WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to consider collusion attacks for a range query in tiered WSNs while fulfilling the preservation of privacy and integrity. To preserve the privacy of data and queries, we propose a novel encoding scheme to conceal sensitive information. To preserve the integrity of the results, we present a verification scheme using the correlation among data. In addition, two schemes are further presented to improve result accuracy and reduce communication cost. Finally, theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm the efficiency, accuracy and privacy of our proposals. PMID:25615731

  11. Collusion-Aware Privacy-Preserving Range Query in Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Dong, Lei; Peng, Hui; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Suyun; Li, Cuiping

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are indispensable building blocks for the Internet of Things (IoT). With the development of WSNs, privacy issues have drawn more attention. Existing work on the privacy-preserving range query mainly focuses on privacy preservation and integrity verification in two-tiered WSNs in the case of compromised master nodes, but neglects the damage of node collusion. In this paper, we propose a series of collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query protocols in two-tiered WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to consider collusion attacks for a range query in tiered WSNs while fulfilling the preservation of privacy and integrity. To preserve the privacy of data and queries, we propose a novel encoding scheme to conceal sensitive information. To preserve the integrity of the results, we present a verification scheme using the correlation among data. In addition, two schemes are further presented to improve result accuracy and reduce communication cost. Finally, theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm the efficiency, accuracy and privacy of our proposals. PMID:25615731

  12. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-05-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10 and 12 students' understanding of genetics in terms of reasoning. The pretest and posttest forms of the diagnostic instrument were used alongside other methods in evaluating students' understanding of genetics in a case-based qualitative study on teaching and learning with multiple representations in three Western Australian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that a two-tier diagnostic instrument is useful in probing students' understanding or misunderstanding of scientific concepts and ideas. The diagnostic instrument in this study was designed and then progressively refined, improved, and implemented to evaluate student understanding of genetics in three case schools. The final version of the instrument had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively, for its pretest and the posttest forms when it was administered to a group of grade 12 students (n = 17). This two-tier diagnostic instrument complemented other qualitative data collection methods in this research in generating a more holistic picture of student conceptual learning of genetics in terms of scientific reasoning. Implications of the findings of this study using the diagnostic instrument are discussed.

  13. The Knowledges of Teacher Education: Developing a Critical Complex Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of the pedagogical process and the intricacies of a rigorous teacher education are central concerns of this article. What is a critical complex teacher education? What types of knowledges should professional educators possess? The author states that, in a climate as hostile as the first decade of the twenty-first century, the…

  14. Development of Peralkaline Rhythmic Layering, Ilimaussaq Complex, S. Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Emma J.; Finch, Adrian A.; Donaldson, Colin H.

    2014-05-01

    The Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, S. Greenland is a peralkaline layered intrusion within the Gardar (1280-1180 Ma) igneous province. It is considered as a potential deposit of rare-earth elements, Ta, Nb and Zr. One of the places where these elements are concentrated is in the kakortokite layered series (KLS), which forms the floor sequence of the complex and is a spectacular example of macrorhythmic (i.e. typically >5 m in thickness) igneous layering. The KLS is composed of 29 exposed units numbered -11 to +17 [1], each composed of three layers distinguished by modal mineralogy: a basal arfvedsonite-rich black kakortokite, overlain by eudialyte-rich red kakortokite, in turn overlain by alkali feldspar- and nepheline-rich white kakortokite. Despite much work on the layered series, there is no consensus on the physico-chemical processes that led to the formation of the macrorhythmic layering, although most hypotheses suggest that the separation of minerals to form the tripartite units included the processes of gravitational settling and density sorting. Here we use detailed petrographic studies, quantitative textural analysis (crystal size distributions [CSDs]) and mineral chemistry to interpret processes of nucleation and crystal growth within the marker horizon unit 0 and the lowest exposed units (-8 to -11) of the KLS. Sharp boundaries occur between each of the studied units (-11/10, -10/-9, -9/-8 and -1/0) while the intra-unit boundaries between the black to red and red to white kakortokites grade over 2-5 cm. The CSD data suggest that multiple modes of crystallisation (in situ, in suspension and through accumulation) contributed to the crystallisation of the main modal minerals in each layer, with in situ crystallisation being of greatest importance in the black and red kakortokites, while suspension and accumulation processes were of more importance in the white kakortokites. The key control on unit development was the rate of undercooling, potentially

  15. Optimization of HEP Analysis Activities Using a Tier2 Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Ciampa, A.; Coscetti, S.; Mazzoni, E.; Sarkar, S.; Taneja, S.

    2012-12-01

    While the model for a Tier2 is well understood and implemented within the HEP Community, a refined design for Analysis specific sites has not been agreed upon as clearly. We aim to describe the solutions adopted at the INFN Pisa, the biggest Tier2 in the Italian HEP Community. A Standard Tier2 infrastructure is optimized for Grid CPU and Storage access, while a more interactive oriented use of the resources is beneficial to the final data analysis step. In this step, POSIX file storage access is easier for the average physicist, and has to be provided in a real or emulated way. Modern analysis techniques use advanced statistical tools (like RooFit and RooStat), which can make use of multi core systems. The infrastructure has to provide or create on demand computing nodes with many cores available, above the existing and less elastic Tier2 flat CPU infrastructure. At last, the users do not want to have to deal with data placement policies at the various sites, and hence a transparent WAN file access, again with a POSIX layer, must be provided, making use of the soon-to-be-installed 10 Gbit/s regional lines. Even if standalone systems with such features are possible and exist, the implementation of an Analysis site as a virtual layer over an existing Tier2 requires novel solutions; the ones used in Pisa are described here.

  16. A Tiered Analytical Approach for Investigating Poor Quality Emergency Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Monge, María Eugenia; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zhou, Manshui; Payne, Michael; Harris, Chris; House, Blaine; Juggins, Yvonne; Cizmarik, Peter; Newton, Paul N.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Jenkins, David

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS) and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS) the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS) indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR) indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate. PMID:24748219

  17. A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Monge, María Eugenia; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zhou, Manshui; Payne, Michael; Harris, Chris; House, Blaine; Juggins, Yvonne; Cizmarik, Peter; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Jenkins, David

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS) and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS) the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS) indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR) indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate. PMID:24748219

  18. Web Service for Positional Quality Assessment: the Wps Tier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, E. M. A.; Ariza-López, F. J.; Ureña-Cámara, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    In the field of spatial data every day we have more and more information available, but we still have little or very little information about the quality of spatial data. We consider that the automation of the spatial data quality assessment is a true need for the geomatic sector, and that automation is possible by means of web processing services (WPS), and the application of specific assessment procedures. In this paper we propose and develop a WPS tier centered on the automation of the positional quality assessment. An experiment using the NSSDA positional accuracy method is presented. The experiment involves the uploading by the client of two datasets (reference and evaluation data). The processing is to determine homologous pairs of points (by distance) and calculate the value of positional accuracy under the NSSDA standard. The process generates a small report that is sent to the client. From our experiment, we reached some conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of WPSs when applied to the automation of spatial data accuracy assessments.

  19. Health monitoring display system for a complex plant

    DOEpatents

    Ridolfo, Charles F.; Harmon, Daryl L.; Colin, Dreyfuss

    2006-08-08

    A single page enterprise wide level display provides a comprehensive readily understood representation of the overall health status of a complex plant. Color coded failure domains allow rapid intuitive recognition of component failure status. A three-tier hierarchy of displays provide details on the health status of the components and systems displayed on the enterprise wide level display in a manner that supports a logical drill down to the health status of sub-components on Tier 1 to expected faults of the sub-components on Tier 2 to specific information relative to expected sub-component failures on Tier 3.

  20. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, Frank A; Versluijs, Kees W; Otte, Piet F

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant-soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant-soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a 'conservative' vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a 'realistic worst case' site-specific vegetable

  1. An evaluation of Access Tier local area network switches.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Olsberg, Ronald R.

    2004-06-01

    This reports tabulates the Test and Evaluation results of the Access Class Switch tests conducted by members of Department 9336. About 15 switches were reviewed for use in the enterprise network as access tier switches as defined in a three tier architecture. The Access Switch Tier has several functions including: aggregate customer desktop ports, preserve and apply QoS tags, provide switched LAN access, provide VLAN assignment, as well as others. The typical switch size is 48 or less user ports. The evaluation team reviewed network switch evaluation reports from the Tolly Group as well as other sources. We then used these reports as a starting point to identify particular switches for evaluation. In general we reviewed the products of dominant equipment manufacturers. Also, based on architectural design requirements, the majority of the switches tested were of relatively small monolithic unit variety.

  2. Retrospective on the Seniors' Council Tier 1 LDRD portfolio.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the Tier 1 LDRD portfolio, administered by the Seniors Council between 2003 and 2011. 73 projects were sponsored over the 9 years of the portfolio at a cost of $10.5 million which includes $1.9M of a special effort in directed innovation targeted at climate change and cyber security. Two of these Tier 1 efforts were the seeds for the Grand Challenge LDRDs in Quantum Computing and Next Generation Photovoltaic conversion. A few LDRDs were terminated early when it appeared clear that the research was not going to succeed. A great many more were successful and led to full Tier 2 LDRDs or direct customer sponsorship. Over a dozen patents are in various stages of prosecution from this work, and one project is being submitted for an R and D 100 award.

  3. Eocene Structural Development of the Valhalla Complex, Southeastern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Sharon D.; Parrish, Randall R.; Brown, Richard L.

    1987-04-01

    The Valhalla complex, a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex, is a 100 km by 30 km structural culmination within the Omineca belt of southeastern British Columbia. It comprises sheets of granitic orthogneiss ranging in age from 100 to 59 Ma with intervening paragneiss of uncertain age and stratigraphic correlation. The complex is roofed by the ductile Valkyr shear zone and the ductile/brittle Slocan Lake fault zone; the upper plate comprises lower grade metasedimentary rocks intruded by middle Jurassic plutons. The Valkyr shear zone and the Slocan Lake fault zone deform 62 and 59 Ma granitic sheets in their footwalls. The easterly directed Valkyr shear zone is a 2 to 3 km thick zone of distributed ductile strain which is arched over the complex and is exposed around the periphery on the northern, western, and southern margins. The shear zone was active between 59 and 54 Ma under amphibolite facies conditions. The juxtaposition of upper and lower plates with different structural and metamorphic histories indicates that the Valkyr shear zone is a significant structure with large displacement. There is evidence to support an easterly rooting direction consistent with an extensional origin; its surface breakaway is suggested to be west of the Valhalla complex. The Slocan Lake fault zone on the eastern side of the complex is a gently (30°), easterly dipping ductile/brittle normal fault which roots to the east. It was active between 54 and approximately 45 Ma and truncates the Valkyr shear zone. Timing and structural relationships indicate that the Valkyr shear zone and the Slocan Lake fault zone are genetically related. Movement on the ductile Valkyr shear zone, arching of the complex, and displacement on the Slocan Lake fault zone occurred as a continuum in Early to Middle Eocene time. This paper documents the presence of significant Eocene ductile strain in the Valhalla complex and suggests that the role of extension in this region is more profound than had been

  4. Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil- β -cyclodextrin Complex.

    PubMed

    Sravya, Maddukuri; Deveswaran, Rajamanickam; Bharath, Srinivasan; Basavaraj, Basappa Veerbadraiah; Madhavan, Varadharajan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing β-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1 : 5 with β-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved β-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555987

  5. [Discussing a "two-tiered medical system": a statement].

    PubMed

    Ehring, F Schulze; Weber, Ch

    2008-12-01

    The criticism of a "two-tiered medical system" is a political slogan, which is also not exactly defined. However, for the public discussion this is not of further importance because talking about a "two-tiered medical system" has a priori a negative impact; in particular in times when people's fears surrounding medical care in Germany are great. Especially in a public health insurance system, insured people worry that in the future they will only receive the most essential medical services, rather than all services that are deemed reasonable and medically appropriate. One of the central themes in the discussion of a "two-tiered medical system" that causes disputes (or animosity) between privately and publicly insured persons arises when comparing differences in waiting periods to see a doctor and additional medical treatments made available to the privately insured. Critics of the "two-tiered medical system" envision a "one-tiered medical system"; one in which every person receives uniform healthcare, and in which the "purchase" of additional medical treatments is not permitted. However, the "one-tiered medical system" remains a theoretical construct. Service differences based on price differences are the reality. So the problem of the "two-tiered medical system" manifests itself only when those services that go beyond the basic care (privately offered services) negatively impact basic care, and/or displace basic care offerings. An example of this would be when a publicly insured patient has to wait longer to see a doctor because preference is given to privately insured patients. Economically speaking, negative external effects come into play. This causality has not been found or proven to be present in the German healthcare system. It exists neither in the inpatient nor in the outpatient healthcare sector. There is no basis to the claim that there is a difference in treatment favouring private patients with detrimental effects to non-privately insured patients

  6. MITT writer and MITT writer advanced development: Developing authoring and training systems for complex technical domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Browning, Elica J.; Norton, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, William B.

    1991-01-01

    MITT Writer is a software system for developing computer based training for complex technical domains. A training system produced by MITT Writer allows a student to learn and practice troubleshooting and diagnostic skills. The MITT (Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training) architecture is a reasonable approach to simulation based diagnostic training. MITT delivers training on available computing equipment, delivers challenging training and simulation scenarios, and has economical development and maintenance costs. A 15 month effort was undertaken in which the MITT Writer system was developed. A workshop was also conducted to train instructors in how to use MITT Writer. Earlier versions were used to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System for troubleshooting the Minuteman Missile Message Processing System.

  7. An Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Second Tier and Its Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Susan

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the productivity offsets to achieve second tier wage increases for workers covered by Australian national and Queensland awards shows that the two-tier wage system increased competitiveness and productivity, especially in blue-collar industries. (JOW)

  8. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve

  9. A Cognitive Complexity Metric Applied to Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions from a theory in which processing load depends on relational complexity (RC), the number of variables related in a single decision. Tasks from six domains (transitivity, hierarchical classification, class inclusion, cardinality, relative-clause sentence comprehension, and hypothesis testing) were administered to…

  10. Achieving Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Tier 2 HIV-1 Viruses by Strategic Selection of Envelope Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Hessell, Ann J.; Malherbe, Delphine C.; Pissani, Franco; McBurney, Sean; Krebs, Shelly J.; Gomes, Michelle; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Gray, Matthew; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung S.; Sacha, Jonah B.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Fuller, Deborah H.; Montefiori, David C.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D. Noah

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in immunogen selection and vaccine design that will rapidly elicit a protective Ab response is considered critical for HIV vaccine protective efficacy. Vaccine-elicited Ab responses must therefore have the capacity to prevent infection by neutralization-resistant phenotypes of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that establish infection in humans. Most vaccine candidates to date have been ineffective at generating Abs that neutralize T/F or early variants. In this study, we report that coimmunizing rhesus macaques with HIV-1 gp160 DNA and gp140 trimeric protein selected from native envelope gene sequences (envs) induced neutralizing Abs against Tier 2 autologous viruses expressing cognate envelope (Env). The Env immunogens were selected from envs emerging during the earliest stages of neutralization breadth developing within the first 2 years of infection in two clade B–infected human subjects. Moreover, the IgG responses in macaques emulated the targeting to specific regions of Env known to be associated with autologous and heterologous neutralizing Abs developed within the human subjects. Furthermore, we measured increasing affinity of macaque polyclonal IgG responses over the course of the immunization regimen that correlated with Tier 1 neutralization. In addition, we report firm correlations between Tier 2 autologous neutralization and Tier 1 heterologous neutralization, as well as overall TZM-bl breadth scores. Additionally, the activation of Env-specific follicular helper CD4 T cells in lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes of vaccinated macaques correlated with Tier 2 autologous neutralization. These results demonstrate the potential for native Env derived from subjects at the time of neutralization broadening as effective HIV vaccine elements. PMID:26944928

  11. Achieving Potent Autologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Tier 2 HIV-1 Viruses by Strategic Selection of Envelope Immunogens.

