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Sample records for complexse uruguay reconocimiento

  1. Uruguay.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    Uruguay, officially "The Oriental Republic of Uruguay," is a country of 176,215 sq km with a temperate climate and a good water supply, which contributed to the emergence of stock raising as the economy's traditional base. 1.31 million of the country's 2,940,200 people live in Montevideo, the capital and only large city. The population is 85%-95% white and 66% Roman Catholic. The dominant culture and official language is Spanish, although 25% of the people are of Italian origin. The annual population growth is only 0.5%, due to a low birth rate and large net outmigration. Infant mortality in 1986 was 27.1/1000, and life expectancy was 73 years. Literacy is 96%, due to an extensive system of public and private education. There is a large, urban middle class, which enjoys a high standard of living. 22% of the work force is in industry, 21% in government, 15% in commerce, and 28% in services. The 1986 gross domestic product was $6.2 billion, per capita $1701. The annual growth rate is now 6.3%, which is an upturn from the generally stagnant economic conditions of the last 30 years. 1986 exports were $834 million (mainly meat, wool, hides, and leather goods); imports were $870 million. Inflation averages 76.4%, and 270 pesos=$1.00. The major economic problem is managing the huge external debt of almost $5.4 billion. In 1987 Uruguay reached a debt rescheduling agreement with creditor banks and the International Monitary Fund, stretching out repayment dates through 2004. Exchange rates were allowed to float in 1982, and the country is trying to reduce the burden of the excessively large government sector through various privatization schemes. Uruguay has also been working with Argentina and Brazil toward integrating their economies. The only aboriginal inhabitants of Uruguay were the Charrua Indians. In 1811 Jose Gervasio Artigas led Uruguay's revolt against Spain, and total independence was achieved in 1828. Jose Batlle y Ordonez, who served as president from 1903 to

  2. Uruguay.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Uruguay is a country of 176,000 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 96% are literate. Independence was gained on August 25, 1825. The terrain consists of plains and low hills, with a climate which is temperate. Spanish is spoken by White, Mestizo, and Black ethnic groups who are variously non-professing or of Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and other faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 69-75 years. GDP is $11.3 billion, growing at a rate of 4%. Per capita income is $3600. The country's natural resources include arable land, hydroelectric potential, gold, granite, and marble. Beef, wool, grains, fruits, vegetables, meat processing, would and hides, textiles, shoes, handbags, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, and petroleum refining are areas of economic production. Fuels, chemical, machinery, and metals are imported, and meat, wool, hides, leather and wool products, fish, rice and furs are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country. PMID:12178048

  3. Oppression in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Describes the effects of government intervention in Uruguay's universities and public schools. Teacher education, curriculum change, student and teacher behavior; education funding; research funding; research activity; and scientific teaching are discussed as to the effects of government intervention on them. (Author/DS)

  4. Uruguay on the World Stage

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of international health has typically been assessed from the standpoint of central institutions (international health organizations, foundations, and development agencies) or of one-way diffusion and influence from developed to developing countries. To deepen understanding of how the international health agenda is shaped, I examined the little-known case of Uruguay and its pioneering role in advancing and institutionalizing child health as an international priority between 1890 and 1950. The emergence of Uruguay as a node of international health may be explained through the country’s early gauging of its public health progress, its borrowing and adaptation of methods developed overseas, and its broadcasting of its own innovations and shortcomings. PMID:16051940

  5. Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma triste from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Castro, Oscar; Cabrera, Perla A.; Oteo, José A.

    2004-01-01

    Our goal was to detect whether spotted fever group Rickettsia are found in the suspected vector of rickettsioses, Amblyomma triste, in Uruguay. Rickettsia parkeri was detected in A. triste, which suggests that this species could be considered a pathogenic agent responsible for human rickettsioses in Uruguay. PMID:15496258

  6. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  7. 7 CFR 1405.7 - Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 1405.7 Section 1405.7... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures will exceed, in any required reporting period, the allowable levels under the Uruguay Round...

  8. 7 CFR 1405.7 - Uruguay Round Agreements Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 1405.7 Section 1405.7... Uruguay Round Agreements Act. In the event the outlays by the United States for domestic support measures will exceed, in any required reporting period, the allowable levels under the Uruguay Round...

  9. Uruguay declared free of Chagas disease transmission.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    According to 1997 entomological and sero-epidemiological data, the transmission of Chagas disease has been interrupted in Uruguay; this has been certified by an independent commission appointed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Transmission of Chagas disease, which is endemic in Uruguay, is via the vector Triatoma infestans or through transfusion with infected blood. In 1983, T. infestans lived in dwellings in 80% of Uruguay; in 1996, in all departments except Tacuarembo, house infestation rates decreased to below 0.1% (a reduction equivalent to 95%). The vector is found around the home, rather than in it, in Tacuarembo; therefore, its presence does not have any significance for transmission. The number of infected blood donors is now negligible, and there is 100% coverage via compulsory blood screening. Uruguay is the first Southern Cone country to have achieved the goals established by the Ministries of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay to eliminate the transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:12321803

  10. Uruguay: Le francais en quete d'image (Uruguay: French in Search of an Image).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The role of French language instruction in Uruguay is assessed. Drawing on results of recent surveys, it is observed that French suffers from a lackluster image, and from a lack of confidence among language teachers themselves. (MSE)

  11. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  12. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and…

  13. A Geography of Uruguay for Elementary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper is part of a larger study, conducted as part of a Christa McAuliffe Fellowship research project, "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions." The study compared the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. The project was designed to…

  14. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  15. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  16. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  17. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  18. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  19. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  20. Training Strategy: Computer Education for Teachers in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge

    1987-01-01

    Described is the Alfa Project in Uruguay, designed to integrate computer education into secondary schools through teacher-training. Both teacher-users and teacher-authors were considered. Course objectives, curriculum content, and teaching guidelines are presented. (MNS)

  1. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Rodolfo; Matto, Carolina; Adrien, María de Lourdes; Nan, Fernando; Bell, Todd; Gardiner, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus) caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33° 07' 40.39'' S) and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans. PMID:21961761

  2. Ediacaran in Uruguay: Facts and controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubet, Natalie R.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Heaman, Larry M.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Gingras, Murray K.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-11-01

    The Ediacaran of Uruguay has been regarded as containing a significant geological and paleontological record, which would make these successions critical to unraveling diverse aspects regarding the assembly of southwestern Gondwana and to understanding the conditions surrounding the rise of animal life in a period punctuated by drastic paleoenvironmental changes. However, a review of currently available data leads to the conclusion that, although variable, the stratigraphy, distribution and age of these units remain ambiguous. The same is true for existing basin models and tectonic evolution, which show different and sometimes contradicting supporting evidence. Here, we propose that the Ediacaran record consists of the Maldonado Group (Playa Hermosa, Las Ventanas and San Carlos formations), and the Tacuarí, Barriga Negra, Rocha and Sierra de Aguirre formations. The Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal, Polanco Limestones and Cerro Espuelitas formations) and the Arroyo de la Pedrera Group (Piedras de Afilar and Cerro Victoria formations) were likely deposited between 700 and 1000 Ma. The best available radiometric age constraints indicate intense magmatic-tectonic activity occurred between 600 and 560 Ma, incompatible with previous models suggesting a stable, Atlantic-type passive margin on this portion of southwestern Gondwana. Further research is needed in order to firmly establish a consistent litho- and chronostratigraphic framework; particularly, before attempting any regional or global correlation, and inferences on global paleoenvironmental and paleobiological events.

  3. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  4. The Impending Demise of "tu" in Montevideo, Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the "tuteo" (T-T), and particularly the use of tonic "tu" with the "vos" verbal morphology (T-V) has been accepted as typical of the speech of Montevideo, Uruguay, a region generally classified as "voseante". This paper reports on the results of 117 rapid anonymous interviews conducted in Montevideo to document the status of…

  5. ELT through Videoconferencing in Primary Schools in Uruguay: First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2013-01-01

    Plan Ceibal is an interinstitutional undertaking which has distributed XO laptops and Internet connectivity among primary school learners and teachers across Uruguay and developed a wide range of educational programmes. Ceibal administration believes that it is imperative to introduce English as a Foreign Language in primary education through the…

  6. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  7. Braille Literacy and Self-Esteem: A Report from Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elissalde, E.

    1996-01-01

    Brief excerpts from correspondence from blind persons and their families in Uruguay indicate increased self-esteem resulting from access to braille materials such as a braille newspaper. Braille literacy is seen to enhance the dialog between student and teacher, parent and child, or child and book. Knowledge of community events offered by the…

  8. Educational Production and the Distribution of Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from an analysis of a large dataset that includes virtually all sixth-grade students in Uruguay in 1996. We analyze the relationship between teacher attributes and student achievement scores and we explore the distribution of teachers according to characteristics identified as important by this analysis. We find…

  9. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  10. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  11. Molecular detection of Rangelia vitalii in domestic dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Soares, João Fabio; Carvalho, Luis; Maya, Leticia; Dutra, Fernando; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-05-30

    The piroplasm Rangelia vitalii is the etiological agent of canine rangeliosis, a severe disease affecting domestic dogs in South America. Two domestic dogs from two different Departments (Salto and Treinta y Tres) of Uruguay presented with clinical signs such as apathy, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, and hemorrhagic manifestations, suggestive of a canine vector-borne disease. Molecular analysis, based on PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that both dogs were infected by R. vitalii. Two consensus sequences, one from Salto and one from Treinta y Tres, differed from each other by only 1 nucleotide (99.8% similarity) and were 99.8-100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. vitalii from Brazil and Argentina available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis inferred by the 18S rRNA gene, the two Uruguayan sequences of R. vitalii were aligned with the corresponding sequences from 7 other R. vitalii sequences available in GenBank (5 from Brazil and, 2 from Argentina) under high bootstrap support. The two dogs of the present study were negative for Ehrlichia canis according to the E. canis-specific real-time PCR assay. Our findings not only confirm the occurrence of R. vitalii in Uruguay but also provide the southernmost record of this re-emerging agent. The only previous report of R. vitalii in Uruguay dated from 1976, a period when molecular analyses were not available. We provide the first molecular detection of R. vitalii in Uruguay. Currently, canine rangeliosis is confirmed to occur in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. PMID:25843009

  12. American Foulbrood in Uruguay: twelve years from its first report.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan; Zunino, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), a deleterious disease that affects honeybees. In Uruguay it was first reported in 1999. In 2001 the bacterium was spread all over the country, and its prevalence in honey was estimated in 51%. Two P. larvae genotypes were found; ERIC I - BOX A, worldwide distributed and ERIC I - BOX C, exclusively detected in Argentina until then. In the present manuscript we analyzed the evolution of AFB outbreaks from 1999 to 2009, presented a new nation-wide survey carried out during 2011 when a prevalence of 2% was found and discuss national strategies for prevention of the disease. Since Uruguay is a small country where almost all beekeepers are registered, Uruguayan experience can be useful to be applied in other countries. PMID:22381478

  13. 75 FR 65292 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Beef From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...; Importation of Beef From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Approval of... approval of an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of beef from Uruguay... information on regulations for the ] importation of beef from Uruguay, contact Dr. Lynette Williams-...

  14. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and ovine meat from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.22 Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, fresh (chilled or frozen) beef and ovine...

  15. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE... Uruguay. (b) Foot-and-mouth disease has not been diagnosed in Uruguay within the previous 12 months. (c) The beef came from bovines that originated from premises where foot-and-mouth disease......

  16. Large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres from a Paleogene lateritic profile of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genise, Jorge F.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Verde, Mariano; González, Mirta G.

    2011-10-01

    It is proposed herein that columns included in the unconformity between Mercedes (Upper Cretaceous) and Asencio (Lower Eocene) formations of Uruguay, forming "caves" known since the XIX century, are large ferruginized palaeorhizospheres. Diagnostic characters are concentric internal structure, radiating secondary prolongations, preservation of original lamination, trace fossils, and other attributes of the original deposit. In contrast with rhizoliths, which originated as root casts or by roots and their peritrophic zones, palaeorhizospheres are originated from peritrophic zones to a few tens of centimeters in the soil surrounding the roots. In many cases, like those presented herein, rhizoliths are not preserved inside the palaeorhizospheres. Specimens were studied in 6 localities from central Uruguay, where 5 different morphological types were recognized according to its internal structure: (1) rimmed, (2) concentric, (3) concentric disrupted, (4) nodular or mottled, and (5) brecciated. The palaeorhizosphere hypothesis can explain this diversity of internal structures, which may be compatible with different stages of root and rhizosphere development. Types 1 and 2 could be produced by living roots, whereas 3 to 5 more probably by percolation and staining by Fe solutions coming from the overlying Asencio Formation through decaying or dead roots. The rim that surrounds most structures may be interpreted as the boundary of the original rhizosphere, where Fe ions translocated outward from the root by chelation, found oxidizing conditions. Concentric pattern would result from the centrifugal displacement of the oxidizing rim. Type 3 to 5 structures would start when most biologic processes around the living or decaying root cease, and periodic formation of rings stops. Even when palaeorhizospheres are included in the Mercedes Formation, their possibility to be produced during Mercedes times is unlikely because the strong oxidation processes involved were exclusive of

  17. Poisoning of sheep by Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Fernando; Romero, Agustin; Quinteros, Carina; Araújo, Ruben; García Y Santos, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron, previously known as Vernonia squarrosa, is a rhizomatous subshrub with purple flowers that is prevalent in the natural grassland of Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. We report an outbreak of V. plantaginoides (yuyo moro) intoxication in sheep in Treinta y Tres Department, northeastern Uruguay. A total of 54 of 463 (12%) recently weaned lambs died 2-7 days after entering a natural pasture that had been invaded by sprouting V. plantaginoides The first cases were found dead. Affected lambs showed marked jaundice, edema of the face, ears, and eyelids, and severe photodermatitis. At the autopsies of 3 lambs, the carcass was yellow, the liver was enlarged with a marked acinar pattern ("nutmeg liver"), and hemorrhages were observed on serous membranes. Microscopic lesions were characterized by diffuse periacinar hepatocellular necrosis and cholemic nephrosis. Three female lambs were experimentally dosed with the aerial parts of V. plantaginoides collected immediately after the outbreak. The lamb that was dosed once with 40 g/kg body weight died after 36 h with severe hepatic necrosis. The lamb dosed with 20 g/kg daily for 4 days showed clinical signs and microscopic lesions in the liver with multiple apoptotic hepatocytes in the periacinar zone. The third lamb, dosed with 30, 17, and 15 g/kg daily over 3 days, respectively, showed transient clinical signs and a rise in liver enzymes, but recovered, and no lesions were found postmortem. These results demonstrate that V. plantaginoides was responsible for severe field outbreaks of poisoning in sheep in Uruguay. PMID:27240570

  18. Riverine Eolian Dunes in Uruguay: OSL Ages and Paleoenvironmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, D. S.; Suarez, R.; Brook, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Relict parabolic dunes occur along Rio Negro and Rio Tacuarembó in Uruguay under the current humid temperate climate. These dunes offer important terrestrial evidence of drier conditions in the past and may provide foresight about landscape consequences of future climate change. The ages of these dunes previously had not been measured by any absolute dating technique. Two dune fields were selected for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating using the single aliquot regeneration method, including four samples along Rio Negro near Pueblo de la Arena and three samples along Rio Tacuarembó near Ansina. Results indicate that the dunes were active during the late Pleistocene, with five of the OSL ages in the 22 ka to 12 ka range. One OSL age at the Ansina dune field returned an age of 6 ka, indicating the possibility of limited dune reactivation during the Holocene. There is clear evidence of historical dune activation (e.g. buried fences) at both the Rio Negro and Rio Tacuarembó sites; one OSL sample from Rio Negro dunes confirms an historical age of 107 years BP. However, human land disturbance rather than climatic factors may explain the historical reactivation. Late Pleistocene dune activity in central Uruguay indicates much drier and windier paleoclimate (at least seasonally) than present, and correlates well with eolian activity in more arid parts of South America in western Argentina. Age and paleoenvironment of the riverine dunes in Uruguay are remarkably similar to those of the southeastern United States (USA), indicating similar patterns of paleoclimate in both hemispheres. Such similarities help to resolve the spatial patterns of global scale climate change.

  19. Strategy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, R

    2004-01-01

    FMD was diagnosed in Uruguay and in most of the South American countries in 1870. In 1961 the first law was issued to enforce the control of the disease. In 1990 a new regulation was approved which determined the process to eradicate FMD. The last clinical case was on June 18th 1990, and in 1996 the OIE declared Uruguay a free country without vaccination. In 2001 FMD was re-introduced, with an outbreak of 2057 animals which were controlled throughout four months of strong activity which ended with two vaccinations of all livestock. On May 22nd 2003, the OIE recognized Uruguay as a country 'free with vaccination'. PMID:15742654

  20. Development of the National Kidney Transplantation Program in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, F; Orihuela, S; Alvarez, I; Dibello, N; Curi, L; Nin, M; Wimber, E; Mizraji, R; Bengochea, M; González, G; Manzo, L; Toledo, R; Silva, W; Chopitea, Á; Lopez, D; Balboa, O; Porto, D; Noboa, O

    2015-10-01

    The first kidney transplantation (KT) in Uruguay was performed in 1969. We report the rates of KT and survival of patients and grafts up to December 2014. The country has a surface of 176,215 km(2) and a population of 3,286,314 inhabitants (18.6 inhabitants per km(2)). Till December 31, 2014, 1,940 KT have been performed in Uruguay (41.8 pmp that year); 90.4% of them were from cadaveric donors (CD). Median age of recipients (R) was 44 ± 14 years; R older than 55 years increased from 0 to 27% during the period. Our pre-emptive KT program started in 2007. Optimal donors (D) decreased from 65.2% to 35.5%, and D older than 45 years old increased from 9% to 37%. Trauma as cause of death decreased from 49% to 32% and stroke as cause of death increased from 25% to 39%. Patient survival rates at 1, 5, and 8 years were 93%, 87%, and 78%, respectively for KT performed between 1980 and 1989; they were 98%, 93%, and 89%, respectively, for KT performed between 1990 and1999; they were 97%, 91%, and 90%, respectively, for KT performed between 2000 and 2010. In December 2013, there were 1098 patients pmp in renal replacement therapy, 758 pmp in dialysis, and 340 pmp (30.9%) with a functioning graft. Our national KT program is mainly based (90.6%) on cadaveric donation. Epidemiological changes in the characteristics of R and D followed the changes in aging that occurred in the general population and the dialysis population. The survival rates from patients and kidneys are similar to those reported by the European and the American registries. PMID:26518920

  1. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Lead, ubiquitous in the environment as a result of mining and industrialization, is found as a contaminant in humans although it has no known physiological function there. Lead-exposed children are known to be the population with the highest potential health risks. The recommended biomarker to assess environmental lead exposure in animals is lead level in blood. Before 2001, the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene was the only team to produce human monitoring data on Uruguayan populations (Manay 2001a,b; Mañay et al. 1999). Lead pollution in Uruguay first received official attention during the 2001 La Teja poisoning episode. It was in the La Teja neighbourhood of Montevideo that high BLL were found in children (as high as 20 microg/dL), prompting corrective responses from Health and Environmental authorities. Growing awareness of environmental lead pollution and consequential human health effects from that event, resulted in public debate and demands for solutions from Health and Environmental authorities. Citizens demanded public disclosure of information concerning lead pollution and wanted action to address contaminated Uruguayan sites. In response, the Ministry of Health assembled an interinstitutional multidisciplinary committee, with delegates from health, environmental, labor, educational, and social security authorities, as well as community nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among others. The University of the Republic was designated to serve as the main responsible entity for technical advice and support. After 2001, new research on lead pollution was undertaken and included multidisciplinary studies with communities in response to health risk alerts. The main emphasis was placed on children exposed to environmental lead. Major sources of Uruguayan lead contamination, similar to those in other developing countries, result from metallurgical industries, lead-acid battery processing, lead wire and pipe factories, metal foundries, metal

  2. Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Helena; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Souto, Juanita; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-05-01

    After 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in Uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in October 2007. The outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat Desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. From October 2007 to July 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing. A total of 12 samples (7 bovine, 2 equine and 3 from D. rotundus) were positive by the fluorescent antibody test, and viruses were isolated by the mouse inoculation test. The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (nt 149-1420) of these isolates were aligned with homologous sequences derived from GenBank by the CLUSTAL/W method and used to build a neighbor-joining distance tree with the Kimura 2-parameter model. All 12 isolates were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster as they shared 100% identity. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three isolates from insectivorous bats segregated into three clusters: one related to T. brasiliensis, one to Myotis sp. and the other to Lasiurus sp., although the isolate associated with the latter came from a Molossus sp. specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies

  3. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    PubMed Central

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  4. Investigating Leadership Characteristics and Attitudes toward Creativity According to Agency Context for Agriculture Extension Agents in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Maria Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward creativity and leadership characteristics according to the agency context for extension agents in Uruguay. Extension agents come from the three different agency contexts in Uruguay of the University, government, and private institutions. Leadership characteristics are those that combine…

  5. Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238

  6. Detection of pesticides in active and depopulated beehives in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-10-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive. PMID:22073016

  7. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive. PMID:22073016

  8. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  9. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. PMID:25331730

  10. OSRP Source Repatriations-Case Studies: Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Ray Jr.; Abeyta, Cristy; Matzke, Jim; Wald-Hopkins, Mark; Streeper, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) began recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources (sources) in 1999. As of February 2012, the project had recovered over 30,000 sources totaling over 820,000 Ci. OSRP grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover disused excess Plutonium- 239 (Pu-239) sources that were distributed in the 1960's and 1970's under the Atoms for Peace Program. Source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity. However, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the interagency community began to recognize that excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources pose a national security threat, particularly those that lack a disposition path. After OSRP's transfer to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, its mission was expanded to include all disused sealed sources that might require national security consideration. Recognizing the transnational threat posed by porous borders and the ubiquitous nature of sources, GTRI/OSRP repatriates U.S. origin sources based on threat reduction prioritization criteria. For example, several recent challenging source repatriation missions have been conducted by GTRI/OSRP in South America. These include the repatriation of a significant amount of Cs-137 and other isotopes from Brazil; re-packaging of conditioned Ra-226 sources in Ecuador for future repatriation; and, multilateral cooperation in the consolidation and export of Canadian, US, and Indian Co-60/Cs-137 sources from Uruguay. In addition, cooperation with regulators and private source owners in other countries presents opportunities for GTRI/OSRP to exchange best practices for managing disused sources. These positive experiences often result in long-term cooperation and information sharing with key foreign counterparts. International source recovery operations are essential to the preservation of U.S. national security

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments of SW Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Orgeira, M. J.; Sanchez, G.; Bertoni-Machado, C.; Farina, R.

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary results on the magnetostratigraphy of three Neogene formations from SW Uruguay are presented: Camacho, Raigón and Libertad, and a relative age from the record of reversions in the Earth's magnetic field polarity is proposed. The sediments outcrop in the SW region of Uruguay,and have been received attention due to their fossil contents. The oldest is the late Miocene-Pliocene Camacho Fm, of Huayquerian to Montehermosan affinities. A Pliocene-early Pleistocene age has been assigned to Raigón Fm, of Chapadmalalan affinities. The overlying Libertad Fm has been considered early-middle Pleistocene in age, and to have Marplatan-Ensenadan affinities. The lithology of this facies of Camacho Fm is identified by the presence of fine to very fine sandstones and is composed of silty-sandy and bioturbed silty deposits. The marine facies of this formation is rich in fossil content, as several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa are found. The upper Raigón Fm is formed by sandstones of varied grain size and includes lenses and levels of claystones and conglomerates. It shows the sedimentological features of a deep, pebble-rich braided fluvial system. The 383 vertebrate specimens found in the sandy facies and studied in a taphonomically-oriented study belong to 19 genera and 13 higher taxa. The bones are disarticulated, with smooth fractures and little weathered or abraded, which is congruent with a short time of contact, as observed in strong and sudden flows. The elements belong to the three Voorhies groups and fractured specimens are found along with well preserved materials, implying different taphonomical histories and reworking. The consequent inferred time averaging urges caution at using these remains for defining precise ages. The Libertad Fm, top of the sequence, is conformed by greenish clays, clayey fine sandstones, medium sized sandstones and conglomeratic levels, corresponding to deposits of continental origin under a semiarid climate, which allowed the

  12. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

  13. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NPPO must keep records of fruit fly detections for each trap and make the records available to APHIS... concern and has been produced in accordance with the requirements of the systems approach in 7 CFR 319.56... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. 319.56-59 Section...

  15. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  16. The "Failure" of Private Universities in Uruguay: A Tale of Three Institutions. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Warren

    In Latin America private universities are a recent phenomenon; Uruguay began its experiment with privatization only 15 years ago. This study explores several factors which have impeded formation of private universities by analyzing the "failures" of three institutions. The theoretical framework of the study is based on work by D.C. Levy (1986),…

  17. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  18. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  19. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  20. Lessons from Participation in a Web-Based Substance Use Preventive Program in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Gandelman, Néstor; Lamé, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at ninth- and tenth-grade students in 10 private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was…

  1. Screening of endocrine disruption activity in sediments from the Uruguay River.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Rivera, Noelia; Eguren, Gabriela; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Sediment constitutes an important sink of endocrine disruptor compounds; however, the potential of sediments to act as a source of endocrine disruptors should be more extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immature common carp to Uruguay River sediments undergo physiological and endocrine alterations. The lower Uruguay River watershed supports intensive agricultural and forest production, receives municipal sewage discharge and industrial effluent, and a new large pulp mill was constructed in 2006. A 30-day semi-static assay was performed using sediments from four sites along the Uruguay River and compared with an unexposed group in dechlorinated water as a negative control. We focused on two upstream and two downstream sites of a new elemental chlorine free pulp mill. The results showed that plasma vitellogenin levels increased in fish along the river and significant differences were found between the exposed and unexposed groups. Condition factor and gonadosomatic index were not different; however, a significant difference in hepatosomatic index was observed in fish exposed to sediment from an industrial site. A significant reduction in primary spermatocyte accumulation was observed in the exposed group compared with that in the control group, and some individuals exposed to sediments from industrial sites presented with testis-ova. Our results suggest that Uruguay River sediments act as an important source of estrogenic compounds that could be responsible for the alterations observed. Future studies are needed to identify the causal agents and determine exposure routes. PMID:24802028

  2. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  3. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...We are proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of several varieties of fresh citrus fruit, as well as Citrus hybrids and the Citrus-related genus Fortunella, from Uruguay into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the fruit would have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach that would include requirements for importation......

  4. Continuing Professional Development of Physicians in Uruguay: Lessons from a Countrywide Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alvaro; Alvarino, Fernando; Niski, Rosa; Fosman, Elena; Torres, Jorge; Rios, Gilberto; Petruccelli, Dante

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the advancement of continuing professional development (CPD) for physicians in Uruguay and explains the motivations for a CPD system, the role of the faculty of medicine and the other stakeholders, the strategic goals, and current results, including strengths and weaknesses. The work described here had three strategic…

  5. Student Assessment as a Political Construction--The Case of Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the interplay between assessment policies in Uruguay and state-society relations. Shows how national student evaluation has come to symbolize an agreed-on mechanism of social accountability by which the central government upholds its responsibility for educational provision as it intervenes on behalf of impoverished communities.…

  6. [Chronic dialysis in Uruguay: mortality trends from 1981 to 1998

    PubMed

    González, C; Fernández-Cean, J; González-Martínez, F; Schwedt, E; Mazzuchi, N

    2001-01-01

    Uruguay is a developing country with 3.16 million inhabitants. Chronic dialysis treatment (CDT) expanded after the creation of a National Fund of Resources in 1980 who receives contribution from all inhabitants to finance, among others, the CDT and renal transplantation. During the 1981-1998 period, about 4,819 patients were treatment, 2,365 patients had died, 454 were transplanted and 51 patients were lost to follow-up due to change in residence. At the start of the treatment, mean age was 57.0 +/- 17.7 years, 37% were 65 or older than 65 year old, 61.3% were male and 98% of patients were white persons. The most common diseases responsible for End Stage Renal Disease were: hypertension (22%), chronic glomerulonephritis (19%) and diabetic nephropathy (15%). In 1998, there were 44 dialysis units in the country (13.6 units per million population--pmp), 100% of them had water treatment (reverse osmosis 96.8%) and reuse dialyzer. The most frequent causes of death were: cardiovascular and infection. In this paper, eighteen years of the mortality time course of CDT are analyzed. Annual mortality rate was expressed as deaths per 1,000 patients years at risk (M/1,000). The indirect standardization method was applied to adjust the mortality rate. Two populations were used as standard: the 1996 population of USRDS to adjust for age, sex, race and nephropathy and the 1996 Uruguayan general population to adjust for age. Standardized mortality rate (SMR) for each year was obtained dividing observed deaths by expected deaths. From 1981 to 1998, the incident population increased from 32 to 133 patients per million populations and the prevalent population from 28 to 639 pmp. There was a simultaneously increase in the prevalence of diabetic patients and of patients older than 65 years. The annual mortality rate decreased from 249 to 138 deaths per 1,000 patient years (M/1,000). The standardized mortality (SM) with the USRDS population as standard decreased from 452 in 1981 to 132

  7. A Confirmed Case of Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Traveler from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Aránzazu; García-García, Concepción; Sanz, M. Mercedes; Santibáñez, Sonia; Venzal, José M.; Oteo, José A.

    2013-01-01

    The first confirmed case of Rickettsia parkeri infection in Uruguay is reported. To date, in South America, molecularly confirmed cases of human infection have been found in Argentina and probably, Brazil. Our patient returned to Spain after a 7-day trip to Colonia Suiza (Southwestern Uruguay). He presented fever (39°C), chills, and two eschars (tache noire-like) surrounded by an indurated, erythematous halo on the inner side of the left ankle besides a maculopapular rash on the legs. After treatment with doxycycline for 7 days, he fully recovered. R. parkeri infection was diagnosed by molecular-based detection of the microorganism in a swab specimen of the eschar. Diagnosis was supported by seroconversion between acute- and convalescent-phase sera specimens. PMID:24166040

  8. Dietary patterns and risk of ductal carcinoma of the breast: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Aune, Dagfinn; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) shows very high incidence rates in Uruguayan women. The present factor analysis of ductal carcinoma of the breast, the most frequent histological type of this malignancy both in Uruguay and in the World, was conducted at a prepaid hospital of Montevideo, Uruguay. We identified 111 cases with ductal BC and 222 controls with normal mammograms. A factor analysis was conducted using 39 food groups, allowing retention of six factors analyzed through logistic regression in order to obtain odds ratios (OR) associated with ductal BC. The low fat and non-alcoholic beverage patterns were inversely associated (OR=0.30 and OR=0.45, respectively) with risk. Conversely, the fatty cheese pattern was positively associated (OR=4.17) as well as the fried white meat (OR=2.28) and Western patterns (OR 2.13). Ductal BC shared similar dietary risk patterns as those identified by studies not discriminating between histologic type of breast cancer. PMID:21198261

  9. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay. PMID:22902261

  10. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species. PMID:24146579

  11. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  12. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species. PMID:24146579

  13. Uruguay Roselli 1938 and Rosellichnus, n. ichnogenus: Two ichnogenera for clusters of fossil bee cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Genise, J.F.; Bown, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The systematic of the fossil bee nest ichnogenus Uruguay from the Uruguayan Cretaceous or lower Tertiary is reviewed and two new ichnospecies of a new ichnogenus, Rosellichnus, are proposed for fossil bee nests from the Miocene of the United Arab Emirates and Patagonian Argentina. Uruguay contains U. auroranormae (the ichnotype) and U. rivasi, which differs from the type ichnospecies in having clustered cells arranged in three rows, with one central and two marginal rows of subparallel cells. No bee nest architecture known to us unequivocally fits with any ichnospecies described herein. Uruguay was constructed in the subsoil and may be of halictid origin; however, its large cell size, thick cell walls, and the presence of a vestibular cell do not fit the architecture of nests of extant halictids. Rosellichnus arabicus lacks the complete cavity surrounding the cell cluster that is typical in nests of Old World halictids, but it may, nonetheless, still be of halictid origin. R. patagonicus has an architecture more similar to nests of anthophorine bees than to those of Neotropical Halictidae. Therefore, the ichnogenus Rosellichnus may include both halictid and anthophorine constructions. Although the smooth inner cell walls, spiral cell caps, and clustering of cells indicate that both Uruguay and Rosellichnus are trace fossils of bee origin, it is likely that both represent nest architectures that are no longer employed by extant bees, or those that are as yet unknown. The paleoenvironments of both the Argentine and Emirates species of Rosellichnus indicate that the trace-makers of this ichnogenus constructed their nests in open ground sandy soils. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  14. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. PMID:27384969

  15. Ethics, genetics and public policies in Uruguay: newborn and infant screening as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Larrandaburu, Mariela; Matte, Ursula; Noble, Ana; Olivera, Zully; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V; Nacul, Luis; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2015-07-01

    Uruguay is a middle-income country and the smallest in South America. Its population is under 3.3 million. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics are similar to those of developed countries, with a high burden associated with congenital anomalies. Infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 37/1000 live births, in 1980, to 8.8/1000, in 2013. This is largely explained by medical and social policies. IMR related to congenital anomalies, however, remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Therefore, programmes for prevention of congenital disorders were developed, such as the National Newborn Screening Programme. Mandatory, universal, free infant screening was implemented two decades ago. The Ministry of Public Health created the Comprehensive Plan on Birth Defects and Rare Diseases (PIDCER), to develop a strategic public policy tool enabling comprehensive, universal, quality care during their entire lifetime. Recent national legislation created provisions for newborn and infant screening, including for congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, via blood spot test, otoacoustic emissions, systematic physical examination and hip ultrasound. We discuss how this programme was implemented, the current situation of rare diseases, the institution managing disability in Uruguay and the development of new laws based on the MPH's PIDCER. It illustrates how Uruguay is developing public policies in the genomic era, based both on science and bioethics. PMID:26021874

  16. Paleomagnetic and Tectonic studies in Uruguay: a brief synthesis of the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.

    2013-05-01

    The paleomagnetic studies in Uruguay have been applied as a complementary tool to geological studies. Paleomagnetic data can be very useful for geodynamic reconstructions, fundamentally for determine the latitudinal tectonic transport, rotations of crustal blocks. This technique has been applied to Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic units. The geology of the Uruguayan territory is divided into four tectonic units of Uruguay that include a) the Piedra Alta tectonostratigraphic terrane (PATT) and b) Nico Pérez tectonostratigraphic terrane (NPTT), separated by the Sarandí del Yí high-strain zone. Both terranes are well exposed in the Río de La Plata craton (RPC) and have paleoproterozoic ages, the last was reworked in Neoproterozoic times (metacraton). The most thoroughly investigated Neoproterozoic sections are located in the eastern and southeastern regions of Uruguay. The c) Dom Feliciano Belt shows a tectonic evolution from back-arc to foreland basin characterized by fold-and-thrust, thick-skinned belts developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. And finally d) The high metamorphic grade Punta del Este terrane where its most notable feature is their African affinity. There is a significant shortage of geochemical and geochronological data for the existing geological complexity.

