Science.gov

Sample records for complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

  1. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports

    PubMed Central

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P.; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. Methods We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Results Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation. PMID:26648972

  2. Thrombus formation in a dilated torcula following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Haynes, H R; Visca, A; Renowden, S; Malcolm, G

    2013-08-01

    A case of thrombus formation occurring within a dilation of the dural venous sinuses following aneurysmal sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is presented. Acute neurological deterioration accompanied propagation of the thrombus. The patient was anticoagulated on day 5 post-SAH with no haemorrhagic complications and made a full recovery. The optimum time to commence anticoagulation is not clear and is discussed. PMID:23451941

  3. Spinal arachnoiditis and cyst formation with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Abhinav, Kumar; Bradley, Marcus; Aquilina, Kristian; Patel, Nikunj K

    2012-08-01

    We present the case of a 58-year-old lady with p-ANCA vasculitis who suffered a WFNS grade 1 subarachnoid haemorrhage (Fisher grade 1) secondary to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm and then developed a rare complication of radiologically progressive spinal arachnoiditis despite maintained clinical response to definitive treatment measures. PMID:22299598

  4. The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Goffi, Alberto; Marotta, Tom R; Schweizer, Tom A; Abrahamson, Simon; Macdonald, R Loch

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is a neurological syndrome with complex systemic complications. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to the acute extravasation of arterial blood under high pressure into the subarachnoid space and often into the brain parenchyma and ventricles. The haemorrhage triggers a cascade of complex events, which ultimately can result in early brain injury, delayed cerebral ischaemia, and systemic complications. Although patients with poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies 4 and 5) are at higher risk of early brain injury, delayed cerebral ischaemia, and systemic complications, the early and aggressive treatment of this patient population has decreased overall mortality from more than 50% to 35% in the last four decades. These management strategies include (1) transfer to a high-volume centre, (2) neurological and systemic support in a dedicated neurological intensive care unit, (3) early aneurysm repair, (4) use of multimodal neuromonitoring, (5) control of intracranial pressure and the optimisation of cerebral oxygen delivery, (6) prevention and treatment of medical complications, and (7) prevention, monitoring, and aggressive treatment of delayed cerebral ischaemia. The aim of this article is to provide a summary of critical care management strategies applied to the subarachnoid haemorrhage population, especially for patients in poor neurological condition, on the basis of the modern concepts of early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischaemia. PMID:26801901

  5. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children caused by cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S

    1983-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children. PMID:6101222

  6. [Inverted takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to subarachnoid haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Michels, G; Pfister, R

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of a 34-year-old woman with cardiogenic shock after successful resuscitation. In the medical history migraine was known. Emergency echocardiography demonstrated left ventricular dysfunction with hypokinetic basal and midventricular segments and hyperkinetic apex. Cerebral computed tomography suggested a massive subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with transtentorial herniation, so that taking into account the clinical history (severe headache) the diagnosis of a SAH-associated inverted takotsubo cardiomyopathy could be made. In the case of subarachnoid haemorrhage it should be noted that extracerebral organ dysfunction, e.g. inverted takotsubo cardiomyopathy, frequently occurs. PMID:25994842

  7. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Terrance T; Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Brody, David L

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury-axonal injury-is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage, raising the prospect of common diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches to these conditions. PMID:26115676

  8. Pathological mechanisms underlying aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Penn, David L; Witte, Samantha R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Sander Connolly, E

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is a cerebrovascular disease associated with an overall mortality as high as 50%. Delayed ischaemic neurologic deficits are a major contributor to this statistic, as well as the significant morbidity associated with the disease. Studies examining the pathophysiologic events causing these devastating changes in cerebral blood flow have identified several mechanisms which are thought to contribute to the development of delayed ischaemic neurological deficits, perhaps the most damaging of which are increased intracranial pressure and cerebral vasospasm. In addition, the presence of blood in the subarachnoid space can trigger a myriad of reactions resulting in increased capillary permeability, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and inflammation in surrounding neural tissue that adds to the devastating effects of haemorrhage. A detailed understanding of the post-haemorrhagic cellular and molecular changes that contribute to the development of cerebral ischaemia and vasospasm is imperative to the formulation of treatment and prevention options for subarachnoid haemorrhage patients. Despite a large body of research within this field, a complete understanding of rupture and vasospasm remains elusive. This study reviews the role of vasoactive substances, such as endothelin-1, as well as the histochemistry and molecular pathology of post-haemorrhage inflammation in the development of vasospasm and cerebral ischaemia. PMID:25113969