    PubMed

    Hessell, Ann J; Malherbe, Delphine C; Pissani, Franco; McBurney, Sean; Krebs, Shelly J; Gomes, Michelle; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Gray, Matthew; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung S; Sacha, Jonah B; LaBranche, Celia C; Fuller, Deborah H; Montefiori, David C; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Sather, D Noah; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    Advancement in immunogen selection and vaccine design that will rapidly elicit a protective Ab response is considered critical for HIV vaccine protective efficacy. Vaccine-elicited Ab responses must therefore have the capacity to prevent infection by neutralization-resistant phenotypes of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that establish infection in humans. Most vaccine candidates to date have been ineffective at generating Abs that neutralize T/F or early variants. In this study, we report that coimmunizing rhesus macaques with HIV-1 gp160 DNA and gp140 trimeric protein selected from native envelope gene sequences (envs) induced neutralizing Abs against Tier 2 autologous viruses expressing cognate envelope (Env). The Env immunogens were selected from envs emerging during the earliest stages of neutralization breadth developing within the first 2 years of infection in two clade B-infected human subjects. Moreover, the IgG responses in macaques emulated the targeting to specific regions of Env known to be associated with autologous and heterologous neutralizing Abs developed within the human subjects. Furthermore, we measured increasing affinity of macaque polyclonal IgG responses over the course of the immunization regimen that correlated with Tier 1 neutralization. In addition, we report firm correlations between Tier 2 autologous neutralization and Tier 1 heterologous neutralization, as well as overall TZM-bl breadth scores. Additionally, the activation of Env-specific follicular helper CD4 T cells in lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes of vaccinated macaques correlated with Tier 2 autologous neutralization. These results demonstrate the potential for native Env derived from subjects at the time of neutralization broadening as effective HIV vaccine elements. PMID:26944928

  12. The Role of Habitat Complexity in Community Development Is Mediated by Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel S.; Johnston, Emma L.; Clark, Graeme F.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat complexity strongly affects the structure and dynamics of ecological communities, with increased complexity often leading to greater species diversity and abundance. However, habitat complexity changes as communities develop, and some species alter their environment to themselves provide habitat for other species. Most experimental studies manipulate basal substrate complexity, and while the importance of complexity likely changes during community development, few studies have examined the temporal dynamics of this variable. We used two experiments to quantify the importance of basal substrate complexity to sessile marine invertebrate community development through space and time. First, we compared effects of substrate complexity at 70 sites across ten estuaries. Sites differed in recruitment and community development rates, and after three months provided spatial variation in community development stage. Second, we tested for effects of substrate complexity at multiple times at a single site. In both experiments, complexity affected marine sessile invertebrate community composition in the early stages of community development when resource availability was high. Effects of complexity diminished through time as the amount of available space (the primary limiting resource) declined. Our work suggests the presence of a bare-space threshold, at which structural complexity of the basal substrate is overwhelmed by secondary biotic complexity. This threshold will be met at different times depending on local recruitment and growth rates and is likely to vary with productivity gradients. PMID:25054325

  13. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart Y of 40 CFR part 141. (b) When is the Tier 3 public notice to be provided? (1) Public water... Other Situations Requiring a Tier 3 Public Notice (1) Monitoring violations under 40 CFR part 141... Tier 2 notice is required; (2) Failure to comply with a testing procedure established in 40 CFR...

  14. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart Y of 40 CFR part 141. (b) When is the Tier 3 public notice to be provided? (1) Public water... Other Situations Requiring a Tier 3 Public Notice (1) Monitoring violations under 40 CFR part 141... Tier 2 notice is required; (2) Failure to comply with a testing procedure established in 40 CFR...

  15. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  16. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  17. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  18. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  19. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  20. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  1. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  2. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  3. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  4. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with...

  5. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  6. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  7. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  8. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with...

  9. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with...

  10. 40 CFR 370.41 - What is Tier I inventory information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... categories are defined in 40 CFR 370.66. Tier I information includes all of the following: (a) Certification... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is Tier I inventory information...-KNOW Reporting Requirements How to Comply with Inventory Reporting § 370.41 What is Tier I...

  11. Effects of Tier 3 Intervention for Students with Persistent Reading Difficulties and Characteristics of Inadequate Responders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon; Francis, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effects of an intensive, individualized, Tier 3 reading intervention for second grade students who had previously experienced inadequate response to quality first grade classroom reading instruction (Tier 1) and supplemental small-group intervention (Tier 2). Also…

  12. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 1984, or later, where the spouse does not have a child of the employee under age 18 in care, the spouse... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier...

  13. Use of Self-Monitoring to Maintain Program Fidelity of Multi-Tiered Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Oliver, Regina M.; Hebert, Michael A.; Bohaty, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Multi-tiered system of supports represents one of the most significant advancements in improving the outcomes of students for whom typical instruction is not effective. While many practices need to be in place to make multi-tiered systems of support effective, accurate implementation of evidence-based practices by individuals at all tiers is…

  14. Effects of a Tier 3 Phonological Awareness Intervention on Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention.…

  15. 76 FR 15041 - Availability of the Draft Tier I Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Highway Administration Availability of the Draft Tier I Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Tier I... (Caltrans), announces the availability of the Draft Tier I Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for...

  16. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT...

  17. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT...

  18. 50 CFR 86.53 - What are funding tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are funding tiers? 86.53 Section 86.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT...

  19. Three-Tiered Models of Prevention: Teacher Efficacy and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Jenkins, Abbie; Booker, Belle B.

    2013-01-01

    Project Persevere examined teacher efficacy and burnout within Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered (CI3T) models of prevention, as implemented in two middle schools in a southern state. Participating schools completed a year-long training series to design their CI3T plans and were in their first year of implementation as part of regular school…

  20. Benchmarking Tier-One Universities: "Keeping up with the Joneses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcik, Nicolas A.; Scruton, Kimberly E.; Murchison, Stuart B.; Benavides, Ted J.; Jordan, Todd; Stigdon, Andrea D.; Olszewski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the attributes of top-tier public institutions and their host municipalities to determine if there are common factors in how the organizations are structured, how they interact, and whether a symbiotic relationship exists that can benefit both entities. This research attempted to determine if cities under…

  1. Multi-Tier Mental Health Program for Refugee Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Miller, Alisa B.; Abdi, Saida; Barrett, Colleen; Blood, Emily A.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We sought to establish that refugee youths who receive a multi-tiered approach to services, Project SHIFA, would show high levels of engagement in treatment appropriate to their level of mental health distress, improvements in mental health symptoms, and a decrease in resource hardships. Method: Study participants were 30 Somali and…

  2. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interest in the lower-tier partnership (e.g., Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's Information Statement of... 8804, “Annual Return for Partnership Withholding Tax (Section 1446),” and Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's... tax paid to its partners on the Forms 8805 it issues. See § 1.1446-3(d). The rules of this...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... interest in the lower-tier partnership (e.g., Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's Information Statement of... 8804, “Annual Return for Partnership Withholding Tax (Section 1446),” and Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's... tax paid to its partners on the Forms 8805 it issues. See § 1.1446-3(d). The rules of this...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interest in the lower-tier partnership (e.g., Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's Information Statement of... 8804, “Annual Return for Partnership Withholding Tax (Section 1446),” and Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's... tax paid to its partners on the Forms 8805 it issues. See § 1.1446-3(d). The rules of this...

  5. Lessons Learned from a Tiered Service Delivery Implementation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Deborah R.

    2012-01-01

    Tiered models of service delivery for both academics and behavior are being increasingly adopted across the nation, and discussions of how to implement these models effectively and simultaneously are growing. In this article, the authors share some lessons learned from a 2-year implementation project to implement a comprehensive (both academic and…

  6. A Comparison of the Incidence Rate in MTSS Tiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackaway, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Tier System of Supports (MTSS) is an evolutionary educational method recently introduced to schools in Kansas. As part of an ongoing investigation into the deployment and effectiveness of the MTSS system, this pilot study established initial participation rates in the program. This project sought to define the incidence rate among males…

  7. 10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF OUTLET TOWER LOOKING DOWN TO TIER #1 OF SLIDE GATES. STRUCTURE HAS LEVELS ENABLING OPERATORS TO CHOOSE LEVEL WITH BEST QUALITY WATER. OVERHANGING DEVICE THAT LOOKS LIKE A LIGHT STANDARD IS ACTUALLY A METER FOR MEASURING WATER LEVELS. - Lake Mathews, East of Route 15, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  8. Teaching Borges's "Garden": A Three-Tiered Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Maggie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how "The Garden of Forking Paths" presents teaching challenges that ultimately yield benefits worth the effort for students and instructors. Discusses a three-tiered approach: spy story, family history and character, and ideas of time and timelessness. Concludes that the three layers provide a structure to get the discussion started and…

  9. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... constitute a fundamental change in their BST or CPSTs. (2) Operators may not drop channels that were offered... not require the subscription to any tier, other than a BST, as a condition for subscribing to an NPT... occupied a CPST or BST part-time on September 30, 1994 also may be offered full-time on an NPT as long...

  10. General Education Assessment Plan: A Four-Tiered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLawhon, Ryan; Phillips, Loraine H.

    2013-01-01

    Planning is possibly the most important step of the assessment process. This article presents a four-tiered approach to designing and implementing a general education institutional assessment plan. Categorizing the measures you use to assess established learning outcomes helps you prioritize your general education assessment initiatives and keep…

  11. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  12. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  13. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  14. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  15. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  16. 46 CFR 356.9 - Tiered ownership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tiered ownership structures. 356.9 Section 356.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE VESSEL'S...

  17. 46 CFR 356.9 - Tiered ownership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tiered ownership structures. 356.9 Section 356.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE VESSEL'S...

  18. 46 CFR 356.9 - Tiered ownership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tiered ownership structures. 356.9 Section 356.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE VESSEL'S...

  19. 46 CFR 356.9 - Tiered ownership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tiered ownership structures. 356.9 Section 356.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE VESSEL'S...

  20. 46 CFR 356.9 - Tiered ownership structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tiered ownership structures. 356.9 Section 356.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A FISHERY ENDORSEMENT TO THE VESSEL'S...

  1. Peered and Tiered Learning: Action Research as Creative Cultural Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and problematizes a peered and tiered model of creative and educational knowledge transfer piloted in Culture Shack, a community-based arts education program in Melbourne, Australia. Drawing on Eisner and Sefton-Green and Soep, I argue the value of this approach as a potential new pedagogical strategy in both secondary…

  2. Pooling the resources of the CMS Tier-1 sites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Apyan, A.; Badillo, J.; Cruz, J. Diaz; Gadrat, S.; Gutsche, O.; Holzman, B.; Lahiff, A.; Magini, N.; Mason, D.; Perez, A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    The CMS experiment at the LHC relies on 7 Tier-1 centres of the WLCG to perform the majority of its bulk processing activity, and to archive its data. During the first run of the LHC, these two functions were tightly coupled as each Tier-1 was constrained to process only the data archived on its hierarchical storage. This lack of flexibility in the assignment of processing workflows occasionally resulted in uneven resource utilisation and in an increased latency in the delivery of the results to the physics community.The long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-2014 was an opportunity to revisit thismore » mode of operations, disentangling the processing and archive functionalities of the Tier-1 centres. The storage services at the Tier-1s were redeployed breaking the traditional hierarchical model: each site now provides a large disk storage to host input and output data for processing, and an independent tape storage used exclusively for archiving. Movement of data between the tape and disk endpoints is not automated, but triggered externally through the WLCG transfer management systems.With this new setup, CMS operations actively controls at any time which data is available on disk for processing and which data should be sent to archive. Thanks to the high-bandwidth connectivity guaranteed by the LHCOPN, input data can be freely transferred between disk endpoints as needed to take advantage of free CPU, turning the Tier-1s into a large pool of shared resources. The output data can be validated before archiving them permanently, and temporary data formats can be produced without wasting valuable tape resources. Lastly, the data hosted on disk at Tier-1s can now be made available also for user analysis since there is no risk any longer of triggering chaotic staging from tape.In this contribution, we describe the technical solutions adopted for the new disk and tape endpoints at the sites, and we report on the commissioning and scale testing of the service. We detail the

  3. Pooling the resources of the CMS Tier-1 sites

    SciTech Connect

    Apyan, A.; Badillo, J.; Cruz, J. Diaz; Gadrat, S.; Gutsche, O.; Holzman, B.; Lahiff, A.; Magini, N.; Mason, D.; Perez, A.; Stober, F.; Taneja, S.; Taze, M.; Wissing, C.

    2015-12-23

    The CMS experiment at the LHC relies on 7 Tier-1 centres of the WLCG to perform the majority of its bulk processing activity, and to archive its data. During the first run of the LHC, these two functions were tightly coupled as each Tier-1 was constrained to process only the data archived on its hierarchical storage. This lack of flexibility in the assignment of processing workflows occasionally resulted in uneven resource utilisation and in an increased latency in the delivery of the results to the physics community.The long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-2014 was an opportunity to revisit this mode of operations, disentangling the processing and archive functionalities of the Tier-1 centres. The storage services at the Tier-1s were redeployed breaking the traditional hierarchical model: each site now provides a large disk storage to host input and output data for processing, and an independent tape storage used exclusively for archiving. Movement of data between the tape and disk endpoints is not automated, but triggered externally through the WLCG transfer management systems.With this new setup, CMS operations actively controls at any time which data is available on disk for processing and which data should be sent to archive. Thanks to the high-bandwidth connectivity guaranteed by the LHCOPN, input data can be freely transferred between disk endpoints as needed to take advantage of free CPU, turning the Tier-1s into a large pool of shared resources. The output data can be validated before archiving them permanently, and temporary data formats can be produced without wasting valuable tape resources. Lastly, the data hosted on disk at Tier-1s can now be made available also for user analysis since there is no risk any longer of triggering chaotic staging from tape.In this contribution, we describe the technical solutions adopted for the new disk and tape endpoints at the sites, and we report on the commissioning and scale testing of the service. We detail the

  4. Pooling the resources of the CMS Tier-1 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apyan, A.; Badillo, J.; Diaz Cruz, J.; Gadrat, S.; Gutsche, O.; Holzman, B.; Lahiff, A.; Magini, N.; Mason, D.; Perez, A.; Stober, F.; Taneja, S.; Taze, M.; Wissing, C.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC relies on 7 Tier-1 centres of the WLCG to perform the majority of its bulk processing activity, and to archive its data. During the first run of the LHC, these two functions were tightly coupled as each Tier-1 was constrained to process only the data archived on its hierarchical storage. This lack of flexibility in the assignment of processing workflows occasionally resulted in uneven resource utilisation and in an increased latency in the delivery of the results to the physics community. The long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-2014 was an opportunity to revisit this mode of operations, disentangling the processing and archive functionalities of the Tier-1 centres. The storage services at the Tier-1s were redeployed breaking the traditional hierarchical model: each site now provides a large disk storage to host input and output data for processing, and an independent tape storage used exclusively for archiving. Movement of data between the tape and disk endpoints is not automated, but triggered externally through the WLCG transfer management systems. With this new setup, CMS operations actively controls at any time which data is available on disk for processing and which data should be sent to archive. Thanks to the high-bandwidth connectivity guaranteed by the LHCOPN, input data can be freely transferred between disk endpoints as needed to take advantage of free CPU, turning the Tier-1s into a large pool of shared resources. The output data can be validated before archiving them permanently, and temporary data formats can be produced without wasting valuable tape resources. Finally, the data hosted on disk at Tier-1s can now be made available also for user analysis since there is no risk any longer of triggering chaotic staging from tape. In this contribution, we describe the technical solutions adopted for the new disk and tape endpoints at the sites, and we report on the commissioning and scale testing of the service. We detail the

  5. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:222-229. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC. PMID:26108565

  6. Complexity, Chaos, and Nonlinear Dynamics: A New Perspective on Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Deborah P.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a theory of career development drawing on nonlinear dynamics and chaos and complexity theories. Career is presented as a complex adaptive entity, a fractal of the human entity. Characteristics of complex adaptive entities, including (a) autopiesis, or self-regeneration; (b) open exchange; (c) participation in networks; (d)…

  7. Hospital tiers in health insurance: balancing consumer choice with financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    Variations in efficiency and market power are generating wide variations in the prices charged by hospitals to health insurance plans. Insurers are developing new network structures that expose the consumer to some of the cost differences, to encourage but not mandate differential use of the more economical facilities. The three leading designs include hospital "tiers" within a single broad network, multiple-network products, and the replacement of copayments by coinsurance in HMO as well as PPO products. This paper describes the new network designs and evaluates the challenges they face in influencing consumers' behavior, incorporating information on clinical quality, and supporting medical education and uncompensated care. PMID:14527246

  8. Development of an artificial climatic complex accelerated corrosion tester and investigation of complex accelerated corrosion test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Li, M.; Sun, Z. )

    1999-05-01

    During recent decades, accelerated corrosion test equipment and methods simulating atmospheric corrosion have been developed to incorporate the many factors involved in complex accelerated corrosion. A new accelerated corrosion tester was developed to simulate various kinds of atmospheric corrosion environments. The equipment can be used to simulate various types of atmospheric corrosion environments with up to eight factors and can be used to carry out 18 kinds of standard corrosion and environmental tasks.