  17. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population. PMID:25397699

  18. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  19. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Aichivirus 1 in Wastewater Samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burutarán, L; Lizasoain, A; García, M; Tort, L F L; Colina, R; Victoria, M

    2016-03-01

    Aichivirus 1 (AiV-1) is an enteric virus with 30 nm in diameter, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the Picornaviridae family being a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. The transmission is via the fecal-oral route, through person to person contact, recreation in contaminated waters, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the molecular characterization of AiV-1 in wastewater from Uruguay. Biweekly collections from March 2011 to February 2012 were performed in the cities of Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos, northwestern region of Uruguay. A total of 96 samples were collected; viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and AiV-1 was detected by using a nested PCR with primers directed to a conserved region (3CD junction) of the viral genome. A high frequency of AiV-1 (n = 54) was observed at all the cities analyzed mainly in the colder months of the year. AiV-1 was not evidenced as an appropriate viral fecal indicator since when compared with other previously detected enteric viruses, no correlation was observed. All 13 characterized AiV-1 belonged to the genotype B after the phylogenetic analysis performed with the sequences obtained from the first round PCR amplicon. This study demonstrates that AiV-1 is a frequently detected enteric viruses present in wastewater and excreted by infected persons in the northwestern region of Uruguay. PMID:26456918

  20. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  1. Agriculture In Uruguay: New Methods For Drought Monitoring and Crop Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessel, J.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a vital resource in the country of Uruguay. Here we propose new methods using remotely sensed data for assisting ranchers, land managers, and policy makers in the country to better manage their crops. Firstly, we created a drought severity index based on the climatological anomalies of land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data also using MODIS. The use of the climatological anomalies on the variables has improved the ability of the index to correlate with known drought indices versus previously published indices, which had not used them. We applied various coefficient schemes and vegetation indices in order to choose the model which best correlated with the drought indices across 10 sites throughout Uruguay's rangelands. The model was tested over summer months from 2009-2013. In years where drought had indeed been a problem in the country (such as 2009) the model showed intense signals of drought. Secondly, we used Landsat images to identify winter and summer crops in Uruguay. We first classified them using ENVI and then used the classifications in an ArcMap model to identify specific crop areas. We first created a polygon of the classifications for soils and vegetation for each month (omitting cloud covered images). We then used the crop growing cycle to identify the times during the year for which specific polygons should be soil and which should be vegetation. By intersecting the soil polygons with the vegetation polygons during their respective time periods during the crop growing cycle we were able to create an accurately identify crops. When compared to a shapefile of proposed crops for the year the model obtained a kappa value of 0.60 with a probability of detection of 0.79 and a false alarm ratio of 0.31 for the south-western study area over the 2013-2014 summer.

  2. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20445483

  3. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence. PMID:23667822

  4. FY04 Inspection Results for Wet Uruguay Fuel in L-Basin

    SciTech Connect

    VORMELKER, PHILIP

    2005-09-01

    The 2004 visual inspection of four Uruguay nuclear fuel assemblies stored in L-Basin was completed. This was the third inspection of this wet stored fuel since its arrival in the summer of 1998. Visual inspection photographs of the fuel from the previous and the recent inspections were compared and no evidence of significant corrosion was found on the individual fuel plate photographs. Fuel plates that showed areas of pitting in the cladding during the original receipt inspection were also identified during the 2004 inspection. However, a few pits were found on the non-fuel aluminum clamping plates that were not visible during the original and 2001 inspections.

  5. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health. PMID:24970383

  6. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations. PMID:27498792

  7. Evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Morais, Victor; Negrín, Alba; Tortorella, María Noel; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    In this work we describe the first study carried out in Uruguay of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients bitten by snakes. Between 50 and 70 snake bite accidents per year are caused in Uruguay by 2 species: Rhinocerophis alternatus and Bothropoides pubescens. The patients are treated with a specific polyvalent antivenom. Gaining insight on the evolution of venom antigenaemia and antivenom concentration in patients is important to improve treatment protocols. Blood samples of 29 patients were analysed to determine venom and antivenom concentrations at different times. Venom was detected in 18 of 19 samples before antivenom administration, with a mean concentration of 57 ng/mL. Most of the patients received 4 or 8 vials to neutralize the venom effects. Only one patient needed a total of 16 vials. He showed a severe envenomation and needed supplementary amounts of antivenom after the fifth day of the snake bite accident to reach normal clotting parameters. Antivenom concentrations were determined at 12 h, 24 h and 15 days after antivenom administration. It was found a faster antivenom decrease between 12 and 24 h than to 24 h to 15 days. This was explained by a different clearance mechanism in each period. In the first phase, the cause would be the neutralization of venom present in the blood whereas in the second phase it would be due to unbound antivenom elimination. PMID:22819686

  8. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective. PMID:21243189

  9. Population genetic analysis and trichothecene profiling of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Calero, N; Reynoso, M M; Torres, A; Bettucci, L

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production. Of the 102 isolates identified as having the 15-ADON genotype via PCR genotyping, all were DON producers, but only 41 strains were also 15-ADON producers, as determined by chemical analysis. The populations were genotypically diverse but genetically similar, with significant genetic exchange occurring between them. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variability resulted from differences between isolates within populations. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that the isolates had a panmictic population genetic structure and that there is significant recombination occurs in F. graminearum s.s. In conclusion, tour findings provide the first detailed description of the genetic structure and trichothecene production of populations of F. graminearum s.s. from Uruguay, and expands our understanding of the agroecology of F. graminearum and of the correlation between genotypes and trichothecene chemotypes. PMID:26985955

  10. 77 FR 65672 - Correction to Notice of Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31973 (June 5, 2008...; and Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China, 77 FR 52683 (August 30... the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's...

  11. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. 201.33 Section 201.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.33...

  12. Children in Institutions: The Beginning of the End? The Cases of Italy, Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Innocenti Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorente, Maria Angeles Garcia; Charlebois, Laura Martinez-Mora; Ducci, Valerio; Farias, Ana Maria

    Noting the growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children and adolescents, this report examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national…

  13. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  14. The role of LATU as national metrology institute of Uruguay and its responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robatto, O.; Quagliata, E.; Santo, C.; Sica, A.; Sponton, M.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU) is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay and has the obligation to maintain the national standards stated by National Law 15298. At present LATU is acting as a secondary laboratory as well as a primary laboratory. LATU was ISO 17025:2005 DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst) accredited from 2001 up to 2007. By that time LATU decided to support its Capabilities of Measurement and Calibration (CMCs) at CIPM-MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement between national metrology institutes (NMIs)) by peer assessment. A Peer Review has been done in 2008 in order to get the QSTF (Sistema Interamericano de Metrología, Quality System Task Force) approval. "New "CMCs for Industrial Thermometers have been approved by the JCRB on September 2010. CMCs claimed for Standard Resistance Platinum Thermometers (SPRTs) calibration at fixed points have not been approved yet because there were some requirements of traceability of employed cells that were not fulfilled but will be solved properly. The declared CMCs have been chosen by LATU in order to cover the increasing calibration services required by the industry and the secondary calibration laboratories. To demonstrate its technical competence an support its declared "CMCs" LATU has also participated at bilateral and regional comparisons. In recent years LATU, the National Accreditation Body (OUA), the Standards Institute, the National Institute of Quality and Compliance Bodies have become Members of a new Institution to strengthen the Quality Infrastructure of the country (SUNAMEC). As part of this new activities, LATU is giving training courses to the secondary laboratories performing calibrations in temperature that want to get accredited by the National Accreditation Body and to act as Technical Evaluators or Auditors when required by OUA. It is expected, that in the future and in the frame of new accredited and recognized temperature calibration laboratories, LATU could strengthen its

  15. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    PubMed Central

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  16. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  17. Phytoplankton community of a polymictic reservoir, La Plata River basin, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M C; Bonilla, S; Martínez, G

    1999-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of phytoplankton composition and abundance from four sampling stations at the polymictic system, Rinc6n del Bonete water reservoir in Uruguay. Sampling data were obtained in 4 seasonal periods between February and November 1993. A hundred and twenty-four taxa were identified, where Aulacoseira granulata (Ehrenb.) Simon., A. granulata var. angustissima (Muller) Simon., A. granulata var. angustissima f. spiralis, (Muller) Simon., A. cf. ambigua, (Grun.) Simon., A. cf. distans (Ehrenb.) Simon., Cryptomonas spp. and Synedra ulna (Nitzsch) Ehrenberg, were always present. Phytoplankton abundance fluctuated between 29 (autumn) and 2129 (summer) ind/ml. The general dominance of Aulacoseira spp. could be related to the polymictic condition of the system. In cold months phytoplankton distribution was homogeneous among sampling stations, while in warm months, spatial heterogeneity was detected, suggesting that sampling stations can behave as independent compartments. PMID:23505641

  18. Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health. PMID:24180513

  19. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing. PMID:26398282

  20. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

  1. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  2. Seasonal Variation of Honeybee Pathogens and its Association with Pollen Diversity in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campa, Juan; Invernizzi, Ciro; Santos, Estela; Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Honeybees are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens, which have been related to the occurrence of colony loss episodes reported mainly in north hemisphere countries. Their ability to resist those infections is compromised if they are malnourished or exposed to pesticides. The aim of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological study in Uruguay, South America, in order to evaluate the dynamics and interaction of honeybee pathogens and evaluate their association with the presence of external stress factors such as restricted pollen diversity and presence of agrochemicals. We monitored 40 colonies in two apiaries over 24 months, regularly quantifying colony strength, parasite and pathogen status, and pollen diversity. Chlorinated pesticides, phosphorus, pyrethroid, fipronil, or sulfas were not found in stored pollen in any colony or season. Varroa destructor was widespread in March (end of summer-beginning of autumn), decreasing after acaricide treatments. Viruses ABPV, DWV, and SBV presented a similar trend, while IAPV and KBV were not detected. Nosema ceranae was detected along the year while Nosema apis was detected only in one sample. Fifteen percent of the colonies died, being associated to high V. destructor mite load in March and high N. ceranae spore loads in September. Although similar results have been reported in north hemisphere countries, this is the first study of these characteristics in Uruguay, highlighting the regional importance. On the other side, colonies with pollen of diverse botanical origins showed reduced viral infection levels, suggesting that an adequate nutrition is important for the development of healthy colonies. PMID:25794593

  3. Basis for a streamflow forecasting system to Rincón del Bonete and Salto Grande (Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talento, Stefanie; Terra, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the basis for the design of streamflow prediction systems for the hydroelectric dams of Rincón del Bonete (Uruguay) and Salto Grande (Uruguay-Argentina). The prediction is made, independently, for each reservoir and each month of the year with two methodologies: data-driven statistical models and hybrid downscaling that includes atmospheric predictors. We determine a set of potential predictors and then fit linear models coupled with variable selection techniques, under the hypothesis of perfectly known predictors. The predictive skill of the schemes outperforms the climatological forecast throughout the year in both reservoirs (except August in Rincón del Bonete). This remains the case even when the forecast lead does not allow for the use of preceding flows as predictors. While in Rincón del Bonete it is not possible to distinguish a period of high predictability, in Salto Grande, there is a robust signal in March-May and October-December.

  4. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  5. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  6. Oligosarcus amome (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a new species from the río Uruguay basin, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Almirón, Adriana; Casciotta, Jorge; Piálek, Lubomír; Doubnerová, Klára; Říčan, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    Oligosarcus amome is described from tributaries of the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, río Uruguay basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. This new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of two conspicuous series of teeth on premaxilla bearing pentacuspidate teeth in the outer series. Oligosarcus amome is the sister taxon of all remaining analyzed species of the genus excepting O. itau.  PMID:25662145

  7. Golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) distribution in the main hydrographical basins of Uruguay: update and predictions.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Ernesto; Clemente, Juan; Boccardi, Lucía; Borthagaray, Ana; Scarabino, Fabrizio

    2005-06-01

    Limnoperna fortunei, an Asiatic rivers bivalve has become a worldwide problematic invasive species causing several water quality and macrofouling problems. In the Neotropical region it was first recorded in 1991 in the Rio de la Plata coast, Buenos Aires province. Since this, it showed a quick upstream invasion into the principals aquatic systems of the Plata Basin. Nevertheless, there is not a study about its invasion and distribution process in aquatic systems of Uruguay. We describe the new records of Limnoperna fortunei in Uruguayan coast of Rio de la Plata, Santa Lucia, Negro and Uruguay Rivers. With these results we aim to estimate its distributional limits for Uruguay main hydrographical basins. We also deal with the role of salinity as the main abiotic factor in limiting the east distribution of this mussel in Uruguayan coast of Rio de la Plata and as a potential determinant of the "new" colonization on the Atlantic and the Merin Lagoon Basins. Its presence in the ecosystems not only can cause changes at the ecosystem level but also endanger the associated community, favoring the displacement and the disappearance of endemic species. PMID:15895160

  8. Recent changes in frost days events characteristics in Uruguay-Southeastern South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renom, Madeleine; De Mello, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    There are few studies about extreme temperature events in Southeastern South America as is it mentioned in the SREX report (2009), although these events generate human health impacts and big economical looses. Southeastern South America is one of the major agricultural production regions worldwide. Particularly in Uruguay, agricultural production represents a high percentage of the GDP and, in the last 15 years there has been a significant increase in the area used for that economic activity. Although frost is not always is considered as an extreme event it causes, in the case of Uruguay, an impact on society, energy consumption and agricultural losses. Previous studies have shown a negative trend in the occurrence of cold nights (TN10) during winter (June-July-August) and autumn (March-April-May) in Uruguay. This work try to determine if these trends affects the occurrences and characteristics of frost days (Tmin< 0°C). Based on a high-quality daily minimum temperature for 11 meteorological stations that cover the period 1950-2009, we analyzed different features of frost days. Long term trends do not present a clear spatial behaviour suggesting that there is a not clear relationship between the percentile based index (TN10) and a fixed index (FD). At monthly scale, May and September show a negative trend, although these months present a low number of cases that difficult the statistical treatment. It is noticeable that from a decadal point of view the last decade (2000-2009) was the decade with fewer occurrences comparing with the rest, while the 90's is the decade that presents more cases. We also analyzed changes in frost period (FP) which commonly extends from May to September. In general all the stations present a decrease in the FP in accordance with the negative trend detected at monthly scale, suggesting a warming in autumn and spring time. Although we detected different behaviour in two stations, one located inner land and the other located on the

  9. Prevalence and predictors of exposure to multiple metals in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    The extent of children’s exposure to multiple toxic metals is not well described in many developing countries. We examined metals exposures in young children (6 – 37 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay and their mothers (15 – 47 y) participating in a community-based study. Hair samples collected from 180 children and their mothers were analyzed for: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentration using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median metals levels (μg/g) were: Pb 13.69, Mn 1.45, Cd 0.17, As 0.09 for children and Pb 4.27, Mn 1.42, Cd 0.08, As 00.02 for mothers. Of the child and maternal samples, 1.7% and 2.9% were below the limit of detection (LOD) for Cd, and 21% and 38.5% were below the LOD for As, respectively. Correlations between maternal and child levels ranged 0.38–0.55 (p<0.01). Maternal hair metals levels were the strongest predictors of metal concentrations in children’s hair. Girls had significantly lower As levels than boys (p<0.01) but did not differ on other metals. In addition, in bivariate logistic regressions predicting the likelihood that the child would be exposed to multiple metals, hemoglobin <10.5 g/dL (OR=2.12, p<0.05), blood lead (OR=1.17, p<0.01), and the mother being exposed to two or more metals (OR=3.34, p<0.01) were identified as significant predictors of increased likelihood of multiple metals exposure. Older child age (OR=0.96, p<0.05), higher maternal education (OR=0.35, p<0.01), and higher number of household possessions (OR=0.83, p<0.01) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of multiple metals exposure. Preschool children in Uruguay are exposed to multiple metals at levels that in other studies have been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. Sources of exposure, as well as cognitive and behavioral consequences of multiple metals exposure, should be investigated in this population. PMID:20619443

  10. Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Uruguay, a Middle-Income Country

    PubMed Central

    García Gabarrot, Gabriela; López Vega, Mariana; Pérez Giffoni, Gabriel; Hernández, Silvia; Cardinal, Pablo; Félix, Viviana; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Camou, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine childhood immunization program in Uruguay, with a 2+1 schedule. In 2010, PCV13 replaced PCV7, and the same 2+1 schedule was used. The effect of these pneumococcal vaccines on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) and on serotype distribution was analyzed retrospectively, based on passive national laboratory surveillance. Methods Data from 1,887 IPD isolates from 5 years before and 5 years after PCV7 introduction (7 before and 3 after PCV13 introduction) was examined to assess the incidence rate per 100,000 age-specific population of all IPD, PCV7-serotypes, and PCV13-serotypes associated IPD among children <2 years and 2 to 4 years old, and patients ≥5 years old. Trends of frequency for each serotype were also analyzed. Results Comparison of pre-vaccination (2003–2007) and post-vaccination (2008–2012) periods showed a significant decrease in IPD incidence among children <2 years old (IR 68.7 to IR 29.6, p<0.001) and children 2 to 4 years (p<0.04). IPD caused by serotypes in PCV7 was reduced by 95.6% and IPD caused by 6 serotypes added in PCV13 was reduced by 83.9% in children <5 years old. Indirect effects of both conjugate vaccines were observed among patients ≥5 years old one year after the introduction of each vaccine, in 2010 for PCV7 and in 2012 for PCV13. Nevertheless, for reasons that still need to be explained, perhaps due to ascertainment bias, total IPD in this group increased after 2007. In 2012, the relative frequency of vaccine serotypes among vaccinated and unvaccinated population declined, except for serotype 3. Non vaccine serotypes with increasing frequency were identified, in rank order: 12F, 8, 24F, 22F, 24A, 15C, 9N, 10A and 33. Conclusion Consecutive immunization with PCV7 and PCV13 has significantly reduced IPD in children <5 years of age in Uruguay. PMID:25375647

  11. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. PMID:25985121

  12. Screening for Antimicrobial Activity of Wood Rotting Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from Uruguay against Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Barneche, Stephanie; Jorcin, Gabriela; Cecchetto, Gianna; Cerdeiras, María Pía; Vázquez, Alvaro; Alborés, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial activity of extracts of wood rotting higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms isolated from Eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay was studied using bacterial and fungal phytopathogens as targets. Fifty-one extracts from mycelia and growth broth were prepared from higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms, from which eight extracts (from Ganoderma resinaceum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Dictyopanus pusillus, and Bjerkandera adusta) showed antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizopus stolonifer as assayed in the qualitative test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for those fungal extracts was determined and the results showed that L. sulphureus deserved further study, with low MIC values against X. vesicatoria. The antimicrobial activity of L. sulphureus culture broth extracts grown under different culture conditions was evaluated against X. vesicatoria. From the results of these assays, larger-scale cultures for the production of the compound(s) with antimicrobial activity should be performed using malt extract broth, at pH 5, at 20°C and static culture conditions. PMID:27481160

  13. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Calarge, Liane M; Meunier, Alain; Lanson, Bruno; Formoso, Milton L L

    2006-09-01

    A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m) overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10 m). The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively) varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context. PMID:16936941

  14. Patterns of exposure to multiple metals and associations with neurodevelopment of preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  15. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  16. Social policies in Uruguay: a view from the political dimension of community psychology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreyra, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    This paper approaches social policy (SP) from the political perspective considered by Montero (Critical psychology: An introduction, Sage, London, pp 231-244, 1997; Community, Work and Family 1(1):65-78, 1998; Introducción a la Psicología Comunitaria. Desarrollo, conceptos y procesos, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 89-114, pp 255-284, 2004; Hacer para transformar. El método en la Psicología Comunitaria, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 229-256, 2004) as a paradigmatic dimension of community psychology. The field of SP, the characteristics of certain SPs and the role of SP in the production and reproduction of the subjectivities of those subject to them in Uruguay are described and an analysis given of the challenge posed by going from a compensatory or palliative to a transformative mode of SP. It is proposed that identification of, and understanding and intervention in, psychosocial processes in the field are the keys to maximising the likelihood of SPs assuming a transformative character. Psychosocial aspects and participatory processes implicit in the relationship between the State and civil society are discussed. Finally, some orientations for community psychological intervention in this field of action are proposed. PMID:19219546

  17. First identification of Porcine Circovirus Type 2b mutant in pigs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. PCV2 strains are classified into three genotypes: PCV2a, with five subtypes (2A-2E), PCV2b with three subtypes (1A-1C) and PCV2c, only found in Denmark. Recently, several reports suggested the circulation of newly emerging PCV2b mutants (mPCV2b) isolated from pigs with PCVAD in cases of suspected vaccine failure. In this work, we report for the first time the identification of mPCV2b in pigs from Uruguay, providing an additional evidence of a global circulation. Complete genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis reveal that Uruguayan strains, as well as mPCV2b previously reported are closely related to other sequences already classified as PCV2b-1C. Furthermore, results showed that mPCV2b presented different genetic markers in the capsid protein compared with classical PCV2a/b strains. Further investigation about antigenic shift of the mPCV2b strains including the Uruguayan isolates is needed. PMID:26004195

  18. Genetic characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 isolated from Columba livia in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Castro, E R; Zanetti, F; Arbiza, J

    2012-03-01

    SUMMARY. The isolation and molecular characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) from a sick racing pigeon in Uruguay is reported for the first time. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests were performed to detect antibodies against avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), and a HI titer of 1/32 was obtained. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were processed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) with the use of the National Veterinary Services Laboratory-U.S. Department of Agriculture validated matrix (M) gene assay and were positive for APMV-1. Viral isolation in embryonated chicken eggs confirmed the molecular detection of the isolate. A fragment corresponding to the 3' region of the fusion (F) protein gene was amplified by RT-PCR, and subsequently sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence at the F protein cleavage site displayed the motif 112RRQKR/F117. Phylogenetic analysis of this part of the genome allowed the isolated virus to be grouped in the lineage VIb/ 4b, which suggests that it shares the same ecologic niche with other PPMV-1 that were found in the region, and it is not imported as other European or North American viruses. PMID:22545555

  19. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M.; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. Methods We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected ‘clusters’ in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Results Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. Conclusions The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. PMID:25604764

  20. Human echinococcosis (hydatidosis) in Uruguay: a comparison of indices of morbidity and mortality, 1962-71*

    PubMed Central

    Purriel, P.; Schantz, P. M.; Beovide, H.; Mendoza, G.

    1973-01-01

    The number of hospital cases of hydatid disease diagnosed in Uruguay during the 10 years 1962-1971 was determined by retrospective survey of all medical and surgical centres on three occasions. The annual index of hospital cases was compared with the estimated real prevalence of infection in man determined by extrapolation from the rates of intrathoracic hydatid cysts detected by mass miniature radiography. The highest rates of infection, as determined by these methods, were observed in the interior departments, particularly among rural populations, although some infections were apparently acquired in the capital department of Montevideo. The national index of hospital cases was the highest yet reported for any country but comparison with indices of estimated prevalence indicated that diagnosed cases were only a small proportion of existing infections. The different indices of human prevalence, particularly in the younger age groups, are expected to serve as baseline data to measure future changes in infection pressure achieved as a result of the control measures recently initiated. PMID:4546822

  1. Patterns of Exposure to Multiple Metals and Associations with Neurodevelopment of Preschool Children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L.; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S.

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13–42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  2. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  3. Seroepidemiological survey of Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the endemic area of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Costa, Francisco B; Verdes, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2015-06-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is a vector-borne zoonosis that occurs in some countries of the American continent. Following the first description and determination of the pathogenicity to humans in 2004 in USA, this bacterium has been reported in several South American countries. Human cases have been diagnosed in both Uruguay and Argentina in the past years. This study consisted in a serosurvey of 1000 domestic dogs living in the endemic area of rickettsiosis in Uruguay, where Amblyomma triste is the tick vector. Sera were analyzed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA), against antigens of three different rickettsial species: R. rhipicephali, R. felis and R. parkeri. It was determined that 20.3% of the dogs had antibodies that reacted to at least one of the three species tested, taking as cut off ≥64 titers. Furthermore, 140 of the seropositive dogs (14%) had a titer at least 4 times higher to R. parkeri than those of any of the other species, thus, it was considered that the immune response was stimulated by that species in particular. This is the first serological survey in primary hosts for adults of A. triste in Uruguay, and therefore the first prevalence values are reported. Adult A. triste ticks collected from the environment as well as from dogs were analyzed by PCR in order to confirm the current circulation of the agent in the area. In this matter, two out of 28 ticks from dogs, and 3 out of 53 ticks from the environment were positive, and the corresponding sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with R. parkeri strain maculatum. PMID:25735816

  4. High prevalence and infection levels of Nosema ceranae in bumblebees Bombus atratus and Bombus bellicosus from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Arbulo, N; Antúnez, K; Salvarrey, S; Santos, E; Branchiccela, B; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Invernizzi, C

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is one of the most prevalent pathogens in Apis mellifera and has recently been found in multiple host species including several species of bumblebees. Prevalence and infection intensity of N. ceranae was determined in two species of native bumblebees from Uruguay. Nosema ceranae was the only microsporidia identified and mean prevalence was 72% in Bombus atratus and 63% in Bombus bellicosus, values much higher than those reported elsewhere. The presence of this pathogen in bumblebees may be threatening not only for bumblebee populations, but also to the rest of the native pollinator community and to honeybees. PMID:26248064

  5. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  6. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  7. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Correa, Pelayo; Oreggia, Fernando; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Leiva, Juan

    2005-01-01

    From 1995 to 2002, a case-control study on food groups and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Two hundred thirty cases were frequency-matched to 460 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status. The study was restricted to men. The relationship between foods and risk of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined through: 1) individual food group analysis, 2) factor analysis, and 3) determination of empirical scores. The results were similar. Factor analysis generated 2 patterns, which were labeled as "stew" and "vegetables and fruits." The stew pattern loaded positively on boiled meat, cooked vegetables, potato, and sweet potato. This pattern was directly associated with risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-7.06; P value for trend=0.0002]. The vegetables and fruits factor loaded positively on raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fish, and desserts. This pattern was inversely associated with risk of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64; P value for trend=0.0008). Joint effects of high intake of risk foods and low intake of protective foods were associated with a risk of 12.0 (95% CI, 4.1-34.6). Our study confirms the important role of dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk and suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns is a powerful tool to investigate the links between nutrition and cancer. PMID:15860434

  8. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379

  9. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  10. Formation of the volcanic rifted margin off Argentina/Uruguay, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Reichert, C.; Ladage, S.; Schnabel, M.; Schreckenberger, B.; Neben, S.; Hinz, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Germany has investigated the passive continental margins offshore Argentina and Uruguay since the early 90ies. Numerous marine geophysical surveys have meanwhile established a databasis of more than 25.000 km of regional multi-channel reflection seismic lines, accompanied with magnetic and gravity profiles. These data document that the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic continental break-up and initial sea-floor spreading were accompanied by large-scale, transient volcanism emplacing voluminous extrusives, manifested in the seismic data by huge wedges of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). These deeply buried and 60-120 km wide SDRs were emplaced episodically as suggested by at least three superimposed SDRS units. Distinct along-margin variations in the architecture, volume, and width of the SDRs wedges correlate with large scale margin segmentation. We identify at least four domains bounded by the Falkland Fracture Zone/Falkland Transfer, the Colorado Transfer, the Ventana Transfer and the Salado Transfer. The individual transfer zones may have acted as barriers for propagating rifts during the SDR emplacement phase, selectively directing rift segments in left stepping patterns along the western South Atlantic margin. The rift segments are offset systematically in a left stepping pattern along the western South Atlantic margin. Albeit we found extensive variations in the architecture, style and extent of the seaward dipping reflector sequences a general trend is that the largest volumes are emplaced close to the proposed transfer zones and the width of the SDRs wedges decreases northward within the individual margin segments. The different volcano-tectonic architectures of the margin segments and the distribution of the extruded magmas indicates that the emplacement of the volcanic material was controlled by the tectonic setting and the pre-rift lithosphere configuration within individual margin

  11. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  12. Genetic Structure of Colletotrichum fructicola Associated to Apple Bitter Rot and Glomerella Leaf Spot in Southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rockenbach, Mathias F; Velho, Aline C; Gonçalves, Amanda E; Mondino, Pedro E; Alaniz, Sandra M; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2016-07-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola is the main species causing apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) in southern Brazil, and ABR in Uruguay where GLS remains unnoticed. Thus, this work aimed to determine the genetic structure of C. fructicola isolates of both the countries. A total of 28 out of 31 Brazilian isolates (90.3%) caused typical symptoms of GLS, while only 6 of 25 Uruguayan isolates (24.0%) originating from fruits were able to infect leaves, but causing atypical symptoms. Both populations showed similar levels of Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.088 and 0.079, for Brazilian and Uruguayan populations, respectively), and Bayesian cluster analysis inferred two genetic clusters correlated with the geographical origin of isolates. A principal coordinates analysis scatter plot and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean-based dendrogram also grouped Brazilian and Uruguayan isolates into two groups. By pairwise comparison of nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants with a proposed set of testers, all Uruguayan isolates were grouped into a unique vegetative compatibility group (namely VCG 1), while Brazilian isolates were grouped into four VCGs (VCG 1 to 4). Brazilian and Uruguayan populations of C. fructicola were found to be genetically distinct. Our results suggest that isolates of C. fructicola from Brazil capable of causing GLS and ABR arose independently of those from Uruguay. Possible causes leading to the evolutionary differences between populations are discussed. PMID:27019063

  13. First report of Tequus schrottkyi (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Pergidae) in Uruguay, and information about its host plant and biology

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The sawfly family Pergidae is best represented in South America, and it is the third largest family in the suborder Symphyta. Tequus is a Neotropical genus that has been reported in association with host plants of the genus Solanum (Solanaceae), with little information about the life history of its members. Tequus schrottkyi (Konow, 1906) was described from Paraguay, without any information about its biology and host plant. New information We report the first record of T. schrottkyi from Uruguay, with information on its host plant and details of its biology. The identification was based on morphology, DNA barcode is provided to allow identification using molecular characters. This sawfly species is associated with Solanum commersonii, a native plant common in Uruguay. Tequus schrottkyi presents several generations between March and July. The larvae feed on leaves and spin a silk cocoon in the soil in which they pupate. The adults exhibit sexual dimorphism, the female being larger than the male and with a different color pattern. The eggs are laid individually in the leaf margins into the leaf tissue. The larvae are unpalatable to a generalist predator, possibly due to defensive compounds sequestered from their host plant, known to contain toxic compounds. PMID:26929717

  14. The importance of XRD analysis in provenance and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Neoproterozoic of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Poiré, D. G.; Gaucher, C.; Uriz, N.; Cingolani, C.; Frigeiro, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Piedras de Afilar Formation crops out in the southeast part of Uruguay, forming part of the Tandilia Terrane (sensu Bossi et al. 2005). Pamoukaghlian et al. (2006) and Gaucher et al. (2008) have published δ13C, δ18O and U/Pb SHRIMP results, which indicate a Neoproterozoic age for this formation. The palaeoenvironment has been defined as a shallow marine platform based on the presence of interference ripples, hummocky and mega-hummocky cross-stratification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses help to better constrain the palaeoenvironment: the presence of chlorite/smectite found in black shales, suggest a reducing environment, and abundant illite indicates a cold to temperate climate. Provenance studies have been undertaken that utilise a combination of detailed palaeocurrent measurements, petrographic descriptions, XRD analyses, and geochemical isotopic analyses, including U/Pb SHRIMP determinations. Mineral compositional diagrams for sandstones suggest a stable cratonic provenance. Palaeocurrents are mainly from the NNE, indicating a provenance from the cratonic areas of the Tandilia Terrane. The illite crystal index indicates diagenetic to low-metamorphic conditions for the sequence; this is important to confirm that the identified minerals are authigenic. Clay minerals identified by XRD analysis of sandstones from the siliciclastic member are illite (80 - 90%), kaolinite (5 - 10%), and chlorite (5 - 10%). This is consistent with a provenance from the cratonic areas (quartz-feldspar dominated rock types). Isotopic analyses have been undertaken to provide better constraints on the tectonic setting. U/Pb SHRIMP ages for the youngest zircons are 990 Ma (Gaucher et al. 2008), and the basal granite (Granito de la Paz) is 2056 ± 11 Ma (Hartmann et al. 2001), suggesting a provenance from the Archaean basement for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, like its counterparts in the Rio de la Plata Craton. References Bossi, J., Piñeyro, D., Cingolani, C. (2005). El l

  15. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity. PMID:25048094

  16. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  17. The Santa Lucia-Aiguá-Merin rifting (Uruguay): an early aborted branch of the South Atlantic break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossello, E.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Veroslavsky, G.; de Santa Ana, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Santa Lucía-Aigua-Merin (SaLAM) rift is emplaced in the cratonic basement of SE Uruguay. It covers 450 km from the Rio de La Plata to the southwest to Laguna Merin to the northeast running broadly parallel to the South American plate boundary. It is a narrow, pull apart trough trending N 70° with two distinct depocenters (Santa Lucía and Merin) filled predominantly by Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments. Alkaline magmatic rocks have been identified in the Minas-Aigua-Lescano uplifted segment that separates both depocenters. The Santa Lucía depocenter or sub basin was filled with a up to 2,500 m thick column of upper Jurassic to Cenozoic volcaniclastic sediments that rest on the structured Precambrian basement. The Merin sub basin is dominated by a thick volcanic sequence associated with a significant gravity anomaly. The SaLAM rift joins southwestard into a triple-junction configuration with the NW-SE trending Salado Basin is was buried by Lower Tertiary to Recent sediments. The SaLAM trough can be interpreted as an aborted branch of the South Atlantic break up; its orientation was probably controlled, at least partially, by the structural grain of the pre-existing Gondwana crystalline basement. Its accessible outcrops provide an excellent opportunity to study the sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic evolution of the early stages of the South Atlantic break up and its potential reactivation during the Andean orogeny that seemed to have affected significant parts of the adjacent large continental platform of Uruguay and Argentina.