  9. Ultrastructure of cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, J D; Graham, D I; Matear, E; MacPherson, P; Tamura, A; Fitch, W

    1985-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy have been used to examine the ultrastructure of cerebral arteries taken from dogs up to nine days following the injection of autologous blood into the suprachiasmatic cistern and using meticulous perfusion-fixation technique. No ultrastructural changes in the cerebral arteries were noted either at sites of radiologically demonstrated arterial constriction or elsewhere. The only abnormality noted was the presence of some leucocytes and macrophages in the subarachnoid space surrounding the arteries. These results are discussed in relation to changes in cerebrovascular reactivity that occur at this stage following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Images PMID:3981195

  10. Intracranial transthecal subarachnoid fat emboli and subarachnoid haemorrhage arising from a sacral fracture and dural tear

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J K H; Malfair, D; Vertinsky, T; Heran, M K S; Graeb, D

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 28-year-old man with an unusual aetiology of lipid-dense material in the subarachnoid space. CT of the head at presentation was normal. MRI of the spine revealed a defect in the dura at L5/S1, with avulsed left L5 and S1 nerve roots. Haematoma and marrow fat were observed in close relation to the dural tear adjacent to the sacral fracture. Head CT and MRI subsequently demonstrated new lipid-dense material and haemorrhage in the subarachnoid space after sacral instrumentation, presumably owing to transthecal displacement of fatty marrow. PMID:20139244

  11. Complications and follow up of subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Danière, F; Gascou, G; Menjot de Champfleur, N; Machi, P; Leboucq, N; Riquelme, C; Ruiz, C; Bonafé, A; Costalat, V

    2015-01-01

    Complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage are the major life threatening and functional components of the follow up of a ruptured aneurysm. Knowing how to identify these is a key challenge. They vary in type throughout the postoperative follow up period. The aim of this article is firstly to list the main complications of the acute phase (rebleeding, acute hydrocephalus, acute ischemic injury and non-neurological complications), the subacute phase (vasospasm) and the chronic phase of subarachnoid hemorrhages: (chronic hydrocephalus and cognitive disorders) and to describe their major clinical and radiological features. Secondly, we describe the long-term follow up strategy for patients who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and have been treated endovascularly or by surgery. This follow up involves a combination of clinical consultations, cerebral MRI and at least one review angiogram. PMID:26119863

  12. Bleeding in the subarachnoid space: a possible complication during laser therapy for equine progressive ethmoid haematoma.

    PubMed

    Vreman, S; Wiemer, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-10-01

    A 10-year-old KWPN (Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands) gelding was euthanized after developing severe neurological symptoms preceded by severe epistaxis during laser treatment for progressive ethmoid haematoma (PEH) in the right nasal cavity. Postmortem examination of the head revealed a large amount of clotted blood between the right ventral and dorsal conchae in the nasal cavity and acute haemorrhage in the right subarachnoid space. Histologically, there was moderate, acute polioencephalomalacia in the neuropil adjacent to the haemorrhage. The haemorrhages were most likely caused by the laser treatment and therefore should be considered a possible complication that could lead to severe peracute neurological symptoms. PMID:24199337