  9. Complexities in Evaluating the Effects of Staff Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Sparks, Dennis

    Because of increased emphasis on accountability, program evaluations today must go beyond measures of change in program participants to consider the effects, either direct or indirect, of staff development on students and their learning. A model is presented illustrating the relationship between staff development for teachers and student learning…

  10. Complexities of Organization Dynamics and Development: Leaders and Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the theoretical framework for understanding organizational dynamics and development - the change theory and subordinate relationships within contemporary organizations. The emphasis is on power strategies and the relationship to organizational dynamics and development. The integrative process broadens the understanding of…

  11. Getting prepared for the LHC Run2: the PIC Tier-1 case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flix, J.; Acción, E.; Acín, V.; Acosta, C.; Casals, J.; Caubet, M.; Cruz, R.; Delfino, M.; López, F.; Pacheco, A.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Planas, E.; Porto, M.; Rodríguez, B.; Sedov, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments will collect unprecedented data volumes in the next Physics run, with high pile-up collisions resulting in events that require a complex processing. Hence, the collaborations have been required to update their Computing Models to optimize the use of the available resources and control the growth of resources, in the midst of widespread funding restrictions, without penalizing any of the Physics objectives. The changes in computing for Run2 represent significant efforts for the collaborations, as well as significant repercussions on how the WLCG sites are built and operated. This paper focuses on these changes, and how they have been implemented and integrated in the Spanish WLCG Tier-1 centre at Port d'Informació Cientifica (PIC), which serves the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments. The approach to adapt a multi-VO site to the new requirements, while maintaining top reliability levels for all the experiments, is as well presented. Additionally, a description of work done to reduce the operational and maintenance costs of the Spanish Tier-1 centre, in agreement with the expectations from WLCG, is provided.

  12. Building Tier 3 Intervention for Long-Term Slow Growers in Grades 3-4: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Victoria M.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    Tier 3 interventions are necessary for improving the reading performance of students who fail to respond adequately to Tier 1 general education instruction and Tier 2 supplemental reading intervention. In this pilot study, we identified 8 students in 3rd and 4th grade who had demonstrated slow response to Tier 2 reading interventions for three…

  13. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  14. A Synopsis of Recent Experimental Developments in Complex (Dusty) Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    A brief summary is presented of recent developments in laboratory studies of complex (dusty) plasmas, both in terrestrial laboratories and under microgravity conditions, together with a short discussion of possible future developments.

  15. Dynamic Development of Complexity and Accuracy: A Case Study in Second Language Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…

  16. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  17. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.; Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D.

    1996-05-31

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object`s geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object`s orientation

  18. Training Future Dentists for an Academic Career: A Three-Tiered Model.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; Albani, Sarah E; Wankiiri-Hale, Christine

    2016-05-01

    The anticipated shortage of dental faculty presents a challenge for dental education as it will greatly impact the training of the next generation of practicing dentists. One way to alleviate shortages is to identify students who are interested in an academic career at the predoctoral level and provide them with training in teaching, research, and leadership. Based on available evidence, formal programs offer the best way to introduce students to academia as a viable career path. A well-designed program can also equip interested students with the necessary skills and basic knowledge to facilitate starting an academic career. The University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine has developed a three-tiered model for providing its dental students with exposure to and training in academic dentistry. The three tiers reflect differing levels of commitment: 1) a two-year academic career track program, 2) academic career track elective courses, and 3) extracurricular activities. The aim of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the program's overall effectiveness. Data were collected using student and faculty surveys and student applications for the two-year academic career track program. The data gathered included characteristics of, and feedback from, students taking the elective courses, as well as student and faculty feedback about student teacher effectiveness. The study found overall positive responses to the three-tiered program from faculty, students, and student teachers at this initial stage. Whether these students ultimately become faculty members (the ultimate goal of the program) will be assessed in the future. PMID:27139201

  19. Dusty (complex) plasmas: recent developments, advances, and unsolved problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey

    The area of dusty (complex) plasma research is a vibrant subfield of plasma physics that be-longs to frontier research in physical sciences. This area is intrinsically interdisciplinary and encompasses astrophysics, planetary science, atmospheric science, magnetic fusion energy sci-ence, and various applied technologies. The research in dusty plasma started after two major discoveries in very different areas: (1) the discovery by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1980 of the radial spokes in Saturn's B ring, and (2) the discovery of the early 80's growth of contaminating dust particles in plasma processing. Dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in the universe; examples are proto-planetary and solar nebulae, molecular clouds, supernovae explosions, interplanetary medium, circumsolar rings, and asteroids. Within the solar system, we have planetary rings (e.g., Saturn and Jupiter), Martian atmosphere, cometary tails and comae, dust clouds on the Moon, etc. Close to the Earth, there are noctilucent clouds and polar mesospheric summer echoes, which are clouds of tiny (charged) ice particles that are formed in the summer polar mesosphere at the altitudes of about 82-95 km. Dust and dusty plasmas are also found in the vicinity of artificial satellites and space stations. Dust also turns out to be common in labo-ratory plasmas, such as in the processing of semiconductors and in tokamaks. In processing plasmas, dust particles are actually grown in the discharge from the reactive gases used to form the plasmas. An example of the relevance of industrial dusty plasmas is the growth of silicon microcrystals for improved solar cells in the future. In fact, nanostructured polymorphous sili-con films provide solar cells with high and time stable efficiency. These nano-materials can also be used for the fabrication of ultra-large-scale integration circuits, display devices, single elec-tron devices, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, and others. In microelectronic industries, dust has to be

  20. Structural development of the western Makran Accretionary Complex, Offshore Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burberry, C. M.; Jackson, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Makran Accretionary Complex (MAC), which straddles the southern offshore regions of Iran and Pakistan, is a fold-thrust system bound by the Murray Ridge and Ornach Nal Fault to the east, and the Minab Fault System (MFS) to the west. It is c. 1000 km wide and the frontal c. 125 km of the system is submerged beneath the Gulf of Oman. Relatively little is known about this system, despite the fact that constitutes a large portion of the Central Tethyan Orogen and is one of the largest accretionary complexes in the world. We use offshore 2D seismic reflection data to investigate the structural style and evolution of the Iranian segment of the MAC. The MAC is divided into two morphologically distinct domains: (i) a northern domain (Domain 1), which is located landward of a prominant break-in-slope on the seabed and is characterised by a series of normal fault-bound sub-basins that are approximately 50 km wide, and which contain numerous, unconformity-bound seismic units; and (ii) a southern domain (Domain 2), which is located basinward of the prominent seabed slope break, and is characterised by alternating ridges and troughs. Seismic data indicate that these structures are laterally continuous (over 100 km long) north-dipping thrust faults, which are overlain by south-verging, non-cylindrical, fault-propagation folds. Towards the western end of the study area, immediately offshore of the prominent onshore trace of the MFS, there is no single structure that can be reliably interpreted as the offshore extension of the MFS. Instead, a series of oblique-slip faults with thrust and strike-slip components are identified, spanning a zone that is c. 40 km wide. In the north and close to the coastline, the faults are dominantly strike-slip, whereas further south, closer to the deformation front, the thrust-sense component is more important. Irrespective of their slip sense, faults in this zone have a similar N-S strike to the onshore trace of the MFS. In addition, the basin

  1. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  2. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    DOEpatents

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  3. Development of polarized ion source for the JINR accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimushkin, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kutuzova, L. V.; Prokofichev, Yu V.; Shutov, B.; Belov, A. S.; Zubets, V. N.; Turbabin, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Status of the JINR polarized ion source development is described. The source is under tests at the test-bench of LHEP, JINR. A charge-exchange plasma ionizer has been tested initially without a storage cell in the ionization region. An unpolarized deuterium ion beam with peak current of 160 mA, 23 keV energy, pulse duration of 100 μs and repetition rate of 1 Hz has been extracted from the ionizer. With a free polarized atomic hydrogen beam injected into the ionizer a polarized proton beam with peak current of 1.4 mA has been obtained. The nearest plans for the source development include tests of the ionizer with the storage cell and tuning of the high frequency transition units installed in their operating position with a Breit-Rabi polarimeter.

  4. A study of a complex system: Development of crack populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyropoulos, Chrysanthe

    the propagation velocity of faults decreases with length as the fault population reaches the saturation regime. Our results suggest that the complex three-dimensional organization of faults is due to the time evolving fault interactions.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1861-04 - How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work? 86.1861-04 Section 86.1861-04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1861-04 - How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work? 86.1861-04 Section 86.1861-04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  7. 33 CFR 155.2230 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Response plan development and....2230 Response plan development and evaluation criteria. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry...: Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Higher volume port area 12 hrs N/A N/A Great Lakes 18 hrs N/A N/A All other...

  8. 33 CFR 155.2230 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Response plan development and....2230 Response plan development and evaluation criteria. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry...: Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Higher volume port area 12 hrs N/A N/A Great Lakes 18 hrs N/A N/A All other...

  9. 33 CFR 155.2230 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Response plan development and....2230 Response plan development and evaluation criteria. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry...: Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Higher volume port area 12 hrs N/A N/A Great Lakes 18 hrs N/A N/A All other...

  10. Time horizon for AFV emission savings under Tier 2

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.

    2000-03-20

    Implementation of the Federal Tier 2 vehicular emission standards according to the schedule presented in the December, 1999 Final Rule will result in substantial reductions of NMHC, CO, NO{sub x}, and fine particle emissions from motor vehicles. Currently, when compared to Tier 1 and even NLEV certification requirements, the emissions performance of automobiles and light-duty trucks powered by non-petroleum (especially, gaseous) fuels (i.e., vehicles collectively termed AFVs) enjoy measurable advantage over their gasoline- and diesel-fueled counterparts over the full Federal Test Procedure and, especially, in Bag 1 (cold start). For the lighter end of these vehicle classes, this advantage may disappear shortly after 2004 under the new standards, but should continue for a longer period (perhaps beyond 2008) for the heavier end as well as for heavy-duty vehicles relative to diesel-fueled counterparts. Because of the continuing commitment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalitions to the acquisition and operation of AFVs of many types and size classes, it is important for them to know in which classes their acquisitions will remain clear relative to the petroleum-fueled counterparts they might otherwise procure. This paper provides an approximate timeline for and expected magnitude of such savings, assuming that full implementation of the Tier 2 standards covering both vehicular emissions and fuel sulfur limits proceeds on schedule. The pollutants of interest are primary ozone precursors and fine particulate matter from fuel combustion.

  11. Research and development of web oriented remote sensing image publication system based on Servlet technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanle, Wang; Shuang, Li; Yunqiang, Zhu

    2005-10-01

    According to the requirements of China National Scientific Data Sharing Program (NSDSP), the research and development of web oriented RS Image Publication System (RSIPS) is based on Java Servlet technique. The designing of RSIPS framework is composed of 3 tiers, which is Presentation Tier, Application Service Tier and Data Resource Tier. Presentation Tier provides user interface for data query, review and download. For the convenience of users, visual spatial query interface is included. Served as a middle tier, Application Service Tier controls all actions between users and databases. Data Resources Tier stores RS images in file and relationship databases. RSIPS is developed with cross platform programming based on Java Servlet tools, which is one of advanced techniques in J2EE architecture. RSIPS's prototype has been developed and applied in the geosciences clearinghouse practice which is among the experiment units of NSDSP in China.

  12. Big Data, Global Development, and Complex Social Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, Nathan

    2010-03-01

    Petabytes of data about human movements, transactions, and communication patterns are continuously being generated by everyday technologies such as mobile phones and credit cards. This unprecedented volume of information facilitates a novel set of research questions applicable to a wide range of development issues. In collaboration with the mobile phone, internet, and credit card industries, my colleagues and I are aggregating and analyzing behavioral data from over 250 million people from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. I will discuss a selection of projects arising from these collaborations that involve inferring behavioral dynamics on a broad spectrum of scales; from risky behavior in a group of MIT freshman to population-level behavioral signatures, including cholera outbreaks in Rwanda and wealth in the UK. Access to the movement patterns of the majority of mobile phones in East Africa also facilitates realistic models of disease transmission as well as slum formations. This vast volume of data requires new analytical tools - we are developing a range of large-scale network analysis and machine learning algorithms that we hope will provide deeper insight into human behavior. However, ultimately our goal is to determine how we can use these insights to actively improve the lives of the billions of people who generate this data and the societies in which they live.

  13. The development and application of composite complexity models and a relative complexity metric in a software maintenance environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.; Sherif, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    A great deal of effort is now being devoted to the study, analysis, prediction, and minimization of software maintenance expected cost, long before software is delivered to users or customers. It has been estimated that, on the average, the effort spent on software maintenance is as costly as the effort spent on all other software costs. Software design methods should be the starting point to aid in alleviating the problems of software maintenance complexity and high costs. Two aspects of maintenance deserve attention: (1) protocols for locating and rectifying defects, and for ensuring that noe new defects are introduced in the development phase of the software process; and (2) protocols for modification, enhancement, and upgrading. This article focuses primarily on the second aspect, the development of protocols to help increase the quality and reduce the costs associated with modifications, enhancements, and upgrades of existing software. This study developed parsimonious models and a relative complexity metric for complexity measurement of software that were used to rank the modules in the system relative to one another. Some success was achieved in using the models and the relative metric to identify maintenance-prone modules.

  14. The Development and Application of Composite Complexity Models and a Relative Complexity Metric in a Software Maintenance Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hops, J. M.; Sherif, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    A great deal of effort is now being devoted to the study, analysis, prediction, and minimization of software maintenance expected cost, long before software is delivered to users or customers. It has been estimated that, on the average, the effort spent on software maintenance is as costly as the effort spent on all other software costs. Software design methods should be the starting point to aid in alleviating the problems of software maintenance complexity and high costs. Two aspects of maintenance deserve attention: (1) protocols for locating and rectifying defects, and for ensuring that no new defects are introduced in the development phase of the software process, and (2) protocols for modification, enhancement, and upgrading. This article focuses primarily on the second aspect, the development of protocols to help increase the quality and reduce the costs associated with modi fications, enhancements, and upgrades of existing software. This study developed parsimonious models and a relative complexity metric for complexity measurement of software that were used to rank the modules in the system relative to one another. Some success was achieved in using the models and the relative metric to identify maintenance-prone modules.

  15. Gravitational effects on structure development in quenched complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Badalassi, V E; Ceniceros, H D; Banerjee, S

    2004-11-01

    When binary liquid mixtures are cooled rapidly from a homogeneous phase into a two-phase system, domains of the two equilibrium phases form and grow (coarsen) with time. In the absence of an external forcing due to gravity or an imposed shear flow, a dynamic scaling regime emerges in which the domain morphology is statistically self-similar at different times with a length-scale that grows with time. In the presence of gravity, however, multiple length scales develop, with the system coarsening more rapidly in the direction of the force. The late-time behavior of such a system is characterized in this study by the calculation of anisotropic growth laws. Gravitation effects significantly affect scaling laws, even with small density mismatch, and the growth mechanism has some similarities to the sedimentation process. However, very few numerical studies have been made of such effects; this is one of the first. PMID:15644369

  16. [Development of new synthetic method using organometallic complexes and an application toward natural product synthesis].