  18. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

  19. Petrography and geochemistry of the Arroyo de la Virgen and Isla Mala plutons, southern Uruguay: Early proterozoic tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Bourne, J. H.

    1992-10-01

    The Arroyo de la Virgen pluton (AVP) and the Isla Mala pluton (IMP) are relatively small zoned intrusions of Early Proterozoic age. Radiometric age determinations suggest that the IMP is a composite pluton. The composition of the AVP ranges from granodiorite to leucogranite, whereas that of the IMP ranges from hornblendite to leucogranite. Both intrusions feature hornblende (with relict clinopyroxene cores) and biotite as mafic minerals. Muscovite and garnet are present in the most evolved members of each suite. Development of secondary chlorite, epidote, and sericite is common. Quartz typically has undulose extinction. The plutons are massive except near the margins of the intrusion. Both intrusions feature a calc-alkaline chemistry, have peraluminous indices of approximately 1.0, and were emplaced at relatively high levels in the crust. Application of several tectonic discriminant diagrams suggests that the IMP formed in an active continental-margin type of tectonic environment, whereas the AVP is a subalkaline, post-orogenic pluton. The ages of the IMP leucogranite and the AVP are similar (2290 and 2225 Ma, respectively). The age of the IMP leucogranite represents the minimum reliable age of the principal metamorphic event in southern Uruguay. A number of small dikes were emplaced into both intrusions approximately 300 million years later and represent a distinct phase of intrusive activity in the region.

  20. The late Paleozoic palynological diversity in southernmost Paraná (Uruguay), Claromecó and Paganzo basins (Argentina), Western Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Ángeles; Gutiérrez, Pedro R.; Balarino, M. Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the changes in palynoflora diversity of the late Paleozoic in boreholes DI.NA.MI.GE. 254 (26 samples) and DI.NA.MI.GE. 221 (14 samples) of the Paraná Basin in Uruguay and in 18 surface samples of the La Deheza Formation (Paganzo Basin) and 10 samples of borehole UTAL.CMM1.La Estrella.x-1 (Claromecó Basin) in Argentina. Possible relationships among biostratigraphic zones, diversity levels, facies and climatic evolution patterns in Western Gondwana are studied. Diversity curves of boreholes 221 and 254 and the La Deheza Formation outcrop exhibit similar diversity evolution patterns, i.e., an increase in lower strata diversity and a decrease in upper strata diversity. The disappearance events are determined to be more prominent in biozones of the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian age and less prominent in biozones of the early Cisuralian age. The number of genera raises from the glaciomarine facies, through the deltaic and the marine facies, up to the shallow marine or lagoon facies, in which the disappearance rates become more prominent. . The diversity of the lower part of the La Estrella borehole is lesser than that of the other sequences These diversity, disappearance and appearance behaviors may reflect post-glacial climatic amelioration patterns and the beginning of an arid phase.

  1. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction. PMID:21968803

  2. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  3. Dietary benzo[a]pyrene, alcohol drinking, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine to the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study in the time period 1996-2004. The study included 1,098 participants (460 cases and 638 controls). All the patients were drawn from the four major hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Statistical analysis was performed using unconditional multiple logistic regression and the models included age, residence, urban/rural status, education, monthly income, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy, total vegetables and fruits, and BaP intake. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of BaP intake (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Alcohol drinking was also directly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) and the joint effect of BaP and alcohol drinking showed an elevated risk of the disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.17-5.06). The present study suggests that elevated consumption of BaP could play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. This effect is enhanced by the intake of alcohol. PMID:22126482

  4. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Baethgen, W.E.; Magrin, G.O.

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  5. Monitoring the effects of climate and agriculture intensity on nutrient fluxes in lowland streams: a comparison between temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhof, Mariane; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Graeber, Daniel; Vidal, Nicolas; Mazzeo, Nestor; Ovesen, Niels; Jeppesen, Erik; Thodsen, Hans; Kronvang, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Climate is changing towards more extreme conditions all over the world. At the same time, land use is becoming more intensive worldwide and particularly in many developing countries, whereas several developed countries are trying to reduce the impacts of intensive agricultural production and lower the excessive nutrient loading and eutrophication symptoms in water bodies. In 2009, we initiated a comparative research project between the subtropical region (Uruguay) and the temperate region (Denmark) to compare the hydrology and nutrient fluxes in paired micro-catchments with extensive production or intensive agriculture. The four selected streams drained catchments of similar size (7 to 19 km2). We have established similarly equipped monitoring stations in the four micro-catchments in spring (November 2009, Uruguay; March 2010, Denmark) to monitor the effects of land use and agriculture intensity on stream hydrology and nutrient concentrations and fluxes under different climate conditions. We have conducted high frequency measurements in the four lowland streams with underwater probes (turbidity, pH, conductivity and oxygen measured every 15 minutes), fortnight grab sampling of water and automatic sampling of composite water samples for nutrient analysis (total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus; sampled every four hours and accumulated fortnightly). Moreover, water level and meteorological information (precipitation, air temperature, global radiation, humidity) has been recorded every 10 minutes and instantaneous flow measurements have been conducted at regular intervals, to facilitate the calculation of instantaneous discharge from continuous records of water level (stage-discharge relationships). We will show results of ca. 2 years from this comparative study between Uruguay and Denmark, and the importance of differences in climate and land use will be discussed.

  6. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  7. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  8. Pregnant women's secondhand smoke exposure and receipt of screening and brief advice by prenatal care providers in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  9. Archean crust in the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay — SHRIMP U Pb zircon reconnaissance geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Léo A.; Campal, Néstor; Santos, João Orestes S.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Bossi, Jorge; Schipilov, Alejandro; Lafon, Jean-Michel

    2001-11-01

    Two Archean units were detected in the center of the Nico Pérez Terrane of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay, the La China Complex, a deformed granite-greenstone belt and the Las Tetas Complex, a deformed sedimentary platform cover. Reconnaissance dating of zircons from three samples by U-Pb sensitive high-mass resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) indicates that the two units are amongst the oldest Archean continental remnants in South America. The La China metatonalite has zircons with igneous cores (3.41 Ga) with metamorphic rims between 3.10 and 2.7 Ga. A muscovite quartzite from the Las Tetas Complex has detrital zircons with ages between 3.26 and 3.14 Ga, while the main source of the Las Tetas metaconglomerate was dated by zircon at about 2.76 Ga. The interpretation is that a ˜3410 Ma greenstone belt was thrust-stacked with a 2.7 Ga carbonate-quartzite-pelite-conglomerate platform cover, so that granite-greenstone piles are positioned on top of cover rocks. The La China greenstone belt has intercalations of subvertical decameter-sized layers of talc-chlorite-tremolite schists with mafic and ultramafic amphibolites, a presumed volcanic komatiite/basalt sequence. The Las Tetas platform cover is a layered sequence of metamorphosed limestones, quartzites, conglomerates and pelites. Stromatolites occur in the carbonate sequence, whereas the pelites are now staurolite schists. The characterization of Archean continental remnants in the center of the Nico Pérez Terrane requires a reevaluation of the internal structure of the Rio de la Plata Craton. Important consequences emerge from this investigation for the understanding of the oldest environments in the South American crust and for the reconstruction of Archean paleocontinents.

  10. ¹⁷⁷Lu-Labeled Agents for Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy and Bone Pain Palliation in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balter, Henia; Victoria, Trindade; Mariella, Terán; Javier, Gaudiano; Rodolfo, Ferrando; Andrea, Paolino; Graciela, Rodriguez; Juan, Hermida; Eugenia, De Marco; Patricia, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 is an emerging radionuclide due its convenient chemical and nuclear properties. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation in Uruguay of the targeted 177Lu labelled radiopharmaceuticals EDTMP (for bone pain palliation) and DOTA-TATE (neuroendocrine tumors). We optimized the preparation of these 177Lu radiopharmaceuticals including radiolabelling, quality control methods, in vitro and in vivo stability and their therapeutic application in patients. Radiation dosimetry aspects of 177Lu are also included. Nine male patients with prostate cancer and four female patients with breast carcinoma with multiple bone metastatic lesions were treated with 177Lu-EDTMP. Four patients with gastroentheropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) and one patient with bronchial NET were treated with 1- 3 cycles with a cumulative dose of 4.44-22.2 GBq of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. Scintigraphic images of the patients treated with 177Lu-EDTMP evidenced high and rapid uptake in bone metastasis, remaining after 7 days post administration. Images allow skeletal visualization with high definition and demonstrate increased uptake in bone metastases. For 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, partial remissions were obtained in 4 patients and the remaining patient did not show significant progression 3 months after the second cycle. No serious adverse effects were registered, even in two patients with confirmed renal disease and high risk for renal disease Dosimetry assessments confirm the predictive value of the personalized therapy with radiolabelled peptides. We found it is possible to accumulate high therapeutic doses in tumours in sequential administrations of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE, increasing the probability of biological response without significant impairment of the renal function in patients with risk factors. These results demonstrate the attractive therapeutic properties of these two 177Lu labelled agents and the feasibility of this metabolic therapy in regions far away from 177Lu producing

  11. Influence of farm resource endowment on possibilities for sustainable development: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dogliotti, S; van Ittersum, M K; Rossing, W A H

    2006-02-01

    In different parts of the world, there is an urgent need for redesigning and innovating farming systems. Such a process may be supported by model-based explorations that enable ex-ante evaluation of a broad range of alternatives. Since a variety of viable patterns of farm development exists related to farm resource endowment and farmer's strategy, model-based explorations should be able to capture the existing variation in resource endowment and strategies in order to have impact on strategic farm management. In this paper, we present an overview of the model-based explorative method based on the MILP model Farm Images, applied to explore options for sustainable development of vegetable farms in Canelón Grande, Uruguay. The method is used to gain insight into the impact of current farm resource endowment on the possibilities for sustainable development and on the resource use efficiency at farm scale. We maximized farm income for 128 different farm types in an environment-oriented scenario and in an income-oriented scenario. Farm types were defined by combining 4 farm sizes, 2 labor endowments, 4 irrigation endowments, 2 soil quality combinations and 2 mechanization levels. The results demonstrate a strong impact of farm resource endowment on possibilities for sustainable development, as well as synergy between labor, land and irrigated area on resource-use efficiency at farm scale. Farms with 10ha of land or less, representing 47% of the farms in the Canelón Grande region, could only achieve a family income higher than the average income of Uruguayan families when the irrigated area was ca. 40% of the farm area. The achievement of environmental targets was less costly in terms of income on farms with a low rather than high labor availability per unit area and on farms with irrigation facilities. PMID:16154255

  12. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person’s chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals’ chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light–dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  13. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  14. Network analysis of cattle movements in Uruguay: Quantifying heterogeneity for risk-based disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases. PMID:26708252

  15. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration. PMID:27226819

  16. Complex Bedforms and Complex Water Masses: A Case Study from the Tertiary to Present-day, Pelotas Basin, Offshore Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P.; Badalini, G.; Wrigley, S.; Walker, R.; Argent, J.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; de Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Tomasini, J.

    2015-12-01

    Contour currents are commonly associated with bedform development on modern seabeds yet there is a general paucity of published examples from the ancient record. Recently acquired 3D seismic data, covering over 13000km2 of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Uruguay, provides a unique opportunity to study the architecture and development of a variety of bedform. The data shows that, throughout the Tertiary, contour currents were the dominant control on sedimentation along the Uruguayan margin. The first evidence of contour current activity is during the Early Tertiary in the form of a major regional unconformity that, even though it was fully subaqueous, does not show any major features associated with downslope sedimentation. In the mid-slope region, the unconformity coincides with an extensive (1500km2) intra-slope scour-field orientated parallel to the slope. Individual scours are up to 40m deep, 500m wide and 3km long. Coeval with these scours are a group of coalesced basin floor scours, which run parallel to the base of slope and extend over 400km2. Individual scours exhibit an asymmetric shape - similar to giant flute marks - that are up to 150m deep, 20km wide and extend for at least 40km along slope. The development of these scoured areas shows clear evidence of two major north-flowing water masses. Directly above this regional unconformity are a series of ribbon-like bedforms that developed oblique to the slope. Individual bedforms are up to 40km in length with wavelengths of 5km and heights up to 100m. These bedforms are overlain by a set of barchan-like dunes, up to 30km in length with wavelengths of 10km. Individual dunes are in the order of 100m thick and stack to form an overall package up to 500m thick. These features show a clear change from erosion/bypass to deposition/reworking that is linked to a decrease in ocean current velocity and/ or sediment supply. The features observed suggest a complex oceanic regime was present throughout the Tertiary that

  17. Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Río de la Plata Craton in Uruguay: at the heart of Rodinia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Chemale, Farid; Frei, Dirk; Bossi, Jorge; Martínez, Gabriela; Chiglino, Leticia; Cernuschi, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Mesoproterozoic volcanosedimentary units and tectonic events occurring in the Río de la Plata Craton (RPC) are reviewed. A belt consisting of volcanosedimentary successions exhibiting greenschist-facies metamorphism is exposed in the eastern RPC (Nico Pérez Terrane) in Uruguay. The Parque UTE Group consists of basic volcanics and gabbros at the base (1,492 ± 4 Ma, U-Pb on zircon), carbonates in its middle part and interbedded carbonates, shales and acid volcanics (1,429 ± 21 Ma, U-Pb on zircon) at the top. The Mina Verdún Group is made up of rhyolites and acid pyroclastics at its base and top, and Conophyton-bearing limestones and massive dolostones in the middle. A U-Pb LA-ICP MS zircon age of 1,433 ± 6 Ma is reported here for lapilli-tuffs at the base of the Mina Verdún Group (Cerro de las Víboras Formation). This age shows that the Mina Verdún Group immediately postdates the Parque UTE Group, a fact supported by carbon isotope chemostratigraphy. Both units were deformed and metamorphosed between 1.25 and 1.20 Ga, as shown by K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages. This tectonic event affected most of the RPC and led to the accretion of the Nico Pérez Terrane to the remainder of the RPC along the Sarandí del Yí megashear. We report a U-Pb LA-ICP MS zircon age (upper intercept) of 3,096 ± 45 Ma for metatonalites of the La China Complex (Nico Pérez Terrane), which yield a lower intercept age of 1,252 Ma. A proto-Andean, Mesoproterozoic belt is envisaged to account for abundant Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon ages occurring in Ediacaran sandstones of the RPC. If the RPC is fringed at both sides by Mesoproterozoic, Grenville-aged belts it is likely that it occupied a rather central position in Rodinia. A possible location between Laurentia and the Kalahari Craton, and to the south of Amazonia, is suggested.

  18. Epigenetic formation of amethyst-bearing geodes from Los Catalanes gemological district, Artigas, Uruguay, southern Paraná Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L. C.; Hartmann, L. A.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.; Medeiros, J. T. N.; Theye, T.

    2009-07-01

    Giant geodes (up to 4 m long) in the massive central portions of altered basalt lavas from the Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil and Uruguay, form a world-class source of amethyst and agate. Although the origin of the cavities has been ascribed to degassing of the lava at > 1150 °C, field evidence is conclusive that the giant amethyst-agate-filled geodes were formed by hydrothermal processes at low temperatures. We propose an epigenetic and hydrothermal model for the origin of giant geodes. This model includes hydrothermal brecciation during an early brittle stage and the late formation of the cavities (geodes). In the brittle stage an overpressured aqueous fluid affected the basalt in a P, T field delimited by temperatures between 100 and 150 °C and vapor pressures between 1.2 and 5.5 bar. The fluids were capable of lifting the roof and fracturing the host rock along new subhorizontal and subvertical fractures and breccias in the massive lava. The formation of these structures occurred at shallow depths, unit-by-unit. To open the cavities, dissolution of the now altered basalt to clay minerals is necessary. The process is closely linked to the highest alteration grade of mineralized lavas in Los Catalanes gemological district. Dissolution processes are observed in micrometer-scale in the studied basalts. The primary mineralogy, consisting of labradorite (± andesine) +augite + pigeonite + mesostasis (K-rich), was altered during the interaction of large volumes of hot aqueous fluid with the rock. The alteration of pigeonite and its replacement by smectite is observed around the cavities, followed by the precipitation of amorphous silica and microcrystalline quartz in clay-rich sites. Associated zeolites (heulandite + clinoptilolite) fill the newly formed cavities in progressive stages of hydrothermal alteration. Our data indicate that the temperatures were less than 200 °C and probably less than 150 °C; cavity formation occurred after alteration of the

  19. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  20. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones

    PubMed Central

    Fariña, Richard A.; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human–megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  1. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  2. Implementation of the risk and harm reduction strategy against unsafe abortion in Uruguay: From a university hospital to the entire country.

    PubMed

    Labandera, Ana; Gorgoroso, Monica; Briozzo, Leonel

    2016-08-01

    The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths. A very favorable change was seen in the number and quality of the services, the providers' attitude, and maternal morbidity and mortality were reduced. It also brought visibility to women with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and an improved understanding of their problems, which contributed to the legislative changes that were made subsequently. PMID:27577026

  3. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  4. Stable isotope and mineralogical investigation of the genesis of amethyst geodes in the Los Catalanes gemological district, Uruguay, southernmost Paraná volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lauren C.; Hartmann, Leo A.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Berner, Zsolt; Theye, Thomas; Massonne, Hans J.

    2011-03-01

    Stable isotopes (C, O, S) and mineralogical studies of the world-class amethyst-geode deposits of the Los Catalanes gemological district, Uruguay, constrain processes operative during mineral deposition. The mineralized basaltic andesites from the Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province are intensely altered to zeolites (clinoptilolite) and clay minerals. Variations in the δ18O values of silica minerals in geodes (chalcedony, quartz, and amethyst) are much larger and the values generally somewhat lower (21.2-31.5‰) in the Uruguayan deposits than in the Ametista do Sul area of southern Brazil. The range of δ34S values (-15.0 to -0.3‰) of altered basaltic rocks requires (in addition to sulfur of magmatic origin) the involvement of 34S-depleted sedimentary sulfur from bacterial sulfate reduction. The results delimit the mineralizing processes to a post-eruption environment characterized by low temperature and strong interaction of the lava flows with meteoric water.

  5. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children after Five Years of Its Introduction in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001–2004 and 2009–2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. Conclusions An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13. PMID:24905093

  6. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers’ receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers’ reactance against such cues, and with smokers’ level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. Results In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. Discussion These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place. PMID:19380383

  7. Paleoclimatic implications (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) from micromorphology of calcretes, palustrine limestones and silcretes, southern Paraná Basin, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tófalo, Ofelia R.; Pazos, Pablo J.

    2010-04-01

    Sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of outcroping and subsurface calcretes, palustrine carbonates, and silcretes were carried out in the southern Paraná Basin (Uruguay). The aim of this work is to describe the microfabric and interpret the genesis of these rocks through detailed analyses, since they contain significant paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution information. The main calcrete and silcrete host rock (Mercedes Formation) is represented by a fluvial thinning upward succession of conglomerate and sandstone deposits, with isolated pelitic intervals and paleosoils. Most of the studied calcretes are macroscopically massive with micromorphological features of alpha fabric, originated by displacive growth of calcite in the host clastic material due to evaporation, evapotranspiration and degassing. Micromorphologically, calcretes indicate an origin in the vadose and phreatic diagenetic environments. Micrite is the principal component, and speaks of rapid precipitation in the vadose zone from supersaturated solutions. The abundance of microsparite and secondary sparite is regarded as the result of dissolution and reprecipitation processes. Although present, brecciated calcretes are less common. They are frequent in vadose diagenetic environments, where the alternation between cementation and non-tectonic fracturing conditions take place. These processes generated episodes of fragmentation, brecciation and cementation. Fissures are filled with clear primary sparitic calcite, formed by precipitation of extremely supersaturated solutions in a phreatic diagenetic environment. The micromorphological characteristics indicate that calcretes resulted from carbonate precipitation in the upper part of the groundwater table and the vadose zone, continuously nourished by lateral migration of groundwater. The scarcity of biogenic structures suggests that they were either formed in zones of little biological activity or that the overimposed processes related to

  8. Sediment Dynamics and Geohazards offshore Uruguay and Northern Argentina: First Results from the multi-disciplinary Meteor-Cruise M78-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastel, Sebastian; Freudenthal, Tim; Hanebuth, Till; Preu, Benedict; Schwenck, Tilmann; Strasser, Michael; Violante, Roberto; Wefer, Gerold; Winkelmann, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    About 90% of the sediments generated by weathering and erosion on land get finally deposited at the ocean margins. The sediment distribution processes and landscape evolution on land are relatively well understood, but comparably little is known about the role and relative importance of marine sediment dynamics in controlling the architectural evolution of ocean margins. Important players include hemi-pelagic settling, down-slope and current-controlled along-slope sediment transport, depositional and post-depositional sedimentary processes (e.g. consolidation and diagenesis), as well as the destabilization of sediment bodies and their erosion. Submarine landslides in this context thus may represent an important sediment transport process, but also a major geo-hazard due to the increasing number of offshore constructions as well as their potential to instantaneously displace large water masses triggering waves in densely populated coastal areas. Here we present first results from a seagoing expedition that aimed at investigating the interaction processes of sediment redistribution, partitioning, deposition and diagenesis from the coast to the deep-sea along the western South-Atlantic passive continental margin. During RV Meteor Cruise M78/3 in May-July 2009 the shelf, slope and rise offshore Argentina and Uruguay have been investigated by means of hydroacoustic and seismic mapping as well as geological sampling with conventional coring tools as well as the new MARUM seafloor drill rig (MeBo) that revealed recovery of geological strata sampled from up to 50m below seafloor. The working area is characterized by a high amount of fluvial input by the Rio de la Plata river. The continental slope is relatively wide and shows average slope gradients between 1 and 2.5 but locally higher slope gradients may occur (>5). The transition for the continental rise with low slope gradients is found in ~ 3000m water depth. The working area is located in a highly dynamic

  9. Timing of deformation in the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: Implications for the amalgamation of western Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriolo, Sebastián.; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wemmer, Klaus; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Benowitz, Jeffrey; Pfänder, Jörg; Hannich, Felix; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    U-Pb and Hf zircon (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe -SHRIMP- and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry -LA-ICP-MS-), Ar/Ar hornblende and muscovite, and Rb-Sr whole rock-muscovite isochron data from the mylonites of the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay, were obtained in order to assess the tectonothermal evolution of this crustal-scale structure. Integration of these results with available kinematic, structural, and microstructural data of the shear zone as well as with geochronological data from the adjacent blocks allowed to constrain the onset of deformation along the shear zone at 630-625 Ma during the collision of the Nico Pérez Terrane and the Río de la Plata Craton. The shear zone underwent dextral shearing up to 596 Ma under upper to middle amphibolite facies conditions, which was succeeded by sinistral shearing under lower amphibolite to upper greenschist facies conditions until at least 584 Ma. After emplacement of the Cerro Caperuza granite at 570 Ma, the shear zone underwent only cataclastic deformation between the late Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone is thus related to the syncollisional to postcollisional evolution of the amalgamation of the Río de la Plata Craton and the Nico Pérez Terrane. Furthermore, the obtained data reveal that strain partitioning and localization with time, magmatism emplacement, and fluid circulation are key processes affecting the isotopic systems in mylonitic belts, revealing the complexity in assessing the age of deformation of long-lived shear zones.

  10. The Use of Legal, Illegal, and Roll-you-own Cigarettes to Increasing Tobacco Excise Taxes and Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policies-Findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084

  11. Deaf Community Mobilization in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 50 million (or approximately 15%) persons with disabilities living in Latin America and the Caribbean: 80 percent live in impoverished conditions, lack employment, and encounter social exclusion. Deaf and hard of hearing persons are particularly impacted as they are frequently denied access to most sectors of society. This…

  12. CTX-M-15 in combination with aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent mechanism of resistance both in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, including K. pneumoniae ST258, in an ICU in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Bado, Inés; Gutiérrez, Claudia; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Araújo Pirez, Lucía; Seija, Verónica; Bazet, Cristina; Rieppi, Gloria; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EcKp) clones circulating in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Uruguay between August 2010 and July 2011, (ii) to characterise the ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes of the studied isolates and (iii) to determine the virulotype of the clinical isolates. Clinical and gut-colonising ESBL-EcKp from ICU patients were studied. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination were performed using a VITEK(®)2 system. Detection of ESBL, KPC and PMQR genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 54 ESBL-EcKp isolates (40 K. pneumoniae and 14 E. coli), with or without PMQR genes, were recovered from 30 of 68 inpatients. Forty-seven isolates were CTX-M-15-producers (36 as a single ESBL and 11 together with CTX-M-14). In addition, four isolates produced CTX-M-14, two produced CTX-M-2 and one produced SHV-5. No carbapenemases were detected either in E. coli or K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 42 also harboured PMQR genes: 27 aac(6')-Ib-cr; 14 aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB; and a single isolate carrying only qnrB. K. pneumoniae ST258, ST48 and ST16 and E. coli ST10 and ST405 were detected in 46/54 isolates, including 9 clinical isolates. In conclusion, non-KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST258 harbouring different ESBL and PMQR genes was the main clone disseminated in the ICU. Extensive surveillance measures must be implemented to prevent the emergence of acquired plasmid-encoded blaKPC by ST258 K. pneumoniae. PMID:27530831

  13. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  14. 76 FR 10266 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3), we amended the regulations to authorize the importation of... (FMD). These are dangerous and destructive communicable diseases of ruminants and swine. Section 94.1... ruminants or swine raised and slaughtered in a region free of foot-and-mouth disease and rinderpest,...

  15. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... / Thursday, November 14, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and...

  16. A Formative Approach to National Assessments: The Case of Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravela, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case of national achievement assessment at the primary level within a formative approach. Many countries experience an increasing obligation to attach high stakes to national assessments, which results in greater pressure on teachers and schools. The author's view is that this kind of approach is…

  17. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  18. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation. PMID:25427938

  19. A new mitochondrial C1 lineage from the prehistory of Uruguay: population genocide, ethnocide, and continuity.

    PubMed

    Sans, Monica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2012-06-01

    Uruguayan population has been considered as of European descent, as its Native populations victims of genocide apparently disappeared in the 19th century. Contradicting this national belief, genetic studies have shown a substantial Native contribution. However, the continuity between prehistoric, historic, and present populations remains unproved. With the aim of adding elements to prove a possible population continuity, we studied a mitochondrial lineage, part of haplogroup C1, analyzing the complete genome of a modern Uruguayan individual and the hypervariable region I (HVRI) in prehistoric, historic, and contemporary individuals. Several individuals carried the mutations that characterize this lineage: two from an archaeological mound located in the east of the country, the Charrúa Indian chief Vaimaca Perú and five individuals from the present population. The lineage was initially characterized by its HVRI sequence, having the four typical C1 mutations and adding 16051G and 16288C; other mutations were also found: 16140C was found in all but the oldest individual, dated 1,610 years BP, while 16209C, 16422C, and 16519C were found only in some individuals. Hypervariable region II showed the typical C1 mutations and 194T. The coding region, analyzed in modern individuals, was characterized by 12378T, while other mutations found were not common to all of them. In summary, we have found and described a new lineage that shows continuity from prehistoric mound builders to the present population, through a representative of the extinct Charrúa Indians. The lineage appeared at least 1,600 years ago and is carried by approximately 0.7% of the modern Uruguayan population. The continuity of the lineage supports alternative perspectives about Uruguayan national identity and the meaning of the genocide, best labeled as ethnocide because of its consequences. It also contributes to the discussion about who the prehistoric mound builders were, and to the origin, at least in the maternal line, of a Charrúa Indian. From a more general perspective, we can conclude that the characteristics, evolution, and expansion of founder haplogroup C in America have not yet been elucidated. PMID:23020097

  20. Sustainable Innovation Strategies in Education: OLPC Case Studies in Ethiopia and Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiatordi, Andrea; Pischetola, Magda

    In the Knowledge Society great importance is given to sharing knowledge and information. The ICTs not only provide a very efficient infrastructure for this task, they also have radically changed the way we interact and access information. This effect is even more consistent among the younger generations, who were born and raised in an era when network communications were already nearly as common as any other service. This also means they met another generation, the one of their parents and teachers who did not experience the same immersion in technology as they did. A sort of conflict arises from this encounter: children who have been exposed to such a wide range of possibilities are taught by adults who consolidated a method based on analogical instruments and who think using different patterns. It seems necessary, given this scenario, to spend a great deal of effort in integrating teachers' methodologies with ICTs in order to create a better environment for children's education. This paper reflects on two different experiences from One Laptop Per Child deployments. The project, which is the largest attempt in the world to promote one-to-one computing in primary schools, is particularly interesting for the role it is having in changing the student-teacher relationship. Giving a laptop to every child in a country does not seem to be enough to reform a school system: strong effort must be made to teach the teachers how to better use these new resources in order to improve the quality of their pupils' learning experience. This means that the whole process must be sustainable and participated. The two environments studied are Ethiopian primary school classes and Uruguayan schools for children with special needs: in both cases the role of technology is critical for sustainable innovation. In the first case, there is evidence that the teachers need to be taught how to use the ICTs to enhance the quality of their work, while in the second case they need to learn how to use assistive technology to make the classroom environment really inclusive. Both researches tend to highlight the important role of ICTs for social inclusion and suggest strategies to use one-to-one technologies for this purpose.

  1. Enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhea in children from households with high socioeconomic level in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Varela, Gustavo; Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed "complete" HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  2. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... (78 FR 8435-8441, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0060) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the...' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee,...

  3. Testing Multicultural Robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a National Epidemiological Sample in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…

  4. Plastic ingestion by a generalist seabird on the coast of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Javier; Burgues, María Fernanda; Carrizo, Daniel; Machín, Emanuel; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco

    2016-06-15

    We analyzed plastic ingestion by Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) from 806 pellets collected between 2011 and 2013. Employing a Raman spectroscopy, we characterized those polymers used to produce the plastics ingested. Debris was recorded in 143 pellets (%FO=17.7%, n=202, 92.58g). Plastic was found in 119 pellets (%FO=83%) and non-plastic occurred in 56 pellets (%FO=39%). The most important debris category was plastic film with 55.3% (n=79). Plastic bags were observed in 19 pellets (%FO=2.4%, weight=25.02g). Glass was the second most important component (%FO=18.9%) followed by plastic fragments (%FO=17.8%). Plastic debris represented the 65.3% of the debris fragments (n=132, weight=58.84g), and was composed by polyethylene (52%), polypropylene (26%), polyamide (12%), polystyrene (6%), polyvinyl chloride (2%), and polyethylene terephthalate (2%). How plastics were obtained by gulls and the effects on individuals are discussed, as well as environmental considerations about plastic pollution on coastal environments. PMID:27098991

  5. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  6. 77 FR 52683 - Implementation of Determinations Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Negative Determination of Critical Circumstances, 73 FR 40480, 40483 (July 15, 2008). \\15\\ See OTR Tires... Notice of Countervailing Duty Order, 73 FR 42545, 42547 (July 22, 2008). \\17\\ See CWP Section 129 Final... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Determination, in Part, of Critical Circumstances, 73...

  7. Black dimensional stones: Geology, technical properties and deposit characterization of the dolerites from Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Dimensional stones with a black color occupy a prominent place on the international market. Uruguayan dolerite dikes of andesitic and andesitic-basaltic composition are mined for commercial blocks of black dimensional stones. A total of 16 dikes of both compositions were studied and samples collected for geochemical and petrographical analysis. Color measurements were performed on different black dimensional stones in order to compare them with the Uruguayan dolerites. Samples of the two commercial varieties (Absolute Black and Moderate Black) were obtained for petrophysical analysis (e.g. density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.). Detailed structural analyses were performed in several quarries. Geochemistry and petrography determines the intensity of the black color. When compared with commercial samples from China, Brazil, India and South Africa, among others, the Uruguayan dolerite Absolute Black is the darkest black dimensional stone analyzed. In addition, the petrophysical properties of the Uruguayan dolerites make them one of the highest quality black dimensional stones. Structural analyses show that five joint sets have been recognized: two sub-vertical joints, one horizontal and two diagonal. These joint sets are one of the most important factors that control the deposits, since they control the block size distribution and the amount of waste material.

  8. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or less in the loin muscle at the end of the maturation period. Measurements for pH must be taken at the middle of both longissimus dorsi muscles. Any carcass in which the pH does not reach 5.8 or...

  9. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or less in the loin muscle at the end of the maturation period. Measurements for pH must be taken at the middle of both longissimus dorsi muscles. Any carcass in which the pH does not reach 5.8 or...

  10. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend <0.001). Stratified analyses also displayed strong significant inverse associations for 'mate' in frequent tea drinkers (OR=0.22), high energy intake (OR=0.23), high body mass index (OR=0.29) and in postmenopausal women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  11. Distance Education for Physicians: Adaptation of a Canadian Experience to Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Margolis, Alvaro; Toews, John; Dapueto, Juan; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Lopez, Antonio; Lockyer, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The production of online high-quality continuing professional development is a complex process that demands familiarity with effective program and content design. Collaboration and sharing across nations would appear to be a reasonable way to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. Methods: In this case report, the…

  12. The Nature of Recognition in TEFL Teachers' Lives (La naturaleza del reconocimiento en la vida de los maestros de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes Gillingsde González, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at sharing a vital issue that emerged from the findings of a qualitative research study into collective responses of teachers of English as a foreign language to an extended change process in their Mexican university context from 1989 to 2003. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews as…

  13. 77 FR 36257 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012) (``Final Modification for Reviews''). The... from Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 66,271... FR 41553 (July 17, 2003). \\9\\ The full name of this company is Pastificio Fratelli Pagani...

  14. Spatial patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Rı´o de la Plata Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berasategui, A. D.; Acha, E. M.; Fernández Araoz, N. C.

    2004-08-01

    Two oceanographic surveys were conducted across the salinity gradient of the Rı´o de la Plata Estuary during austral late spring and summer. Ichthyoplankton was dominated by families Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Cynoglossidae and Carangidae. The distribution of larval fish assemblages was strongly associated to the salinity structure. Oceanographic conditions were characterized by a large salt wedge (180 km long and a vertical salinity gradient up to 10 units per meter). During both sampling periods each ichthyoplankton assemblage was related to the same region of the salt wedge: the fresh water environment, the bottom salinity front, the mixohaline zone and the outer portion (surface salinity front) of the estuary. Larval assemblages were not related to the thermal structure. Reproductive activity of fishes inside the Rı´o de la Plata Estuary is relatively common (60% of the teleosts sampled use this estuary as a nursery ground). Moreover, the high incidence of pelagic eggs spawners (75% of the species present in the ichthyoplankton) in the Rı´o de la Plata contrasts to the vast majority of estuaries, where this reproductive strategy is poorly represented. Estuarine dynamics plays a dominant role in allowing this reproductive style in this estuary. Spring-summer wind pattern should generate a retentive environment which could minimize advective losses of eggs and larvae to the adjacent ocean.