  13. Magnesium for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (MASH-2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W Peter; van Kooten, Fop; Kuijsten, Hans AJM; Boiten, Jelis; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Lavados, Pablo M; Rinkel, Gabriel JE; van den Bergh, Walter M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia. We did a trial to test whether magnesium therapy improves outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods We did this phase 3 randomised, placebo-controlled trial in eight centres in Europe and South America. We randomly assigned (with computer-generated random numbers, with permuted blocks of four, stratified by centre) patients aged 18 years or older with an aneurysmal pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage on brain imaging who were admitted to hospital within 4 days of haemorrhage, to receive intravenous magnesium sulphate, 64 mmol/day, or placebo. We excluded patients with renal failure or bodyweight lower than 50 kg. Patients, treating physicians, and investigators assessing outcomes and analysing data were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was poor outcomedefined as a score of 45 on the modified Rankin Scale3 months after subarachnoid haemorrhage, or death. We analysed results by intention to treat. We also updated a previous meta-analysis of trials of magnesium treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 68742385) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2006-003523-36). Findings 1204 patients were enrolled, one of whom had his treatment allocation lost. 606 patients were assigned to the magnesium group (two lost to follow-up), 597 to the placebo (one lost to follow-up). 158 patients (262%) had poor outcome in the magnesium group compared with 151 (253%) in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 103, 95% CI 085125). Our updated meta-analysis of seven randomised trials involving 2047 patients shows that magnesium is not superior to placebo for reduction of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (RR 096, 95% CI 086108). Interpretation Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Funding Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council. PMID:22633825

  14. Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Rare Complication of Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae Bum; Park, Joung Soo

    2009-01-01

    On rare occasions, percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) may be associated with adverse spinal and extraspinal events. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not been reported complication following a PV. This is a report of two elderly women with spine compressions who developed idiopathic SAH after injecting polymethylmethacrylate into the thoracolumbar region transcutaneously. PV was performed as an usual manner on prone position under local anesthesia for these patients. During the interventions, two patients complained of a bursting nature of headache and their arterial blood pressure was jumped up. Computed tomography scans revealed symmetric SAH on the both hemispheres and moderate degree of hydrocephalus. Any intracranial vascular abnormalities for their SAH were not evident on modern neuroangiography modalities. One patient received a ventricular shunt surgery, but both fully recovered from the procedure-related SAH. The pathophysiologic mechanism that induce SAH will be discussed, with suggesting the manner that prevent and minimize this rare intracranial complication after PV. PMID:19609425

  15. Fatal subarachnoidal haemorrhage in a Norwegian traveller with dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jensenius, Mogens; Berild, Dag; Ormaasen, Vidar; Maehlen, Jan; Lindegren, Gunnel; Falk, Kerstin I

    2007-01-01

    We present a Norwegian female in her thirties who acquired dengue fever caused by dengue virus serotype 2 while travelling to Mexico. When hospitalised 3 days after symptom onset, the patient had severe headache, fever, rash and a positive tourniquet test, but did not fulfil the criteria of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Five days later she developed a fatal subarachnoidal haemorrhage. A post-mortem examination failed to reveal any intracranial arterial aneurysm. Our case was consistent with so called 'dengue fever with haemorrhages', a recently described entity that mainly affects adults and may cause severe bleedings also in the absence of DHF. PMID:17366065

  16. Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, J. D.; Murray, G. D.; Illingworth, R.; Shaw, M. D.; Teasdale, G. M.; Foy, P. M.; Humphrey, P. R.; Lang, D. A.; Nelson, R.; Richards, P.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction of 15% a minimum of 540 patients was required. SETTING--Four regional neurosurgical units in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS--In all 554 patients were recruited between June 1985 and September 1987 out of a population of 1115 patients admitted with subarachnoid haemorrhage proved by the results of lumbar puncture or computed tomography, or both. The main exclusion criterion was admission to the neurosurgical units more than 96 hours after subarachnoid haemorrhage. There were four breaks of code and no exclusions after entry. One patient was withdrawn and in 130 treatment was discontinued early. All patients were followed up for three months and were included in the analysis, except the patient who had been withdrawn. INTERVENTIONS--Placebo or nimodipine 60 mg was given orally every four hours for 21 days to 276 and 278 patients, respectively. Treatment was started within 96 hours after subarachnoid haemorrhage. END POINTS--Incidence of cerebral infarction and ischaemic neurological deficits and outcome three months after entry. MEASUREMENTS--Demographic and clinical data, including age, sex, history of hypertension and subarachnoid haemorrhage, severity of haemorrhage according to an adaptation of the Glasgow coma scale, number and site of aneurysms on angiography, and initial findings on computed tomography were measured at entry. Deterioration, defined as development of a focal sign or fall of more than one point on the Glasgow coma scale for more than six hours, was investigated by using clinical criteria and by computed tomography, by lumbar puncture, or at necropsy when appropriate. All episodes of deterioration and all patients with a three month outcome other than a good recovery were assessed by a review committee. MAIN RESULTS--Demographic and clinical data at entry were similar in the two groups. In patients given nimodipine the incidence of cerebral infarction was 22% (61/278) compared with 33% (92/276) in those given placebo, a significant reduction of 34% (95% confidence interval 13 to 50%). Poor outcomes were also significantly reduced by 40% (95% confidence interval 20 to 55%) with nimodipine (20% (55/278) in patients given nimodipine v 33% (91/278) in those given placebo). CONCLUSIONS--Oral nimodipine 60 mg four hourly is well tolerated and reduces cerebral infarction snd improves outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:2496789