    PubMed

    Mori, Miwako

    2005-01-01

    Recently, many organometallic complexes, such as palladium, nickel, ruthenium, titanium complexes and others, were used for synthetic organic chemistry. We have developed many novel synthetic methods using these organometallic complexes for synthetic organic chemistry. As the organometallic complexes, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, ruthenium, zirconium, titanium, and palladium complexes, were used. Furthermore, bimetallic complexes having silicon-tin and silicon-zirconium bonds were investigated. On the other hand, utilization of gases in synthetic organic chemistry has been also developed. 1 atm pressure of gases such as CO, CO(2), N(2), ethylene and acetylene, could be used and the reaction procedure is very simple, that a balloon filled with a gas is connected on the top of the flask. Using our novel synthetic methods, we have synthesized many natural products and biologically active substances, such as cephalotaxin, mesembrine, tubifoline, strychnine, stemoamide, lycopodine, pumiliotoxin C, beta-lactam, carbapenam and benzodiazepinone derivatives. PMID:15635281

  17. Development of a knowledge management system for complex domains.

    PubMed

    Perott, André; Schader, Nils; Bruder, Ralph; Leonhardt, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH, the German Air Navigation Service Provider, follows a systematic approach, called HERA, for investigating incidents. The HERA analysis shows a distinctive occurrence of incidents in German air traffic control in which the visual perception of information plays a key role. The reasons can be partially traced back to workstation design, where basic ergonomic rules and principles are not sufficiently followed by the designers in some cases. In cooperation with the Institute of Ergonomics in Darmstadt the DFS investigated possible approaches that may support designers to implement ergonomic systems. None of the currently available tools were found to be able to meet the identified user requirements holistically. Therefore it was suggested to develop an enhanced software tool called Design Process Guide. The name Design Process Guide indicates that this tool exceeds the classic functions of currently available Knowledge Management Systems. It offers "design element" based access, shows processual and content related topics, and shows the implications of certain design decisions. Furthermore, it serves as documentation, detailing why a designer made to a decision under a particular set of conditions. PMID:22317137

  18. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: future developments.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-07-31

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry due to condemnation of infected pork meat. The life cycle of T. solium includes human beings as definitive hosts and pigs as intermediate hosts. Cysticercosis is acquired by the ingestion of eggs released by human tapeworm carriers, who become infected after ingesting pork meat contaminated with cysticerci. Taenia solium transmission has been associated with poverty, lack of sanitary services and practices of rearing backyard pigs with free access to the areas that villagers use as toilets, as well as cultural behaviour. Nonetheless, due to the recent increase of migration and tourism, industrial countries are also reporting cases of human cysticercosis. There are many epidemiological studies that have been conducted mainly in Latin American countries that have evaluated intervention measures for control of cysticercosis including the development and testing of vaccines. Furthermore, the involvement of international agencies and institutions, such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Livestock Research Institute, as well as the commitment of policymakers, scientists and field workers, are key means for the sustainable control and, hopefully, eradication of T. solium infections. PMID:16730125

  19. Development of a complex intervention to improve health literacy skills

    PubMed Central

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Danielsen, Stein; Opheim, Elin; Bjørndal, Arild; Reinar, Liv Merete; Flottorp, Signe; Oxman, Andrew David; Helseth, Sølvi

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing insight into the developmental processes involved in building interventions is an important way to ensure methodological transparency and inform future research efforts. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a web portal designed to improve health literacy skills among the public. Methods The web portal was tailored to address three key barriers to obtaining information, using the conceptual frameworks of shared decision-making and evidence-based practice and based on explicit criteria for selecting the content and form of the intervention. Results The web portal targeted the general public and took the form of structured sets of tools. Content included: an introduction to research methods, help on how to find evidence-based health information efficiently based on the steps of evidence-based practice, an introduction to critical appraisal, information about patient participation rights in decision-making, and a decision aid for consultations. Conclusions The web portal was designed in a systematic and transparent way and address key barriers to obtaining and acting upon reliable health information. The web portal provides open access to the tools and can be used independently by health care users, or during consultations with health professionals. PMID:24251890

  20. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ): development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring early relational trauma.

    PubMed

    Maggiora Vergano, Carola; Lauriola, Marco; Speranza, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26388820

  1. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ): development and preliminary psychometric properties of an instrument for measuring early relational trauma

    PubMed Central

    Maggiora Vergano, Carola; Lauriola, Marco; Speranza, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26388820

  2. Development of a new DNA extraction protocol for PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Ghodousi, Arash; Arash, Ghodousi A; Vatani, S; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Omrani, Maryam; Fooladi, A; Fooladi, Aa; Khosaravi, A; Khosaravi, Ad; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-03-01

    A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and applied to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to reduce the cost of using lyticase. This protocol reduces the expense of PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as it removes the use of lyticase during the spheroplast formation from these bacteria. PMID:22783461

  3. Development of a new DNA extraction protocol for PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Arash, Ghodousi A; Vatani, S; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Omrani, Maryam; Fooladi, AA; Khosaravi, AD; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and applied to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to reduce the cost of using lyticase. This protocol reduces the expense of PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as it removes the use of lyticase during the spheroplast formation from these bacteria. PMID:22783461

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING COMPLEX VISUAL DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GEIS, GEORGE L.; ROTHENBERG, MARTIN

    THE SUBJECT OF THIS EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM WAS THE RECOGNITION OF, OR CONCEPTUAL RESPONSE TO, COMPLEX VISUAL STIMULI BY COLLEGE STUDENTS. PROGRAMED INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES WERE USED IN THE SUBJECT CONTEXT TO DEVELOP PRELIMINARY SELF-TEACHING MATERIALS FOR LEARNING COMPLEX CONCEPTS. THESE PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES WERE IMPLEMENTED TO PRODUCE VISUAL…

  5. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points…

  6. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  7. Dynamics of Complexity and Accuracy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Advanced Untutored Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…

  8. Results of Laboratory Testing of 15 Cookstove Designs in Accordance with the ISO/IWA Tiers of Performance.

    PubMed

    Still, Dean; Bentson, Samuel; Li, Haixi

    2015-03-01

    The widespread adoption and sustained use of modern cookstoves has the potential to reduce harmful effects to climate, health, and the well-being of approximately one-third of the world's population that currently rely on biomass fuel for cooking and heating. In an effort to understand and develop cleaner burning and more efficient cookstoves, 15 stove design and fuel/loading combinations were evaluated in the laboratory using the International Workshop Agreement's five-tiered (0-4) rating system for fuel use and emissions. The designs evaluated include rocket-type combustion chamber models including reduced firepower, sunken pots, and chimneys (three stoves); gasifier-type combustion chambers using prepared fuels in the form of wood pellets (four stoves); forced draft stoves with a small electric fan (five stoves); and a single insulated charcoal stove with preheated secondary air. It was found that a charcoal burning stove was the only stove to meet all the Tier 4 levels of performance. Achieving over 40% thermal efficiency at high power was made possible by reducing firepower and gaps around the pot, although batch-fed stoves generally do not "turn down" for optimal low power performance. While all stoves met Tier 4 for carbon monoxide, only stoves equipped with electrical fans reduced respirable particulate matter to Tier 4 levels. Finally, stoves with chimneys and integrated pots were fuel efficient and virtually eliminated indoor emissions. It is hoped that these design techniques will be useful in further development and evolution of high-performance cookstove designs. PMID:25212724

  9. Savannah River Site tier two: Emergency and hazardous chemical inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This document contains the 1991 Two Tier Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory. Submission of this Tier Two form (when requested) is required by Title 3 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Section 312, Public Law 99--499, codified at 42 USC Section 11022. The purpose of this Tier Two form is to provide State and local officials and the public with specific information on hazardous chemicals present at your facility during the past year.

  10. Guidelines and Recommendations for Developing Interactive eHealth Apps for Complex Messaging in Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Kayla Joanne; Maclean, Skye Tamara; Callegari, Emma Teresa; Garland, Suzanne Marie; Reavley, Nicola Jane; Varigos, George Andrew; Wark, John Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background The now ubiquitous catchphrase, “There’s an app for that,” rings true owing to the growing number of mobile phone apps. In excess of 97,000 eHealth apps are available in major app stores. Yet the effectiveness of these apps varies greatly. While a minority of apps are developed grounded in theory and in conjunction with health care experts, the vast majority are not. This is concerning given the Hippocratic notion of “do no harm.” There is currently no unified formal theory for developing interactive eHealth apps, and development is especially difficult when complex messaging is required, such as in health promotion and prevention. Objective This paper aims to provide insight into the creation of interactive eHealth apps for complex messaging, by leveraging the Safe-D case study, which involved complex messaging required to guide safe but sufficient UV exposure for vitamin D synthesis in users. We aim to create recommendations for developing interactive eHealth apps for complex messages based on the lessons learned during Safe-D app development. Methods For this case study we developed an Apple and Android app, both named Safe-D, to safely improve vitamin D status in young women through encouraging safe ultraviolet radiation exposure. The app was developed through participatory action research involving medical and human computer interaction researchers, subject matter expert clinicians, external developers, and target users. The recommendations for development were created from analysis of the development process. Results By working with clinicians and implementing disparate design examples from the literature, we developed the Safe-D app. From this development process, recommendations for developing interactive eHealth apps for complex messaging were created: (1) involve a multidisciplinary team in the development process, (2) manage complex messages to engage users, and (3) design for interactivity (tailor recommendations, remove barriers to

  11. 22 CFR 208.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 208.330 Section 208.330 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 208.330...

  12. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Environmental geospatial datasets (meteorological observations, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are used in numerous research applications. Due to a number of objective reasons such as inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets, big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences that complicate creation and use of unified terminology, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services as well as client applications turns out to be quite a sophisticated task. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization geoportal web applications have to provide such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map legends and corresponding metadata information. It should be noted that modern web mapping systems as integrated geoportal applications are developed based on the SOA and might be considered as complexes of interconnected software tools for working with geospatial data. In the report a complex web mapping system including GIS web client and corresponding OGC services for working with geospatial (NetCDF, PostGIS) dataset archive is presented. There are three basic tiers of the GIS web client in it: 1. Tier of geospatial metadata retrieved from central MySQL repository and represented in JSON format 2. Tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods handling: --- NetCDF metadata --- Task XML object for configuring user calculations, input and output formats --- OGC WMS/WFS cartographical services 3. Graphical user interface (GUI) tier representing JavaScript objects realizing web application business logic Metadata tier consists of a number of JSON objects containing technical information describing geospatial datasets (such as spatio-temporal resolution, meteorological parameters, valid processing methods, etc). The middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods for handling geospatial

  13. Development as a Complex Process of Change: Conception and Analysis of Projects, Programs and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    Development is often understood as a linear process of change towards Western modernity, a vision that is challenged by this paper, arguing that development efforts should rather be connected to the local stakeholders' sense of their own development. Further, the paper contends that Complexity Theory is more effective than a linear theory of…

  14. The Use of Complexity Theory and Strange Attractors to Understand and Explain Information System Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasino, Arthur P.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the best efforts of researchers and practitioners, Information Systems (IS) developers are having problems "getting it right". IS developments are challenged by the emergence of unanticipated IS characteristics undermining managers ability to predict and manage IS change. Because IS are complex, development formulas, best…

  15. Early responses measured in the brachyuran crab Carcinus maenas exposed to carbamazepine and novobiocin: application of a 2-tier approach.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Del Valls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2013-11-01

    One of the main consequences of the constant input of pharmaceuticals to the aquatic environment is that biota might develop unknown chronic effects, thus affecting their health even at low concentrations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health status of Carcinus maenas employing a 2-tier approach, after 28 days of exposure to carbamazepine (CBZ) and novobiocin (NOV) at 0.1, 1, 10 and 50µgL(-1). Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) is employed in tier 1. In tier 2 was applied a battery of biomarkers of exposure and effect (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), dibenzyl flourescein dealkylase (DBF), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA adducts) measured in gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and gonad tissues. Results show a dose-dependent effect. LMS in crabs exposed to environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals was significantly lower compared to controls (p<0.05), indicating their stressed status. EROD activity was induced significantly (p<0.05) in all tissues by NOV (10-50µgL(-1)). DBF activity was induced significantly (p<0.05) in gill and hepatopancreas tissues by CBZ (10-50µgL(-1)). GST activity was activated in all tissues of crabs exposed to the highest concentrations tested (p<0.05). All tissues showed induction of GPX activity after exposure to selected drugs (p<0.05). LPO was activated in gill and hepatopancreas tissues by the pharmaceuticals at 50µgL(-1) (p<0.05). Crabs exposed to NOV (50µgL(-1)) presented DNA damage in gill and hepatopancreas tissues (p<0.05). Environmental concentrations of these pharmaceuticals have a measurable effect on the biomarkers studied. The 2-tier approach applied might be a suitable tool for the assessment of sublethal responses in crabs exposed to pharmaceuticals in the marine environment. PMID:23916015

  16. Thermostability of Well-Ordered HIV Spikes Correlates with the Elicitation of Autologous Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Tran, Karen; Bale, Shridhar; Kumar, Shailendra; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; de Val, Natalia; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Ward, Andrew B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2016-08-01

    In the context of HIV vaccine design and development, HIV-1 spike mimetics displaying a range of stabilities were evaluated to determine whether more stable, well-ordered trimers would more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. To begin, in vitro analysis of trimers derived from the cysteine-stabilized SOSIP platform or the uncleaved, covalently linked NFL platform were evaluated. These native-like trimers, derived from HIV subtypes A, B, and C, displayed a range of thermostabilities, and were "stress-tested" at varying temperatures as a prelude to in vivo immunogenicity. Analysis was performed both in the absence and in the presence of two different adjuvants. Since partial trimer degradation was detected at 37°C before or after formulation with adjuvant, we sought to remedy such an undesirable outcome. Cross-linking (fixing) of the well-ordered trimers with glutaraldehyde increased overall thermostability, maintenance of well-ordered trimer integrity without or with adjuvant, and increased resistance to solid phase-associated trimer unfolding. Immunization of unfixed and fixed well-ordered trimers into animals revealed that the elicited tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity correlated with overall trimer thermostability, or melting temperature (Tm). Glutaraldehyde fixation also led to higher tier 2 autologous neutralization titers. These results link retention of trimer quaternary packing with elicitation of tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity, providing important insights for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27487086

  17. Thermostability of Well-Ordered HIV Spikes Correlates with the Elicitation of Autologous Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shridhar; Kumar, Shailendra; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; de Val, Natalia; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Ward, Andrew B.; Wyatt, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of HIV vaccine design and development, HIV-1 spike mimetics displaying a range of stabilities were evaluated to determine whether more stable, well-ordered trimers would more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. To begin, in vitro analysis of trimers derived from the cysteine-stabilized SOSIP platform or the uncleaved, covalently linked NFL platform were evaluated. These native-like trimers, derived from HIV subtypes A, B, and C, displayed a range of thermostabilities, and were “stress-tested” at varying temperatures as a prelude to in vivo immunogenicity. Analysis was performed both in the absence and in the presence of two different adjuvants. Since partial trimer degradation was detected at 37°C before or after formulation with adjuvant, we sought to remedy such an undesirable outcome. Cross-linking (fixing) of the well-ordered trimers with glutaraldehyde increased overall thermostability, maintenance of well-ordered trimer integrity without or with adjuvant, and increased resistance to solid phase-associated trimer unfolding. Immunization of unfixed and fixed well-ordered trimers into animals revealed that the elicited tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity correlated with overall trimer thermostability, or melting temperature (Tm). Glutaraldehyde fixation also led to higher tier 2 autologous neutralization titers. These results link retention of trimer quaternary packing with elicitation of tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity, providing important insights for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27487086