  15. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  16. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). 1.701 Section 1.701 Patents, Trademarks... Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). (a) A patent, other than for designs, issued on an application filed on or after June 8,...

  17. 37 CFR 1.701 - Extension of patent term due to examination delay under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). 1.701 Section 1.701 Patents, Trademarks... Act (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after June 8, 1995, and before May 29, 2000). (a) A patent, other than for designs, issued on an application filed on or after June 8,...

  18. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area. PMID:25455785

  19. The orb-weaving spider genus Chrysometa in Uruguay: distribution and description of a new species (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    PubMed

    Simó, Miguel; Álvarez, Luis; Laborda, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Chrysometa Simon, 1895 comprises 138 species of small (3-5 mm) Neotropical orb-weavers spiders (Nogueira et al. 2011; World Spider Catalogue 2015) mainly associated with arboreal vegetation from intermediate to low altitude forests (Levi 1986). Males of Chrysometa differ from other tetragnathids by having the palpal tibial length approximately as long as its widest point; paracymbium articulated and with several apophyses located at both ends; male cephalic region narrower than in the female and having cymbial ectobasal and ectomedian processes. Females are diagnosed by having femora without trichobothria; abdomen covered with silver guanine patches; a flat epigynum and also by their fertilization ducts originating anteriorly and crossing over the spermathecae (Levi 1986; Alvarez-Padilla & Hormiga 2011). PMID:27395900

  20. 76 FR 66892 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Investigation; Final Modification, 71 FR 77722 (December 27, 2006). \\1\\ See Notice of Final Determination of... Parts Thereof from the Republic of Korea, 71 FR 29310 (May 22, 2006), as amended by Amended Final..., 75 FR 14126 (March 24, 2010). The Department invited interested parties to comment on the...

  1. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information: (A) Type of work (painting, sculpture, music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B.... Alternative title(s) (if any): 4. Type of work: (e.g. painting, sculpture, music, motion picture,...

  2. First record of the genus Jenynsia from marine water on the coast of Punta del Este, Maldonado, Uruguay (Cyprinodontiformes: Anablepidae).

    PubMed

    Calviño, P; Alonso, F

    2016-03-01

    The first report of the genus Jenynsia occurring in marine waters is presented here. The evolution of high salinity tolerance within Anablepidae is discussed and a hypothesis is proposed that this characteristic is a plesiomorphic trait in Jenynsia which was probably present in the common ancestor of the Anablepidae. PMID:26817617

  3. 76 FR 74771 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... FR 77722 (December 27, 2006). The Department invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary... Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21, 1999) (``Plate Order'') and Notice of Antidumping..., 64 FR 40555 (July 27, 1999) (``Sheet Order''), as amended by Notice of Amendment of...

  4. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lack of subject matter protection in the case of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972; or (C... language; (C) Alternative titles if any; (D) Name of the copyright owner of the restored work, or of an..., music, motion picture, sound recording, book, etc.); (B) Name of author(s); (C) Source country;...

  5. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  6. Unsuitability of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) for mosquito control in Uruguay: evidence from food-preference experiments.

    PubMed

    Quintans, Federico; Scasso, Flavio; Defeo, Omar

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed the feeding preference of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, a small-bodied poecilid native from the Rio de la Plata and proximate Atlantic Basins in South America. This species has a wide distribution in Uruguayan water bodies but its effectiveness as a predator of mosquito larvae has not been tested. In laboratory trials, five aquatic invertebrates were offered simultaneously as potential prey to fish: Daphnia pulex (Cladocera), copepods, two different instars of mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens), and the 4th instar of Chironomidae larvae. Preference was measured by the Chesson's electivity index (α). In order to determine differences in prey preference according to fish size, individuals ranging from 9.5 mm to 35.3 mm were classified in three different body size classes: small, medium, and large. Small fish showed preference for copepods, while medium-sized fish preferred the smallest mosquito larvae instars and Chironomidae larvae. We conclude that C. decemmaculatus is a zooplankton facultative-feeder fish that prefers large-bodied zooplankton but is a weak predator of mosquito larvae. Thus, the introduction of C. decemmaculatus as a biological-control agent in natural environments is not an effective strategy. PMID:21175940

  7. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lack of subject matter protection in the case of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972; or (C... legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a... actors, screenwriter, animator; for photographs or books: subject matter; for books: editor,...

  8. 37 CFR 201.33 - Procedures for filing Notices of Intent to Enforce a restored copyright under the Uruguay Round...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Lack of subject matter protection in the case of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972; or (C... legibly in dark, preferably black, ink, on 81/2 by 11 inch white paper of good quality, with at least a... actors, screenwriter, animator; for photographs or books: subject matter; for books: editor,...

  9. Talking about Teaching: A Study of the Professional Uses of Email by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been highlighted as a crucial factor in educational change and professional development. Secondary school teachers have been consistently found to feel isolated from their colleagues, with few opportunities and mechanisms for collegial support and exchange. Research suggests that computer-mediated communication, and…

  10. 75 FR 48940 - Notice of Implementation of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Dumping Margin During an Antidumping Investigation; Final Modification, 71 FR 77722 (December 27, 2006... Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122 (June 18, 2004), as amended in Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR...

  11. A mineral reconnaissance sampling manual for Costa Rica: Central American energy and resoure project. Manual para muestreo en el reconocimiento mineral de Costa Rica: Proyecto Centroamericano de energia y recursos naturales

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.

    1987-06-01

    This manual describes field procedures for the collection of stream-sediment and rock samples as part of the Mineral Resource Assessment of Costa Rica. It provides guidelines to be followed by personnel collecting, treating, or otherwise handling samples taken as part of this program. The objectives of the manual are to ensure that all samples are collected uniformly and consistent techniques are employed throughout the program. If this is done, the data from this study can be used to identify areas with potential for mineralization. This manual can also be used as a guideline for future geochemical sampling programs in Costa Rica.

  12. Learning to Teach and Professional Identity: Images of Personal and Professional Recognition (Aprender a enseñar e identidad profesional: imágenes de reconocimiento personal y profesional)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo Castañeda, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how pre-service teachers construct their professional identities from the interplay between participation in a teacher community and their systems of knowledge and beliefs. A group of six Colombian pre-service teachers in the final stage of their five-year teacher education programme were the research participants.…

  13. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

  14. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  15. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Laura; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socioeconomic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at 57 m water depth (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (AD 750-2000). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater versus marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous freshwater and sediment discharges. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between AD 850 and 1300, while the highest values occurred between AD 1300 and 1850. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a weakening of the South American summer monsoon system (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast, during the LIA, a strengthening of SAMS and SACZ may have led to an expansion of the RdlP river plume to the far north, as indicated by higher element ratios and a marked freshwater diatom signal. Furthermore, a possible multidecadal oscillation probably associated with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) since AD 1300 reflects the variability in both the SAMS and SACZ systems.

  16. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of RdlP river plume far to the north, as indicated by higher element ratios and a marked freshwater diatom signal. During the current warm period (i.e., after 1900 AD), the highest values in the element ratios and a pronounced marine to marine-brackish diatom record was found. This discordance between diatom record and sediment supply during the last century could be the consequence of an anthropogenic impact on the drainage basin and the RdlP system, expressed by the artificial increase in metal concentrations in the offshore sediments.

  17. Uruguay eHealth initiative: preliminary studies regarding an integrated approach to evaluate vascular age and preclinical atherosclerosis (CUiiDARTE project).

    PubMed

    Armentano, Ricardo L; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Ignacio; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucía; Olascoaga, Alicia; Alallon, Walter; Negreira, Carlos; Lluberas, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an initiative to develop a national (Uruguayan) program to evaluate vascular age and to detect pre-clinical atherosclerosis using: gold-standard technologies; complimentary and integrative approaches to asses arterial functional and structural indexes; data bases systems to process, analyze and determine normal and reference values and to identify the most sensitive markers of vascular changes for different ages. We evaluated, in a Uruguayan population complementary structural and functional vascular parameters that associate aging-related changes and are considered markers of sub-clinical atherosclerosis. Traditional CV risk factors were assessed. The subjects (n=281) were submitted to non-invasive vascular studies to evaluate: 1) Common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness and diameter waveforms, 2) CCA stiffness, 3) aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and 4) peripheral and central pressure pulse wave derived parameters. Age groups: 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 years-old. Age-related profiles were obtained for the different vascular parameters, and their utility to assess vascular changes in young, middle-aged and old subjects was evaluated. The work has the strength of being the first that uses, in Latin-America an integrative approach to characterize vascular aging-related changes. PMID:22254442

  18. Genetic evidence of two stocks of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri in the Río de la Plata and oceanic front in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A N; Márquez, A; Marin, M; Marin, Y

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region resolved two stocks of whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri in Uruguayan waters, one in the Río de la Plata and the other on the Uruguayan shelf. The whitemouth croaker is the most important coastal fishery resource along the coast and has the greatest commercial importance in the Río de la Plata and its oceanic front. The number of pair-wise differences (pi) and haplotype diversity (h) showed significant differences between the two regions. Frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes did not differ between Río de la Plata from Bahia Blanca M. furnieri. Samples from the oceanic front showed greater genetic variability and a larger effective number of females that were an order of magnitude larger than that in Río de la Plata. Mismatch distributions showed evidence of a recent population expansion in the oceanic region, beginning c. 40,000 b.p. The presence of two stocks of the M. furnieri in the study area should be considered in the management of this species' fishery. PMID:20738541

  19. Report of the Latin American and Caribbean Regional Meeting for the International Youth Year (2nd, Montevideo, Uruguay, August 26-29, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report is organized into three sections. Section 1, "Attendance and Organization of Work," is a general summary giving information on place and date, attendance, election of officers, and agenda, and summarizing the opening meeting, the consideration and adoption of the final report, and the closing meeting. Section 2, "Summary of Debates,"…

  20. Scanning and mobile multi-axis DOAS measurements of SO2 and NO2 emissions from an electric power plant in Montevideo, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, E.; Bobrowski, N.; Osorio, M.; Casaballe, N.; Belsterli, G.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2014-12-01

    In March 2012 the emissions of NO2 and SO2 from a power station located on the east side of Montevideo Bay (34° 53‧ 10″ S, 56° 11‧ 49″ W) were quantified by simultaneously using mobile and scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (in the following mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS, respectively). The facility produces electricity by means of two technologies: internal combustion motors and steam generators. The motors are powered with centrifuged heavy oil and produce a maximum power of 80 MW approximately. The steam generators produce approximately 305 MW and are powered with heavy fuel oil. We compare the emissions obtained from the measured slant column densities (mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS) with the emissions estimated from fuel mass balance. On one occasion it was possible to distinguish between the two types of sources, observing two plumes with different SO2 and NO2 emission rates. During the period of the campaign the mean SO2 emission flux was determined to be 0.36 (±0.12) kg s-1 and 0.26 (±0.09) kg s-1 retrieved from mobile and scanning DOAS respectively, while the calculated SO2 flux from the sulphur content of the fuel was 0.34 (±0.03) kg s-1. The average NO2 flux calculated from mobile DOAS was determined to be 11 (±3) × 10-3 kg s-1. Using the scanning DOAS approach a mean NO2 flux of 5.4 (±1.7) × 10-3 kg s-1 was obtained, which is significantly lower than by the mobile measurements. The differences between the results of mobile MAX-DOAS measurements and scanning DOAS measurements are most probably caused by the variability and the limited knowledge of the wind speed and direction.

  1. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care. PMID:25237803

  2. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  3. Teacher Collegiality and Electronic Communication: A Study of the Collaborative Uses of E-Mail by Secondary School Teachers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grnberg, Jorge; Armellini, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Teacher collegiality has been consistently highlighted in recent years as a crucial factor in the success of processes of educational change and professional development. Consequently, there is considerable interest both from researchers and practitioners, in investigating strategies capable of supporting interactions and collaborations between…

  4. 15 CFR 2015.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-containing products established as a result of the Uruguay Round Agreements, approved by the Congress in section 101 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub. L. 103-465). In particular, this party provides...

  5. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  6. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  7. Dictatorships and Repression against the Universities: The Transition to Military Rule in Latin America and the Impact on Enrollments in the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Paul

    This paper focuses on the transition to military rule in Brazil (1964), Uruguay (1973), Chile (1973), and Argentina (1976) and examines the argument that the disciplines which lend themselves to analysis of the social order, such as the social sciences and humanities, are most often the target of political repression. Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile…

  8. Juana P. Manso (1819-1875)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2005-01-01

    This article profiles Juana P. Manso, who was a writer, translator, journalist, teacher and precursor of feminism in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. In 1840 she moved with her family to Montevideo (Uruguay), exiled under the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, who was governing the territory of the United Provinces of the River Plate. During Rosas'…

  9. Never Too Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Alicia; And Others

    The approach to English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction for preschool children at Instituto Crandon, a private elementary-secondary school in Uruguay is described. First, characteristics of Uruguay and its educational system are outlined, stressing the advantages of temperate physical environment and high literacy rate. Then background…

  10. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  11. 75 FR 40837 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 011279-027. Title: Latin America Agreement. Parties: ABC Discussion Agreement; Caribbean Shipowners Association; Central America Discussion Agreement; Compania Libra de Navegacion Uruguay S.A.; Inland Shipping Services Association; Venezuelan Discussion Agreement; West Coast of...

  12. Phenrica littoralis a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides: redscription of the adult, first description of immature stages and biological notes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flea beetles of aliligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyne were frequently found on this weed. Phenric...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1 to Part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... Turkey Tuvalu Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Vanuatu Vatican...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 1 to Part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... Turkey Tuvalu Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Vanuatu Vatican...

  15. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume..., Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia....

  16. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume..., Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia....

  17. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume..., Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia....

  18. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume..., Romania, San Marino, 1 Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia....

  19. 77 FR 16838 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ....; Compania Libra de Navegacion; Uruguay S.A.; Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd.; Nippon Yusen Kaisha; Norasia...-Lloyd AG; Nippon Yusen Kaisha; Orient Overseas Container Line Limited; and Hanjin Shipping Co.,...

  20. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they: ■ Have lived in rural areas of Mexico, Central America or South America, in countries such ... El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ ...

  1. Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

  2. Aedes aegypti from temperate regions of South America are highly competent to transmit dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is extensively spread throughout South America where it has been responsible for large dengue epidemics during the last decades. Intriguingly, dengue transmission has not been reported in Uruguay and is essentially prevalent in subtropical northern Argentina which borders Uruguay. Methods We assessed vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) of Ae. aegypti populations collected in subtropical Argentina (Corrientes) as well as temperate Uruguay (Salto) and Argentina (Buenos Aires) in 2012 using experimental oral infections with DENV-2. Mosquitoes were incubated at 28°C and examined at 14 and 21 days p.i. to access viral dissemination and transmission. Batches of the Buenos Aires mosquitoes were also incubated at 15°C and 20°C. Results Although mosquitoes from temperate Uruguay and Argentina were competent to transmit DENV, those from subtropical Argentina were more susceptible, displaying the highest virus titters in the head and presenting the highest dissemination of infection and transmission efficiency rates when incubated at 28°C. Interestingly, infectious viral particles could be detected in saliva of mosquitoes from Buenos Aires exposed to 15°C and 20°C. Conclusions There is a potential risk of establishing DENV transmission in Uruguay and for the spread of dengue outbreaks to other parts of subtropical and temperate Argentina, notably during spring and summer periods. PMID:24373423

  3. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008–2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Results Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. Conclusions A large proportion of adults living in low-and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes. PMID:23019273

  4. Herramienta para distinguir lunares de melanoma.

    Cancer.gov

    “De lunares a melanoma: reconocimiento de las características ABCDE” presenta fotos que muestran cambios en lesions individuales pigmentadas con el tiempo, y describe las diferentes apariencias de lunares, de nevos displásicos y de melanomas.

  5. Non-Formal Education for Youth and Adults: The Perspective of Civil Society. New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Iliana Pereyra

    2006-01-01

    REPEM is a civil society organisation based in Uruguay. REPEM's mission is to contribute to the achievement of social and gender justice through alliance-building processes. In this article, the author, who works with REPEM, shares some reflections, lessons learned, and concerns about the issue of non-formal education for youth and adults. She…

  6. WTO Members' Commitments in Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of World Trade Organization is in line with the conclusion reached at the end of the Uruguay Round in April 1994 by the bulk of the world's trading nations. WTO is in charge of managing multilateral trading system. WTO's "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) requires member nations to comply with the following…

  7. Moral Education and the Primary School Curriculum: A Comparative Review of Case Studies of Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persaud, Ganga

    Data from four separate case studies examining socialization and moral education in the elementary schools of Jamaica, Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela are compared and analyzed. The analysis is intended to help national officials, university personnel, and community leaders interpret what is happening in relation to moral values and the…

  8. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  9. The Street and Its Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

  10. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  11. Patients' Ways of Speaking about Antiretroviral Medications and Possible Implications for Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbene, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    The medical literature reports that antiretrovirals (ARVs) are considered attitudinal objects (Dunbar-Jacob, 1995). Drawing on the pragmatics of emotion (Caffi & Janney, 1994), this study analyzes how patients' stances about their ARTs shape their emotional relationships with their treatments. The data, collected in a public hospital in Uruguay,…

  12. [Nurses and the Mercosul regulations and control of professional practice].

    PubMed

    Vieira, A L

    1998-01-01

    A study comparing the regulation and control of the professional practice of nurses in Brasil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, delineating their particularities, differences and similarities in the perspective of the implementation of the Cone Sul Common Market, which presupposes the free circulation of workers in the workplaces of the member-countries of the Ascnsion Treaty. PMID:10776275

  13. 48 CFR 25.400 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA), as approved by Congress in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub... covered by the WTO GPA; (4) The Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative (CBTI) (determination of the U.S. Trade... Panama, must be treated as eligible products in acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA); (5) The...

  14. Estudio comparativo de los metodos analitico-sintetico y global en el aprendizaje de la lectura (Comparative Study of the Analytical-Synthetical (Phonics) and Global (Sight) Reading Methods).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell de Grompone, Maria A.; And Others

    An investigation into the phonics and sight methods of reading instruction being taught in Uruguay schools seeks valid predictions in support of each approach. The study, written in Spanish, examines the progressive reading habits and abilities of 12 first-grade classes. Teachers assigned to teach each method uniformly had equivalent training and…

  15. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  16. Workshop in environmental issues associated with western hemisphere oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Representatives from several U.S. and Latin American oil and gas companies, and government representatives, met in Montevideo, Uruguay, on May 4-6, 1994, to discuss regulation, cooperation, and management of environmental issues associated with oil and gas production. This report presents a brief summary of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  17. Non-Profit Child Care: A Powerful Worldwide Movement. An Exchange International Trend Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Examines nonprofit child care in the United States and its role in various other nations. Focuses on the legal status of various types of for-profit and nonprofit U.S. centers and centers in Canada, Russia, Namibia, Malaysia, Sweden, Uruguay, Croatia, Japan, Australia, Hungary, Kenya, Singapore, Lithuania, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. (KB)

  18. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  19. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  20. 78 FR 18958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China and Diamond Sawblades and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...On March 22, 2013, the U.S. Trade Representative (``USTR'') instructed the Department of Commerce (``Department'') to implement its determinations under section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (``URAA'') regarding the antidumping investigations of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's Republic of China (`PRC'') and diamond sawblades and parts thereof......

  1. Library Professionals' Education in the Mercosur Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Ely Francina Tannuri; Guimaraes, Jose Augusto Chaves

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with library professionals education in Mercosur--the Common Market of South America--established on 29 March, 1991 to expand the national markets of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and promote free circulation of goods, services and production agents in that region. The paper presents, through a descriptive study, the…

  2. 77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...This notice informs the public of the sanitary and phytosanitary standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), in accordance with section 491 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended, and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465, 108 Stat. 4809. This notice also provides a list of other standard-setting activities of Codex, including commodity......

  3. Soil quality impacts of current South American agricultural practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as ...

  4. International Networking for Sexuality Education: A Politically Sensitive Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, Katharina; von Kaenel, Andreas; Cerruti, Stella; Chequer, Pedro; Gomes, Rebeca; Herlt, Claudia; Horstick, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) commenced work on a project to harmonise public policy on school sexuality education (SE) and the prevention of HIV. Inter-sectoral management committees for SE involving ministries of education, ministries of health and civil society were established, national policies…

  5. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Bechelli, C.M. ); Brandt, R.D. )

    1991-10-21

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

  6. 77 FR 19745 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 47771 (August 9, 2010); (2... Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 56158 (September 12... the Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 75965 (December 7, 2010); and (7) Section 129 of the Uruguay...

  7. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Uganda ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Ukraine ✓ ✓ ✓ United Arab Emirates ✓ United Kingdom ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ United States of America... 139. Uganda 140. United Arab Emirates 141. Uruguay 142. Vanuatu 143. Venezuela 144. Viet Nam...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Uganda ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Ukraine ✓ ✓ ✓ United Arab Emirates ✓ United Kingdom ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ United States of America... 139. Uganda 140. United Arab Emirates 141. Uruguay 142. Vanuatu 143. Venezuela 144. Viet Nam...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Uganda ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Ukraine ✓ ✓ ✓ United Arab Emirates ✓ United Kingdom ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ United States of America... 139. Uganda 140. United Arab Emirates 141. Uruguay 142. Vanuatu 143. Venezuela 144. Viet Nam...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Uganda ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Ukraine ✓ ✓ ✓ United Arab Emirates ✓ United Kingdom ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ United States of America... 139. Uganda 140. United Arab Emirates 141. Uruguay 142. Vanuatu 143. Venezuela 144. Viet Nam...

  12. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis Strain MbURU-001, Isolated from Fresh Bovine Infected Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lasserre, Moira; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Iraola, Gregorio; Naya, Hugo; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in cattle has a high incidence in Uruguay, where it is considered a disease of national importance. We present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis strain MbURU-001, isolated from pectoral lymph nodes of a bovine host from a cattle farm. PMID:26543108

  13. Laptop Classes in Some Australian Government Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Australia was once a world leader for laptop adoption in schools. Now overtaken by extensive roll-outs of laptops in Maine and Uruguay, this paper seeks to explain why this lead was lost. Six case studies of government primary schools were undertaken to gather data about current initiatives. Comparative analysis shows how the potential of…

  14. Nuevas Tendencias en la Ensenanza de las Ciencias (New Trends in Science Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

    The concern for improving science education in Latin America is reflected in this document compiled by UNESCO offices in Chile, Uruguay, and Paris with financial support from UNICEF, and directed to Latin American science teachers. The first part deals with planning the reforms needed in science education and the practical considerations involved.…

  15. Teaching Tobacco Cessation Skills to Uruguayan Physicians Using Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llambi, Laura; Esteves, Elba; Martinez, Elisa; Forster, Thais; Garcia, Sofia; Miranda, Natalia; Arredondo, Antonio Lopez; Margolis, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, with the ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Uruguay has implemented a wide range of legal restrictions designed to reduce the devastating impacts of tobacco. This legal process generated an increase in demand for tobacco cessation treatment, which led to the need to train a large number of…

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  17. Linguistic Variation in a Border Town: Palatalization of Dental Stops and Vowel Nasalization in Rivera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaneda-Molla, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of variation at the phonological level, specifically the variable realization of palatalization of dental stops before the high vowel /i/ and vowel nasalization in the speech of bilingual speakers of Uruguayan Portuguese (UP) in the city of Rivera, Uruguay. The data were collected in participant-observation and…

  18. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY..., the Republic of South Africa, and Uruguay. (b) The importation of any ruminant or swine or any...

  19. New Demands and Policies on Higher Education in the Mercosur: A Comparative Study on Challenges, Resources, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrechea, Enrique Martinez; Castro, Adriana Chiancone

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the main tendencies of the higher education systems and policies within the Mercosur, a regional bloc composed by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The article discusses some global trends and describes the process of educational integration in the Mercosur as well as the higher education systems of each of…

  20. Public Expenditure in Education in Latin America. Recommendations to Serve the Purposes of the Paris Open Educational Resources Declaration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Amalia; Botero, Carolina; Guzmán, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors identify and analyze public policy and the investment and expenditure that the governments of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Uruguay commit to make in the development and procurement of textbooks, books and digital content for primary and secondary education (K-12). The aim is to identify and propose a roadmap…

  1. Decree No. 515/988 creating a National Commission for Minors, Women, and the Family, 17 August 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Decree creates a National Commission for Minors, Women, and the Family, composed of the representatives of various public agencies in Uruguay. The Commission was created in order to facilitate the coordination of activities of different state institutions in analyzing international technical assistance programs relating to minors, women, and the family, as well as giving advice to the Executive. PMID:12289708

  2. 75 FR 25200 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Proclamation No. 6763, dated December 23, 1994, 60 FR 1005 (Jan. 4, 1995). The Secretary of Agriculture further... at 60 FR 427 (Jan. 4, 1995). Notice: As provided in section 405 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act... Federal Register, at 60 FR 427 (Jan. 4, 1995). Issued at Washington, DC, April 29, 2010. John D....

  3. Can a Laptop Change How the World Teaches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the XO laptop was launched in Uruguay. The XO laptop is an inexpensive computer created by the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) Foundation, which the founders hope will advance education in the developing world. In the frenzy to light up children's faces with the glow of an LCD, it is the librarians and teachers and their role in…

  4. Resistance to the soybean rust pathogen (Phakopsora Pachyrhizi) in common bean cultivar CNC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a new disease in the Americas that has moved swiftly from one country to another. P. pachyrhizi was first reported on soybeans in Paraguay (2001) and soon after in Brazil and Argentina (2002), Bolivia (2003), Uruguay and the USA, (2004), and M...

  5. Leaf rust resistance in selected Uruguayan late maturity common wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Uruguay, therefore and breeding for resistance to this disease has been a priority for the INIA wheat breeding development program. Knowledge of the resistance genes present in the germplasm is relevant to bre...

  6. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  7. La Formacion Docente y la Educacion Primaria en Una Propuesta de Cambio (Teacher Training on Education: A Proposal for Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Enrique Alonso, Ed.

    In order to raise the quality of teaching and teacher education in Uruguay, a program of innovation and change was considered at a 1986 educational conference. Conference goals included identifying ways to: (1) increase opportunities to promote innovation and change; (2) search for strategies to encourage creative problem solving; (3) increase…

  8. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  9. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory


    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury
    (Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996
    IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseous
    mercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  10. The Use and Limits of AFLP Data in the Taxonomy of Polyploid Wild Potato Species in Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sect. Petota (tuber-bearing wild and cultivated potatoes) are a group of approximately 190 wild species distributed throughout the Americas from the southwestern United States south to Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Solanum series Conicibaccata are a group of approximately 40 species within ...

  11. A Critique of Southern Core Monetarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Edmar L.

    1983-01-01

    Military governments in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay attempted to stabilize their economies in the 1970s abnd early 1980s, but failed because of internal economic constraints. A serious error in all three countries which resulted in problems with foreign payments was their emphasis on import liberalization rather than export promotion. (IS)

  12. Planning Education for Regional Economic Integration: The Case of Paraguay and MERCOSUR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel

    This paper examines the possible impact of MERCOSUR on Paraguay's economic and educational systems. MERCOSUR is a trade agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, under which terms all import tariffs among the countries will be eliminated by 1994. The countries will enter into a common economic market. The worst-case scenario…

  13. Clinical engineering development in the Uruguayan public health system.

    PubMed

    Di Virgilio, Valerio; Ambrois, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Establishment of the clinical engineering department with a network of 5 operational centers to strengthen public medical equipment management and maintenance, in the context of the Health System reform with the purpose of ensuring universal access to the health services in the Republic of Uruguay. PMID:21097119

  14. Lectura y Vida. Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura (Reading and Life. Latinamerican Reading Magazine). 1990-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This series of 24 magazines offers readings in Spanish on literacy, education problems, psycholinguistics, expository writing, and reading behavior. The magazine's editorial committee includes representatives from Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, the United States, Uruguay, Mexico, Venezuela, and Spain. Articles concern literacy issues of both…

  15. Joint Analysis of Preschool Attendance and School Performance in the Short and Long-Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Renato; Tansini, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at explaining the academic performance of a sample of children starting their first year at public schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, during 1999. We are mainly interested in the effect of pre-school education on the children's academic results. Previous probit and OLS estimations suggested that pre-school education has a positive…

  16. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  17. 26 CFR 1.415(a)-1 - General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... normal retirement age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3... age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3. (g) Effective date... Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994, Public Law 103-465 (108 Stat. 4809) (GATT), apply (as permitted by...

  18. The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: New Tendencies and Changes. Final Report of the Seminar Organized by the International Bureau of Education and Held at the International Institute for Educational Planning (Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2-3, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braslavsky, Cecilia

    This report was presented and discussed at a seminar on "The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: The View of Specialists" which took place at UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning. It also incorporates information and comments put forward at the seminar by participants from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil.…

  19. Human Rights in the Southern Cone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Described are the effects of government intervention in Uruguay's universities, particularly on science teaching and research institutions. Effects include not only dismissal of science teachers and researchers, but also the disappearance of several prominent scientists. The results of these actions include lowered scientific productivity and loss…

  20. 26 CFR 1.415(a)-1 - General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... normal retirement age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3... age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3. (g) Effective date... Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994, Public Law 103-465 (108 Stat. 4809) (GATT), apply (as permitted by...

  1. The Political Structuration of Assessment: Negotiating State Power and Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Examines the national educational assessment systems of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay to explore the role of politics and state-polity relations in shaping the design, implementation, and impact of national assessment systems. Discusses the rapid global diffusion of national assessment systems and the impact of centralized versus decentralized…

  2. Early Childhood Trends Worldwide--First Annual World Early Childhood Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Presents information on trends in early childhood education in various countries, focusing on educational policy and the role of government. Summarizes trends from Armenia, Canada, Finland, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Moldova, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and Uruguay. (KB)

  3. What's Up Down Under? A Geography of Australia for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, W.

    This paper is part of a larger study entitled "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions," which compares the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. Readings with accompanying questions are intended for classroom use. Teachers are encouraged…

  4. Maryland: A Geographic Study for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper shows comparisons among the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland, the Murray River region of South Australia, and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. Through comparative geography, students are to draw their own conclusions about the similarities and differences of the three regions. Teachers are encouraged to use other resources to aid…

  5. Accreditation as an Incentive for Internationalization: A South American Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, Pablo; Roane, Warren

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the history and purposes of accreditation in the United States, examines its basic elements, and notes its tendency to encompass ever-increasing geographic areas. It contrasts those with the experience of Uruguay within MERCOSUR and its history of accreditation. In order to make this comparison across both regions, the focus…

  6. Adaptation of in vitro bioassays for the diagnosis of resistance to Fipronil and Ivermectin in R. (B.) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. microplus represents the most important pathological constraint to livestock production in Brazil and Uruguay. The infestation of cattle by ticks is controlled by chemical applications on a regular basis. Fipronil and ivermectin have been widely used in recent years to the benefit of cattle produ...

  7. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...This notice informs the public of the sanitary and phytosanitary standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), in accordance with section 491 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended, and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Public Law 103-465, 108 Stat. 4809. This notice also provides a list of other standard-setting activities of Codex, including commodity......

  8. Sustainable Trade: A New Paradigm for World Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanza, Robert; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the environmental impact of the liberalization of trade and calls for the development of a fair and sustainable trading system. Examines the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) for their impact on sustainable trade. (LZ)

  9. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and Italians. (VWL)

  10. Animal disease regionalization and its impact on tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Bokma, B H

    1998-06-29

    This paper reviews progress that has been made around the world in animal disease regionalization. Signatory countries of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and other free-trade associations are currently implementing regionalization, one of the cornerstone provisions of the Uruguay Round of the GATT and the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. Regionalization allows countries to protect the health status of their animal herds and at the same time promote their animal and animal product export markets. The implementation of regionalization by importing countries affects export markets of tropical nations. Veterinary officials of tropical countries must give regionalization due priority such that import and export trade in animals and animal products is not hindered, and the public and animal herd health are protected. PMID:9668483

  11. Status of Gobiosoma (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Brazil: description of a new species, redescription of G. hemigymnum, molecular phylogeny of the genus, and key to Atlantic species.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, James L; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael Mariano; Tornabene, Luke

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how many species of Gobiosoma occur in Brazil and what their geographic distributions are. Here we combine data from a comprehensive morphological survey and a molecular analysis to clarify this uncertain taxonomy and place Brazilian Gobiosoma within a phylogenetic framework. Recent collections in Brazil, from the states of Ceará to Santa Catarina, and in Uruguay yielded two allopatric species of Gobiosoma that are distinct in genetics, meristics, morphometrics, scale pattern and coloration. Comparisons were made with types and specimens of Gobiosoma hemigymnum, Garmannia mediocricula, Gobiosoma spilotum and Gobiosoma parri and all other known species of Gobiosoma. We place G. parri in synonomy with G. hemigymnum with a distribution of Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay and Argentina. The northern species, that extends from the states of Espírito Santo to Ceará, is described as a new species, Gobiosoma alfiei. A key to the Atlantic species of Gobiosoma is provided. PMID:26623827

  12. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  13. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...Following receipt of a request dated May 27, 2010 from the United States Trade Representative (USTR) pursuant to section 115 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) (19 U.S.C. 3524) and section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332 (g)), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,......

  14. New American Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Five new species are described in Lamiinae: Cotycicuiara v-alba (Acanthoderini), from Brazil (Bahia); Dolichestola birai, from Argentina, and D. monnei, from Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) and Uruguay (Desmiphorini); Blabicentrus lineatus, from Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) (Desmiphorini); and Inermestoloides flavus, from Brazil (Pará) (Desmiphorini). A key to species of Cotycicuiara is provided; Blabicentrus lineatus is included in a previous key. PMID:27394539

  15. 7 CFR 6.37 - Supersedure of Import Regulation 1, Revision 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of Import Regulation 1, Revision 7 heretofore in effect (§§ 6.20 through 6.33 and appendices 1 through 3 as contained in 7 CFR subtitle A revised as of January 1, 1996). With respect to any... Uruguay 250,000 Other Countries 100,906 100,729 Any Country 300,000 BLUE-MOLD CHEESE (EXCEPT...

  16. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  17. Smoke-free politics--lessons to learn for Romania.