  17. Immunomodulators interfere with angiopathy but not vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ryba, M; Iwańska, K; Walski, M; Pastuszko, M

    1991-01-01

    The present study deals with the effects of immunomodulators on the morphology of intracerebral arterial walls in rabbits with experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Immunostimulators:thymostimuline and inosine dimethylamino-isopropanol-p-acetamido-benzoate were found to aggravate the angiopathic changes, whereas immunosuppressive drugs-cyclosporine A and azathioprine appeared to prevent the damage. The authors consider the possibility of using immunosuppressive drugs in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. PMID:1711764

  18. Pituitary apoplexy can mimic acute meningoencephalitis or subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Gregory, Stephen; Jaiganesh, Thiagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon but life-threatening condition that is often overlooked and underdiagnosed. We report a 45-year-old man who presented to our emergency department with a sudden onset headache, acute confusion, signs of meningeal irritation and ophthalmoplegia. An initial diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis was made, which was amended to pituitary apoplexy following thorough investigation within the emergency department.A 45-year-old man was brought to our emergency department by ambulance with a history of sudden onset of frontal headache and acute confusion. His wife provided the history. There was no significant past medical history of diabetes, hypertension, recent travel abroad, exposure to sick contacts, involvement in outdoor pursuits such as hiking/cave diving, or trauma. He worked in a bank and had been well until 24 h prior to the onset of sudden headache, which was gradually worsening in nature and associated with increasing confusion. The patient's wife reported that he had neither experienced any fevers, night sweats, or coryzal symptoms nor received any recent vaccinations. He was not on any regular medications. He was a non-smoker and occasionally consumed alcohol. There was no significant family history. On examination in the ED, his temperature was 37.6°C, his pulse was 110/min, and he was normotensive and normoglycaemic. A macular blanching rash was noted over the patient's trunk. The patient was disoriented to time and place. Neurological examination revealed reduced GCS (11/15-E3, M6, V2), marked neck stiffness, a positive Kernig's sign and a right sixth nerve palsy.A provisional diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis was made and the patient was started on a course of intravenous antibiotics with benzyl penicillin 1.2 g, cefotaxime 2 g and acyclovir 750 mg. Baseline blood investigations revealed hyponatraemia (122 mmol/l), a white-cell count of 11 × 109/l and a C-reactive protein > 250. Due to the sudden onset of the symptoms and lack of prodrome, an urgent CT head scan was performed to rule out a cerebrovascular event. The scan demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland (3 cm in diameter) with impingement of the optic chiasm. The centre of the enlarged pituitary gland was noted to be hypodense in comparison to its periphery, which was consistent with a diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy. A subsequent MRI confirmed the diagnosis (Figure 1) of an enlarged sella containing abnormal soft tissue with increased signal intensity suggestive of haemorrhage (Figure 1A).Post-MRI a lumbar puncture was performed revealing glucose 3.4 mmol/l, protein 1.0 g/l, red cells of 53/mm3 and white cells of 174/mm3 with predominant neutrophilia. No organisms were seen, and CSF cultures and HSV DNA tests were found to be negative. Endocrinological investigations demonstrated low concentrations of thyroid hormones [TSH: 0.14 mIu/l (0.35-5.5 mlU/l), FT3: 1.1 nmol/l (1.2-3.0 nmol/l), FT4: 9.6 pmol/l (8-22 pmol/l)], gonadal hormones (LH: < 1 u/l) and prolactin: 16 u/l (<450 u/l). Serum FSH was 2.9 u/l (0.8-11.5 u/L) and cortisol 575 nmol/l (450-700 nmol/l). The patient was treated for hypopituitarism based on clinical and radiological findings with intravenous fluids, hydrocortisone (100 mg) and thyroxine (50 μg) as loading doses in the ED.Within 24 h of commencement of therapy the patient's GCS rose to 15, and within 48 h there was marked improvement in the right sixth cranial nerve palsy. Formal visual field assessment demonstrated temporal visual field loss in the left eye. The patient was discharged to his usual residence a week later and follow-up was organised with both the endocrinologists and ophthalmologists. Follow-up MRI demonstrated that there was no significant change in either size or signal characteristics of the pituitary fossa mass (Figure 1B). PMID:21975129