  18. Epigenetic regulation by BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes is indispensable for embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Sokpor, Godwin; Pham, Linh; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-05-18

    The multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF (known as BAF for Brg/Brm-associated factor) complexes play essential roles in development. Studies have shown that the loss of individual BAF subunits often affects local chromatin structure and specific transcriptional programs. However, we do not fully understand how BAF complexes function in development because no animal mutant had been engineered to lack entire multi-subunit BAF complexes. Importantly, we recently reported that double conditional knock-out (dcKO) of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits in mice abolished the presence of the other BAF subunits in the developing cortex. The generated dcKO mutant provides a novel and powerful tool for investigating how entire BAF complexes affect cortical development. Using this model, we found that BAF complexes globally control the key heterochromatin marks, H3K27me2 and -3, by directly modulating the enzymatic activity of the H3K27 demethylases, Utx and Jmjd3. Here, we present further insights into how the scaffolding ability of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits maintains the stability of BAF complexes in the forebrain and throughout the embryo during development. Furthermore, we show that the loss of BAF complexes in the above-described model up-regulates H3K27me3 and impairs forebrain development and embryogenesis. These findings improve our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complexes that control embryonic development. PMID:26986003

  19. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Swartjes, Frank A. Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  20. Mitochondrial gamma carbonic anhydrases are required for complex I assembly and plant reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Steffanie; Braun, Hans-Peter; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in plants contains an extra domain that is made up from proteins homologous to prokaryotic gamma-carbonic anhydrases (γCA). This domain has been suggested to participate in complex I assembly or to support transport of mitochondrial CO2 to the chloroplast. Here, we generated mutants lacking CA1 and CA2 - two out of three CA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Double mutants were characterized at the developmental and physiological levels. Furthermore, the composition and activity of the mETC were determined, and mutated CA versions were used for complementation assays. Embryo development of double mutants was strongly delayed and seed development stopped before maturation. Mutant plants could only be rescued on sucrose media, showed severe stress symptoms and never produced viable seeds. By contrast, callus cultures were only slightly affected in growth. Complex I was undetectable in the double mutants, but complex II and complex IV were upregulated concomitant with increased oxygen consumption in mitochondrial respiration. Ectopic expression of inactive CA variants was sufficient to complement the mutant phenotype. Data indicate that CA proteins are structurally required for complex I assembly and that reproductive development is dependent on the presence of complex I. PMID:26889912

  1. Netted sensors-based vehicle acoustic classification at Tier 1 nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacyna, Garry M.; Christou, Carol T.; George, Bryan; Necioglu, Burhan F.

    2005-05-01

    The MITRE Corporation has embarked on a three-year internally-funded research program in netted sensors with applications to border monitoring, situational awareness in support of combat identification, and urban warfare. The first-year effort emphasized a border monitoring application for dismounted personnel and vehicle surveillance. This paper will focus primarily on the Tier 1 acoustic-based vehicle classification component. We discuss the development and implementation of a robust linear-weighted classifier on a Mica2 Crossbow mote using feature extraction algorithms specifically developed by MITRE for mote-based processing applications. These include a block floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and an 8-band proportional bandwidth filter bank. Results of in-field testing are compared and contrasted with theoretically-derived performance bounds.

  2. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems

    PubMed Central

    Takecian, Pedro L.; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Braghetto, Kelly R.; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Ferreira, João E.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development. PMID:23729945

  3. Educating advanced level practice within complex health care workplace environments through transformational practice development.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sally; Jackson, Carrie; Webster, Jonathan; Manley, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Over the past 20 years health care reform has influenced the development of advanced level practitioner roles and expectations. How advanced level practitioners work to survive the highly stimulating, yet sometimes overwhelming aspects of balancing high quality provision with political reform agendas, amidst economic constraint is considered. Transformational approaches (encompassing education and practice led service development) can provide, promote and 'provoke' a harnessing of complex issues workplace environment to produce creative solutions. Transformational Practice Development provides a structured, rigorous, systematic approach that practitioners, teams and health care consumers alike can utilise to achieve skills and attributes needed for successful innovation. The authors present case study materials from action orientated locally delivered Practice Development, as a complex strategic intervention approach to influence and promote advanced level practice expertise. Initiated through facilitation of transformational leadership, and resultant team based improvements, we present how strategic collaborative processes can harness work chaos and complexity to provide sustainable and productive workplace cultures of effectiveness. PMID:23453607

  4. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  5. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT: THIRD MILESTONE REPORT 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is sponsoring the Complex Terrain Model Development program, a multi-year integrated program to develop and validate practical plume dispersion models of known reliability and accuracy for simulating one-hour-average ground-level concentra...

  6. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT. FOURTH MILESTONE REPORT - 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is sponsoring the Complex Terrain Development program, a multi-year integrated program to develop, and validate practical plume dispersion models of known reliability and accuracy for simulating one-hour-average ground-level concentrations...

  7. Developing mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes relevant to reactive intermediates of biological oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shinobu

    2015-07-21

    Active-oxygen species generated on a copper complex play vital roles in several biological and chemical oxidation reactions. Recent attention has been focused on the reactive intermediates generated at the mononuclear copper active sites of copper monooxygenases such as dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM), tyramine β-monooxygenase (TβM), peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM), and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMO). In a simple model system, reaction of O2 and a reduced copper(I) complex affords a mononuclear copper(II)-superoxide complex or a copper(III)-peroxide complex, and subsequent H(•) or e(-)/H(+) transfer, which gives a copper(II)-hydroperoxide complex. A more reactive species such as a copper(II)-oxyl radical type species could be generated via O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide complex. However, little had been explored about the chemical properties and reactivity of the mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes due to the lack of appropriate model compounds. Thus, a great deal of effort has recently been made to develop efficient ligands that can stabilize such reactive active-oxygen complexes in synthetic modeling studies. In this Account, I describe our recent achievements of the development of a mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex using a simple tridentate ligand consisting of an eight-membered cyclic diamine with a pyridylethyl donor group. The superoxide complex exhibits a similar structure (four-coordinate tetrahedral geometry) and reactivity (aliphatic hydroxylation) to those of a proposed reactive intermediate of copper monooxygenases. Systematic studies based on the crystal structures of copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of the related tridentate supporting ligands have indicated that the rigid eight-membered cyclic diamine framework is crucial for controlling the geometry and the redox potential, which are prerequisites for the generation of such a unique mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex

  8. Planning and management of the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Harry, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    As Operator for the Northeast Palawan consortium, Philippines-Cities Service, Inc., commenced the Philippines first commercial offshore oil production from the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field on February 1, 1979, some 11 months after a decision by management to start development. The relative speed at which design, fabrication, and construction were accomplished is attributed to the use of the concepts of project planning, task force approach, and project management. This paper presents the above concepts as applied to the Nido Complex.

  9. Data-Driven Delivery of Implementation Supports in a Multi-Tiered Framework: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    For multi-tiered systems of support, such as Response-to-Intervention and Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, to effectively impact student outcomes, interventions delivered across the tiers must be implemented as planned (i.e., with adequate treatment integrity). However, research suggests that most school personnel struggle to deliver…

  10. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Other Situations Requiring a Tier 3 Public Notice (1) Monitoring violations under 40 CFR part 141... Tier 2 notice is required; (2) Failure to comply with a testing procedure established in 40 CFR part... exemption granted under Section 1416 of the Safe Drinking Water Act; (4) Availability of...

  11. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Other Situations Requiring a Tier 3 Public Notice (1) Monitoring violations under 40 CFR part 141... Tier 2 notice is required; (2) Failure to comply with a testing procedure established in 40 CFR part... exemption granted under Section 1416 of the Safe Drinking Water Act; (4) Availability of...

  12. 40 CFR 370.41 - What is Tier I inventory information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... categories are defined in 40 CFR 370.66. Tier I information includes all of the following: (a) Certification... categories are defined in 40 CFR 370.66. Tier I inventory form includes the following data elements: (a... notification requirement under EPCRA section 302, codified in 40 CFR part 355. (l) An indication whether...

  13. Knowledge Management Systems and Open Innovation in Second Tier UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaston, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of second tier UK universities in relation to the effectiveness of their knowledge management systems and involvement in open innovation. Data were acquired using a mail survey of academic staff in social science and business faculties in second tier institutions. The results indicate that…

  14. 14 CFR 1216.307 - Programmatic EAs, and EISs, and tiering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Programmatic EAs, and EISs, and tiering. 1216.307 Section 1216.307 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...) § 1216.307 Programmatic EAs, and EISs, and tiering. NASA encourages the analysis of actions at...

  15. 75 FR 77869 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... (75 FR 70248) (FRL-8848-7). In that notice, EPA announced the second list of chemicals and substances... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening; Extension of... Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program's (EDSP) second list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. This...

  16. Tiering and Scaffolding: Two Strategies for Providing Access to Important Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Tiering and scaffolding are two differentiation strategies that teachers use to support access to a high-quality mathematics curriculum for all students. This article provides examples demonstrating a thinking process for planning tiered activities that focus on important mathematical understandings. Also described are possible scaffolds that can…

  17. The Top 10 Things to Consider when Implementing Secondary-Tier PBIS Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Swoszowski, Nicole Cain

    2011-01-01

    Schools across the country have seen the benefits of implementing three-tiered models of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). Within that model, secondary-tier (ST) interventions are an essential component because they (a) require relatively little implementation time compared with more intensive interventions, (b) address the…

  18. 75 FR 33389 - TierOne Bank Lincoln, Nebraska; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision TierOne Bank Lincoln, Nebraska; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is... Receiver for TierOne Bank, Lincoln, Nebraska, (OTS No. 03309), on June 4, 2010. Dated: June 7, 2010. By...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 112 - Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan G Appendix G to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. G Appendix G to Part 112—Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC...

  20. 76 FR 78967 - Second Tier Environmental Impact Statement: Jackson County, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Second Tier Environmental Impact Statement: Jackson County, MO AGENCY... notice to advise the public that a Second Tier Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for... addition, informational meetings with the public and community representatives will be held to...

  1. Using Regression Discontinuity to Test the Impact of a Tier 2 Reading Intervention in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Chaparro, Erin A.; Smith, Jean L. M.; Fien, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Multitiered systems of reading instruction and intervention, including response to intervention, are widely used in early reading by schools to provide more intense services to students who need them. Research using randomized controlled trials has compared innovative Tier 2 interventions to business-as-usual Tier 2 approaches and established a…

  2. Transporting Motivational Interviewing to School Settings to Improve the Engagement and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of Tier 2 interventions are facilitated by specialized instructional support personnel, such as a school psychologists, school social workers, school counselors, or behavior consultants. Many professionals struggle to involve parents and teachers in Tier 2 behavior interventions. However, attention to the motivational issues for…

  3. The Impact of Tier 2 Mathematics Instruction on Second Graders with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih; Bryant, Brian R.; Drogan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Although research on Tier 2 interventions for early mathematics is accumulating, such efforts remain far behind those for reading, especially regarding specific features such as the ideal time to begin an intervention. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a Tier 2 intervention using a single subject multiple baseline, across-groups…

  4. 48 CFR 213.106-1-70 - Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers. 213.106-1-70 Section 213.106-1-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 213.106-1-70 Soliciting competition—tiered evaluation of...

  5. 48 CFR 213.106-1-70 - Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers. 213.106-1-70 Section 213.106-1-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 213.106-1-70 Soliciting competition—tiered evaluation of...

  6. 48 CFR 213.106-1-70 - Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers. 213.106-1-70 Section 213.106-1-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 213.106-1-70 Soliciting competition—tiered evaluation of...

  7. 48 CFR 213.106-1-70 - Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers. 213.106-1-70 Section 213.106-1-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 213.106-1-70 Soliciting competition—tiered evaluation of...

  8. 48 CFR 213.106-1-70 - Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Soliciting competition-tiered evaluation of offers. 213.106-1-70 Section 213.106-1-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 213.106-1-70 Soliciting competition—tiered evaluation of...

  9. Tiered Intervention: History and Trends in Finland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnukainen, Markku; Itkonen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the similarities and differences of relatively newly established tiered intervention models for the support of students with special needs in the United States (response to intervention) and in Finland (learning and schooling support). The current models in both countries consist of several tiers with fairly similar…

  10. Differentiating by Readiness: Strategies and Lesson Plans for Tiered Instruction, Grades K-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turville, Joni; Allen, Linda; Nickelsen, LeAnn

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to tiering plus step-by-step instructions for using it in your classroom. Also included are 23 ready-to-apply blackline masters, which provide helpful ideas for activities and classroom management. Contents include: (1) Building the foundation: What is tiering in differentiated instruction?; (2) The…

  11. Two-Tier Compensation Structures. Their Impact on Unions, Employers, and Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; Heetderks, Thomas D.

    This book examines in detail the impact of tiered compensation structures on unions, employers, and employees. (Tiered compensation structures are defined as pay systems in which employees who start working or change jobs in a company after a certain date receive a lower rate of pay than employees who were doing the same or similar jobs before…

  12. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I..., App. D Appendix D to Part 238—Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives The... properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I..., App. D Appendix D to Part 238—Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives The... properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 112 - Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan G Appendix G to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. G Appendix G to Part 112—Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC...

  15. 20 CFR 209.14 - Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. 209.14 Section 209.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. For any employee who is paid a separation payment,...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 112 - Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan G Appendix G to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. G Appendix G to Part 112—Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 112 - Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan G Appendix G to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. G Appendix G to Part 112—Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 112 - Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC Plan G Appendix G to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. G Appendix G to Part 112—Tier I Qualified Facility SPCC...

  19. 40 CFR 725.426 - Applicability of the Tier I exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.426 Applicability of the Tier I exemption. The Tier I exemption under § 725.424 applies only to a manufacturer or importer of a new microorganism that certifies that...

  20. Effects of Multi-Tier Academic and Behavior Instruction on Difficult-to-Teach Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Wang, Chuang; White, Richard; Cooke, Nancy; Marr, Mary Beth; Algozzine, Kate; Helf, Shawnna S.; Duran, Grace Zamora

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of 3-tiered comprehensive reading and behavior interventions on K-3 student outcomes in 7 urban elementary schools with a high prevalence of students considered difficult to teach. Specific features of each level of the implementation are described including screening and tier placement procedures, scheduling and…

  1. 40 CFR 725.426 - Applicability of the Tier I exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.426 Applicability of the Tier I exemption. The Tier I exemption under § 725.424 applies only to a manufacturer or importer of a new microorganism that certifies that...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives D Appendix D to Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., App. D Appendix D to Part 238—Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238 - Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives D Appendix D to Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., App. D Appendix D to Part 238—Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives...

  4. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Note that the tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions and that the specified standards for HC, CO, and smoke emissions apply independent of the changes to the NOX emission... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust emission standards for Tier...

  5. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Hydrocarbons: 19.6 grams/kilonewton rO. (ii) Engines manufactured on or after July 7, 1997. Carbon Monoxide: 118 grams/kilonewton rO. (iii) The following Tier 0 emission standard applies for engines of a type or... 31, 1999. Oxides of Nitrogen: (40 + 2(rPR)) grams/kilonewton rO. (iv) The following Tier 2...

  6. Integrating Multi-Tiered Measurement Outcomes for Special Education Eligibility with Sequential Decision-Making Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Englund, Julia; Albritton, Kizzy

    2012-01-01

    Changes to federal guidelines for the identification of children with disabilities have supported the use of multi-tiered models of service delivery. This study investigated the impact of measurement methodology as used across numerous tiers in determining special education eligibility. Four studies were completed using a sample of inner-city…

  7. Tier-Adjacency Is Not a Necessary Condition for Learning Phonotactic Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Hahn; Callahan, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    One hypothesis raised by Newport and Aslin to explain how speakers learn dependencies between nonadjacent phonemes is that speakers track bigram probabilities between two segments that are adjacent to each other within a tier of their own. The hypothesis predicts that a dependency between segments separated from each other at the tier level cannot…

  8. Fundamentalists, Priests, Martyrs and Converts: A Typology of First Tier Management in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Damien

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study of first tier managers in English Further Education colleges, a role critically neglected within the literature, despite its centrality to organisational effectiveness and learner success. The role was found to be diverse, contested and elastic and while first tier managers were found to be highly…

  9. 29 CFR 1918.83 - Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down. 1918.83 Section... cargo; tiering and breaking down. (a) When necessary to protect personnel working in a hold, the employer shall secure or block stowed cargo that is likely to shift or roll. (b) In breaking down...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.83 - Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down. 1918.83 Section... cargo; tiering and breaking down. (a) When necessary to protect personnel working in a hold, the employer shall secure or block stowed cargo that is likely to shift or roll. (b) In breaking down...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.83 - Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stowed cargo; tiering and breaking down. 1918.83 Section... cargo; tiering and breaking down. (a) When necessary to protect personnel working in a hold, the employer shall secure or block stowed cargo that is likely to shift or roll. (b) In breaking down...