    PubMed

    Mihălţan, Florin

    2015-01-01

    Very recently ASH -Global Action for everyone's health 2014 published two lesson on the progress of smoke free regulations in two countries France and Uruguay with all the explanations and comments referring to the results, limits and benefits of different strategies. I am trying to see in comparison with this two examples what we have done and what is necessary to learn in the future for also having in Romania a strong free regulation for smoke free environment. PMID:26509210

  18. A new species of Androlaelaps (Acari: Parasitiformes) from the akodontine rodent Deltamys kempi Thomas, 1919, in La Plata River Basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Gettinger, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Androlaelaps maurii , a new species of laelapine mite, is described on the basis of female specimens collected from the pelage of the akodontine rodent, Deltamys kempi, from La Plata River basin in Argentina. Androlaelaps maurii can be differentiated from closely related species by its smaller size, the differing distribution of setae in the dorsal shield, and an unarmed opithogaster. This mite appears to be host specific to D. kempi and occurs on this rodent throughout its distribution in Argentina and Uruguay. PMID:19530889

  19. Diverse Mobilized Class 1 Integrons Are Common in the Chromosomes of Pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Elena; Marquez, Carolina; Ingold, Ana; Merlino, John; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu

    2012-01-01

    Eleven clinical class 1 integron-containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Australia and Uruguay were investigated for the genomic locations of these elements. Several novel class 1 integrons/transposons were found in at least four distinct locations in the chromosome, including genomic islands. These elements seem to be undergoing successful dispersal by lateral gene transfer since integrons were identified across several lineages and more than one clonal line. PMID:22271862

  20. Congenital malformations in diabetic offspring.

    PubMed

    Temesio, P; Belitzky, R; Gallego, L; Martell, M; Pose, S V

    1977-01-01

    A retrospective study of 215 deliveries in diabetic mothers at Hospital de Clínicas (Montevideo, Uruguay) has been performed. Presence of congenital malformations (CM) was considered in relation to age of the mothers, class of maternal diabetes, maternal angiopathy, treatment and metabolic control. The prevalence of CM in the series was 9.8%. None of the factors analyzed seems to be statistically linked to the prevalence of CM. PMID:613685

  1. Interacting effects of climate and agriculture on fluvial DOM in temperate and subtropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, D.; Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Zwirnmann, E.; Ovesen, N. B.; Glendell, M.; Gelbrecht, J.; Teixeira de Mello, F.; Gonzalez-Bergonzoni, I.; Jeppesen, E.; Kronvang, B.

    2015-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important factor in aquatic ecosystems, which is involved in a large variety of biogeochemical and ecological processes, and recent literature suggests that it could be strongly affected by agriculture in different climates. Based on novel monitoring techniques, we investigated the interaction of climate and agriculture effects on DOM quantity and quality. To examine this, we took water samples over 2 years in two paired intensive and extensive farming catchments in each of Denmark (temperate climate) and Uruguay (subtropical climate). We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations and DOC and DON molecular fractions with size-exclusion chromatography. Moreover, we characterized DOM quality with absorbance and fluorescence measurements, as well as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). We also calculated the DOC and DON loads based on daily discharge measurements, as well as measured precipitation and air temperature. The fluvial DOM in the catchments in Uruguay was characterized by higher temporal variability of DOC and DON loads which were clearly to a higher temporal variability of precipitation and a DOM composition with rather plant-like character relative to the Danish catchments. Moreover, we found a consistently higher temporal variability of DOC and DON loads in the intensive farming catchments than in the extensive farming catchments, with highest temporal variability in the Uruguayan intensive farming catchment. Furthermore, the composition of DOM exported from the intensive farming catchments was consistently complex and always related to microbial processing in both Denmark and Uruguay. This was indicated by low C : N ratios, several spectroscopic DOM composition indices and PARAFAC fluorescence components. We propose that the consistent effect of intensive farming on DOM composition and the temporal variability of DOC and DON loads is related to similarities in the management of

  2. A Survey of Near-Earth Objects in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    The search for NEOs has been concentrated up to now in the northern hemisphere. Six dedicated NEO surveys programmes are already in place: 4 located in the SouthWest of USA, one in Hawaii and one in Japan. None of the surveys mentioned above reach most of the southern sky, therefore more than 25% of the celestial sphere is not covered by any project. The National Research Council of Uruguay (CONICYT) granted the Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" - OALM (Minister of Education and Culture) a small project to install a telescope to search for NEOs. The money was used to buy a 46cm (f/2.8) telescope (Centurion 18" by Astroworks). With further support from our home institutions (Universidad de Uruguay and the Minister of Education and Culture) and from the Planetary Society NEO grant we bought the CCD, a PC and the control software. The telescope will be located in a dark area of the countryside, 200 km from Montevideo. We have support from the Local Government of the Province of Maldonado for the buildings. The construction will start in May. In the mean time we have installed the telescope at the actual site of the OALM where we are testing the software, the hardware and starting the survey observations. An asteroid has been already discovered in this testing phase (K02H09A). The telescope will be fully controlled from our home institute in Montevideo through Internet. All the operations will be performed in a remote way. Follow-up observations of the discovered objects will be done from other telescopes of our institute as well through collaboration with colleagues of the SouthAmerican Spacegaurd Association, with telescopes in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  3. Monteggia fracture-dislocations: A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Maynard, Mallory A.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The eponym Monteggia fracture-dislocation originally referred to a fracture of the shaft of the ulna accompanied by anterior dislocation of the radial head that was described by Giovanni Battista Monteggia of Italy in 1814. Subsequently, a further classification system based on the direction of the radial head dislocation and associated fractures of the radius and ulna was proposed by Jose Luis Bado of Uruguay in 1958. This article investigates the evolution of treatment, classification, and outcomes of the Monteggia injury and sheds light on the lives and contributions of Monteggia and Bado. PMID:24792923

  4. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  5. First record of Myotis albescens (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Dewynter, Maël; Delaval, Marguerite; Catzeflis, François; Ruedi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. New information Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identifications, we provide a key to this assemblage. PMID:26069439

  6. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478

  7. Patterns of social association in the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; Bordino, Pablo; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known from living animals about the social patterns of the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, a small dolphin inhabiting a narrow strip of coastal waters off Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. These dolphins tend to be found in small groups, typically composed of two or three individuals (Bordino et al. 1999). Throughout much of the species' range, franciscanas encounter artisanal gill nets (Praderi 1989, Corcuera et al. 1994, Bertozzi and Zerbini 2002, Bordino et al. 2002, Secchi et al. 2003). Entanglement in these nets results in the deaths of thousands of individuals each year, at levels that are likely unsustainable (Bordino and Albareda 2004, Cappozzo et al. 2007).

  8. [Patterns of drug abuse among youngsters of upper social class].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H A; Magri, R

    1993-12-01

    Street drug use, and alcohol abuse among young adults from a high social class range were studied in the posh seaside resort of Punta del Este (Uruguay) during the (austral) summer vacation (February 1993). In this connection, an anthropological methodology was applied: Four young people were trained in systematic record and observation technics abilities. Results suggest two clearly defined social-cultural patterns with regard to both cannabis, and cocaine use. Both patterns take place within a social environment agreeable to drug use as well as strongly connected with social interaction ways peculiar to high-class youth. PMID:8191906

  9. Coordination of NEO Observers in South-America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    At present the discovery of NEOs is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. None of the 6 existing survey programs can reach declinations below -30deg. Nevertheless, there are two small surveys ready to start in the near future in the southern hemisphere: an extension of the Catalina Sky Survey using the Uppsala Schmidt in Siding Spring and the Project BUSCA in Uruguay. Many of the NEOs discovered by the northern surveys could reach the southern sky, with declinations unreachable for a northern observer. Furthermore, the recovery of an asteroid in subsequent oppositions could come indistinctly in the northern and southern sky. A network of well-equipped observers in the southern region is then a must in a campaign to catalog the NEO population. In view of this situation, the Planetary Society, through its NEO grant, have already supported many observers in the Southern Hemisphere. The planetary science community in South America has considerably grown in the last 10 years. We have well-known research groups in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Those groups have established many scientific links by exchanging graduate students and through several meetings. In particular, we have already hold two Workshop in Planetary Science in South America in 1999 (La Plata, Argentina) and 2000 (Montevideo, Uruguay) with more than 25 participants each. Recently, in February 2002, we organized a Workshop of NEO observers in Montevideo with the participation of more than 20 professional and amateurs observers from: Argentina: Obs. Ast. Felix Aguilar - Yale University (San Juan) and CRICYT (Mendoza); Brazil: Obs. Abraes de Moraes (San Pablo), Obs. Wykrota (Belo Horizonte) and Observatorio Nacional (Rio de Janeiro); Paraguay: Obs. Nacional de Asuncion and Sociedad de Estudios Astronómicos (Asunción) Uruguay: Depto. Astronomía - Fac. Ciencias, Obs. Ast. Los Molinos and Obs. Kappa Crucis (Montevideo). Among the resolutions of the Workshop, we highlight: * Creation of the "Asociaci

  10. No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A.S.

    2011-01-01

    In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

  11. Micropropagation systems of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Cangahuala-Inocente, Gabriela Claudia; Vesco, Lirio Luiz Dal; Pescador, Rosete; Caprestano, Clarissa Alves

    2013-01-01

    Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret sin. Feijoa sellowiana (Myrtaceae) is a semiwoody fruit species native to South Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina; edible fruits are tasty. The naturally occurring populations in Santa Catarina State show high variability in fruit size, color, and other features. A breeding program launched in 1990 resulted in the release of four Brazilian commercial varieties. The conventional clonal propagation methods of this species, such as cutting and grafting, have shown low efficiency. Therefore, tissue culture techniques were developed for mass propagation. This chapter describes several protocols based on organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Additional techniques including synthetic seed technology and temporary immersion system are also described. PMID:23179689

  12. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series were selected from the manuscripts submitted to the XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications (FLUIDOS2010), which was held in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, 3-5 November 2010. FLUIDOS takes place every two years, usually in November, with the aim of gathering together researchers from all areas of the Physics of Fluids, to update themselves on the latest technical developments and applications, share knowledge and stimulate new ideas. This 11th meeting continues the successful experience of the previous ones which were held in different Argentinian cities. For the first time, the meeting was celebrated in Uruguay, more specifically, in the peaceful town of Colonia del Sacramento, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The conference presented an outstanding program of papers covering the most recent advances in Physics of Fluids in the following areas: General Fluid Dynamics General and non-Newtonian Flows Magnetohydrodynamics Electrohydrodynamics and Plasmas Hydraulics, Thermohydraulics and Multiple Phase Flows A website with full details of the conference program, abstracts and other information can be found at http://fluidos2010.fisica.edu.uy. We would like to thank all the participants, especially those who contributed with talks, posters and manuscripts, for making FLUDOS2010 such a successful conference. Our thanks also go to our colleagues for their support and encouragement, particularly in the refereeing of papers. We would like to acknowledge additional financial support from Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (Uruguay) and the Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Our thanks are extended to the local government of Colonia del Sacramento. The next FLUIDOS conference will be held in November 2013, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We

  13. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478

  14. Conceiving risk, divergent responses: perspectives on the construction of risk of FASD in six countries.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie A; Poole, Nancy; Magri, Raquel; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Li, Qing; Plant, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of risks related to women's alcohol use during pregnancy, and the attendant response to preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), are examined in six countries: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Uganda, Uruguay, and China. Considerable differences were found in how risks were conceptualized across countries and in contextual factors that influence research, prevention, and intervention efforts. Differences in conceptualizations were also apparent within countries. Differences also existed in the degree to which the issue of drinking during pregnancy has been minimized or amplified and in whether and how responses are linked to treatment or other public health interventions. PMID:21222518

  15. Characterization of Juquitiba Virus in Oligoryzomys fornesi from Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Strecht, Liana; Casado, Flavia; de Oliveira, Flavio Cesar Gomes; D’Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    The Juquitiba virus, an agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome, is one of the most widely distributed hantavirus found in South America. It has been detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon montensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon paranaensis in Brazil and in O. nigripes, Oryzomys sp. and Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents in Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay. Here, we report the genomic characterization of the complete S segment from the Juquitiba strain, isolated from the lung tissues of O. fornesi, the presumed rodent reservoir of Anajatuba virus in Brazilian Amazon, captured in the Cerrado Biome, Brazil. PMID:24674957

  16. View of forest fires in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view, acquired with a Hasselblad camera equipped with a 250mm lens, shows only a small portion of forest fires that marked the Earth photography taken over Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina during this mission. Numerous fires are visible in this late-dry-season scene of the areas between the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Most of this burning is usually associated with agricultural preparations. The nadir point of the Space Shuttle at the time this photograph was taken (2018 GMT, September 16, 1993) was 28.5 degrees South, 60.0 degrees West. The view is to the west.

  17. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  18. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida grown in soils from a native forest of Uruguay. Here we describe the features of Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,858,949 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 365 scaffolds of 369 contigs, contains 7,411 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal. PMID:26203327

  19. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512

    DOE PAGESBeta

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-04-11

    Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida grown in soils from a native forest of Uruguay. Here we describe the features of Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512, together with sequence and annotation. We find the 7,858,949 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 365 scaffolds of 369 contigs, contains 7,411 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  20. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Howieson, John; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-04-11

    Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida grown in soils from a native forest of Uruguay. Here we describe the features of Cupriavidus sp. strain UYPR2.512, together with sequence and annotation. We find the 7,858,949 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 365 scaffolds of 369 contigs, contains 7,411 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii strain WSM2304, an effective microsymbiont of the South American clover Trifolium polymorphum

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Wayne; O'Hara, Graham; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Ardley, Julie; Brau, Lambert; Nandesena, Kemanthi; Tiwari, Ravi; Malfatti, Stephanie; Kiss, Hajnalka; Lapidus, Alla L.; Copeland, A; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Melino, Vanessa; Denton, Matthew; Yates, Ron; Howieson, John

    2010-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is the effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual and perennial Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM2304 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, isolated from Trifolium polymorphum in Uruguay in 1998. This microsymbiont predominated in the perennial grasslands of Glencoe Research Station, in Uruguay, to competitively nodulate its host, and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Here we describe the basic features of WSM2304, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a clover species from the American center of origin. We reveal that its genome size is 6,872,702 bp encoding 6,643 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA only encoding genes. This multipartite genome was found to contain 5 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,537,948 bp and four circular plasmids of size 1,266,105 bp, 501,946 bp, 308,747 bp and 257,956 bp.

  2. Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; García, Cristina; Arruga, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity. PMID:21637561

  3. First full-length genomic sequence of a hepatitis A virus isolated in Argentina shows recombination between subgenotypes IA and IB.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Sebastian; Malirat, Viviana; Scodeller, Eduardo; Mattion, Nora

    2011-01-01

    A hepatitis A virus (HAV) recovered in Argentina from a stool sample of a sick child in the year 2006 (HAV-Arg/06) was entirely sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis included the HAV-Arg/06 sequence in subgenotype IA, either considering the usual VP1-2A variable junction fragment or the full length nucleotide sequence. Interestingly, a recombination event with subgenotype IB, involving a portion of the 2C-3A nonstructural proteins coding region (nucleotides 4961-5140) was detected using specific software. Only subgenotype IA strains have been detected in Argentina or Uruguay, whereas subgenotype IA and IB strains have been reported to circulate in Brazil. Although recombination has been given an important role in the evolution of picornaviruses, there have been only a few reports of its involvement in the evolution of HAV, probably due to the limited number of complete HAV sequences available. This study constitutes the first report of a full-length HAV sequence in Argentina and the third in South America, after the sequence of the IA isolate HAV5 from Uruguay and the IB isolate HAF-203 from Brazil. The availability of new sequence data covering the complete HAV genome will help establish a more consistent genetic relatedness among HAV isolates and the role of recombination in its evolution. PMID:21056065

  4. Recent Evidence of Hantavirus Circulation in the American Tropic

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Diaz, Francisco J.; Rodas, Juan D.

    2014-01-01

    Hantaan virus was discovered in Korea during the 1970s while other similar viruses were later reported in Asia and Europe. There was no information about hantavirus human infection in the Americas until 1993 when an outbreak was described in the United States. This event promoted new studies to find hantaviruses in the Americas. At first, many studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay, while other Latin American countries began to report the presence of these agents towards the end of the 20th century. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil). However there was an important outbreak in 2000 in Panama and some rare events have been described in Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Since hantaviruses have only recently emerged as a potential threat in the tropical zones of the Americas, this review compiles recent hantavirus reports in Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern region of South America. These studies have generated the discovery of new hantaviruses and could help to anticipate the presentation of possible future outbreaks in the region. PMID:24638203

  5. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Deffarges, E.H. ); Maurer, L.I.A. )

    1993-01-18

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties.

  6. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. PMID:23644048

  7. Frequency and spectrum of hemoglobinopathy mutations in a Uruguayan pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Julio Da; Ávila, Amalia; Icasuriaga, Sandra; Gongóra, María; Castillo, Luis; Serrón, Alejandra; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sans, Mónica; Sonati, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common recessive diseases worldwide but their prevalence in Uruguay has not been investigated. In this study, 397 unrelated outpatient children from the Pereira Rosell Hospital Center (CHPR), as well as 31 selected patients with microcytic anemia and 28 β-thalassemia carriers were analyzed for hemoglobinopathies by using biochemical and molecular biology methods. Parametric and non-parametric methods were used to compare the hematological indices between groups of genotypes. Of the 397 patients in the first group, approximately 1% (0.76% HbS and 0.25% β-thalassemia) had a mutation in the HBB gene and 3.3% had β-thalassemia. These mutations had a heterogeneous distribution that varied according to individual ancestry. HbS was found exclusively in individuals with declared African ancestry and had a carrier frequency of 2.2%. The frequency of α-thalassemia carriers in outpatients of European and African ancestry was 1.2% and 6.5%, respectively. In contrast, the frequency of α-thalassemia carriers in patients with microcytic anemia was 25.8%, significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in the sample as a whole and in Afro-descendants and Euro-descendants. Significant differences were observed in the hematological parameters between individuals with thalassemia genotypes and those with a normal genotype. These results indicate that hemoglobinopathies are a relevant health problem in Uruguay. PMID:24130436

  8. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  9. Cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Castro Janer, E; Klafke, G M; Capurro, M L; Schumaker, T T S

    2015-05-30

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is one of the most damaging parasites of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Several chemical groups have been used for its control, including cyclodienes (lindane and dieldrin). In Uruguay and Brazil these products were used at the beginning of the 1960s and during a few years. Fipronil and lindane act on the same target site. In both countries, southern cattle tick resistance to fipronil has sometimes developed quickly after only a few acaricide treatments (three to seven). The objective of the present study was to determine cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in southern cattle ticks from Uruguay and Brazil. Initially, the FAO's (Food and Agricultural Organization) larval packet test with lindane was applied to a fipronil-resistant strain and to susceptible field populations. Mozo and POA strains were used as the susceptible controls. A larval immersion test was used to assess fipronil toxicity. Of fifteen fipronil-resistant field populations that were tested with lindane, eleven were lindane-resistant and three were susceptible. The last three populations had incipient resistance to fipronil. Finally, cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in the southern cattle tick is reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25868846

  10. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.)-based beverages: How successive extraction influences the extract composition and its capacity to chelate iron and scavenge free radicals.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Ana C; Rosa, Hemerson; Lima, Maria Eduarda; Pazzini, Camila Eliza F; de Camargo, Vanessa B; Bassante, Felipa E M; Puntel, Robson; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Mendez, Andreas; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2016-10-15

    Chimarrão or mate is a popular beverage from South America that is drank with successive infusions. Although yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, few studies have described the extract contents in beverages. Using yerba mate samples from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, we examined the extract chromatographic profiles, total polyphenol content and their capacities to chelate iron. In addition, we analyzed antioxidant activity by examining the ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH and NO. Our results showed that the amount of extracted compound was highest in yerba mate extract from Uruguay, followed by Argentina, then Brazil. Herbs from all three areas had a significant capacity to inhibit DPPH and NO free radicals. The Brazilian and Uruguayan herbs had an 80% iron chelation capacity (p<0.001), while the iron chelation capacity of the Argentinean herb was lower but still significant (p⩽0.05). We conclude that the compound concentration decreases with successive extractions, while the antioxidant capacity is maintained at significant levels. PMID:27173551

  11. So Far Away, Yet So Close: Strong Genetic Structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae), a Species with Restricted Geographic Distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Felappi, Jéssica F.; Vieira, Renata C.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.; Verrastro, Laura V.

    2015-01-01

    The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings. PMID:25692471

  12. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  13. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  14. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413

    SciTech Connect

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Howieson, John; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-06-04

    We report that Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agricultural relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes.

  15. Eolian deposits of the southwestern margin of the Botucatú paleoerg: Reconstruction of the Gondwana landscape in Central Northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, V. Gisel; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Pimentel, Marcio; Barcelona, Hernan

    2016-06-01

    The Mesozoic Botucatú paleoerg at the southwestern margin of Gondwana includes a succession of eolian dunes cross-strata which are presently exposed in Otumpa Hills (Central Northern Argentina). Here, the architectural facies, petrology, and provenance of those rocks were studied in order to investigate depositional environments and paleoclimates. The stratigraphic sequence included basal eolian two-dimensional crescentic dunes (Slp) overlain by three-dimensional crescentic dunes of smaller scale (Smt). These were correlated with the Upper Member Rivera of the Tacuarembó Formation (Uruguay), or its equivalent in Brazil, the Botucatú Formation. These outcrops partially mark the southwestern margin of the Botucatú paleoerg along the Chaco-Paraná Basin boundary. The paleocurrents from the W, NW, and SW and the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons indicate a main Pampean cratonic and secondary Andean magmatic arc (180 Ma) source. A detrital zircon of 180 Ma by U-Pb limits a maximum depositional age at 180 Ma (Toarcian) for facies Slp. Upwards, the phreatic silcrete and calcrete indicate semiarid conditions during the Paleocene, which are correlated with the Queguay Formation of Uruguay. A saprolite paleoweathering profile, recording wet tropical-hyper-tropical climate at the Early Eocene and representing the Gondwana landscape and climate conditions, crowns the sequence. This study represents the first provenance and surface texture analysis of minerals from the Botucatú paleoerg and was instrumental to unravel past environmental and sedimentary conditions.

  16. Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Reyes, Laura; Rebstock, Ginger A; Griot, Karen; Rodrigues Heredia, Sergio; Adornes, Andrea Corrado; da Silva, Rodolfo Pinho

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum pollution is a problem for seabirds along the Southwest Atlantic coast. Twenty-five groups from Salvador, Brazil (12 degrees 58'S) to San Antonio Oeste, Argentina (40 degrees 43'S) survey or rehabilitate sick or oiled seabirds. Four groups, one each in Brazil and Uruguay, and two in Argentina, kept counts of birds found alive and in need of rehabilitation. An average of 63.7% of the seabirds found were Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), with 3869 reported since 1987. Mainly adult penguins were found in Argentina (1605 of 2102 penguins of known age class) and Uruguay (158 of 197). Juveniles were most common in Brazil (234 of 325). Oil fouling was the most frequent cause of injury or sickness. The number of oiled penguins reported in their wintering range has greatly increased since the early 1990s and is strongly correlated with petroleum exports from Argentina. Our results show that chronic petroleum pollution is a problem for wildlife from Southern Brazil through Northern Argentina, and regulations and enforcement are failing to protect living resources. PMID:16364372

  17. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agricultural relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes. PMID:26203342

  18. Control of foot and mouth disease: the experience of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Correa Melo, E; López, A

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was first recognised in South America in 1870, almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay, in southern Brazil and coincidentally, on the northeastern coast of the United States of America. The epidemiology of the disease was unknown and no government action was taken following the initial outbreaks. This resulted in the disease spreading to other areas of Chile, as well as to Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, reaching Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s, and Ecuador in 1961. The entire continent was affected in the 1960s when national FMD control programmes were initiated, with the exception of Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Patagonia. In the 1970s, steps were taken to implement a regional control and eradication strategy in view of the impact of production and trade on the persistence of the virus. The Plan Hemisférico de Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa (PHEFA: Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan), public- and private-sector policies, new diagnostic tools, the oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine and regional strategies played a part in improving the epidemiological situation during the 1990s. A setback was encountered in 2000 and 2001, with outbreaks due to virus types A and 0 recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. PMID:12523707

  19. Alternative Parameterization of the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine: A Regional Validation and Climate Change Assessment on Stand Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Martin, T.; Jokela, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the fastest growing pine species. It has been planted on more than 10 million ha in the southeastern U.S., and also been introduced into many countries. Using data from the literature and long-term productivity studies, we re-parameterized the 3-PG model for loblolly pine stands. We developed new functions for estimating NPP allocation dynamics, canopy cover and needlefall dynamics, effects of frost on production, density-independent and density-dependent tree mortality, biomass pools at variable starting ages, and the fertility rating. New functions to estimate merchantable volume partitioning were also included, allowing for economic analyses. The fertility rating was determined as a function of site index (mean height of dominant trees at age=25 years). We used the largest and most geographically extensive validation dataset for this species ever used (91 pots in 12 states in U.S. and 10 plots in Uruguay). Comparison of modeled to measured data showed robust agreement across the natural range in the U.S., as well as in Uruguay, where the species is grown as an exotic. Using the new set of functions and parameters with downscaled projections from twenty different climate models, the model was applied to assess the impact of future climate change scenarios on stand productivity in the southeastern U.S.

  20. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Parapiptadenia rigida-nodulating Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413

    DOE PAGESBeta

    De Meyer, Sofie E.; Fabiano, Elena; Tian, Rui; Van Berkum, Peter; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-06-04

    We report that Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Parapiptadenia rigida collected at the Angico plantation, Mandiyu, Uruguay, in December 2006. A survey of symbionts of P. rigida in Uruguay demonstrated that this species is nodulated predominantly by Burkholderia microsymbionts. Moreover, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 is a highly efficient nitrogen fixing symbiont with this host. Currently, the only other sequenced isolate to fix with this host is Cupriavidus sp. UYPR2.512. Therefore, Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413 was selected for sequencing on the basis of its environmental and agriculturalmore » relevance to issues in global carbon cycling, alternative energy production, and biogeochemical importance, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project. Here we describe the features of Burkholderia sp. strain UYPR1.413, together with sequence and annotation. The 10,373,764 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 336 scaffolds of 342 contigs, contains 9759 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA-only encoding genes.« less

  1. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  2. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  3. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission

  4. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  5. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rousse, D.

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp.(Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters. PMID:19537971

  6. Reproduction and Feeding of the Electric Fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae) and the Discussion of a Life History Pattern for Gymnotiforms from High Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Giora, Julia; Tarasconi, Hellen M.; Fialho, Clarice B.

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio were studied. The species has seasonal reproductive behavior, with breeding occurring during the Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, and having a positive relation with the photoperiod variation. Brachyhypopomus gauderio was defined as a fractional spawner, with low relative fecundity and high first maturation size. Sexual dimorphism was registered, males undergoing hypertrophy of the distal portion of caudal filament. The results on reproductive biology herein obtained are in agreement with data concerning gymnotiforms from Southern Brazil and Uruguay, pointing to an ecological pattern for the species from high latitudes, differing from species with tropical distribution. According to the analysis of the food items, B. gauderio feed mainly on autochthonous insects, likewise the other gymnotiforms previously investigated, leading to conclude that there is no variation on the diet of the species of the order related to climatic conditions or even to habitat of occurrence. PMID:25207924

  7. Simplified empirical astronomical tide model—An application for the Río de la Plata estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Enrique; Oreiro, Fernando; Fiore, Mónica

    2012-07-01

    The Río de la Plata has a complex astronomical tide due to the effect of the shallow depth of this extensive estuary, the complicated geometry and bathymetry and the huge discharge of the rivers Paraná and Uruguay and therefore the simulation of the astronomical tide is complicated. This paper presents a Simplified Empirical Astronomical Tide model (SEAT) which overcomes the foreseen difficulties in a straightforward way. The program developed can be applied to other regions by only changing a file of the dynamic-link library. SEAT provides predictions, harmonic constants and the mean water level referred to the tidal datum used to calculate the prediction. The storage of information in the form of images reduces the size of the application. The equations considered for the prediction do not require the use of special computer processors. A personal computer with minimum hardware that supports Microsoft Framework 3.5 is suitable to run SEAT.

  8. Stem cell research in Latin America: update, challenges and opportunities in a priority research area.

    PubMed

    Palma, Verónica; Pitossi, Fernando J; Rehen, Stevens K; Touriño, Cristina; Velasco, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell research is attracting wide attention as a promising and fast-growing field in Latin America, as it is worldwide. Many countries in the region have defined Regenerative Medicine as a research priority and a focus of investment. This field generates not only opportunities but also regulatory, technical and operative challenges. In this review, scientists from Uruguay, Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Argentina provide their view on stem cell research in each of their countries. Despite country-specific characteristics, all countries share several issues such as regulatory challenges. Key initiatives of each country to promote stem cell research are also discussed. As a conclusion, it is clear that regional integration should be more emphasized and international collaboration, promoted. PMID:26440367

  9. Control of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J M; Schofield, C J

    2003-01-01

    Most Latin American countries are making dramatic progress in controlling Chagas disease, through a series of national and international initiatives focusing on elimination of domestic populations of Triatominae, improved screening of blood donors, and clinical support and treatment of persons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Some countries, particularly Uruguay, Chile and Brazil, are sufficiently advanced in their programmes to initiate detailed planning of the subsequent phases of Chagas disease control, while others such as Peru, Ecuador, and Mexico, are currently applying only the initial phases of the control campaigns. In this review, we seek to provide a brief history of the campaigns as a basis for discussion of future interventions. Our aim is to relate operational needs to the underlying biological aspects that have made Chagas disease so serious in Latin America but have also revealed the epidemiological vulnerability of this disease. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:12736992

  10. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed.  PMID:25544468

  11. A new species of Astyanax from headwater streams of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    De Lucena, Carlos A S; Bertaco, Vinicius A; Berbigier, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Astyanax pirabitira, new species, is described from the upper portion of the rio das Antas, laguna dos Patos system, and from the rio Pelotas, upper rio Uruguay drainage, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The new species belongs to the A. scabripinnis species complex and differs from its congeners by a combination of characters, viz., body depth (27.1-34.0% of standard length), narrow interorbital width (22.2-28.7% of head length), head depth (72.9-97.0% of HL), number of branched anal-fin rays (15-20), number of lateral line scales (37-40), one or two maxillary teeth, two humeral spots and absence of secondary sexual characters (bony hooks in the fins or other differences in the morphology). Comments on the endemic fish fauna of the region are presented. PMID:26106724

  12. Fourteen new species, one new genus, and eleven new country or state records for New World Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen new species and one new genus are described from the New World in Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri sp. nov., Trestonia skelleyi sp. nov. and Psapharochrus langeri sp. nov. from Bolivia; Eupogonius azteca sp. nov., Aegomorphus mexicanus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus albatus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus obscurus sp. nov. and Piruanycha wappesi sp. nov. from Mexico; Dolichestola egeri sp. nov. and Wappesellus cavus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia); Scleronotus virgatus sp. nov. from Venezuela; Oreodera casariae sp. nov. from Panama; Alampyris bicolor sp. nov. from Costa Rica; and Emphytoeciosoma flava sp. nov. from Peru. Additionally, eleven new country/state records are established in Lamiinae: three for Peru; three for Bolivia; one for Mexico; one for Uruguay; and two for Brazil (Rondônia) (state records). Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri, Eupogonius azteca, Aegomorphus mexicanus, Lamacoscylus albatus, Lamacoscylus obscurus, Piruanycha wappesi, Scleronotus virgatus, Alampyris bicolor, Emphytoeciosoma flava and Wappesellus are included in new or known keys. PMID:26249940

  13. Synthetic vaccine (SBm7462) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: preservation of immunogenic determinants in different strains from South America.

    PubMed

    Peconick, A P; Sossai, S; Girão, F A; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Souza E Silva, C H; Guzman Q, F; Patarroyo V, A M; Vargas, M I; Patarroyo, J H

    2008-05-01

    The synthetic vaccine SBm7462 is based on three immunogenic epitopes (4822, 4823 and 4824) contained within protein Bm86 derived from the Australian Yeerongpilly strain of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Twenty strains of the tick originating from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Uruguay were analysed in order to identify differences compared with sequences present in components of vaccine SBm7462. For each parasite population, three cDNA fragments containing the nucleotides coding for the epitopes 4822, 4824 and 4823 were sequenced, and the amino acid sequences were deduced and compared with those of the homologous bm86 gene. The results indicate that the epitope sequences of vaccine SBm7462 are conserved in the South American populations of the tick. The conservation of such sequences is very important for the immunological response of different populations of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:18226809

  14. Microbial communities from 20 different hydrogen-producing reactors studied by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, Claudia; Castelló, Elena; Wenzel, Jorge; del Pilar Anzola-Rojas, Mélida; Borzacconi, Liliana; Buitrón, Germán; Cabrol, Lea; Carminato, Vivian María; Carrillo-Reyes, Julian; Cisneros-Pérez, Crhistian; Fuentes, Laura; Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Razo-Flores, Elías; Filippi, Gonzalo Ruiz; Tapia-Venegas, Estela; Toledo-Alarcón, Javiera; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    To provide new insight into the dark fermentation process, a multi-lateral study was performed to study the microbiology of 20 different lab-scale bioreactors operated in four different countries (Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay). Samples (29) were collected from bioreactors with different configurations, operation conditions, and performances. The microbial communities were analyzed using 16S rRNA genes 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed notably uneven communities with a high predominance of a particular genus. The phylum Firmicutes predominated in most of the samples, but the phyla Thermotogae or Proteobacteria dominated in a few samples. Genera from three physiological groups were detected: high-yield hydrogen producers (Clostridium, Kosmotoga, Enterobacter), fermenters with low-hydrogen yield (mostly from Veillonelaceae), and competitors (Lactobacillus). Inocula, reactor configurations, and substrates influence the microbial communities. This is the first joint effort that evaluates hydrogen-producing reactors and operational conditions from different countries and contributes to understand the dark fermentation process. PMID:26825820

  15. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts. PMID:15682251

  16. Genetic diversity in populations of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D A; Melo Júnior, A F; Brandão, M M; Rodrigues, L A; Menezes, E V; Ferreira, P R B

    2012-01-01

    Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm of economic importance, widely distributed in natural forests from Mexico to Uruguay. We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of macaúba (A. aculeata) in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Young leaves from 10 macaúba individuals encompassing 49 genotypes of macaúba were collected from Montes Claros, Itacambira, Brasília de Minas, Mirabela, and Grão Mogol. After extraction and amplification of samples, the amplified fragments were separated by electrophoresis. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the populations. Genetic diversity indices were high, except in the Itacambira and Mirabela populations. Results show that Mirabela and Itacambira populations can require conservation strategies because they present lower values of genetic diversity. PMID:22535388

  17. Untersuchungen zu einem der größten Grundwasservorkommen Südamerikas: Der Guaraní-Aquifer in Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Vassolo, Sara

    2011-09-01

    With some 1.1 million km2, the Guaraní Aquifer System occupies most of the La Plata Basin in South America and represents one of the most important groundwater reservoirs worldwide with a storage volume of approx. 30,000 km3. It belongs to Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Due to increasing water demands and growing risks for the groundwater quality, a multinational project for the protection and sustainable use of this groundwater reserve was implemented by the World Bank. Between 2003 and 2009, the project was executed by the Organization of American States. The German Federal State Geological Survey (BGR) was also involved in the overall work and provided support to Paraguay by analyzing the Guaraní Aquifer System in Paraguay. A numerical model was developed to characterize groundwater flow in the Guaraní Area of Paraguay and neighbouring regions in Argentina and Brazil, and is being used to quantify groundwater exchange.

  18. A new species of inseminating seasonal killifish of the Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex from southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex is a morphologically homogeneous killifish group, endemic from an area encompassing southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay. It presently comprises four valid species: C. melanotaenia, the type species of the genus, and C. fulgens, C. intimus, and C. nigrovittatus. New information Cynopoecilus feltrini, n. sp., from the lower Tubarão river basin, southern Brazil, is distinguished from all congeners of the C. melanotaenia complex by having frontal E-scales medially overlapped, branchiostegal region orangish red in males and dorsum with few dark brown spots above opercular region. A phylogenetic tree derived from the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (681 bp) indicates that C. feltrini is a member of the clade that includes all species of the C. melanotaenia complex except C. melanotaenia, as well as that C. feltrini is the sister group of a clade comprising C. fulgens and C. nigrovittatus. PMID:27099548

  19. Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Lavelle, J. William

    During the week of June 13-17, 1988, 72 sediment transport researchers “aggregated” at the Universidad Nacional del Sur in Bahfa Blanca, Argentina, to participate in an AGU Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries. The main goals of the meeting were to discuss recent advances in estuarine science, to appraise promising future research directions, and to develop contacts and establish working relationships between Latin American and non-Latin- American estuarine researchers. The meeting drew participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, the U.S., Canada, Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands, and South Africa. Meeting cosponsors were UNESCO, Secretaria de Ciencía y Técnica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Universidad del Sur, Municipalidad de Bahia Blanca, Asociaciôn Argentina de Geofisicos y Geodestas (AGU sister organization), and the Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO).

  20. Evolution of Tobacco Labeling and Packaging: International Legal Considerations and Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A.; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous national governments have recently adopted packaging and labeling legislation to curb global tobacco uptake. This coincides with the World Health Organization’s 2011 World No Tobacco Day, which recognized the extraordinary progress of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The tobacco industry has presented legal challenges to countries, including Australia, Uruguay, and the United States, for enacting legislation meeting or exceeding FCTC obligations. We argue that national governments attempting to meet the obligations set forth in public health treaties such as the FCTC should be afforded flexibilities and protection in developing tobacco control laws and regulations, because these measures are necessary to protect public health and should be explicitly recognized in international trade and legal agreements. PMID:23409884

  1. Energy market integration in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-08-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change.

  2. Circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG in South America.

    PubMed

    Carrion, G; Hierholzer, J; Montano, S; Alava, A; Perez, J; Guevara, A; Laguna-Torres, V; Mosquera, C; Russell, K; Chauca, G; Kochel, T; Birx, D L; Sanchez, J L; Carr, J K

    2003-04-01

    With the objective of monitoring the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs)in South America, population-based surveillance studies were performed in seven countries. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell, filter paper, fresh blood, and cocultivation samples were collected from HIV-positive patients from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay, during a 7-year period(1995-2001). DNA was prepared and HIV envelope subtypes were determined by heteroduplex mobility as-say and DNA sequencing from 1289 HIV-positive samples. While subtypes B and F were the most commonly observed subtypes, two CRF02_AG strains were detected, in Ecuador. This is the first report of the existence of this CRF in South America. PMID:12816083

  3. The Universe in Your City - Nineteen Capitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, D.; Más, A.

    2010-10-01

    The programme, The Universe in Your City - Nineteen Capitals, took us to each of Uruguay's nineteen provincial capitals. In each capital we erected our Kappa Crucis Digital Mobile Planetarium and were able to reach a wide range of children of school age, and especially children in "critical contexts" (i.e. socially and economically deprived children). We transported our equipment, together with the exhibition materials for the IYA2009 Cornerstone project, From Earth To The Universe - and set it up in open public spaces, staying in each location for one week and offering an average of nine daily 40-minute presentations. Each session featured information on Galileo Galilei's discoveries, the Uruguayan night sky and the cultural heritage provided by the sky. A record number of 46 428 people participated in the 884 sessions held between April and September; while many more simply visited the exhibition. This reflects the remarkable success of the project.

  4. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

  5. Indolizidine 239Q and Quinolizidine 275I. Major alkaloids in two Argentinian bufonid toads (Melanophryniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Daly, John W.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Spande, Thomas F.; Yeh, Herman J. C.; Peltzer, Paola M.; Cacivio, Pedro; Baldo, J. Diego; Faivovich, Julián

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloid profiles in skin of poison frogs/toads (Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Bufonidae, and Myobatrachidae) are highly dependent on diet and hence on the nature of habitat. Extracts of the two species of toads (Melanophryniscus klappenbachi and M. cupreuscapularis) from similar habitats in the Corrientes/Chaco Provinces of Argentina have similar profiles of alkaloids, which differ considerably from profiles from other Melanophryniscus species from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Structures of two major alkaloids 239Q (1) and 275I (2) were determined by mass, FTIR, and NMR spectral analysis as 5Z,9Z-3-(1-hydroxybutyl)-5-propylindolizidine and 6Z,10E-4,6-di(pent-4-enyl) quinolizidine, respectively. A third alkaloid, 249F (3), is postulated to be a homopumiliotoxin with an unprecedented conjugated exocyclic diene moiety. PMID:18848574

  6. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  7. Impact of Two Ant Species on Egg Parasitoids Released as Part of a Biological Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Basso, César; Pintureau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid wasp, was tested in Uruguay to reduce populations of lepidopteran pests on soybeans. It was observed that the commercial parasitoid dispensers, which were made of cardboard, were vulnerable to small predators that succeeded in entering and emptying the containers of all the eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum. Observations in a soybean crop showed that the only small, common predators present were two ant species. The species responsible for the above mentioned predation was determined from the results of a laboratory experiment in which the behavior of the two common ants was tested. A modification of the dispensers to prevent introduction of this ant has been proposed and successfully tested in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:24738954

  8. Stegosatyrus, a new genus of Euptychiina from the grasslands of neotropical realm (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Zacca, Thamara; Mielke, Olaf H H; Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Casagrande, Mirna M; Freitas, André V L; Boyer, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Three species of Pampasatyrus Hayward, 1953 (Satyrinae, Pronophilina) are transferred to Stegosatyrus n. gen. (Euptychiina) based on morphological evidence: S. imbrialis (Weeks, 1901) n. comb. from Bolivia (Cochabamba) and northern Argentina; S. ocelloides (Schaus, 1902) n. comb. from Paraguay (Hernandarias and Caaguazú) and Brazil (Midwest, Southeast and South regions); and S. periphas (Godart, [1824]) n. comb. from southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Uruguay. A new species is described, Stegosatyrus hemiclara Pyrcz, Boyer & Zacca, n. sp. from the Andes of southern Peru. The neotype of Satyrus periphas Godart, [1824] and the lectotypes of Epinephele imbrialis Weeks, 1901 and Euptychia ocelloides Schaus, 1902 are designated. Redescriptions and illustrations are presented, including information on geographical and temporal distribution, and habitats. The oviposition process, eggs and first instars of S. periphas are published for the first time. PMID:25243290

  9. Antioxidant potential of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) extracts in Saccharomyces cerevisae deficient in oxidant defense genes.

    PubMed

    Piovezan-Borges, A C; Valério-Júnior, C; Gonçalves, I L; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Valduga, A T

    2016-06-01

    Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil) is mainly consumed as "chimarrão", a hot drink highly appreciated in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. This study evaluated the antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis precipitated with ethanol. The leaves were processed as for tea product (TM) and oxidized (OX). The antioxidant potential was evaluated in cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in antioxidant defense genes. Three strains evaluated were: a wild (EG) and two mutants (ctt1Δ e ctt1Δsod1Δ). These strains were pre-treated with the yerba-mate extracts (TM e OX) and submitted to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. None of the extracts produced loss of cell viability. The extracts exerted antioxidant activity, protecting the strains (except sod1∆ctt1∆). The TM extract was more effective than OX. I. paraguariensis extracts showed a potential to be explored in the development of new products. PMID:26934149

  10. Leopardus braccatus (Carnivora: Felidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barstow, Anita L.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Leopardus braccatus (Cope, 1889) is a small felid—not much larger than a domestic house cat—commonly called the Pantanal cat. No comprehensive surveys have been conducted to determine how many L. braccatus exist in the wild. It is found in humid, warm grasslands and wooded areas of extreme northwestern Argentina, southwestern and south- and north-central (newly reported ranges) Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Habitat loss and degradation are considered major threats throughout most of its range. It is uncommon in captivity and museum collections, listed with all Felidae under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, and considered “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in the pampas cat group (= L. colocolo).

  11. Species of the genus Arthrobrachus Solier, 1849 (Coleoptera: Melyridae)
    distributed to the East of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Arthrobrachus Solier, 1849 distributed in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay have been revised. The morphological study of specimens and the review of the type material have resulted in a new combination: Arthrobrachus flavomarginatus (Blanchard, 1843) n. comb. (from Astylus Laporte, 1836), and four new synonymies: Arthrobrachus rufitarsis Philippi & Philippi, 1864 = A. obscuripes Pic, 1927 n. syn.; Arthrobrachus flavomarginatus (Blanchard, 1843) = A. xanthurus (Blanchard, 1843) n. syn. = A. boucardi Pic, 1919 n. syn. = A. lajoyei Pic, 1919 n. syn. Three species described by Steinheil (1874), Arthrobrachus depressus, Arthrobrachus testaceolimbatus and Arthrobrachus testaceus are considered as incertae sedis and Arthrobrachus quadrilineatus Steinheil, 1874 is transferred to Astylus Laporte, 1836 as A. steinheili nomen novum. Four new species of Arthrobrachus have been described: A. antonioi n. sp., A. eloisae n. sp., A. solervicensi n. sp. and A. armandoi n. sp. Distributional data and a key to the species are provided. PMID:27394460

  12. Molecular typing of canine distemper virus strains reveals the presence of a new genetic variant in South America.

    PubMed

    Sarute, Nicolás; Pérez, Ruben; Aldaz, Jaime; Alfieri, Amauri A; Alfieri, Alice F; Name, Daniela; Llanes, Jessika; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV, Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the causative agent of a severe infectious disease affecting terrestrial and marine carnivores worldwide. Phylogenetic relationships and the genetic variability of the hemagglutinin (H) protein and the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) allow for the classification of field strains into genetic lineages. Currently, there are nine CDV lineages worldwide, two of them co-circulating in South America. Using the Fsp-coding region, we analyzed the genetic variability of strains from Uruguay, Brazil, and Ecuador, and compared them with those described previously in South America and other geographical areas. The results revealed that the Brazilian and Uruguayan strains belong to the already described South America lineage (EU1/SA1), whereas the Ecuadorian strains cluster in a new clade, here named South America 3, which may represent the third CDV lineage described in South America. PMID:24647552

  13. Processes controlling the chromium isotopic composition of river water: Constraints from basaltic river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Joan; Babechuk, Michael G.; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report chromium (Cr) isotope compositions and concentrations (and additional geochemical and physicochemical data) of bedrock, soils and river waters from two geographically distinct basaltic river catchments, the Uruguay River catchment (Uruguay) and the Glenariff River catchment (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom), to investigate the processes that control Cr mobilisation and fractionation during weathering and riverine transport to the sea. Our results show that the Cr isotope compositions of soils are a function of the modal abundance and weathering rates of Cr-bearing minerals. The accumulation of weathering resistant Cr-spinels in the soils of Northern Ireland results in soils which are enriched in Cr and have δ53Cr values within the range of local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.21 ± 0.12‰, 2σ, n = 4). By contrast, the more easily weathered Cr-silicates in the bedrock of Uruguay results in greater Cr loss from the soil and a depletion in the heavy isotopes of Cr (with average δ53Cr value of -0.32 ± 0.04‰, 2σ, n = 4) relative to the local bedrock (δ53Cr value of -0.22 ± 0.08‰, 2σ, n = 4). The river waters in both catchments are predominantly enriched in the heavy 53Cr isotope relative to bedrock, although the range and average river water δ53Cr values differ significantly between each. The Uruguay rivers exhibit a restricted range in δ53Cr values, with a mean of +0.08 ± 0.06‰ (2σ, n = 5) that represents a positive fractionation of +0.2‰ relative to bedrock, and is best explained by the unidirectional formation of Cr(VI) during weathering that has not been significantly modified by back-reduction to Cr(III). By contrast, the Glenariff stream and river waters (Northern Ireland) exhibit a wide range in δ53Cr values from -0.17 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 4) to +1.68 ± 0.3‰ (n = 1) that appears to reflect the variable redox conditions of the catchment. In general, the values with the lowest 53Cr enrichment have higher Cr concentrations, the lowest

  14. Susceptibility and compatibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Río de la Plata basin with Schistosoma mansoni from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borda, Carlos Edgardo; Rea, María Josefa F

    2010-07-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to southern parts of Brazil. Between 2005-2007 the dispersion and the proliferation of Biomphalaria tenagophila was verified in the province of Corrientes near the Brazilian border. In order to study the possibility that schistosomiasis might spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers, 440 B. tenagophila collected from 10 populations groups were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni of the SJ2 strain. Snails from five localities were susceptible. Frandsen's index (TCP/100) shows that those snails from Mirungá (11%), Aguacerito (2%) and Curupicay (2%) were Class I and not very compatible. Meanwhile, snails from Copra (6%) and Pay-Ubre (22%), in the Paraná River basin, were Class II and poorly compatible. PMID:20721498

  15. Experiments using new initial soil moisture conditions and soil map in the Eta model over La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Moira E.; Tomasella, Javier; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Chou, Sin Chan

    2013-08-01

    An effort towards a more accurate representation of soil moisture and its impact on the modeling of weather systems is presented. Sensitivity tests of precipitation to soil type and soil moisture changes are carried out using the atmospheric Eta model for the numerical simulation of the development of a mesoscale convective system over northern Argentina. Modified initial soil moisture conditions were obtained from a hydrological balance model developed and running operationally at INPE. A new soil map was elaborated using the available soil profile information from Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina and depicts 18 different soil types. Results indicate that more accurate initial soil moisture conditions and incorporating a new soil map with hydraulic parameters, more representative of South American soils, improve daily total precipitation forecasts both in quantitative and spatial representations.

  16. Humoral immune responses to venom and antivenom of patients bitten by Bothrops snakes.

    PubMed

    Morais, Víctor; Berasain, Patricia; Ifrán, Silvana; Carreira, Santiago; Tortorella, María Noel; Negrín, Alba; Massaldi, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Snake envenomation and its treatment cause the entry of two kind of foreign antigens into the human body: snake toxins and antivenom from animal origin. Samples of patients bitten by snakes in Uruguay were assayed to determine levels of human antibodies against venom and antivenom. The ELISA results showed that most of the patients presented an important increase of IgG and IgM antibodies against antivenom at day 15 post accident. Antibodies were reactive against both equine immunoglobulin chains by western blot assay. In the case of the response against the venom, increase in titre at day 15 was of a minor degree as compared with the antivenom by ELISA. Only one of the patients showed an important increase of IgG and IgM levels against Bothropoides pubescens and only of IgG level against Rhinocerophis alternatus. This patient also showed an extensive reactivity against B. pubescens by western blot. PMID:22206812

  17. Revision of Plumarius Philippi 1873 (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae) from Argentina north of Patagonia, with description of eighteen new species.

    PubMed

    Diez, Patricia A; Roig-Alsina, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Twenty six species of Plumarius from Argentina north of Patagonia are revised. Eighteen new species: Plumarius politus sp. nov., P. sarophorus sp. nov., P. globulosus sp. nov., P. angulatus sp. nov., P. noa sp. nov., P. divergens sp. nov., P. malaris sp. nov., P. gracilior sp. nov., P. riojanus sp. nov., P. exophthalmus sp. nov., P. planatus sp. nov., P. albinervis sp. nov., P. truncatus sp. nov., P. mikrommatus sp. nov., P. obscurus sp. nov., P. gracilis sp. nov., P. fidalgoi sp. nov., and P. ocellulatus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. A new record for known species as well as a key to 26 known species in the region is given. A redescription of P. tumidulus Papp, 2000, which is the first record of the family Plumariidae from Uruguay, is done. PMID:27394595

  18. Evidence for cultivar adoption and emerging complexity during the mid-Holocene in the La Plata basin.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene; Marozzi, Oscar; Listopad, Claudia; Alonso, Eduardo; Rinderknecht, Andrés; Montaña, Juan

    2004-12-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations at the Los Ajos archaeological mound complex in the wetlands of southeastern Uruguay challenge the traditional view that the La Plata basin was inhabited by simple groups of hunters and gatherers for much of the pre-Hispanic era. Here we report new archaeological, palaeoecological and botanical data indicating that during an increasingly drier mid-Holocene, at around 4,190 radiocarbon (14C) years before present (bp), Los Ajos became a permanent circular plaza village, and its inhabitants adopted the earliest cultivars known in southern South America. The architectural plan of Los Ajos during the following Ceramic Mound Period (around 3,000-500 14C yr bp) is similar to, but earlier than, settlement patterns demonstrated in Amazonia, revealing a new and independent architectural tradition for South America. PMID:15577908

  19. Endophytic bacteria from wheat grain as biocontrol agents of Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol production in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Mionetto, A; Tiscornia, S; Bettucci, L

    2015-08-01

    In Uruguay, Fusarium graminearum is the most common species that infects wheat and is responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) and contamination of grain with deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this work was to select bacterial endophytes isolated from wheat grain to evaluate their antagonistic ability against F. graminearum and DON production in vitro and under field conditions. Four strains identified as Bacillus megaterium (BM1) and Bacillus subtilis (BS43, BSM0 y BSM2) significantly reduced fungal growth and spore germination of F. graminearum. This antagonist activity remained unchanged after the bacterial cultures were heat treated. Under field conditions, treatments with antagonist BM1 was the most effective, reducing the FHB incidence and severity by 93 and 54 %, respectively, and the production of DON by 89.3 %. PMID:25956808

  20. Blood chemistry of wild Brazilian Coscoroba Swans during molt.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Cecilia Pérez; Ferrer, Miguel; Muriel, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is an unusual member of the Anatidae found in South America, from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego through Chile and Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay as far north as Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. The species is not threatened globally, but some local populations have declined and the status of others is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the plasma chemistry of a wild population of Coscoroba Swans in southern Brazil during their molting period. We captured 12 chicks, 14 juveniles, and 31 mature birds. The following blood parameters were measured: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, creatine-kinase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and pancreatic amylase. Significant differences between males and females were not observed for any of the parameters, and only the levels of alkaline phosphatase differed significantly among age groups. PMID:20688656

  1. Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Pinho-da-Silva-Filho, Rodolfo; Corrado-Adornes, Andréa; Conte-Sena, Daniella; Velozo, Raquel; Myiaji-Kolesnikovas, Cristiane; Dutra, Gustavo; Maracini, Pryscilla; Carvalho-do-Nascimento, Cláudia; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir; Barbosa, Lupércio; Serra, Sheila

    2010-10-01

    Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000 km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins. PMID:20674946

  2. LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

  3. Trophic ecology of Mustelus schmitti (Springer, 1939) in a nursery area of northern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Juan Manuel; Cazorla, Andrea López

    2011-05-01

    Mustelus schmitti is an endangered endemic shark of the southwest Atlantic, and an important economical resource in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to describe the trophic ecology of M. schmitti in Anegada Bay, its feeding strategy and diet composition, along with the possible dietary shifts, due to season, sex, ontogeny and the different geographical features of the bay. Our results show that M. schmitti is a carnivorous opportunistic predator, feeding on a variety of benthic invertebrates. The diet presented seasonal and ontogenetic variations, while no differences in diet composition were observed between sexes or the different sampling sites. This species behave as a generalize feeder, with a wide trophic spectrum and a diverse diet.

  4. A strategy to recover a high-quality, complete plastid sequence from low-coverage whole-genome sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Garaycochea, Silvia; Speranza, Pablo; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed a bioinformatic strategy to recover and assemble a chloroplast genome using data derived from low-coverage 454 GS FLX/Roche whole-genome sequencing. Methods: A comparative genomics approach was applied to obtain the complete chloroplast genome from a weedy biotype of rice from Uruguay. We also applied appropriate filters to discriminate reads representing novel DNA transfer events between the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Results: From a set of 295,159 reads (96 Mb data), we assembled the chloroplast genome into two contigs. This weedy rice was classified based on 23 polymorphic regions identified by comparison with reference chloroplast genomes. We detected recent and past events of genetic material transfer between the chloroplast and nuclear genomes and estimated their occurrence frequency. Discussion: We obtained a high-quality complete chloroplast genome sequence from low-coverage sequencing data. Intergenome DNA transfer appears to be more frequent than previously thought. PMID:26504677

  5. Quantitative risk analysis applied to innocuity and potency tests on the oil-adjuvanted vaccine against foot and mouth disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Rodríguez Toledo, J; Falczuk, A; Leanes, L F; Manetti, J C; Maradei, E; Verde, P

    1995-12-01

    The authors describe the method used in Argentina for quantification of risk in controls of the potency and innocuity of foot and mouth disease vaccine. Quantitative risk analysis is a relatively new tool in the animal health field, and is in line with the principles of transparency and equivalency of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT: now World Trade Organisation [WTO]). The risk assessment is presented through a description of the steps involved in manufacturing the vaccine, and the controls performed by the manufacturer and by the National Health Animal Service (Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Animal: SENASA). The adverse situation is considered as the lack of potency or innocuity of the vaccine, and the risk is estimated using a combination of the Monte Carlo simulation and the application of a Bayesian model. PMID:8639949

  6. International trade, animal health and veterinary epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Ruppanner, R

    2001-03-29

    The link between international trade, animal health and epidemiology has been recognized for a long time and has taken an additional importance in the aftermath of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and of the inception of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization demands that sanitary and phytosanitary measures be scientifically based, placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related animal health and trade. This paper analyses the interactions between international trade of animals (and animal products) and epidemiology with discussion on the inputs of epidemiology in surveillance, risk analysis and regionalization. PMID:11259819

  7. Because of Science You Also Die...

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jorge; Valle, Ricardo La

    2015-01-01

    The concept of quaternary prevention (P4) refers to the idea that medicine has acquired the ability to damage through the proper exercise. Family medicine or general practice has the duty of recovering the ethical values and the exercise of a profession with the doctor-patient relationship serving to people’s humanity. In the fourth Congress of Family and Community Medicine, held in Montevideo (Uruguay) last March 18-21, 2015, it was established the Working Group P4 WONCA-CIMF with communication tools included as constitutive part of P4. It was also remarked that we should be wary of attempts to denature the P4, diminishing its ethic value and limiting it to a reason for cost control. PMID:26340492

  8. Should acellular pertussis vaccine be recommended to healthcare professionals?

    PubMed

    Moraes, José Cassio de; Carvalhanas, Telma; Bricks, Lucia Ferro

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe recent changes in the epidemiology of pertussis and existing policies regarding recommended and mandatory occupational vaccinations for healthcare professionals (HCPs). The authors carried out an extensive review of references on the PubMed and SciELO databases and the official sites of the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Brazilian Ministry of Health, using the keywords pertussis, vaccines and healthcare professionals. Vaccination against pertussis is recommended for HCPs in the United States, Canada, nine European countries, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Costa Rica, Argentina and Uruguay, and in some countries it is compulsory. In Brazil, only one publication discussing the risk of pertussis among HCPs was found. Considering the reemergence of pertussis and the great number of associated hospitalizations and deaths registered in 2011, it is necessary to review public policies regarding HCP pertussis vaccination, particularly among workers in frequent contact with young babies. PMID:23842996

  9. The concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral: a bridge between intra- and intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo; de Leon de Bernardi, Beatriz

    2012-07-01

    The authors explore the psychoanalytic concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral within the context of a historical review of the development of psychoanalysis in the Río de la Plata region of Uruguay and Argentina. In particular, they discuss the work of Enrique Pichon-Rivière, Madeleine and Willy Baranger, and José Bleger. Illustrative clinical material is included from a case described by Bleger. Convergences and divergences are noted between the theoretical and clinical approaches of these authors, on the one hand, and those of more traditionally Freudian, Kleinian, and other schools of analysis, on the other. Also, the authors underline some questions about the nature of vínculo that are currently under discussion in the Río de la Plata. PMID:23038897

  10. US tda infrastructure opportunities in South America. Project profile updates, June-December 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This study, conducted by CG/LA Infrastructure, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report provides project profile updates to a study conducted for the TDA Conference on Infrastructure Opportunities held in June, 1995. The updates are organized first by sectors with specific project information including: Energy, Telecommunications, Environment, Industrial, and Transportation. The second section of the report contains an extensive profile of surface transportation projects related to Highways Tunnels and Bridges, Inland Waterways, Ports, Rail and Urban Mass Transit. Each profile provides a technical description, site information, timing, equipment and services demand, nature of demand, and a project assessment. Countries included in the study are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  11. [The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries. PMID:21308202

  12. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies. PMID:21170134

  13. The right to health in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Torales, Julio; Villalba-Arias, Jorge; Ruiz-Díaz, César; Chávez, Emilia; Riego, Viviana

    2014-08-01

    Access to facilities, services and opportunities designed to meet the needs of health is a fundamental human right and is the key for people to enjoy other human rights. However, in Paraguay, this right is still far from becoming reality. The status of the country is the most disadvantaged when compared to the average condition of the Mercosur (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela). Health, as a human right, expands as a social, economic, and political matter. Inequality, poverty, exploitation, violence and injustice are at the root of its poor quality and the consequent shortcomings that emerge from it. Access to health in Paraguay must be further developed using a human rights framework linking it with improving quality of life for all citizens. Such an approach means that potentially powerful barriers and interests must be questioned and contested wherever appropriate and that political and economic priorities must change drastically. PMID:25137120

  14. [Implementation and evaluation of a blended learning course on gastroesophageal reflux disease for physicians in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henry; Margolis, Alvaro; González, Nicolás; Martínez, Elisa; Sanguinetti, Alberto; García, Sofía; López, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Integrating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on gastroesophageal reflux disease into medical practice is of prime importance in Latin America, given its high prevalence in this region. The aim of this project was to implement and assess an educational intervention on gastroesophageal reflux disease, aimed at primary care physicians in Latin America, with contents based on current clinical guidelines. The course included initial activities, whether face-to-face or through distance learning, and a 2-month period of Internet study and interaction. A pilot test was carried out in Uruguay, which was then repeated in 5 countries (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina and again in Uruguay). A global template was designed, which was then adapted to each of the countries: this was done with the participation of local institutions and leaders. Local credits were given for recertification. Participation was free. Of 3,110 physicians invited to participate, 1,143 (36.8%) started the course. Of these, 587 (51.4%) accessed at least half the contents of the course and 785 (68.7%) took part in the clinical discussions. A total of 338 (29.6%) completed all the requirements of the course and received a certificate. Among physicians who took both the pre- and post-intervention knowledge tests, scores improved from 60 to 80% (P<.001). Ninety-two percent of planned changes in clinical practice were related to the pedagogic aims of the course. In conclusion, a multifaceted, 2-phase continuing education course was successfully imparted in Latin America, with an overall design that was adapted to each country. Determination of specific needs and the participation of national experts were fundamental to the success of the course. PMID:24679378

  15. Establishment of a non-governmental regional approach to La Plata River Basin integrated watershed management promoted throughout three international workshops supported by UN and Japanese agencies, led by ILEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, Alberto; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Mugetti, Ana

    2002-08-01

    The La Plata River Basin is one of the largest international river basins in the world, with an area of about 3 million km2. It spreads across five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), and its water resources are essential for their economic development. Together with reservoir development, extensive deforestation, intensive agriculture practices and large urban developments took place in the Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay basins, affecting environmental conditions and raising important issues concerning water resources use and conservation. Therefore, the need to promote participatory and cooperative efforts among water resources stakeholders, as well as the systematic exchange of information and experiences on common regional problems among organizations and experts from throughout the basin who are devoted to water resources use and management, was reported by researchers and managers gathered at the First and Second International Workshops on Regional Approaches for Reservoir Development and Management in the La Plata River Basin (held in 1991 and 1994). As a concrete response to this need, the efforts of a number of organizations from various countries within the basin, with the support of international and national governmental organizations, resulted in the foundation of La Plata River Basin Environmental Research and Management Network (RIGA) in March 2001. This was within the framework of the Third International Workshop, which was precisely one of the short-term activities included in the RIGA Action Plan. During the preparatory processes for the RIGA Network, the presence of Japanese cooperation supporting the La Plata River Basin Workshops through a non-governmental international organization (ILEC) played an important role in stimulating such an organization-based joint approach in the basin. This outcome, although not originally planned, constituted a welcomed byproduct of its main specific interest in the region, which was the

  16. Analysis of climate and extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria immitis in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Pablo F; Fantozzi, M Cecilia; Di Cataldo, Sophia; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Mera Y Sierra, Roberto; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Dirofilariosis, caused by Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens, is spreading in several geographic regions. The development of infective larvae in the mosquito vector (extrinsic incubation) needs an accumulated total of 130 degree-days above the 14 °C threshold, normally expressed as heartworm development units (HDUs). Based on this information, temperature- based models have been developed and applied to evaluate the distribution and spread of Dirofilaria infections in various countries and continents. Despite the confirmed presence of D. immitis in most South American countries, the available information about its epidemiology remains scarce. We analysed the temporal and spatial extrinsic incubation of this parasite in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, taking into account daily temperatures from 49 meteorological stations during a 30-year period (1982-2012). The theoretically possible number of D. immitis generations was calculated based on the number of meteorological stations that reached the 130-HDUs threshold. The resulting information was spatially interpolated using the inverse weighted distance (IWD) model to produce thematic maps. The model shows that 41 of the meteorological stations reach the threshold needed and that D. immitis transmission is markedly seasonal with a peak in late spring (December), stable during summer (January to March) and declining in the autumn (April and May). Suitable temperatures exist in Uruguay and most of Argentina, whereas D. immitis transmission in Chile is only possible in the north and in the central inlands. The results suggest that the climatic impact on D. immitis transmission must have been minimal in the countries investigated since the annual meteorological records did not change much during the 30-year period analysed. PMID:24258893

  17. Monitoring strategies of stream phosphorus under contrasting climate-driven flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Teixeira-de Mello, F.; González-Bergonzoni, I.; Graeber, D.; Fosalba, C.; Vidal, N.; Mazzeo, N.; Ovesen, N. B.; Jeppesen, E.; Kronvang, B.

    2015-10-01

    Climate and hydrology are relevant control factors determining the timing and amount of nutrient losses from land to downstream aquatic systems, in particular of phosphorus (P) from agricultural lands. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the differences in P export patterns and the performance of alternative monitoring strategies in streams under contrasting climate-driven flow regimes. We compared a set of paired streams draining lowland micro-catchments under temperate climate and stable discharge conditions (Denmark) and under sub-tropical climate and flashy conditions (Uruguay). We applied two alternative nutrient sampling programs (high-frequency composite sampling and low-frequency instantaneous-grab sampling) and estimated the contribution derived from point and diffuse sources fitting a source apportionment model. We expected to detect a pattern of higher total and particulate phosphorus export from diffuse sources in streams in Uruguay streams, mostly as a consequence of higher variability in flow regime (higher flashiness). Contrarily, we found a higher contribution of dissolved P in flashy streams. We did not find a notably poorer performance of the low-frequency sampling program to estimate P exports in flashy streams compared to the less variable streams. We also found signs of interaction between climate/hydrology and land use intensity, in particular in the presence of point sources of P, leading to a bias towards underestimation of P in hydrologically stable streams and overestimation of P in flashy streams. Based on our findings, we suggest that the evaluation and use of more accurate monitoring methods, such as automatized flow-proportional water samplers and automatized bankside analyzers, should be prioritized whenever logistically possible. However, it seems particularly relevant in currently flashy systems and also in systems where climate change predictions suggest an increase in stream flashiness.

  18. Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Thirteen Low and Middle Income Countries: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Andes, Linda J.; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008–2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate a significant but

  19. A comparative analysis of prenatal care and fetal growth in eight South American countries.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Cristina; Lopez Camelo, Jorge; Wehby, George L

    2014-01-01

    There has been little work that comprehensively compared the relationship between prenatal care and infant health across multiple countries using similar data sources and analytical models. Such comparative analyses are useful for understanding the background of differences in infant health between populations. We evaluated the association between prenatal care visits and fetal growth measured by birth weight (BW) in grams or low birth weight (<2500 grams; LBW) adjusted for gestational age in eight South American countries using similarly collected data across countries and the same analytical models. OLS and logistic regressions were estimated adjusting for a large set of relevant infant, maternal, and household characteristics and birth year and hospital fixed effects. Birth data were acquired from 140 hospitals that are part of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) network. The analytical sample included 56,014 live-born infants (∼69% of total sample) with complete data born without congenital anomalies in the years 1996-2011 in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Uruguay. Prenatal care visits were significantly (at p<.05) and positively associated with BW and negatively associated with LBW for all countries. The OLS coefficients ranged from 9 grams per visit in Bolivia to 36 grams in Uruguay. The association with LBW was strongest for Chile (OR = 0.87 per visit) and lowest for Argentina and Venezuela (OR = 0.95). The association decreased in the recent decade compared to earlier years. Our findings suggest that estimates of association between prenatal care and fetal growth are population-specific and may not be generalizable to other populations. Furthermore, as one of the indicators for a country's healthcare system for maternal and child health, prenatal care is a highly variable indicator between countries in South America. PMID:24625630

  20. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  1. Stream acidification and base cation losses with grassland afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Kathleen A.; PiñEiro, Gervasio; Palmer, Sheila M.; JobbáGy, Esteban G.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2008-07-01

    Afforestation of natural grasslands with fast-growing pine and eucalyptus species is increasing globally, but little is known about its effect on ecosystems and watersheds and, ultimately, the quality of water resources. To investigate the biogeochemical and hydrological consequences of this land use change, we sampled stream water in paired watersheds in Uruguay and Argentina. In watersheds planted with pine, we found no change in stream pH following afforestation, while in watersheds planted with eucalyptus, pH was 0.7 units lower on average than in streams draining grasslands. To further investigate the mechanism behind the decrease in pH, we sampled soils and streams of eucalypt catchments in Uruguay and analyzed exchangeable base cation concentrations, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). At these sites, Ca, Mg, and Na concentrations were >30% lower in afforested soils than in grassland soils, and pH was significantly lower below 10 cm depth. Stream measurements taken over three years illustrate that these soil changes were also manifested in stream water chemistry. In the eucalypt watersheds, base cation concentrations were >40% lower, and alkalinity and DIC were halved in stream water. A test with data from additional sites where both pines and eucalypts were planted nearby showed that eucalyptus has a stronger acidifying effect than pine. Overall, our data suggest that repeated harvesting cycles at some locations could negatively impact the soil store of base cations and reduce downstream water quality. Our results can be used to help minimize negative impacts of this land use and to inform policy in this and other regions targeted for plantation forestry.