  12. Toward a Two-Tier Clinical Warning System for Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hackmann, Gregory; Chen, Minmin; Chipara, Octav; Lu, Chenyang; Chen, Yixin; Kollef, Marin; Bailey, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical study has found early detection and intervention to be essential for preventing clinical deterioration in patients at general hospital units. In this paper, we envision a two-tiered early warning system designed to identify the signs of clinical deterioration and provide early warning of serious clinical events. The first tier of the system automatically identifies patients at risk of clinical deterioration from existing electronic medical record databases. The second tier performs real-time clinical event detection based on real-time vital sign data collected from on-body wireless sensors attached to those high-risk patients. We employ machine-learning techniques to analyze data from both tiers, assigning scores to patients in real time. The assigned scores can then be used to trigger early-intervention alerts. Preliminary study of an early warning system component and a wireless clinical monitoring system component demonstrate the feasibility of this two-tiered approach. PMID:22195105

  13. Limiting solidarity in the Netherlands: a two-tier system on the way.

    PubMed

    Ter Meulen, R H

    1995-12-01

    Health care policy in the Netherlands has long been guided by the values of solidarity and equality. As a result of several forces, particularly the scarcity of resources, the retreat of the Welfare State and the introduction of market forces in health care, both values are increasingly under strain. Next to solidarity and equality, freedom of choice and financial responsibility are playing an important role in Dutch health care. Consequently, there is a growing division in Dutch health care between two tiers, one basic tier giving access to a basic package of services and a luxury tier giving access to a higher quality of care and to services not included in the basic package. The main thesis of the article is that a two-tier system is morally justified on the condition that the basic tier is universally accessible and is based on the value of humanitarian solidarity. PMID:11608826

  14. SCID-PANSS: two-tier diagnostic system for psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kay, S R; Opler, L A; Spitzer, R L; Williams, J B; Fiszbein, A; Gorelick, A

    1991-01-01

    The SCID-PANSS was developed as a two-tier diagnostic system for psychotic disorders to supplement categorical diagnosis with functional-dimensional assessment. The procedure combines the DSM-III-R Structured Clinical Interview and Rating Criteria (SCID) with those from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The comprehensive 50- to 60-minute interview yields diagnostic classification, plus a profile of 30 symptoms and 10 dimensional scales, including positive and negative syndromes, depression, thought disturbance, and severity of illness. A study of 34 psychotic inpatients assessed by five psychiatrists showed strong interrater correlations (0.85 to 0.97 for summary scales, P less than .0001), supporting the reliability of the SCID-PANSS for clinical and research applications. PMID:1935026

  15. The ''Complex Reality'' of Research Capacity Development in Mathematics Education in Southern African Development Community Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julie, Cyril; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Persens, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how an aid-funded Ph.D.-programme in mathematics education instituted in some Southern African Development Community countries measures up to issues related to research capacity development projects. The research capacity development programme is described and reflected against mutual benefit, relevance, sustainability and…

  16. Neuropsychological Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Preschoolers Exposed to Tiered Low Oxygen Targets: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Weiss, Brandi A; Baker, Robin; Ahronovich, Margot D; Litman, Fern R; Baveja, Rajiv

    2016-03-01

    An observational study of neuropsychological outcomes at preschool age of tiered lowered oxygen (O2) saturation targets in extremely preterm neonates. We studied 111 three-year-olds born <28 weeks' gestational age. Fifty-nine participants born in 2009-2010 during a time-limited quality improvement initiative each received three-tiered stratification of oxygen rates (83-93% until age 32 weeks, 85-95% until age 35 weeks, and 95% after age 35 weeks), the TieredO2 group. Comparisons were made with 52 participants born in 2007-2008 when pre-initiative saturation targets were non-tiered at 89-100%, the Non-tieredO2 group. Neuropsychological domains included general intellectual, executive, attention, language, visuoperceptual, visual-motor, and fine and gross motor functioning. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted. Group comparisons were not statistically significant. Descriptively, the TieredO2 group had better general intellectual, executive function, visual-motor, and motor performance and the Non-tieredO2 group had better language performance. Cohen's d and confidence intervals around d were in similar direction and magnitude across measures. A large effect size was found for recall of digits-forward in participants born at 23 and 24 weeks' gestation, d=0.99 and 1.46, respectively. Better TieredO2 outcomes in all domains except language suggests that the tiered oxygen saturation target method is not harmful and merits further investigation through further studies. Benefit in auditory attention appeared greatest in those born at 23 and 24 weeks. Participants in the tiered oxygen saturation group also had fewer ventilation days and a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, perhaps explanatory for these neuropsychological outcomes at age 3. (JINS, 2015, 21, 322-331). PMID:26646724

  17. Development of Novel DNA Cleavage Systems Based on Copper Complexes. Synthesis and Characterisation of Cu(II) Complexes of Hydroxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    el Amrani, F. Ben-Allal; Perelló, L.; Torres, L.

    2000-01-01

    Copper(II) complexes of several hydroxyflavones were prepared and characterised through their physico-chemical properties. The nuclease activity of three synthesised complexes is reported. These copper(II) complexes present more nuclease activity than the ligands and the copper(II) ion. PMID:18475969

  18. The INFN-CNAF Tier-1 GEMSS Mass Storage System and database facility activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Pier Paolo; Cavalli, Alessandro; Dell'Agnello, Luca; Favaro, Matteo; Gregori, Daniele; Prosperini, Andrea; Pezzi, Michele; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Zizzi, Giovanni; Vagnoni, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    The consolidation of Mass Storage services at the INFN-CNAF Tier1 Storage department that has occurred during the last 5 years, resulted in a reliable, high performance and moderately easy-to-manage facility that provides data access, archive, backup and database services to several different use cases. At present, the GEMSS Mass Storage System, developed and installed at CNAF and based upon an integration between the IBM GPFS parallel filesystem and the Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) tape management software, is one of the largest hierarchical storage sites in Europe. It provides storage resources for about 12% of LHC data, as well as for data of other non-LHC experiments. Files are accessed using standard SRM Grid services provided by the Storage Resource Manager (StoRM), also developed at CNAF. Data access is also provided by XRootD and HTTP/WebDaV endpoints. Besides these services, an Oracle database facility is in production characterized by an effective level of parallelism, redundancy and availability. This facility is running databases for storing and accessing relational data objects and for providing database services to the currently active use cases. It takes advantage of several Oracle technologies, like Real Application Cluster (RAC), Automatic Storage Manager (ASM) and Enterprise Manager centralized management tools, together with other technologies for performance optimization, ease of management and downtime reduction. The aim of the present paper is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of the INFN-CNAF Tier1 Storage department infrastructures and software services, and to give a brief outlook to forthcoming projects. A description of the administrative, monitoring and problem-tracking tools that play a primary role in managing the whole storage framework is also given.

  19. To Wait in Tier 1 or Intervene Immediately: A Randomized Experiment Examining First Grade Response to Intervention (RTI) in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M.; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Schatschneider, Christopher; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized control study compares the efficacy of two response-to-intervention (RTI) models: (1) Dynamic RTI, which immediately refers grade 1 students with the weakest skills to the most intensive intervention supports (Tier 2 or Tier 3); and (2) Typical RTI, which starts all students in Tier 1 and after 8 weeks, decides whether students who…

  20. 47 CFR 76.923 - Rates for equipment and installation used to receive the basic service tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receive the basic service tier. 76.923 Section 76.923 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.923 Rates for equipment and installation used to receive the basic service tier. (a) Scope. (1... and maintained by the operator, that is used to receive the basic service tier, regardless of...

  1. 47 CFR 76.923 - Rates for equipment and installation used to receive the basic service tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... receive the basic service tier. 76.923 Section 76.923 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 76.923 Rates for equipment and installation used to receive the basic service tier. (a) Scope. (1... and maintained by the operator, that is used to receive the basic service tier, regardless of...

  2. 76 FR 48904 - Announcement Regarding the Virgin Islands Triggering “on” Tier Three of Emergency Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Employment And Training Administration Announcement Regarding the Virgin Islands Triggering ``on'' Tier Three..., Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding the Virgin Islands triggering ``on'' Tier Three... Labor produces a trigger notice indicating which states qualify for EUC08 benefits within Tiers...

  3. 75 FR 69134 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “off” of Tiers Three and Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding States Triggering ``off'' of Tiers Three and..., Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding states triggering ``off'' of Tiers Three and Four... Labor produces a trigger notice indicating which states qualify for EUC08 benefits within Tiers...

  4. 76 FR 44611 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” of Tiers Three and Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding States Triggering ``Off'' of Tiers Three and..., Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding states triggering ``off'' of Tiers Three and Four... Labor produces a trigger notice indicating which states qualify for EUC08 benefits within Tiers...

  5. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''),...

  6. Examining the Predictive Validity of a Dynamic Assessment of Decoding to Forecast Response to Tier 2 Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunsoo; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of a dynamic assessment (DA) of decoding in predicting responsiveness to Tier 2 small-group tutoring in a response-to-intervention model. First grade students (n = 134) who did not show adequate progress in Tier 1 based on 6 weeks of progress monitoring received Tier 2 small-group tutoring in…

  7. The Complexity Signature: Developing a Tool to Communicate Biopsychosocial Severity of Disease for Children with Chronic Neurological Complexity.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sonanini, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Focke, Axel; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Aim For children with medical complexity, interdisciplinary treatment approaches are required to address the various aspects defined within the biopsychosocial model. Methods The present study identifies dimensions of the biopsychosocial model to generate a standardized visualized severity score for chronic neurological diseases in children. We demonstrate the score's applicability and usefulness in clinical practice among clinicians with and without pediatric board certification with the aid of illustrative patient cases. The results are compared by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Nine dimensions were identified as the basis for the development of the score, which consists of five grades of severity for each of the selected neuropediatric subsections. All board-certified pediatricians would recommend the application of the severity score in clinical routine. Furthermore, a good correlation was revealed between direct and indirect (severity score) assessment. Interpretation The severity score developed in this study takes into account biopsychosocial aspects of chronic diseases while being comprehensible and easily applicable in clinical routine-a biopsychosocial signature serving as an excellent, striking communication basis within the interdisciplinary team. However, upcoming studies including more patient cases are needed for further refinement. PMID:27228000

  8. Intrauterine effect of dam on prenatal development of craniofacial complex of mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, K; Sasaki, Y; Yanagita, K; Matsumoto, T; Watanabe, Y; Nakata, M

    1993-01-01

    Embryo transfer effect and intrauterine effect of the dam on prenatal development of the craniofacial complex of mice embryos were investigated with the use of embryo transfer and cephalostat. DDD strain embryos were transferred to the three strains of recipients (DDD, C57BL, and DBA). The cephalometric observation of newborn offspring developed from transferred embryos was performed just after parturition. Dorso-ventral craniofacial size of newborn offspring was calculated using values of X- and Y-coordinates on a dorsoventral cephalogram. Statistical analysis showed that a significant intergroup difference in craniofacial size between transferred and nontransferred groups as well as a significant inter-strain difference among those of the three strains of recipients were observed. Thus, it was disclosed that embryo transfer technique might retard the prenatal development of craniofacial complex of transferred embryo and that the three strains of recipients contributed unequally to the prenatal development of craniofacial complex of transferred embryo through each of their intrauterine environments as a prenatal maternal effect. These results indicated that the intrauterine environment of the recipient played an important role in the prenatal development of the craniofacial complex of the mice embryo. PMID:8227293

  9. Menaquinone and Iron Are Essential for Complex Colony Development in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Pelchovich, Gidi; Omer-Bendori, Shira; Gophna, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Cells of undomesticated species of Bacillus subtilis frequently form complex colonies during spreading on agar surfaces. Given that menaquinone is involved in another form of coordinated behavior, namely, sporulation, we looked for a possible role for menaquinone in complex colony development (CCD) in the B. subtilis strain NCIB 3610. Here we show that inhibition of menaquinone biosynthesis in B. subtilis indeed abolished its ability to develop complex colonies. Additionally some mutations of B. subtilis which confer defective CCD could be suppressed by menaquinone derivatives. Several such mutants mapped to the dhb operon encoding the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the iron siderophore, bacillibactin. Our results demonstrate that both menaquinone and iron are essential for CCD in B. subtilis. PMID:24223955

  10. Development and characterization of nanoparticulate formulation of a water soluble prodrug of dexamethasone by HIP complexation

    PubMed Central

    Gaudana, Ripal; Parenky, Ashwin; Vaishya, Ravi; Samanta, Swapan K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticulate-based sustained release formulation of a water soluble dipeptide prodrug of dexamethasone, valine–valine-dexamethasone (VVD). Being hydrophilic in nature, it readily leaches out in the external aqueous medium and hence partitions poorly into the polymeric matrix resulting in minimal entrapment in nanoparticles. Hence, hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complexation of the prodrug was employed with dextran sulphate as a complexing polymer. A novel, solid in oil in water emulsion method was employed to encapsulate the prodrug in HIP complex form in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix. Nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, crystallinity of entrapped drug and surface morphology. A significant enhancement in the entrapment of the prodrug in nanoparticles was achieved. Finally, a simple yet novel method was developed which can also be applicable to encapsulate other charged hydrophilic molecules, such as peptides and proteins. PMID:20939702

  11. Network monitoring in the Tier2 site in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliáš, Marek; Fiala, Lukáš; Horký, Jiří; Chudoba, Jiří; Kouba, Tomáš; Kundrát, Jan; Švec, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Network monitoring provides different types of view on the network traffic. It's output enables computing centre staff to make qualified decisions about changes in the organization of computing centre network and to spot possible problems. In this paper we present network monitoring framework used at Tier-2 in Prague in Institute of Physics (FZU). The framework consists of standard software and custom tools. We discuss our system for hardware failures detection using syslog logging and Nagios active checks, bandwidth monitoring of physical links and analysis of NetFlow exports from Cisco routers. We present tool for automatic detection of network layout based on SNMP. This tool also records topology changes into SVN repository. Adapted weathermap4rrd is used to visualize recorded data to get fast overview showing current bandwidth usage of links in network.

  12. Useful second-tier tests in expanded newborn screening of isovaleric acidemia and methylmalonic aciduria.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Yosuke; Hata, Ikue; Tajima, Go

    2010-10-01

    Common use of pivalate-generating antibiotics in newborns in Japan and low cutoff value of C5-acylcarnitine (C5) to detect mild forms of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) led to 1,065 positive results from IVA screening among 146,000 newborns tested by tandem mass spectrometry over the last 3 years. Using our method to determine isovalerylglycine (IVG) levels in dried blood spots (DBS) as a second-tier test with IVG cutoff value of 0.5 nmol/ml in DBS, one patient with severe IVA was identified, and no recall of the second DBS was needed. Retrospective analysis revealed that most patients with moderate to severe forms of IVA have decreased free-carnitine levels shortly after birth and higher levels of IVG than those of C5, which suggests that this method is useful in evaluating the severity of IVA. Another second-tier test, to measure methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels in DBS by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), has been developed to overcome difficulties in screening methylmalonic aciduria (MMAU) and propionic acidemia. Methanol extract from DBS was dried and derivatized using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. GC/MS was performed using splitless injection, electron-impact ionization, and selected ion monitoring for data recording. MMAU patients had much higher DBS concentrations of MMA (24.2-321.9 nmol/ml) than control newborns (0.34 ± 0.11 nmol/ml). MMA measurement in DBS was thought to provide useful information about the severity of MMAU, as MMAU patients with high levels of MMA had decreased levels of free carnitine and mildly increased levels of propionylcarnitine. PMID:20440648

  13. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  14. 78 FR 58311 - Complex Issues in Developing Drug and Biological Products for Rare Diseases; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Complex Issues in Developing Drug and Biological Products for Rare Diseases; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request...