  2. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  3. Patos Lagoon outflow within the Río de la Plata plume using an airborne salinity mapper: Observing an embedded plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrage, Derek; Wesson, Joel; Martinez, Carlos; Pérez, Tabare; Möller, Osmar, Jr.; Piola, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    Major river systems discharging into continental shelf waters frequently form buoyant coastal currents that propagate along the continental shelf in the direction of coastal trapped wave propagation (with the coast on the right/left, in the northern/southern hemisphere). The combined flow of the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers, which discharges freshwater into the Río de la Plata estuary (Lat. ˜36°S), often gives rise to a buoyant coastal current (the 'Plata plume') that extends northward along the continental shelf off Uruguay and Southern Brazil. Depending upon the prevailing rainfall, wind and tidal conditions, the Patos/Mirim Lagoon complex (Lat. ˜32°S) may also produce a freshwater outflow plume that expands across the inner continental shelf. Under these circumstances the Patos outflow plume can be embedded in temperature, salinity and current fields that are strongly influenced by the larger Plata plume. The purpose of this paper is to present observations of such an embedded plume structure and to determine the dynamical characteristics of the ambient and embedded plumes. We describe selected results of coincident airborne remote sensing and shipboard in-situ surveys of the salinity distribution and extent of the Plata and Patos/Mirim Lagoon plumes conducted under contrasting winter (2003) and summer (2004) conditions. The surveys were carried out in the context of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary study of the Plata plume and its response to prevailing seasonal weather conditions. The objective was to map the surface salinity distribution of the Plata plume at synoptic scales under representative winter and summer conditions. Additionally, the airborne survey included finer-scale mapping of specific features including the Río de Plata estuarine front and the Patos Lagoon plume, with the objective of determining the distribution and behavior of the plumes in the estuaries and on the continental shelf. The airborne survey was conducted with an aircraft

  4. Analytical tools for assessing land degradation and its impact on soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindraban, P. S.; Mantel, S.; Bai, Z.; de Jong, R.

    2010-05-01

    Maintaining and enhancing the quality of land is of major importance to sustain future production capacity for food and other agriculture based products like fibers and wood, and for maintaining ecosystems services, including below and above ground biodiversity, provision of soil water and sequestration of carbon. Deterioration of this production base will be detrimental to the provision of the foreseen dramatic increase in human needs for goods and services. For this reason, land degradation, defined as a long-term loss in ecosystem function and productivity, has to be understood properly. Climate, soils, topography and socioeconomic activities are primary factors that can cause, by themselves or in combination, a number of temporary or permanent changes in the landscape, leading to degradation of vegetation and soils. For identifying intervention measures to prevent and revert trends of land deterioration, it is fundamental to know the extent of land degradation and to understand its impact on functional properties of land. To assess the global extent, (Bai et al. 2008) apply a remotely sensed vegetation index that describes the greenness of the vegetation cover as a proxy for biomass. Biomass production has been identified as a strong indicator for soil quality as it is an integral measure for soil, crop and environmental characteristics (Bindraban et al., 2000). Bai and colleagues observed that 24% of the global land has been degrading over the past 26 years - often in very productive areas. The relation with functional properties of land can be made through ecosystem models. Mantel et al. (1999; 2000) applied dynamic crop-soil models to calculate crop productivity at the national level. A baseline scenario that represents the current conditions and a scenario for 20 years of prolonged sheet erosion were modeled to calculate the productivity impact of topsoil erosion for wheat in Uruguay and for maize in Kenya. They concluded that topsoil erosion primarily

  5. International approach to eradication and surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Torres, J G

    2000-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was introduced into the Americas in 1870. At that time the disease was described simultaneously in the North coast of the United States of North America, the Province of Buenos Aires in Argentina, the central region of Chile, Uruguay, and South Brazil. At the beginning of the twentieth century the disease spread to the rest of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Perú. In 1950 the disease was introduced into Venezuela, and in the same year to Colombia, and from there to Ecuador. The United States of America eradicated an outbreak of FMD in 1929. Outbreaks of FMD were also eradicated from Mexico in 1947 and from Canada in 1952. The last outbreak that occurred in Mexico in 1954 was also eradicated. In 1951 the Americas Animal Health Authorities decided to establish a Pan-American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PANAFTOSA), initially as a special program within the American States Organization (OAS). The center was later transferred to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). In the early 1970s PANAFTOSA developed a proposal for a continental surveillance system for vesicular diseases, which was approved by Agriculture Ministers at an International Meeting for FMD and Zoonoses (RICAZ). Since then, PANAFTOSA dedicated all efforts to collaborate with each country in the implementation of the system and to receive, analyze, and distribute a weekly report of vesicular diseases. The model was elaborated using coordinate grid maps, one for the South American Continent, others for each country in the region. The reports from each country consist of the grid location for any suspicious outbreak of vesicular disease. Using the information gathered during visits to the countries, as well as weekly reports, and by studying the most frequent animal movements within the region, PANAFTOSA developed a proposal for FMD eradication. This plan was approved by the Government of South America and implemented in cooperation with PANAFTOSA. The hemispheric plan

  6. The conversion of grasslands to forests in Southern South America: Shifting evapotranspiration, stream flow and groundwater dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Pineiro, G.; Farley, K. A.; Palmer, S. M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2005-12-01

    Vegetation changes, particularly those involving transitions between tree- and grass-dominated systems, often modify evaporation as a result of plant-mediated shifts in moisture access and demand. The establishment of tree plantations (fast growing eucalypts and pines) on native grasslands is emerging as a major land-use change, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, where cheap land and labor, public subsidies, and prospective C sequestration rewards provide converging incentives. What are the hydrological consequences of grassland afforestation? How are crucial ecosystem services such as fresh water supply and hydrological regulation being affected? We explore these questions focusing on a) evapotranspiration, b) stream flow, and c) groundwater recharge-discharge patterns across a network of paired stands and small watershed occupied by native grassland and tree plantation in Argentina and Uruguay. Radiometric information obtained from Landsat satellite images was used to estimate daily evapotranspiration in >100 tree plantations and grasslands stands in the humid plains of the Uruguay River (mean annual precipitation, MAP= 1350 mm). In spite of their lower albedo, tree plantations were 0.5 C° cooler than grasslands. Energy balance calculations suggested 80% higher evapotranspiration in afforested plots with relative differences becoming larger during dry periods. Seasonal stream flow measurements in twelve paired watershed (50-500 Ha) in the hills of Comechingones (MAP= 800 mm) and Minas (MAP= 1200 mm) showed declining water yields following afforestation. Preliminary data in Cordoba showed four-fold reductions of base flow in the dry season and two-fold reductions of peak flow after storms. A network of twenty paired grassland-plantation stands covering a broad range of sediment textures in the Pampas (MAP= 1000 mm, typical groundwater depth= 1-5 m) showed increased groundwater salinity in afforested stands (plantation:grassland salinity ratio = 1.2, 10, and

  7. Detection and follow-up of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. the pulmonary risk in South America (PRISA) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2030, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide. Most knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on studies performed in Europe or North America and little is known about the prevalence, patient characteristics and change in lung function over time in patients in developing countries, such as those of Latin America. This lack of knowledge is in sharp contrast to the high levels of tobacco consumption and exposure to biomass fuels exhibited in Latin America, both major risk factors for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Studies have also demonstrated that most Latin American physicians frequently do not follow international chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnostic and treatment guidelines. The PRISA Study will expand the current knowledge regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk factors in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay to inform policy makers and health professionals on the best policies and practices to address this condition. Methods/Design PRISA is an observational, prospective cohort study with at least four years of follow-up. In the first year, PRISA has employed a randomized three-staged stratified cluster sampling strategy to identify 6,000 subjects from Marcos Paz and Bariloche, Argentina, Temuco, Chile, and Canelones, Uruguay. Information, such as comorbidities, socioeconomic status and tobacco and biomass exposure, will be collected and spirometry, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and electrocardiogram will be performed. In year four, subjects will have repeat measurements taken. Discussion There is no longitudinal data on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease incidence and risk factors in the southern cone of Latin America, therefore this population-based prospective cohort study will fill knowledge gaps in the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary

  8. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Arora, Monika; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In high-income countries, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among disadvantaged groups. We examine socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at home and at workplace in 15 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from 15 LMICs participating in Global Adult Tobacco Survey (participants ≥ 15 years; 2008–2011) were used. Country-specific analyses using regression-based methods were used to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure: (1) Relative Index of Inequality and (2) Slope Index of Inequality. Results: SHS exposure at home ranged from 17.4% in Mexico to 73.1% in Vietnam; exposure at workplace ranged from 16.9% in Uruguay to 65.8% in Bangladesh. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Uruguay, Poland, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing wealth (Relative Index of Inequality range: 1.13 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.22] in Turkey to 3.31 [95% CI 2.91–3.77] in Thailand; Slope Index of Inequality range: 0.06 [95% CI 0.02–0.11] in Turkey to 0.43 [95% CI 0.38–0.48] in Philippines). In these 11 countries, and in China, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing education. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Philippines, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing wealth. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Poland, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing education. Conclusion: SHS exposure at homes is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged in the majority of LMICs studied; at workplaces, exposure is higher among the less educated. Pro-equity tobacco control interventions alongside targeted efforts in these groups are recommended to reduce inequalities in SHS exposure. Implications: SHS exposure is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in high-income countries. Comprehensive smoke

  9. The interactive sky: a browsable allsky image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; Da Rosa, Fernando; Roland, Santiago; Almenares, Luciano; Gomez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting a project to make available panoramas of the night sky of the southern hemisphere, based on a mosaic of hundred of photographs. Each allsky panorama is a giant image composed by hundreds of high-resolution photos taken in the course of one night. The panoramas are accessible with a web-browser and the public is able to zoom on them and to see the sky with better quality than the naked eye. We are preparing 4 sets of panoramas corresponding to the four seasons.The individual images are taken with a 16 Mpixels DLSR camera with a 50 mm lens mounted on a Gigapan EPIC robotic camera mounts. These devices and a autoguiding telescope are mounted in a equatorial telescope mount, which allows us to have exposure of several tens seconds. The images are then processed and stitched to create the gigantic panorama, with typical weight of several GBytes.The limiting magnitude is V~8. The panoramas include more than 50 times more stars those detected with the naked eye.In addition to the allsky panoramas, we embedded higher resolution images of specific regions of interest such as: emission nebulae and dark, open and globular clusters and galaxies; which can be zoomed.The photographs have been acquiring since December 2014 in a dark place with low light pollution in the countryside of Uruguay; which allows us to achieve deep sky objects.These panoramas will be available on a website and can be accessed with any browser.This tool will be available for teaching purposes, astronomy popularization or introductory research. Teacher guides will be developed for educational activities at different educational levels.While there are similar projects like Google Sky, the methodology used to generate the giant panoramas allows a much more realistic view, with a background of continuous sky without sharp edges. Furthermore, while the planetarium software is based on drawings of the stars, our panoramas are based on real images.This is the first project with these

  10. Ecological, biological and social dimensions of dengue vector breeding in five urban settings of Latin America: a multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector control programs. This multi-centre study attempted to identify key factors associated with vector breeding and development as a basis for improving targeted intervention strategies. Methods In each of 5 participant cities in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay, 20 clusters were randomly selected by grid sampling to incorporate 100 contiguous households, non-residential private buildings (businesses) and public spaces. Standardized household surveys, cluster background surveys and entomological surveys specifically targeted to obtain pupal indices for Aedes aegypti, were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. Results The study clusters included mainly urban low-middle class populations with satisfactory infrastructure and –except for Uruguay- favourable climatic conditions for dengue vector development. Household knowledge about dengue and “dengue mosquitoes” was widespread, mainly through mass media, but there was less awareness around interventions to reduce vector densities. Vector production (measured through pupal indices) was favoured when water containers were outdoor, uncovered, unused (even in Colombia and Ecuador where the large tanks used for household water storage and washing were predominantly productive) and –particularly during the dry season- rainwater filled. Larval infestation did not reflect productive container types. All productive container types, including those important in the dry season, were identified by pupal surveys executed during the rainy season. Conclusions A number of findings are relevant for improving vector control: 1) there is a need for complementing larval surveys with occasional pupal surveys (to be conducted during the wet season) for identifying and subsequently targeting productive container

  11. Interannual and Decadal Variability of Summer Rainfall over South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Jiayu; Lau, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    Using the CPC (Climate Prediction Center) Merged Analysis of Precipitation product along with the Goddard Earth Observing System reanalysis and the Climate Analysis Center sea surface temperature (SST) data, we conduct a diagnostic study of the interannual and decadal scale variability of summer rainfall over South America. Results show three leading modes of rainfall variation identified with interannual, decadal, and long-term trend variability. Together, these modes explain more than half the total variance. The first mode is highly correlated with El Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO), showing severe drought over Northeast Brazil and copious rainfall over the Ecuador coast and the area of Uruguay-Southern Brazil in El Nino years. This pattern is attributed to the large scale zonal shift of the Walker circulation and local Hadley cell anomaly induced by positive (negative) SST anomaly over the eastern (western) equatorial Pacific. In El Nino years, two convective belts indicated by upper tropospheric velocity potential trough and mid-tropospheric rising motion, which are somewhat symmetric about the equator, extend toward the northeast and the southeast into the tropical North and South Atlantic respectively. Sandwiched between the ascent is a region of descending motion over Northeast Brazil. The southern branch of the anomalous Hadley cell is dynamically linked to the increase of rainfall over Uruguay-Southern Brazil. The regional response of anomalous circulation shows a stronger South American summer monsoon and an enhanced (weakened) subtropical high over the South Atlantic (South Pacific) Ocean. The decadal variation displays a meridional shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is tie to the anomalous cross-equatorial SST gradient over the Atlantic and the eastern Pacific. In conjunction with this mode is a large scale mass swing between the polar regions and midlatitudes in both hemispheres. Over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific

  12. Description of the growth curve for Angus pasture-fed cows under extensive systems.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, V; Ravagnolo, O

    2015-09-01

    Growth curves are useful for describing the sigmoid shape of an animal's weight pattern over time. The purpose of the present study was to describe, for the first time, a complete growth curve for pasture-fed Angus cows in Uruguay and to analyze the major fixed effects that affect the estimation of mature cow weight (CW). A total of 22,743 records from 5,284 cows belonging to 73 herds were used in the statistical analysis. Five nonlinear models (Brody, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, logistic, and Richards) and a 3-knot cubic spline function were fitted to model weight change across age. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, and 18 mo and as an adult (at 2.3-3.6, 3.6-4.6, 4.6 to 5.6, 5.6 to 6.6, and 6.6 to 8.1 yr). After preliminary analyses, the fixed effects included in the model to estimate CW were BCS, herd, year and month of measurement, and age of dam. The herd and BCS were the major significant sources of variation. The Richards model had the lowest values for Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and -2 log likelihood, with the asymptotic weight being 542 kg. The spline function was the model that fitted the data most closely to the observed weights followed by the Richards function. The Richards model gave better predictions of weights from birth to maturity than the other 4 nonlinear models, because these functions were shown to over- or underestimate weights at different ages in this beef cattle data set. The predicted curve showed that cows reach mature CW after 5 yr of age, which is the age commonly assumed as adult weight in beef cattle. Results form this analysis allowed the estimation of CW and rate of maturing and to take knowledge of the shape of growth curve for Angus females in Uruguay under extensive conditions, helping breeders to take selection decisions. In this way, breeders can optimize the management and efficiency for each production system. PMID:26440328

  13. Inventory of the freshwater fishes from a densely collected area in South America-a case study of the current knowledge of Neotropical fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Bertaco, Vinicius A; Ferrer, Juliano; Carvalho, Fernando R; Malabarba, Luiz R

    2016-01-01

    We herein analyse the history of the description of the freshwater fish fauna from three drainages in one of the most densely collected areas of Brazil, and possibly of South America, the Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. An updated inventory of the freshwater fish species from rio Uruguay (partial) in Brazil, Laguna dos Patos (complete) and rio Tramandaí basins (complete) is presented. We found the number of new species described in these drainages increased nearly 56% since 1981, reaching a total of 422 species, but even now 10% of this number still corresponds to undescribed species. This rate of species description suggests that previous estimates of the Neotropical fish fauna are low, and we predict a final number of Neotropical fishes larger than the largest prediction estimate (8,000 species), after other regions of South and Central Americas become densely sampled. We discuss and attempt to demonstrate that species diversity knowledge is historically and strictly related to collecting efforts. We also demonstrate that the ecoregions in eastern South America with the highest density of species per area correspond to the areas more densely sampled in collections, and this may represent a bias in such kinds of analyses. This uneven sampling in Brazilian regions is apparently associated with the uneven distribution of Zoological research centers in different regions of the country. Small-sized species represents an important source of new species, along with little explored regions or little explored habitats, sometimes associated with restricted range species, and species complexes that need revisionary work. In contrast to other Neotropical regions, Atheriniformes are relatively diverse, sharing the fifth place in species richness with Gymnotiformes, and there is a remarkably high number of species of Rivulidae. Eight species are endemic to the rio Tramandaí drainage, 68 to the Laguna dos Patos system, and 78 to the rio Uruguay drainage. Almost 10

  14. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. METHODS A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. FINDINGS The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure—manual gathering of metals—and <5% were exposed to lead through landfills or paint. Average BLLs at first consultation were 9.19 ug/dL and lower at the second measurement (5.86 μg/dL). Data from soil lead levels ranged from 650 to 19,000 mg of lead/kg of soil. The interventions conducted after the assessment included family education in the clinic and at home, indoor and outdoor remediation. We found a decrease in BLLs of 6.96 μg/dL. Older children had lower BLLs (r = −0.24; P =0.05). Statistical analyses also showed that children living in areas with higher soil lead levels had significantly higher BLLs (r = 0.50; P < 0.01). Additionally, we found greater BLLs from burning cable activities when children had been exposed to lead-based paint (r = 0.23; P < 0.1). CONCLUSION Among children exposed to e-waste recycling, the most common additional source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. PMID:27325077

  15. Genomic and phenotypic variation in epidemic-spanning Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) has caused major epidemics of gastrointestinal infection in many different countries. In this study we investigate genome divergence and pathogenic potential in S. Enteritidis isolated before, during and after an epidemic in Uruguay. Results 266 S. Enteritidis isolates were genotyped using RAPD-PCR and a selection were subjected to PFGE analysis. From these, 29 isolates spanning different periods, genetic profiles and sources of isolation were assayed for their ability to infect human epithelial cells and subjected to comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella pan-array and the sequenced strain S. Enteritidis PT4 P125109 as reference. Six other isolates from distant countries were included as external comparators. Two hundred and thirty three chromosomal genes as well as the virulence plasmid were found as variable among S. Enteritidis isolates. Ten out of the 16 chromosomal regions that varied between different isolates correspond to phage-like regions. The 2 oldest pre-epidemic isolates lack phage SE20 and harbour other phage encoded genes that are absent in the sequenced strain. Besides variation in prophage, we found variation in genes involved in metabolism and bacterial fitness. Five epidemic strains lack the complete Salmonella virulence plasmid. Significantly, strains with indistinguishable genetic patterns still showed major differences in their ability to infect epithelial cells, indicating that the approach used was insufficient to detect the genetic basis of this differential behaviour. Conclusion The recent epidemic of S. Enteritidis infection in Uruguay has been driven by the introduction of closely related strains of phage type 4 lineage. Our results confirm previous reports demonstrating a high degree of genetic homogeneity among S. Enteritidis isolates. However, 10 of the regions of variability described here are for the first time reported as being variable in S

  16. Fronts and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severov, Dimitri

    and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System (BCCS) are stud-ied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984"data, and two Sea surface temperature (SST) data bases: "Meteor satellite"(1989-1994) and "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000).The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, fronts, inter-frontal and frontal zones are analysed and classified: a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; b) the Inter-frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Sub-tropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteris-tics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the fronts of the BCCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. D. N. Severov (a) , V. Pshennikov (b) and A.V. Remeslo (c) a -Sección Oceanologé Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 ıa, a Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel. (598-2) 525-8618, Fax (598-2) 525-8617, mail: dima@fcien.edu.uy b -Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 Mon-a tevideo, Uruguay, mail: seva@fisica.edu.uy c -Atlantic Research Inst. For Fisheries Oceanology (Atlant

  17. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21 26 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Niklaus; Frejlich, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the 6th Ibero-American Conference on Optics and the 9th Latin-American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (RIAO/OPTILAS'07) that was held in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 October 2007. The RIAO/OPTILAS conferences are held every three years in Latino-American and Iberian countries and focus on senior and young researchers as well as students working in all areas of optics, mainly in these countries, but warmly welcoming participants from all over the world. The RIAO/OPTILAS'07 conference followed the one held in Venezuela in 2004 and precedes the next one already arranged to be held in Peru in 2010. The most active countries in the regions such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Venezuela have registered a large number of participants but other countries in the regions such as Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay have also sent a representative number of participants. About 7% of the registered participants came from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. It was very stimulating to realize that about 44% of the accepted registered participants were students. An international committee was in charge of selecting the best student posters and ten students were awarded with prizes offered by organizations (SPIE, Wiley & Sons) and individuals. There were 7 plenary invited talks given by high quality researchers from Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico and Ukraine and 12 invited contributions from Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, UK and Uruguay. The Book of Abstracts recorded 471 communications divided into 15 different topics with 160 oral communications in three parallel sessions and 311 posters in two special sessions. We are particularly grateful to SPIE, OSA and ICTP who have provided us with important financial support mainly devoted to supporting the participation of students in this conference. We also acknowledge financial and organizational support from Brazilian federal

  18. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  19. BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálezy, Armando Ulloa; Monge, Melba de la Cruz Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud. PMID:20352016

  20. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  1. Population Structure of mtDNA Variation due to Pleistocene Fluctuations in the South American Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1815): Management Units for Conservation.

    PubMed

    González, Susana; Cosse, Mariana; Franco, María del Rosario; Emmons, Louise; Vynne, Carly; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Beccacesi, Marcelo D; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-01-01

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is one of the largest South American canids, and conservation across this charismatic carnivore's large range is presently hampered by a lack of knowledge about possible natural subdivisions which could influence the population's viability. To elucidate the phylogeographic patterns and demographic history of the species, we used 2 mtDNA markers (D-loop and cytochrome b) from 87 individuals collected throughout their range, in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Uruguay. We found moderate levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity, and the 14 D-loop haplotypes were closely related. Genetic structure results revealed 4 groups, and when coupled with model inferences from a coalescent analysis, suggested that maned wolves have undergone demographic fluctuations due to changes in climate and habitat during the Pleistocene glaciation period approximately 24000 years before present (YBP). This genetic signature points to an event that occurred within the timing estimated for the start of the contraction of the Cerrado around 50000 YBP. Our results reveal a genetic signature of population size expansion followed by contraction during Pleistocene interglaciations, which had similar impacts on other South American mammals. The 4 groups should for now be considered management units, within which future monitoring efforts should be conducted independently. PMID:26245781

  2. Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images for Coastal Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Wu, Sunny Y.; Tseng, William Y.; Pichel, William G.

    1998-01-01

    The mapping of mesoscale ocean features in the coastal zone is a major potential application for satellite data. The evolution of mesoscale features such as oil slicks, fronts, eddies, and ice edge can be tracked by the wavelet analysis using satellite data from repeating paths. The wavelet transform has been applied to satellite images, such as those from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and ocean color sensor for feature extraction. In this paper, algorithms and techniques for automated detection and tracking of mesoscale features from satellite SAR imagery employing wavelet analysis have been developed. Case studies on two major coastal oil spills have been investigated using wavelet analysis for tracking along the coast of Uruguay (February 1997), and near Point Barrow, Alaska (November 1997). Comparison of SAR images with SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) data for coccolithophore bloom in the East Bering Sea during the fall of 1997 shows a good match on bloom boundary. This paper demonstrates that this technique is a useful and promising tool for monitoring of coastal waters.

  3. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: a review

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, Theo; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne; Waalwijk, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of these mycotoxins and their producers. The phylogenetic species concept has become a valuable tool to study the global occurrence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. This has revolutionised our views on the terrestrial distribution of trichothecene-producing Fusaria in the context of agronomics, climatic conditions, and human interference by the global trade and exchange of agricultural commodities. This paper presents an overview of the dynamics of the different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species as well as their chemotypes and genotypes across different continents. Clearly not one global population exists, but separate ones can be distinguished, sometimes even sympatric in combination with different hosts. A population with more pathogenic strains and chemotypes can replace another. Several displacement events appear to find their origin in the inadvertent introduction of new genotypes into new regions: 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. graminearum in Canada; 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. asiaticum in Eastern China; 15-acetyl-DON F. graminearum in Uruguay; and NIV-producing F asiaticum in the southern United States. PMID:25530109

  4. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms—increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.’s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  5. Geographic variation in skull shape of the water rat Scapteromys tumidus (Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae): isolation-by-distance plus environmental and geographic barrier effects?

    PubMed

    Quintela, Fernando M; Fornel, Rodrigo; Freitas, Thales R O

    2016-01-01

    The geographic variation in skull size and shape of the swamp rat Scapteromys tumidus was examined in samples from eight geographic clusters in almost of its distribution in southern Brazil and Uruguay. For analysis we used two-dimensional geometric morphometric methods for dorsal, ventral and lateral views of the skull. The geometric descriptors showed no significant differences in skull size between geographic clusters, while differences in shape were highly significant. We found a significant and moderate correlation between geographic and morphological distances, corroborating the isolation-by-distance model. Samples from the Rio Grande do Sul central coastal plain were the most differentiated, segregating completely from all other samples in canonical variate analysis for the dorsal view. The most visible variable regions in skull were the zygomatic arch (mainly the squamosal root of zygomatic) and the lateral braincase borders. Once correlation between geographic and morphological distances were not strong, it is possible that other factors (environmental heterogeneity and/or geographic barriers) may are acting in S. tumidus skull differentiation. PMID:27142549

  6. KEY COMPARISONS: Final report: SIM regional comparison of ac-dc voltage transfer difference (SIM.EM.K6a, SIM.EM-K9 and SIM.EM-K11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sara; Filipski, Piotr; Izquierdo, Daniel; Afonso, Edson; Landim, Régis P.; Di Lillo, Lucas; Lipe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Three comparisons of ac-dc voltage transfer difference held from January to December 2004 are reported. Six NMIs in the SIM region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay) and INMETRO (Brazil). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc voltage transfer difference of the NMIs in the SIM region. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons, through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons. Additionally, a SIM.EM-Supplementary comparison was proposed, in support of the SIM NMIs' power/energy meter calibration capabilities. One technical protocol and one travelling standard were used, to economize on time and resources. The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc voltage transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 in Chile: differential geographic and transmission route distribution of B and F subtypes.

    PubMed

    Rios, M; Fernandez, J; Jaramillo, P; Paredes, V; Sanchez, J L; Laguna-Torres, V A; Carr, J K; Ramirez, E

    2005-10-01

    We examined the genetic makeup of 221 HIV-1 strains from Chilean persons living with HIV/AIDS by HMA and DNA sequencing of the env gene: 143 cases were infected by sexual contact with an already-infected partner, 76 were infected by mother-to-child transmission, and 2 were transfusion related. We found env HIV-1 subtype B in 202 cases (91.4%) and subtype F in 19 cases (8.6%). Subtype B strains were found throughout the country whereas subtype F viruses were predominantly found in cases from the metropolitan/central to the northern regions of Chile (p < 0.01). Chilean F subtypes clustered in two different groups: viruses from the central region clustered with F subtypes from Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil, and viruses from the northern region, which independently segregated from other South American and European F strains. All of the 59 men having sex with men (MSM) were infected with B subtype strains whereas 7 (9.2%) and 12 (15.8%), respectively, of heterosexually infected females and children were infected with F subtype strains (p < 0.01). It appears that F subtype strains have been introduced into Chile by separate heterosexual transmission events from other nearby countries in the Southern Cone whereas B subtype strains have continued to persist predominantly among MSM. PMID:16225409

  8. Training tissue bank operators: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/National University of Singapore (NUS) 10 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Nather, A; Phillips, G O; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Lee, Chris C W

    2009-05-01

    National University of Singapore (NUS) was appointed by IAEA to become IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (RTC) for Asia and the Pacific region in September 1996. The Government of Singapore (represented by the Ministry of Environment) with the National Science and Technology Board as the funding agency awarded a grant of S$225,500 to build a new purpose-built tissue bank to be the Regional Training Centre. National University Hospital provided a space of 2,000 square feet for this purpose. The first Diploma Course was launched on 3 November 1997 with 17 candidates with the first NUS Diploma Examination being held in October 1998. Between November 1997 and April 2007, a total of nine courses were conducted by RTC with a total of 180 tissue bank operators, 133 from Asia and the Pacific region (13 countries including 2 from Iran), 14 from Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Egypt, South Africa and Zambia), 6 from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru and Uruguay), 9 from Europe (Greece, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine) and 2 from Australia. The last batch (ninth batch) involved twenty students registered in April 2007 and will be due to sit for the terminal examination only in April 2008. PMID:18716898

  9. Meat consumption, animal products, and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro Luis; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; De Stefani, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, all incident cases of bladder cancer were included in a case-control study in order to study the role of meat consumption and product animals in the etiology of urothelial cancer. The study included 225 cases and 1,510 hospitalized controls with non-neoplastic conditions, not related to smoking and alcohol drinking. Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were calculated in order to clarify the effect of meat consumption in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Total meat consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), total processed meat (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27), frankfurters (hot dogs) (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21), ham (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.67) and salted meat (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.18) were positively associated with risk of bladder cancer. Animal products, like cheese, whole milk, and total eggs were also associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for eggs 4.05, 95% CI 2.68-6.12). In conclusion, total meat, processed meat, and eggs could play an important role in the etiology of bladder cancer in Uruguay. PMID:25081704

  10. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleodrainage of South America: a natural history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, P. E.

    1997-12-01

    The drainage history of South America, since its breakup and separation from Africa about 100 Ma, shows an exceptionally compelling and pervasive tectonic control that should be true of all the continents, disruption by continental ice sheets excluded. Virtually all of South America's present major drainage developed after its separation from Africa. First, broad domes and aulacogens affected rivers such as the lower Amazon, the São Francisco, Uruguay, Rio de la Plata and their tributaries, and the Colorado and Negro in Argentina. Later the Mid-Miocene uplift of the Andes greatly enlarged the Amazon system and also created the present Magdalena and Paraguay Rivers and most of the Orinoco System. Of all these the Amazon is unique in that its "Andean event" can be dated both at its headwaters and offshore. Of all the major South American rivers, the Paraná seems to have the most perfect adjustment to structure, and probably developed after outpouring of the Serra Geral basalts in the late Cretaceous. Examination of the offshore record of South America's passive margin contributed significantly to this analysis, although megashears, plate convergence and impinging oceanic currents have destroyed the offshore record of many rivers. In this era of global geology the ages and paleodrainage of entire continents deserve far more attention from the geologic community than they have received.

  11. Development of a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, natamycin and tylosin in Dulce de leche.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Lorenzetti, Angélica; Daguer, Heitor; De Dea Lindner, Juliano

    2016-11-15

    A simple extraction, rapid routine method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, natamycin and tylosin in Dulce de leche, a traditional South American product, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and fully validated. The limits of detection were set to 24.41mgkg(-1) (sorbic acid), 0.10mgkg(-1) (natamycin) and 2μgkg(-1) (tylosin). Recoveries ranged from 95% to 110%. Proportionally, internal standardization was more efficient than external standard, resulting in a smaller measurement of uncertainty. In total, 35 commercial samples from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay have been assessed. The proposed method was tested on other dairy desserts, demonstrating to be versatile. Although tylosin was not detected in any sample, a high rate of non-compliance was found, with 67.39% of samples above the maximum allowed for sorbic acid and a maximum concentration of 2105.36±178.60mgkg(-1). In two samples, natamycin was irregularly found. PMID:27283692

  12. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  13. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  14. Geographic patterns of craniofacial variation in pre-Hispanic populations from the Southern Cone of South America.