  15. Future Development Of The Flerov Laboratory Accelerator Complex (Project DRIBs-III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbekian, G. G.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Popeko, A. G.

    2010-04-01

    Future development of the FLNR accelerator complex (project DRIBs-III) includes modernization of existing cyclotrons, construction of a new experimental hall, creation of a new high current cyclotron and of next generation experimental set-ups. Realization of the project is planned for 2010-2016.

  16. Syntactical Complexity in Written Language and Cognitive Development at the Formal Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Shepherd, Gene D.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between syntactical complexity of high school students' written language and their ability to reason formally. Format reasoning ability of 50 high school students was measured by a 15-item group-administered demonstration test developed by Lawson. (HM)

  17. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  18. 2D and 3D Method of Characteristic Tools for Complex Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Tharen

    2003-01-01

    This report details the development of a 2D and 3D Method of Characteristic (MOC) tool for the design of complex nozzle geometries. These tools are GUI driven and can be run on most Windows-based platforms. The report provides a user's manual for these tools as well as explains the mathematical algorithms used in the MOC solutions.

  19. "Sounds of Intent": Mapping Musical Behaviour and Development in Children and Young People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Graham; Ockelford, Adam; Carter, Fern-Chantele; Zimmermann, Sally-Anne; Himonides, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the first year of an Esmee Fairbairn Foundation-funded research project into the design and evaluation of an original "framework" for mapping the behaviour and development in, and through, music for children with complex needs, specifically those with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). An initial four-month…

  20. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  1. Development of Size Modification of Human Figure Drawings in Spatial Axes Systems of Varying Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange-Kuttner, C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated intra-individual development of ability to modify the size of a human figure drawing. Found through longitudinal data that children between ages 7 and 9 were able to reduce drawing size. Discovered that the larger the figure initially, the more complex the level of spatial axes system, and the more persons in the picture, the greater…

  2. Dissecting the Roles of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Subunits in the Control of Skin Development.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Katherine L; Perdigoto, Carolina N; Valdes, Victor J; Santoriello, Francis J; Cohen, Idan; Ezhkova, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential regulator of cell physiology. Although there have been numerous studies on PRC2 function in somatic tissue development and stem cell control, these have focused on the loss of a single PRC2 subunit. Recent studies, however, have shown that PRC2 subunits may function independently of the PRC2 complex. To investigate the function of PRC2 in the control of skin development, we generated and analyzed three conditional knockout mouse lines, in which the essential PRC2 subunits embryonic ectoderm development (EED), suppressor of zeste 12 homolog (Suz12), and enhancer of zeste homologs 1 and 2 (Ezh1/2) are conditionally ablated in the embryonic epidermal progenitors that give rise to the epidermis, hair follicles, and Merkel cells. Our studies showed that the observed loss-of-function phenotypes are shared between the three knockouts, indicating that in the skin epithelium, EED, Suz12, and Ezh1/2 function largely as subunits of the PRC2 complex. Interestingly, the absence of PRC2 results in dramatically different phenotypes across the different skin lineages: premature acquisition of a functional epidermal barrier, formation of ectopic Merkel cells, and defective postnatal development of hair follicles. The strikingly different roles of PRC2 in the formation of three lineages exemplify the complex outcomes that the lack of PRC2 can have in a somatic stem cell system. PMID:26994968

  3. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  4. Peer Conflict Explanations in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Examining the Development of Complex Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Mansfield, Tracy C.; Billow, Jesse L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Expository discourse, the use of language to convey information, requires facility with complex syntax. Although expository discourse is often employed in school and work settings, little is known about its development in children, adolescents, and adults. Hence, it is difficult to evaluate this genre in students who have language…

  5. Phase Transitions in Development of Writing Fluency from a Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Kyoko; Nitta, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    This study explored patterns in L2 writing development by focusing on one of the linguistic features of texts (fluency) from a complex dynamic systems perspective. It investigated whether two English-as-a-foreign-language university students would experience discontinuous change (phase transition) in their writing fluency through repetition of a…

  6. COMPARISON OF UNITED STATES AND RUSSIAN COMPLEX TERRAIN DIFFUSION MODELS DEVELOPED FOR REGULATORY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The theoretical bases and computational techniques are presented for U.S. and Russian complex terrain diffusion models developed for engineering applications. hile the U.S. model is based on the modified Gaussian diffusion model, the Russian model is based on the analytical appro...

  7. Developing and Modeling Complex Social Interventions: Introducing the Connecting People Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modeling the processes involved in complex social interventions is important in social work practice, as it facilitates their implementation and translation into different contexts. This article reports the process of developing and modeling the connecting people intervention (CPI), a model of practice that supports people with mental…

  8. Evaluating Long-Term Complex Professional Development: Using a Variation of the Cohort Control Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample Mcmeeking, Laura B.; Cobb, R. Brian; Basile, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a variation on the post-test only cohort control design and addresses questions concerning both the methodological credibility and the practical utility of employing this design variation in evaluations of large-scale complex professional development programmes in mathematics education. The original design and design…

  9. Current development of Pd(II) complexes as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Enjun; Liu, Cong; Zhu, Mingchang; Lin, Huakuan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Lei

    2009-03-01

    Research has proven that the most effective and widely used metal-containing chemotherapy anticancer drugs are cisplatin ([cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)]) and many platinum complexes, however, these compounds have significant disadvantages including poor water solubility and serious side effects. Thus researches in order to overcome these shortcomings have never interrupted. Many non-platinum complexes have been synthesized and tested, in which some palladium complexes show significant antitumor activity in normal tumor cells and lower resistance of tumor cells to clinical treatments as well as lower side effects. Mononuclear palladium complexes with aromatic N-containing ligands, amino acid ligands, S-donor ligands, and P-containing ligands have respective qualities and properties due to the different structures and properties of the ligands; some dinuclear palladium complexes possess interesting steric structures and good antitumor activity; a try to modify natural medicines with Pd(2+) leads the research to a new route. In this review, medicinal chemistry, the development status and interactions of palladium complexes with DNA are discussed in order to provide guidance and determine structure and antitumor activity relationships for continuing studies of these systems. PMID:19275527

  10. Development of the aza-crown ether metal complexes as artificial hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Li, Fang-zhen; Wu, Jiao-yi; Xie, Jia-qing; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolases play a crucial role in the biochemical process, which can catalyze the hydrolysis of various compounds like carboxylic esters, phosphoesters, amides, nucleic acids, peptides, and so on. The design of artificial hydrolases has attracted extensive attention due to their scientific significance and potential applications in the field of gene medicine and molecular biology. Numerous macrocyclic metal complexes have been used as artificial hydrolase in the catalytic hydrolysis of the organic substrate. Aza-crown ether for this comment is a special class of the macrocyclic ligand containing both the nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in the ring. The studies showed that the aza-crown complexes exhibited high activity of hydrolytic enzyme. However, the aza-crown ether metal complex as artificial hydrolase is still very limited because of its difficulty in synthesis. This review summarizes the development of the aza-crown ether metal complexes as the artificial hydrolase, including the synthesis and catalysis of the transition metal complexes and lanthanide metal complexes of aza-crown ethers. The purpose of this review is to highlight: (1) the relationship between the structure and hydrolytic activity of synthetic hydrolase; (2) the synergistic effect of metal sites and ligands in the course of organic compound hydrolysis; and (3) the design strategies of the aza-crown ethers as hydrolase. PMID:26460062

  11. Who Is Worst Off? Developing a Severity-scoring Model of Complex Emergency Affected Countries in Order to Ensure Needs Based Funding

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anneli; Ohlsén, Ylva Kristina; Garfield, Richard; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters affect close to 400 million people each year. Complex Emergencies (CE) are a category of disaster that affects nearly half of the 400 million and often last for several years. To support the people affected by CE, humanitarian assistance is provided with the aim of saving lives and alleviating suffering. It is widely agreed that funding for this assistance should be needs-based. However, to date, there is no model or set of indicators that quantify and compare needs from one CE to another. In an effort to support needs-based and transparent funding of humanitarian assistance, the aim of this study is to develop a model that distinguishes between levels of severity among countries affected by CE. Methods: In this study, severity serves as a predictor for level of need. The study focuses on two components of severity: vulnerability and exposure. In a literature and Internet search we identified indicators that characterize vulnerability and exposure to CE. Among the more than 100 indicators identified, a core set of six was selected in an expert ratings exercise. Selection was made based on indicator availability and their ability to characterize preexisting or underlying vulnerabilities (four indicators) or to quantify exposure to a CE (two indicators). CE from 50 countries were then scored using a 3-tiered score (Low-Moderate, High, Critical).  Results: The developed model builds on the logic of the Utstein template. It scores severity based on the readily available value of four vulnerability and four exposure indicators. These are 1) GNI per capita, PPP, 2) Under-five mortality rate, per 1 000 live births, 3) Adult literacy rate, % of people ages 15 and above, 4) Underweight, % of population under 5 years, and 5) number of persons and proportion of population affected, and 6) number of uprooted persons and proportion of population uprooted. Conclusion: The model can be used to derive support for transparent, needs-based funding of

  12. A Project Management Approach to Using Simulation for Cost Estimation on Large, Complex Software Development Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    It is very difficult for project managers to develop accurate cost and schedule estimates for large, complex software development projects. None of the approaches or tools available today can estimate the true cost of software with any high degree of accuracy early in a project. This paper provides an approach that utilizes a software development process simulation model that considers and conveys the level of uncertainty that exists when developing an initial estimate. A NASA project will be analyzed using simulation and data from the Software Engineering Laboratory to show the benefits of such an approach.

  13. The role of BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes in mammalian neural development

    PubMed Central

    Son, Esther Y.; Crabtree, Gerald R.

    2015-01-01

    The BAF (mammalian SWI/SNF) complexes are a family of multi-subunit ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers that use ATP hydrolysis to alter chromatin structure. Distinct BAF complex compositions are possible through combinatorial assembly of homologous subunit families and can serve non-redundant functions. In mammalian neural development, developmental stage-specific BAF assemblies are found in ES cells, neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons. In particular, the neural progenitor-specific BAF complexes are essential for controlling the kinetics and mode of neural progenitor cell division, while neuronal BAF function is necessary for the maturation of postmitotic neuronal phenotypes as well as long-term memory formation. The microRNA-mediated mechanism for transitioning from npBAF to nBAF complexes is instructive for the neuronal fate and can even convert fibroblasts into neurons. The high frequency of BAF subunit mutations in neurological disorders underscores the rate-determining role of BAF complexes in neural development, homeostasis and plasticity. PMID:25195934

  14. On Convergence of Development Costs and Cost Models for Complex Spaceflight Instrument Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar D.; Kasa, Robert L.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Brown, Tammy; Vootukuru, Madhavi

    2008-01-01

    Development costs of a few recent spaceflight instrument electrical and electronics subsystems have diverged from respective heritage cost model predictions. The cost models used are Grass Roots, Price-H and Parametric Model. These cost models originated in the military and industry around 1970 and were successfully adopted and patched by NASA on a mission-by-mission basis for years. However, the complexity of new instruments recently changed rapidly by orders of magnitude. This is most obvious in the complexity of representative spaceflight instrument electronics' data system. It is now required to perform intermediate processing of digitized data apart from conventional processing of science phenomenon signals from multiple detectors. This involves on-board instrument formatting of computational operands from row data for example, images), multi-million operations per second on large volumes of data in reconfigurable hardware (in addition to processing on a general purpose imbedded or standalone instrument flight computer), as well as making decisions for on-board system adaptation and resource reconfiguration. The instrument data system is now tasked to perform more functions, such as forming packets and instrument-level data compression of more than one data stream, which are traditionally performed by the spacecraft command and data handling system. It is furthermore required that the electronics box for new complex instruments is developed for one-digit watt power consumption, small size and that it is light-weight, and delivers super-computing capabilities. The conflict between the actual development cost of newer complex instruments and its electronics components' heritage cost model predictions seems to be irreconcilable. This conflict and an approach to its resolution are addressed in this paper by determining the complexity parameters, complexity index, and their use in enhanced cost model.

  15. How and when Does Complex Reasoning Occur? Empirically Driven Development of a Learning Progression Focused on Complex Reasoning about Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songer, Nancy Butler; Kelcey, Ben; Gotwals, Amelia Wenk

    2009-01-01

    In order to compete in a global economy, students are going to need resources and curricula focusing on critical thinking and reasoning in science. Despite awareness for the need for complex reasoning, American students perform poorly relative to peers on international standardized tests measuring complex thinking in science. Research focusing on…

  16. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  17. Quantitative assessment of Hox complex expression in the indirect development of the polychaete annelid Chaetopterus sp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K. J.; Irvine, S. Q.; Cameron, R. A.; Davidson, E. H.

    2000-01-01

    A prediction from the set-aside theory of bilaterian origins is that pattern formation processes such as those controlled by the Hox cluster genes are required specifically for adult body plan formation. This prediction can be tested in animals that use maximal indirect development, in which the embryonic formation of the larva and the postembryonic formation of the adult body plan are temporally and spatially distinct. To this end, we quantitatively measured the amount of transcripts for five Hox genes in embryos of a lophotrochozoan, the polychaete annelid Chaetopterus sp. The polychaete Hox complex is shown not to be expressed during embryogenesis, but transcripts of all measured Hox complex genes are detected at significant levels during the initial stages of adult body plan formation. Temporal colinearity in the sequence of their activation is observed, so that activation follows the 3'-5' arrangement of the genes. Moreover, Hox gene expression is spatially localized to the region of teloblastic set-aside cells of the later-stage embryos. This study shows that an indirectly developing lophotrochozoan shares with an indirectly developing deuterostome, the sea urchin, a common mode of Hox complex utilization: construction of the larva, whether a trochophore or dipleurula, does not involve Hox cluster expression, but in both forms the complex is expressed in the set-aside cells from which the adult body plan derives.

  18. Sequential Development of Interfering Metamorphic Core Complexes: Numerical Experiments and Comparison to the Cyclades, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirel, C.; Gautier, P.; van Hinsbergen, D.; Wortel, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Cycladic extensional province (Greece) contains classical examples of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs), where exhumation was accommodated along multiple interfering and/or sequentially developed syn- and antithetic extensional detachment zones. Previous studies on the development of MCCs did not take into account the possible interference between multiple and closely spaced MCCs. In the present study, we have performed new lithosphere-scale experiments in which the deformation is not a priori localized so as to explore the conditions of the development of several MCCs in a direction parallel to extension. In a narrow range of conditions, MCCs are closely spaced, interfere with each other, and develop in sequence. From a comparison between numerical results and geological observations, we find that the Cyclades metamorphic core complexes are in good agreement with the model in terms of Moho geometry and depth, kinematic and structural history, timing and duration of core complex formation and metamorphic history. We infer that, for Cycladic MCC-type to develop, an initial crustal thickness prior to the onset of post-orogenic extension between 40 and 44 km, a boundary velocity close to 2 cm/yr and an initial thermal lithospheric thickness of about 60 km are required. The latter may be explained by a significant heating due to delamination of subducting continental crust or vigorous small-scale thermal convection.

  19. Intensifying Reading Instruction for Students within a Three-Tier Model: Standard-Protocol and Problem Solving Approaches within a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Ruby, Susan F.; Martella, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) provides a challenge for schools to deliver appropriate and scientifically validated reading instruction to all students through a three-tier model. While many educators recognize the need for a strong core-reading program (Tier 1), interventions for Tier 2 and Tier 3 students remain more difficult to implement. We…

  20. Student Cognitive Difficulties and Mental Model Development of Complex Earth and Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, K.; Herbert, B.; Schielack, J.