    PubMed

    Fabra, Mariana; Demarchi, Darío A

    2011-08-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationships and patterns of spatial variation from morphological cranial variability of 17 population samples representing the ancient inhabitants of the central territory of Argentina (archaeologically known as "Sierras Centrales") and other pre-Hispanic populations from different ecological and geographic regions of the Southern Cone of South America (Argentina and Uruguay), based on the analysis of 10 craniofacial measurements. Results obtained from D2 distances can be interpreted as evidence of a similar biological history for the populations that inhabited the Sierras Centrales and the population of Santiago del Estero. Matrix correlation analysis demonstrated that craniometric variation is significantly influenced by geography, suggesting that populations that lived at lower geographical distance share more biological similarity. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis suggests a clinal pattern for the biological variation, although Moran's I estimates calculated for each variable demonstrate that only nasal height and breadth show this spatial pattern of variation. Results from spatial regression techniques show a significant effect of altitude modeling nasal shape, in agreement with previous studies suggesting that nasal morphology is strongly influenced by environment variables. PMID:21846206

  15. [Study of food characteristics of Uruguayan adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alfonsina; Pereyra, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the diet of Uruguayan adolescents and demographic aspects that influence it. The data come from the National Survey of Adolescents and Youth in 2008 which worked with 2,943 cases, representative sample of all adolescents in Uruguay. The characteristics of feeding studied were: consumption of fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, fast food, added salt to meals served at the table and meal times shared with a parent. These variables were also studied in aggregate to determine a pattern of eating behavior. It was found that 89% of adolescents did not meet the recommendation of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, 50% consumed daily soft drinks, fast foods ingested 24% 2 or more times per week and 13% added salt at all preparations. We also found that 31% did not share mealtimes with parents daily. By adding the variables studied, we observed that 58% were inadequately fed, and is higher among older adolescents (p < 0.01), who had higher household income (p < 0.05) and those who were not residing in the capital (p < 0.05). It is concluded that feeding adolescents was characterized by inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables, frequent consumption of soft drinks, fast food and adding salt to served meals, which defined it as inadequate. This was mainly observed in older adolescents, better economic situation and residents within the country.. PMID:26817381

  16. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  17. Eyedrop Vaccination Induced Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against Influenza Virus in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Suk; Han, Soo Jung; Park, Tae Kwann; Choi, Kyoung Sub; Choi, Young-Ki; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2016-01-01

    We investigated eyedrop vaccination (EDV) in pre-clinical development for immunological protection against influenza and for potential side effects involving ocular inflammation and the central nervous system (CNS). Live attenuated influenza EDV, CA07 (H1N1), PZ-4 (H1N2) and Uruguay (H3N2), induced both systemic and mucosal virus-specific antibody responses in ferrets. In addition, EDV resulted in a clinically significant protection against viral challenge, and suppression of viral replication in nasal secretion and lung tissue. Regarding safety, we found that administered EDV flow through the tear duct to reach the base of nasal cavity, and thus do not contact the olfactory bulb. All analyses for potential adverse effects due to EDV, including histological and functional examinations, did not reveal significant side effects. On the basis of these findings, we propose that EDV as effective, while being a safe administration route with minimum local side effects, CNS invasion, or visual function disturbance. PMID:27333331

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, P; Taniguchi, S; Gallo, H; Maranho, A; Kolesnikovas, C; Amorim, D B; Mansilla, M; Navarro, R M; Tabeira, L C; Bicego, M C; Montone, R C

    2016-04-01

    Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, are the most abundant penguins living in temperate regions of South America and are good indicators of environmental pollution in the region. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were detected in the liver of Magellanic penguins found debilitated or dead on the beaches of Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) between 2008 and 2012 as well as in Uruguay and Chile in 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more prevalent than organochlorine pesticides (DDTs ∼ HCB ∼ Drins) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Among PCBs, penta-, hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners were predominant. Concentrations of POPs were similar between the Pacific and Atlantic penguin populations, except for PCBs, which were relatively higher in the Pacific population. During the study years (2008-2012), large variations were found in organochlorine pesticides and PCBs tended to decline. Overall, the southern portion of South America has low concentrations of POPs, with either a constant trend or evidence of decline. PMID:26881336

  19. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  20. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

  1. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L., Jr.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  2. [Changes in the legislation regulating the legal status of artificial abortion in the world in the past 10 years].

    PubMed

    Vasilev, D

    1981-01-01

    Current status of abortion legislation in different countries is reviewed. During the period from 1967-1977, a total of 43 countries introduced certain changes in their legislation. Of these 43 countries, 40 liberalized abortion procedures and 3 countries limited the rights of abortion seekers. Liberalization of abortion legislation in France and Italy was associated with women's rights movement and adoption of Human Rights Declaration. Austria, France, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark have the most liberal abortion policy, while Rumania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria have the most restricted legislation. Liberalization of abortion does not necessarily mean availability on demand. High cost in private clinics and hospitals prevents many women from seeking a legal abortion. In Asia, Singapore, China, and India permit abortions, while in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Burma abortions are banned. In Northern and Latin America, abortions are legalized in the US and Cuba; liberalization of abortion legislation is recorded in Guatemala, El Salvador, Uruguay, Chile, and Colombia. In spite of a general liberalization of legislation, abortion policies are still affected by religious and political groups. Ban on legal abortion increases the frequency of criminal abortion, which in turn leads to increase in maternal mortality. PMID:7030096

  3. A case-control study on fat-to-muscle ratio and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Boeing, Heiner; De Stefani, Eduardo; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias; Pischon, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze detailed anthropometric characterization for risk of breast cancer in Uruguayan women. The design was a case-control study. The setting was Pereira Rossell Women's Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay. Subjects were 343 incident breast cancer cases and 1,042 frequency-matched healthy controls who were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story; and a series of skin folds, circumferences, and diameters were measured to calculate fat and muscle fractions and the derived fat-to-muscle ratio (FMR). Odds ratio (ORs) coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Muscle fraction was negatively associated with risk [OR for highest quartile = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.34], fat fraction was positively associated (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.62-5.80), and FMR was positively associated (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 2.99-6.62). Stratified analyses by body mass index levels also showed risk increases for the highest tertiles of FMR, always displaying significant linear trends. Since increases of risk were found in overweight and in normal weight women, results suggest that fractions and amount of muscle and fat components might be risk factors for breast cancer on the basis of currently existing metabolic and immune interrelationships between adipose and muscular tissue given by glutamine, exercise-derived myokines, and other cytokines produced by these tissues. PMID:19838918

  4. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  5. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors involved in honeybee larval infection.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Schlapp, Geraldine; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2009-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae secretes proteases that could be involved in the pathogenicity. In the present article, we present the secretion of different proteases by P. larvae. Inhibition assays confirmed the presence of metalloproteases. Two different proteases patterns (PP1 and PP2) were identified in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographic origin. Forty nine percent of P. larvae isolates showed pattern PP1 while 51% exhibited pattern PP2. Most isolates belonging to genotype ERIC I - BOX A presented PP2, most isolates belonging to ERIC I - BOX C presented PP1 although relations were not significant. Isolates belonging to genotypes ERIC II and ERIC III presented PP2. No correlation was observed between the secreted proteases patterns and geographic distribution, since both patterns are widely distributed in Uruguay. According to exposure bioassays, isolates showing PP2 are more virulent than those showing PP1, suggesting that difference in pathogenicity could be related to the secretion of proteases. PMID:19638278

  6. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  7. Non-classical types of loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriondo, M. H.; Kröhling, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to describe the sequence of physical and chemical processes resulting in the sediment-type named loess, a fine-grained sediment deposit of universal occurrence. Owing to historical causes, loess has been (and still is) implicitly linked to glacial/periglacial environments among most naturalists. However it is known today that most eolian dust is deflated from tropical deserts. Hence, that sequence of processes is more comprehensive than the former narrow cold scenario. Six examples of different "non-classical" cases (from South America and Europe) that fit well to the loess definition are developed: 1) volcanic loess in Ecuador: pyroclastic eruptions/valley wind/mountain praire/silica structuring; 2) tropical loess in northeastern Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: deflation of river and fan splays/savanna/iron sesquioxide structuring; 3) gypsum loess in northern Spain: destruction of anhydrite/gypsiferous layers in a dry climate/valley wind/Saharian shrub peridesert/gypsum structuring; 4) trade-wind deposits in Venezuela and Brazil: deflation in tidal flats/trade wind into the continent/savanna/iron hydroxide structuring; 5) anticyclonic gray loess in Argentina: continental anticyclone on plains/anti-clockwise winds and whirls/steppe/carbonate structuring. All these non-classical types conform to the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or sub-vertical slopes in outcrops, subfusion and others. Other cases can probably be recognized when systematically scrutinized.

  8. Polymorphism of the bm86 gene in South American strains of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Sales-Junior, Policarpo A; Marcelino, Francismar C; Vargas, Marlene I; Neves, Elisangela S; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2005-01-01

    Thirty Boophilus microplus strains from various geographic regions of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela and Colombia were analyzed for the bm86 and bm95 gene. A fragment of cDNA of 794 base pairs of the parasite larvae, included between nucleotides 278-1071s, was amplified and cloned on the pGEM-T vector. Two random clones were sequenced for each population and the nucleotides 278-1071 and predicted amino acid sequences compared with the bm86 and bm95 genes. Variations from 1.76 to 3.65% were detected in the nucleotides sequence when compared with the homologous sequence of the bm86 gene and a 3.4-6.08% in the homologous amino acid sequence of the Bm86 protein. When the sequences obtained were compared with the bm95 gene, variations from 0.50 to 3.15% were detected. Variations from 1.14 to 4.56% were detected for the Bm95 protein homologous sequences in the deduced amino acid sequence. Only five of the 30 strains analyzed presented two different types of alleles expressed and the two alleles of the Alegre population and allele 1 of the Betim population were the most divergent of all those analyzed. PMID:16323051

  9. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  10. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Theone C.; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F.; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  11. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  12. Effect of cold pre-fermentative maceration on the color and composition of young red wines cv. Tannat.

    PubMed

    González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela; Ferrer, Milka; Charamelo, Darwin

    2015-06-01

    Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) is an interesting winemaking technique to enhance the extraction of pigments, aroma and flavour compounds from grape skins to wine. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) on the composition of Tannat red wines produced in Uruguay in several vintages. For this purpose, wines elaborated by CPM were compared with control wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM) in 4 years. Control wines (TM) were made with classical fermentation on skins. The CPM was carried out with additions of dry ice for 5 days to keep the must at 10 ºC. Wines were analysed at devatting. The impact of CPM on composition and color of wines was different in each year. Color intensity was significantly higher in CPM than control wines in 2007 and 2009 whereas the anthocyanins levels were higher in control wines every year. However, CPM wines had the highest polyphenols contents in 2007, 2009 and 2010 principally due to their catechins and proanthocyanidins contents. Anthocyanin profile was similar in the wines of each vintage, according to the varietal fingerprint. The highest contents of higher alcohols were verified in CPM wines. The Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration could have an important effect on the characteristics of Tannat red wines, although it depends strongly on the composition of the grapes of origin. PMID:26028726

  13. Electrical Impedance Tomography for pulmonary oedema extent monitoring: review and updated design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eduardo; Simini, Franco

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring pulmonary oedema would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a graphical representation of its size and density to guide therapeutic interventions. Currently the clinician has only indirect estimations because X-ray imaging or computed tomography can not be repeated often. To avoid the transfer of critically ill patients and to have continuous information Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is suggested. Circuit designs for EIT are reviewed, including wave generators, current sources, differential amplifiers, synchronous voltmeters, multiplexers and control modules. Nine designs are studied, the characteristics of five of them are presented (UK 2005, Uruguay 2002, Iran 2006, China 2007 and Switzerland 2012). Three different solutions are compared (components cost range from) and an optimal design is proposed which includes a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) for signal generation, a modified Howland configuration for current source, 16 bits for the analog to digital conversion, and a digital signal processor (DSP) for the synchronous demodulation as well as to process the measurements for the reconstruction algorithm. This allows us to design low cost, gross graphical representations for oedema extent monitoring, with little anatomical accuracy.

  14. Restricted genetic diversity in the ubiquitous cattle parasite, Sarcocystis cruzi.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger B; Pritt, Bobbi

    2008-09-01

    Although parasites of the genus Sarcocystis have likely cycled between bovine herbivores and canine carnivores for tens of millions of years, humans may have profoundly influenced the ecology and evolution of those prevalent in domesticated dogs and cattle. To preliminarily assess the possibility of such anthropogenic effects, we surveyed genetic variation in conserved (18S small subunit) and variable (ITS-1) portions of ribosomal DNA from a large sample of Sarcocystis cruzi occurring in taurine beef cattle raised in the United States and Uruguay, and compared these data to available homologues, including those reported from zebu cattle, water buffalo, and bison. For additional context, we compared the apparent diversity of cattle parasites to that reported from congeneric parasites in other hosts. We find that the S. cruzi of taurine cattle, whether derived from the Americas or Asia, are devoid of variability in the sequenced portion (80%) of the small subunit rDNA. By contrast, geographically limited samples of related parasites in other hosts, including those of wildlife, are more variable. At the adjacent ITS-1 locus, allelic distribution patterns did not indicate any regional barriers to gene flow, suggesting that the parasite may have been introduced to the Americas via a common source such as domesticated dogs or cattle. Thus, human impact on this parasite's distribution and diversification would seem to have been great. PMID:18501682

  15. Global distribution of winter lightning: a threat to wind turbines and aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanyà, Joan; Fabró, Ferran; van der Velde, Oscar; March, Víctor; Rolfe Williams, Earle; Pineda, Nicolau; Romero, David; Solà, Glòria; Freijo, Modesto

    2016-06-01

    Lightning is one of the major threats to multi-megawatt wind turbines and a concern for modern aircraft due to the use of lightweight composite materials. Both wind turbines and aircraft can initiate lightning, and very favorable conditions for lightning initiation occur in winter thunderstorms. Moreover, winter thunderstorms are characterized by a relatively high production of very energetic lightning. This paper reviews the different types of lightning interactions and summarizes the well-known winter thunderstorm areas. Until now comprehensive maps of global distribution of winter lightning prevalence to be used for risk assessment have been unavailable. In this paper we present the global winter lightning activity for a period of 5 years. Using lightning location data and meteorological re-analysis data, six maps are created: annual winter lightning stroke density, seasonal variation of the winter lightning and the annual number of winter thunderstorm days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the maps confirmed Japan to be one of the most active regions but other areas such as the Mediterranean and the USA are active as well. In the Southern Hemisphere, Uruguay and surrounding area, the southwestern Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea experience the highest activity. The maps provided here can be used in the development of a risk assessment.

  16. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

  17. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

  18. Tools, strategies and qualitative approach in relation to suicidal attempts and ideation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; de Sousa, Girliani Silva; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Moura, Rosylaine; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Grubits, Sonia; Conte, Marta; Cavalcante, Ana Célia Sousa; Figueiredo, Ana Elisa Bastos; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento; Fachola, María Cristina Heuguerot; Izquierdo, Giovane Mendieta

    2015-06-01

    The article analyses the quality and consistency of a comprehensive interview guide, adapted to study attempted suicide and its ideation among the elderly, and imparts the method followed in applying this tool. The objective is to show how the use of a semi-structured interview and the organization and data analysis set-up were tested and perfected by a network of researchers from twelve universities or research centers in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. The method involved application and evaluation of the tool and joint production of an instruction manual on data collection, systematization and analysis. The methodology was followed in 67 interviews with elderly people of 60 or older and in 34 interviews with health professionals in thirteen Brazilian municipalities and in Montevideo and Bogotá, allowing the consistency of the tool and the applicability of the method to be checked, during the process and at the end. The enhanced guide and the instructions for reproducing it are presented herein. The results indicate the suitability and credibility of this methodological approach, tested and certified in interdisciplinary and interinstitutional terms. PMID:26060945

  19. One Hundred Years in the Making: The Global Tobacco Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, Heather; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-03-18

    Today's global tobacco epidemic may represent one of the first instances of the globalization of a noninfectious cause of disease. This article focuses on the first century of the global tobacco epidemic and its current status, reviewing the current and projected future of the global tobacco epidemic and the steps that are in progress to end it. In the United States and many countries of Western Europe, tobacco consumption peaked during the 1960s and 1970s and declined as tobacco control programs were initiated, motivated by the evidence indicting smoking as a leading cause of disease. Despite this policy advancement and the subsequent reductions in tobacco consumption, the global tobacco epidemic continued to grow exponentially in the later years of the twentieth century, as the multinational companies sought new markets to replace those shrinking in high-income countries. In response, between 2000 and 2004, the World Health Organization developed its first public health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which entered into force in 2005. An accompanying package of interventions has been implemented. New approaches to tobacco control, including plain packaging and single representation of brands, have been implemented by Australia and Uruguay, respectively, but have been challenged by the tobacco industry. PMID:26772406

  20. Resurgence of canine parvovirus 2a strain in the domestic dog population from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Marina Gallo; Romanutti, Carina; Wilda, Maximiliano; D' Antuono, Alejandra; Keller, Leticia; Giacomodonato, Mónica N; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José

    2015-09-15

    Ninety-three rectal swab samples were taken, from dogs suspected of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection and analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the VP2 gene, was amplified in 41 (44%) of them, resulting CPV positive samples. Sequencing analysis of these PCR products showed that 37 samples (90.2%) belonged to the CPV2c type, whereas four samples (9.8%) were identified as CPV2a, which has not been found since 2008. It was also found that 24 out of 37 CPV2c samples (65%), carried the mutation Thr440Ala, whereas this mutation was absent in the four CPV2a strains reported herein. Using phylogenetic analysis of the full length VP2 gene, which was amplified by PCR in six local samples, it was seen that CPV2a Argentine strains reported in this study, were genetically closer to a previous local CPV2a isolate (year 2003) and to a South African CPV2a strain, than to any of the recently reported Uruguayan CPV2a strains. The results obtained in this work, together with those reported previously in Uruguay strongly suggest that, in spite of the geographical proximity, wild type CPV strains undergo different evolutive pathways in each country, resulting in the prevalence of different strains in related dog populations. Further extensive epidemiological studies are needed in order to improve the understanding of CPV evolution. PMID:26115608

  1. Splendid oddness: revisiting the curious trophic relationships of South American Pleistocene mammals and their abundance.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Czerwonogora, Ada; di Giacomo, Mariana

    2014-03-01

    The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. Here we intend to update the knowledge on its palaeoecology and provide new evidence regarding two approaches: energetics and population density and relative abundance of fossils per taxa. To determine whether an imbalance exists, population density models were applied to several South American fossil faunas and the results compared to those that best describe the palaeoecology of African faunas. The results on the abundance study for Uruguay and the province of Buenos Aires during the Lujanian stage/age reveal that bulk-feeding ground sloths (Lestodon and Glossotherium) were more represented in the first territory, while the more selective Scelidotherium and Megatherium were more abundant in the second. Although the obtained values were corrected to avoid size-related taphonomic biases, linear regressions of abundance vs. body mass plots did not fit the expected either for first or second consumers. South American Pleistocene faunas behave differently from what models suggest they should. Changes in sea level and available area could account for these differences; the possibility of a floodplain in the area then emerged could explain seasonal changes, which would modify the calculations of energetics and abundance. PMID:24676170

  2. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical pirate spiders of the genus Gelanor Thorell, 1869 (Araneae, Mimetidae) with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Ligia R; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We revise the Neotropical spider genus Gelanor Thorell, 1869 (Mimetidae). Gelanor is distributed from northeast Mexico to southern Uruguay , from sea level to 1,600 m. We describe five new species of Gelanor and report eleven new synonymies. Gelanor is here circumscribed to include ten species: Gelanor fortuna new species, Gelanor juruti new species, Gelanor moyobamba new species, Gelanor siquirres new species, Gelanor waorani new species, Gelanor altithorax Keyserling, 1893 (= Gelanor lanei Soares, 1941 new synonymy), Gelanor consequus O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 (= Gelanor depressus Chickering, 1956 new synonymy, Gelanor gertschi Chickering, 1947 new synonymy and Gelanor heraldicus Petrunkevitch, 1925 new synonymy), Gelanor innominatus Chamberlin, 1916, Gelanor latus (Keyserling, 1881) (= Gelanor mixtus O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 new synonymy, Gelanor mabelae Chickering, 1947 new synonymy, Gelanor ornatus Schenkel, 1953 new synonymy and Gelanor proximus Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy) and Gelanor zonatus (C.L. Koch, 1845) (= Gelanor distinctus O-P. Cambridge, 1899 new synonymy, Gelanor insularis Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy and Gelanor obscurus Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy). In addition, we describe for the first time the males of G. altithorax and G. consequus. Species descriptions are provided for all ten species in the genus, together with a compilation of available data, including type specimens, type localities and morphological diagnoses. Light and electron microscope images and updated data on known geographical distributions, are also provided. We also discuss the phylogenetic placement of Gelanor in Mimetidae. PMID:27395525

  3. Isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2C (CPV-2C) from symptomatic puppies.

    PubMed

    Puentes, R; Eliopulos, N; Pérez, R; Franco, G; Sosa, K; Bianchi, P; Furtado, A; Hübner, S O; Esteves, P A

    2012-07-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a leading cause of diarrhea in puppies in several parts of the world. In this study CPV-2 was detected and recovered from puppies showing clinical disease from Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were processed and used to infect CRFK and MDCK cells in order to isolate the virus. Out of twelve, two samples were positive for CPV-2. A genomic region of 583 bp was amplified and the molecular characterization was performed by sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Two isolated viruses (UY1 and UY2) were CPV-2c-like viruses. The comparison between the cytophatic effect (CPE) of CPV-2 (vaccinal virus) and CPV-2c (isolated virus) on primary canine cells cultures and on CRFK line cells, demonstrated that CPV-2c is less citopathogenic in CRFK than in primary cultures. Our study represents the first report on isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) in cell cultures from South American dogs. PMID:24031919

  4. Impact of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography and olfactometry for the sex differentiation of Baccharis articulata by the analysis of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Umpiérrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Falcão, Manuel A; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    The Baccharis genus has more than 400 species of aromatic plants. However, only approximately 50 species have been studied in oil composition to date. From these studies, very few take into consideration differences between male and female plants, which is a significant and distinctive factor in Baccharis in the Asteraceae family. Baccharis articulata is a common shrub that grows wild in south Brazil, northern and central Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. It is considered to be a medicinal plant and is employed in traditional medicine. We report B. articulata male and female volatile composition obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction technique and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Also, an assessment of aromatic differences between volatile extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography with olfactometry. The results show a very similar chemical composition between male and female extracts, with a high proportion of terpene compounds of which β-pinene, limonene and germacrene D are the main components. Despite the chemical similarity, great differences in aromatic profile were found: male plant samples exhibited the strongest odorants in number and intensity of aromatic attributes. These differences explain field observations which indicate differences between male and female flower aroma, and might be of ecological significance in the attraction of pollinating insects. PMID:26140379

  5. Obesity and Disability: Relation Among Older Adults Living in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Al Snih, Soham; Graham, James E.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of both obesity and disability are projected to increase in the coming decades. The authors examined the relation between obesity and disability in older adults from 6 Latin American cities participating in the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) Study (1999–2000). The sample included 6,166 participants aged 65 years or more. Data on sociodemographic factors, smoking status, medical conditions, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2), and self-reported activities of daily living (ADL) were obtained. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) ranged from 13.3% in Havana, Cuba, to 37.6% in Montevideo, Uruguay. Using a BMI of 18.5–<25 as the reference category and controlling for all covariates, the lowest odds ratio for ADL limitation was for a BMI of 25–<30 (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 1.30), and the highest odds ratio for ADL limitation was for a BMI of 35 or higher (odds ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.11). The results indicated that obesity is an independent factor contributing to ADL disability in these populations and should be included in future planning to reduce the impact of disability on global health. PMID:20472569

  6. [The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE") survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population].

    PubMed

    Albala, Cecilia; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; León Díaz, Esther María; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Hennis, Anselm J; Palloni, Alberto; Peláez, Martha; Pratts, Omar

    2005-01-01

    This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey (known as the "SABE survey"), and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than is true for their counterparts in developed nations. In addition, family networks in Latin America and the Caribbean are changing rapidly and have less capacity to make up for the lack of protections provided by social institutions. The multicenter SABE study was developed with the objective of evaluating the state of health of older adults in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The SABE survey has established the starting point for systematic research on aging in urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparative studies of these characteristics and with this comparative nature should be extended to other countries, areas, and regions of the world in order to expand the knowledge available on older adults. PMID:16053641

  7. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    PubMed

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. PMID:25027797

  8. Progress in faunal correlation of Late Cenozoic fluvial sequences 2000 4: the report of the IGCP 449 biostratigraphy subgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreve, D. C.; Keen, D. H.; Limondin-Lozouet, N.; Auguste, P.; Santisteban, Juan I.; Ubilla, M.; Matoshko, A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Westaway, R.

    2007-11-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate faunal biostratigraphy is a well-tested method for establishing relative chronologies for fluviatile sequences that has proved useful in many parts of the world. The robust bones and teeth of large mammals are commonly found in fluviatile deposits, whereas small vertebrates can be readily recovered through systematic sieving of calcareous sediments, as can molluscs, the other major faunal group that has been used for biostratigraphical analysis of fluvial sequences. Because of their rapid and quantifiable rates of evolution, extinction, body mass change and dispersal during the Late Cenozoic, mammals are especially useful for ordering the fragmentary terrestrial sequence of interglacials and glacials, and proposing correlation with the global marine climatostratigraphic record. Other groups (e.g. reptiles and amphibians, ostracods) are as yet only in the initial stages of development as a dating tool, whereas some (e.g. fish, birds) still require substantial development in order to fully explore their utility. As part of IGCP 449, vertebrate and molluscan assemblages have made important contributions to datasets from a number of areas, notably northern France, central Germany, the Czech Republic and the Ukraine. Further south, mammalian assemblages have proved useful in separating discrete periods of climatic change in Iberia and Syria. At greater distances from the core area of fluvial biostratigraphical archives, significant contributions have come from South America (Uruguay River), South Africa (Vaal) and Australia (Riverine Plain and Lake Eyre drainage basin).

  9. Protoptiline Caddisfly Genera Endemic to the Southern Cone Region of South America (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. R.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    El artículo de San Mauro y cols. profundiza en un tema de interés prioritario como es el estudio de los hábitos de ingesta de fluidos en personas de cuatro países: España, Portugal, México y Uruguay, para analizar si se cumplen (y si se conocen) las pautas de hidratación marcadas como adecuadas por organismos oficiales y, en concreto, por la EFSA. Es indudable la importancia de una correcta hidratación pues mientras que se puede vivir meses, o años, con una alimentación incorrecta, la deshidratación puede llevar a la muerte en un escaso periodo de tiempo. Por otra parte, un aporte ligeramente insuficiente de fluidos perjudica la salud, capacidad funcional y calidad de vida del individuo, por lo que debe ser evitada. Incluso algunos estudios encuentran hábitos y estilo de vida menos saludables en individuos con menor consumo de fluidos y pautas de hidratación más incorrectas. PMID:27571645

  11. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  12. Bioclimatic profile and potential distribution of the Mesopotamian harvestman Discocyrtus testudineus (Holmberg, 1876) (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    The geographic range of the Neotropical harvestman Discocyrtus testudineus (Holmberg, 1876) (Gonyleptidae) is addressed by determining the species' bioclimatic profile and modeling its potential distribution. Analysis was performed on a record set of 71 localities, including literature records and 34 new localities reported here. The bioclimatic profile was characterized through extreme, median and dispersion features of the values of 19 bioclimatic variables across the record set. Predictive models were built with the presence-only methods MAXENT and, secondarily, BIOCLIM. Discocyrtus testudineus is a typical Mesopotamian harvestman, spreading across a wide region along the middle and lower Paraná River in subtropical / temperate Argentina, and extending, more or less continuously, up to the central province of Córdoba. Apparently diverging records (Paso de los Libres, on the Uruguay River, and Quilmes, on the southern coast of Rio de la Plata) proved to be predictable, even if suppressed from the dataset. Comparisons of cumulative frequencies curves and dispersion features (box-plots) were made with Discocyrtus dilatatus Sørensen, 1884 and Gryne orensis (Sørensen, 1884), other Mesopotamian species for which bioclimatic data are available. The relative importance of the bioclimatic variables used for modeling was also estimated. PMID:24989746

  13. Stellar Occultations by TNOs: the January 08, 2011 by (208996) 2003 AZ84 and the May 04, 2011 by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Jehin, E.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Assafin, M.; Behrend, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Colque, J. P.; Morales, N.; Tancredi, G.; Roland, S.; Bruzzone, S.; Salvo, R.; Almenares, L.; Emilio, M.; Schoenell, W.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Milone, A.; Jacques, C.; Vanzi, L.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Cacella, P.; Maury, A.; Alvarez, E.; van der Bliek, N. S.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Vachier, F.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Thirouin, A.; Gillon, M.; Manfroid, J.; Bergengruen, A.; Martinez, M.; Capeche, J.; Amorim, A.; Pimentel, E.; Leiva, R.; Toledo, I.; Almeida, L. A.; Magalhães, V. S.; Montaña, C. E.; Rodrigues, C. V.

    2011-10-01

    Between February 2010 and May 2011, our group has observed five stellar occultations by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), giving the size and shape for some of the biggest TNO's: Varuna, Eris, 2003 AZ84, Makemake and Quaoar. Here we present two of them: the January 08 stellar occultation by 2003 AZ84, and the May 04 by Quaoar. For the event of 2003 AZ84 we obtained one positive and another negative occultation chords in Chile. We give a lower limit to the diameter of the TNO. The event of Quaoar was observed from 16 sites distributed in Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Brazil. Five of them yielded positive detection of the occultation. A preliminary analysis shows that the body is probably elongated and significantly bigger than the size determined by Fraser & Brown 2010, with a diameter of 890km. Using the size determined by the occultation, we will discuss the implications for the body density and albedo determination. The upper limit of the atmosphere is also studied.

  14. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando F A; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne C G; Brito, Marcelo A M; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo A S; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available. PMID:25141282

  15. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  16. Is there a familial link between Down's syndrome and neural tube defects? Population and familial survey

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Márcia R; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2004-01-01

    Objective To verify whether Down's syndrome and neural tube defects arise more often in the same family than expected by chance. Design Population and familial survey. Setting Network of maternity hospitals in the Latin American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC) in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela between 1982 and 2000. Probands 2421 cases of neural tube defects, 952 of hydrocephalus, and 3095 of Down's syndrome registered from a total of 1 583 838 live births and stillbirths. Main outcome measures Observed number of cases of Down's syndrome among siblings of probands with a neural tube defect or hydrocephalus and number expected on the basis of maternal age; observed number of cases of neural tube defects or hydrocephalus among siblings of probands with Down's syndrome and number expected according to the prevalence in the same population. Results Five cases of Down's syndrome occurred among 5404 pregnancies previous to a case of neural tube defect or hydrocephalus, compared with 5.13 expected after adjustment by maternal age. Twelve cases of neural tube defect or hydrocephalus occurred among 8066 pregnancies previous to a case of Down's syndrome, compared with 17.18 expected on the basis of the birth prevalence for neural tube defects plus hydrocephalus in the same population. Conclusion No association occurred between families at risk of neural tube defects and those at risk of Down's syndrome. PMID:14662523

  17. Development of a surveillance scheme for equine influenza in the UK and characterisation of viruses isolated in Europe, Dubai and the USA from 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Alana L; Rash, Adam S; Blinman, Donna; Bowman, Samantha; Chambers, Thomas M; Daly, Janet M; Damiani, Armando; Joseph, Sunitha; Lewis, Nicola; McCauley, John W; Medcalf, Liz; Mumford, Jenny; Newton, J Richard; Tiwari, Ashish; Bryant, Neil A; Elton, Debra M

    2014-03-14

    Equine influenza viruses are a major cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide and undergo antigenic drift. Several outbreaks of equine influenza occurred worldwide during 2010-2012, including in vaccinated animals, highlighting the importance of surveillance and virus characterisation. Virus isolates were characterised from more than 20 outbreaks over a 3-year period, including strains from the UK, Dubai, Germany and the USA. The haemagglutinin-1 (HA1) sequence of all isolates was determined and compared with OIE-recommended vaccine strains. Viruses from Florida clades 1 and 2 showed continued divergence from each other compared with 2009 isolates. The antigenic inter-relationships among viruses were determined using a haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay with ferret antisera and visualised using antigenic cartography. All European isolates belonged to Florida clade 2, all those from the USA belonged to Florida clade 1. Two subpopulations of clade 2 viruses were isolated, with either substitution A144V or I179V. Isolates from Dubai, obtained from horses shipped from Uruguay, belonged to Florida clade 1 and were similar to viruses isolated in the USA the previous year. The neuraminidase (NA) sequence of representative strains from 2007 and 2009 to 2012 was also determined and compared with that of earlier isolates dating back to 1963. Multiple changes were observed at the amino acid level and clear distinctions could be made between viruses belonging to Florida clade 1 and clade 2. PMID:24480583

  18. Isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2C (CPV-2C) from symptomatic puppies

    PubMed Central

    Puentes, R; Eliopulos, N; Pérez, R; Franco, G; Sosa, K; Bianchi, P; Furtado, A; Hübner, S.O.; Esteves, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a leading cause of diarrhea in puppies in several parts of the world. In this study CPV-2 was detected and recovered from puppies showing clinical disease from Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were processed and used to infect CRFK and MDCK cells in order to isolate the virus. Out of twelve, two samples were positive for CPV-2. A genomic region of 583 bp was amplified and the molecular characterization was performed by sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Two isolated viruses (UY1 and UY2) were CPV-2c-like viruses. The comparison between the cytophatic effect (CPE) of CPV-2 (vaccinal virus) and CPV-2c (isolated virus) on primary canine cells cultures and on CRFK line cells, demonstrated that CPV-2c is less citopathogenic in CRFK than in primary cultures. Our study represents the first report on isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) in cell cultures from South American dogs. PMID:24031919

  19. Tobacco Control and Children: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hipple, Bethany J.; Muramoto, Myra; Klein, Jonathan D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use currently claims >5 million deaths per year worldwide and this number is projected to increase dramatically by 2030. The burden of death and disease is shifting to low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco control initiatives face numerous challenges including not being a high priority in many countries, government dependence upon immediate revenue from tobacco sales and production, and opposition of the tobacco industry. Tobacco leads to environmental harms, exploitation of workers in tobacco farming, and increased poverty. Children are especially vulnerable. Not only do they initiate tobacco use themselves, but also they are victimized by exposure to highly toxic secondhand smoke. Awareness of tobacco adverse health effects is often superficial even among health professionals. The tobacco industry continues to aggressively promote its products and recognizes that children are its future. The tools and knowledge exist, however, to dramatically reduce the global burden of tobacco. In 2003 the World Health Organization adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Aggressive tobacco control initiatives have been undertaken not only in high-income countries but also in less-wealthy countries such as Uruguay and Thailand. Stakeholders must come together in coordinated efforts and there must be a broad and sustained investment in global tobacco control. PMID:22375275

  20. Phenotypic Variation and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Dichroplus elongatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Rosetti, N; Remis, M I

    2015-08-01

    Patterns of body size evolution are of particular interest because body size can affect virtually all the physiological and life history traits of an organism. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), a difference in body size between males and females, is a widespread phenomenon in insects. Much of the variation in SSD is genetically based and likely due to differential selection acting on males and females. The importance of environmental variables and evolutionary processes affecting phenotypeic variation in both sexes may be useful to gain insights into insect ecology and evolution. Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos is a South American grasshopper widely distributed throughout Argentina, Uruguay, most of Chile, and southern Brazil. In this study, we analyzed 122 adult females of D. elongatus collected in eight natural populations from central-east Argentina. Females show large body size variation among the analyzed populations and this variation exhibits a strong relationship with fecundity. Our results have shown that larger females were more fecund than smaller ones. We found that ovariole number varied along a latitudinal gradient, with higher ovariole numbers in populations from warmer locations. A considerable female-biased SSD was detected. SSD for three analyzed morphometric traits scaled isometrically. However, SSD for thorax length displayed a considerable variation across the studied area, indicating a larger relative increase in female size than in male size in warmer environmental conditions. PMID:26314070