    2004-05-01

    Students organize scientific knowledge and reason about environmental issues through manipulation of mental models. The nature of the environmental sciences, which are focused on the study of complex, dynamic systems, may present cognitive difficulties to students in their development of authentic, accurate mental models of environmental systems. The inquiry project seeks to develop and assess the coupling of information technology (IT)-based learning with physical models in order to foster rich mental model development of environmental systems in geoscience undergraduate students. The manipulation of multiple representations, the development and testing of conceptual models based on available evidence, and exposure to authentic, complex and ill-constrained problems were the components of investigation utilized to reach the learning goals. Upper-level undergraduate students enrolled in an environmental geology course at Texas A&M University participated in this research which served as a pilot study. Data based on rubric evaluations interpreted by principal component analyses suggest students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is limited and the ability to cross scales and link systems proved problematic. Results categorized into content knowledge and cognition processes where reasoning, critical thinking and cognitive load were driving factors behind difficulties in student learning. Student mental model development revealed multiple misconceptions and lacked complexity and completeness to represent the studied systems. Further, the positive learning impacts of the implemented modules favored the physical model over the IT-based learning projects, likely due to cognitive load issues. This study illustrates the need to better understand student difficulties in solving complex problems when using IT, where the appropriate scaffolding can then be implemented to enhance student learning of the earth system sciences.

  1. A Novel 4EHP-GIGYF2 Translational Repressor Complex Is Essential for Mammalian Development

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Masahiro; Ler, Lian Wee; Fabian, Marc R.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Mullin, Michael; Henderson, Valerie C.; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D.; Karashchuk, Galina; Bennett, Christopher F.; Kabuta, Tomohiro; Higashi, Shinji; Larsson, Ola; Topisirovic, Ivan; Smith, Robert J.; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The binding of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the mRNA 5′ cap structure is a rate-limiting step in mRNA translation initiation. eIF4E promotes ribosome recruitment to the mRNA. In Drosophila, the eIF4E homologous protein (d4EHP) forms a complex with binding partners to suppress the translation of distinct mRNAs by competing with eIF4E for binding the 5′ cap structure. This repression mechanism is essential for the asymmetric distribution of proteins and normal embryonic development in Drosophila. In contrast, the physiological role of the mammalian 4EHP (m4EHP) was not known. In this study, we have identified the Grb10-interacting GYF protein 2 (GIGYF2) and the zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as components of the m4EHP complex. GIGYF2 directly interacts with m4EHP, and this interaction is required for stabilization of both proteins. Disruption of the m4EHP-GIGYF2 complex leads to increased translation and perinatal lethality in mice. We propose a model by which the m4EHP-GIGYF2 complex represses translation of a subset of mRNAs during embryonic development, as was previously reported for d4EHP. PMID:22751931

  2. Statistical Techniques Complement UML When Developing Domain Models of Complex Dynamical Biosystems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard A; Timmis, Jon; Qwarnstrom, Eva E

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling and simulation is increasingly being used to complement traditional wet-lab techniques when investigating the mechanistic behaviours of complex biological systems. In order to ensure computational models are fit for purpose, it is essential that the abstracted view of biology captured in the computational model, is clearly and unambiguously defined within a conceptual model of the biological domain (a domain model), that acts to accurately represent the biological system and to document the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. We present a domain model of the IL-1 stimulated NF-κB signalling pathway, which unambiguously defines the spatial, temporal and stochastic requirements for our future computational model. Through the development of this model, we observe that, in isolation, UML is not sufficient for the purpose of creating a domain model, and that a number of descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques provide complementary perspectives, in particular when modelling the heterogeneity of dynamics at the single-cell level. We believe this approach of using UML to define the structure and interactions within a complex system, along with statistics to define the stochastic and dynamic nature of complex systems, is crucial for ensuring that conceptual models of complex dynamical biosystems, which are developed using UML, are fit for purpose, and unambiguously define the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. PMID:27571414

  3. Statistical Techniques Complement UML When Developing Domain Models of Complex Dynamical Biosystems

    PubMed Central

    Timmis, Jon; Qwarnstrom, Eva E.

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling and simulation is increasingly being used to complement traditional wet-lab techniques when investigating the mechanistic behaviours of complex biological systems. In order to ensure computational models are fit for purpose, it is essential that the abstracted view of biology captured in the computational model, is clearly and unambiguously defined within a conceptual model of the biological domain (a domain model), that acts to accurately represent the biological system and to document the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. We present a domain model of the IL-1 stimulated NF-κB signalling pathway, which unambiguously defines the spatial, temporal and stochastic requirements for our future computational model. Through the development of this model, we observe that, in isolation, UML is not sufficient for the purpose of creating a domain model, and that a number of descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques provide complementary perspectives, in particular when modelling the heterogeneity of dynamics at the single-cell level. We believe this approach of using UML to define the structure and interactions within a complex system, along with statistics to define the stochastic and dynamic nature of complex systems, is crucial for ensuring that conceptual models of complex dynamical biosystems, which are developed using UML, are fit for purpose, and unambiguously define the functional requirements for the resultant computational model. PMID:27571414

  4. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration

    PubMed Central

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique. PMID:23316158

  5. 40 CFR 52.681 - Permits to construct and tier II operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the SIP. (b) Operating Permits authorizing the use of alternative emission limits (bubbles) under... credits in a bubble pursuant to IDAPA 58.01.01.461), and Tier II Operating Permits authorizing...

  6. 40 CFR 52.681 - Permits to construct and tier II operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the SIP. (b) Operating Permits authorizing the use of alternative emission limits (bubbles) under... credits in a bubble pursuant to IDAPA 58.01.01.461), and Tier II Operating Permits authorizing...

  7. 40 CFR 52.681 - Permits to construct and tier II operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the SIP. (b) Operating Permits authorizing the use of alternative emission limits (bubbles) under... credits in a bubble pursuant to IDAPA 58.01.01.461), and Tier II Operating Permits authorizing...

  8. 40 CFR 52.681 - Permits to construct and tier II operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the SIP. (b) Operating Permits authorizing the use of alternative emission limits (bubbles) under... credits in a bubble pursuant to IDAPA 58.01.01.461), and Tier II Operating Permits authorizing...

  9. 40 CFR 52.681 - Permits to construct and tier II operating permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the SIP. (b) Operating Permits authorizing the use of alternative emission limits (bubbles) under... credits in a bubble pursuant to IDAPA 58.01.01.461), and Tier II Operating Permits authorizing...

  10. The Application of a Three-Tier Model of Intervention to Parent Training

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Leah; McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2015-01-01

    A three-tier intervention system was designed for use with parents with preschool children with developmental disabilities to modify parent–child interactions. A single-subject changing-conditions design was used to examine the utility of a three-tier intervention system in reducing negative parenting strategies, increasing positive parenting strategies, and reducing child behavior problems in parent–child dyads (n = 8). The three intervention tiers consisted of (a) self-administered reading material, (b) group training, and (c) individualized video feedback sessions. Parental behavior was observed to determine continuation or termination of intervention. Results support the utility of a tiered model of intervention to maximize treatment outcomes and increase efficiency by minimizing the need for more costly time-intensive interventions for participants who may not require them. PMID:26213459

  11. A TIERED APPROACH TO PERFORMING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN CONDUCTING EXPOSURE ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO/IPCS draft Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment provides guidance on recommended strategies for conducting uncertainty analysis as part of human exposure analysis. Specifically, a tiered approach to uncertainty analysis ...

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Final (Tier 2) Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by implementation of the Ulysses mission, a space flight mission to observe the polar regions of the Sun. The proposed action is completion of preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch at the earliest available launch opportunity on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1990 or in the backup opportunity in November 1991. The alternative is canceling further work on the mission. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. This alternative was further evaluated and eliminated from consideration when, in November 1988, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4, notified that it could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The Titan 4 launch vehicle is no longer a feasible alternative to the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special (PAM-S) for the November 1991 launch opportunity. The only expected environment effects of the proposed action are associated with normal launch vehicle operation and are treated elsewhere. The environmental impacts of normal Shuttle launches were addressed in existing NEPA documentation and are briefly summarized. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects were judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. There could also be environmental impacts associated with the accidental release of radiological material during launch, deployment, or interplanetary trajectory injection of the Ulysses spacecraft. Intensive analysis indicates that the probability of release is small. There are no environmental

  13. [The economic-industrial health care complex and the social and economic dimension of development].

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy. PMID:23250391

  14. Development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Hutchins, E. L.; Barr, Ronald E.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model that represents human elbow flexion-extension and forearm pronation-supination. The length, velocity, and moment arm for each of the eight musculotendon actuators were based on skeletal anatomy and position. Musculotendon parameters were determined for each actuator and verified by comparing analytical torque-angle curves with experimental joint torque data. The parameters and skeletal geometry were also utilized in the musculoskeletal model for the analysis of ballistic elbow joint complex movements. The key objective was to develop a computational model, guided by parameterized optimal control, to investigate the relationship among patterns of muscle excitation, individual muscle forces, and movement kinematics. The model was verified using experimental kinematic, torque, and electromyographic data from volunteer subjects performing ballistic elbow joint complex movements.

  15. Tier II Analysis of Vadose Zone Sediments from UPRS 200-E-81 and 200-E-86

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2009-04-01

    The overall goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by Washington River Protection Solutions, are to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities; identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures; and aid, via collection of geochemical information and data, the future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas (WMAs). To meet the investigative goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, the Environmental Sciences Laboratory performed geochemical analyses on vadose zone sediments collected within Waste Management Area C. Tier one analyses of UPR-200-E-86, which includes direct push probe holes C5952, C5958 and C5960, were performed between 3/25/08 and 4/14/08. Preliminary results were presented to CH2M Hill Hanford Group on 6/5/08. As a result of the tier one investigations, further tier two analyses were requested. Tier two investigations include particle size and mineralogy analyses on samples collected between 80 to 120 feet below ground surface that were found to contain high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. Tier one analyses on sediments retrieved near UPR-200-E-81, direct push probe hole C6394, were performed between 6/20/08 and 7/22/08. Preliminary results of the tier one analyses were presented on 8/15/08. As a result of the tier one investigations, further tier two analyses were requested. Tier two analyses include determining whether U-236 exists in samples at approximately 42 feet below the ground surface. Confirmation of U-236 will determine whether the U-238 seen in the leaches performed on samples at that depth is a result of contamination and not from leaching natural uranium. Using the water and acid extract U-238 concentrations from the tier one analysis, equilibrium Kd values were requested to be calculated. Additional tier two analysis includes

  16. Perceived Complexity of Various Liver Resections: Results of a Survey of Experts with Development of a Complexity Score and Classification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Major K; Gao, Feng; Strasberg, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver resections have classically been distinguished as “minor” or “major” based on the number of segments removed. However, it is clear that the number of segments alone does not convey the complexity of a resection. To date, no study has been conducted that formally assesses the complexity of various anatomic liver resections. Study Design A four-question survey was administered to 135 expert liver surgeons in 14 countries. The first three questions related to the country in which the surgeon was practicing and the surgeon's experience. In the fourth question, the experts were asked to rate the difficulty of various open, anatomic liver resections on a scale of 1-10. Results 66 of 135 (48.9%) surgeons responded to the survey. Twelve procedures were rated. The lowest mean score of 1.37—indicating least difficulty—was given to peripheral wedge resection. Left trisectionectomy with caudate resection was deemed most difficult with a score of 8.28. The mean scores for the two procedures perceived as least difficult—peripheral wedge resection and left lateral sectionectomy—were lower than the mean scores of all the rest of the procedures at a highly statistically significant level (p < 0.0001). The four procedures with the highest scores shared the common attribute that they involved the right intersectional plane. Conclusions These data represent the first quantitative assessment of the perceived difficulty of a variety of liver resections. The complexity scores generated allow for separation of liver resections into three categories of complexity (Low Complexity, Medium Complexity, and High Complexity) on a quantitative basis. PMID:25451665

  17. 2-tier in-plane motion correction and out-of-plane motion filtering for contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Casey N.; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Mattrey, Robert F.; Kono, Yuko; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) cines of focal liver lesions (FLL) can be quantitatively analyzed to measure tumor perfusion on a pixel-by-pixel basis for diagnostic indication. However, CEUS cines acquired freehand and during free breathing cause non-uniform in-plane and out-of-plane motion from frame to frame. These motions create fluctuations in the time-intensity curves (TIC), reducing accuracy of quantitative measurements. Out-of-plane motion cannot be corrected by image registration in 2D CEUS and degrades the quality of in-plane motion correction (IPMC). A 2-tier IPMC strategy and adaptive out-of-plane motion filter (OPMF) are proposed to provide a stable correction of non-uniform motion to reduce the impact of motion on quantitative analyses. Materials and Methods 22 cines of FLLs were imaged with dual B-mode and contrast specific imaging to acquire a 3-minute TIC. B-mode images were analyzed for motion, and the motion correction was applied to both B-mode and contrast images. For IPMC, the main reference frame was automatically selected for each cine, and subreference frames were selected in each respiratory cycle and sequentially registered toward the main reference frame. All other frames were sequentially registered toward the local subreference frame. Four OPMFs were developed and tested: subsample Normalized Correlation (NC), subsample Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD), mean frame NC, and histogram. The frames that were most dissimilar to the OPMF reference frame using one of the four above criteria in each respiratory cycle were adaptively removed by thresholding against the low-pass filter of the similarity curve. OPMF was quantitatively evaluated by an out-of-plane motion metric (OPMM) that measured normalized variance in the high-pass filtered time-intensity curve within the tumor region-of-interest with low OPMM being the goal. IPMC and OPMF results were qualitatively evaluated by two blinded observers who ranked the motion in the

  18. Managing a tier-2 computer centre with a private cloud infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnasco, Stefano; Berzano, Dario; Brunetti, Riccardo; Lusso, Stefano; Vallero, Sara

    2014-06-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, several applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud infrastructure eases the management and maintenance of such heterogeneous applications (such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites, interactive data analysis facilities and others), allowing dynamic allocation resources to any application. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques. Such infrastructures are being deployed in some large centres (see e.g. the CERN Agile Infrastructure project), but with several open-source tools reaching maturity this is becoming viable also for smaller sites. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 centre, an Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The private cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization); a future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and OCCI.

  19. A Voyage to Arcturus: A model for automated management of a WLCG Tier-2 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gareth; Crooks, David; Mertens, Lena; Mitchell, Mark; Purdie, Stuart; Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Britton, David

    2014-06-01

    With the current trend towards "On Demand Computing" in big data environments it is crucial that the deployment of services and resources becomes increasingly automated. Deployment based on cloud platforms is available for large scale data centre environments but these solutions can be too complex and heavyweight for smaller, resource constrained WLCG Tier-2 sites. Along with a greater desire for bespoke monitoring and collection of Grid related metrics, a more lightweight and modular approach is desired. In this paper we present a model for a lightweight automated framework which can be use to build WLCG grid sites, based on "off the shelf" software components. As part of the research into an automation framework the use of both IPMI and SNMP for physical device management will be included, as well as the use of SNMP as a monitoring/data sampling layer such that more comprehensive decision making can take place and potentially be automated. This could lead to reduced down times and better performance as services are recognised to be in a non-functional state by autonomous systems.

  20. A software architecture to support a large-scale, multi-tier clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Yungton, J A; Sittig, D F; Reilly, P; Pappas, J; Flammini, S; Chueh, H C; Teich, J M

    1998-01-01

    A robust software architecture is necessary to support a large-scale multi-tier clinical information system. This paper describes our mechanism for enterprise distribution of applications and support files, the consolidation of data-access functions and system utilities stored on the data access tier, and an application framework which implements a coherent clinical computing environment. The software architecture and systems described in this paper have been robust through pilot testing of our applications at Massachusetts General Hospital. PMID:9929212