  19. Advances in the understanding of delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Liam; Andrews, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischaemia has been described as the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who survive the initial aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischaemia is meagre at best and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine remains the only intervention to consistently improve functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. There is substantial evidence to support cerebral vessel narrowing as a causative factor in delayed cerebral ischaemia, but contemporary research demonstrating improvements in vessel narrowing has failed to show improved functional outcomes. This has encouraged researchers to investigate other potential causes of delayed cerebral ischaemia, such as early brain injury, microthrombosis, and cortical spreading depolarisation. Adherence to a common definition of delayed cerebral ischaemia is needed in order to allow easier assessment of studies using multiple different terms. Furthermore, improved recognition of delayed cerebral ischaemia would not only allow for faster treatment but also better assessment of interventions. Finally, understanding nimodipine’s mechanism of action may allow us to develop similar agents with improved efficacy. PMID:26937276

  20. Haemorrhagic complications of pancreatitis: presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849330

  1. Measurement of total circulating blood volume following subarachnoid haemorrhage: methodological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R J; Roberts, J; Ackery, D M; Pickard, J D

    1987-01-01

    The total circulating blood volume (TCBV) and total body/venous haematocrit ratio (Htb/Hv) was determined by simultaneous measurement of the red cell volume (RCV) and the plasma volume (PV) in 10 subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients, 10 supine bedresting control patients and 20 ambulant out-patients. The mean Htb/Hv of the SAH patients, 0.866, was found to be significantly lower than that of the supine controls, 0.908, and the ambulant patients, 0.909, (p less than 0.01). Using the ratio 0.866 the total circulating blood volume of the SAH patients was calculated from either their RCV or their PV and compared with their measured TCBV. Expressed as a percentage of measured TCBV the mean errors of these single volume determinations were 2.84% and 1.76% respectively. The significance of these changes in the Htb/Hv ratio of SAH patients is discussed in relation to the circulatory disturbances they suffer. PMID:3668563

  2. Nicardipine in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-qiang; Jiang, Fu-gang; Feng, Zi-min; Wang, Tian-yi

    2013-03-01

    Nicardipine is a dihydropyridine-type Ca(2+) channel blocker with a powerful antihypertensive activity and a unique cerebrovascular profile. Recent studies have examined nicardipine for the treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), but have shown inconsistent results. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinical effectiveness of nicardipine in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm in patients who had suffered from aneurysmal SAH. Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases were searched for the controlled trials evaluating nicardipine for treating SAH after a ruptured aneurysm, without language restrictions. Moreover, a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles was also conducted. Two researchers of the present study independently performed the literature search and the data extraction. The meta-analyses were performed using the software RevMan 4.2.10 (provided by the Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Five published manuscripts involving 1,154 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Nicardipine infusion reduced the risk of poor outcome (death, vegetative state, or dependency) and mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.58 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.90] and 0.45 (95 % CI 0.15-1.29), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that nicardipine therapy reduces the likelihood of poor outcome and mortality in patients after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:23111775

  3. CallFleming syndrome associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage: three new cases

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, R R; Allen, C M C; Baron, J-C

    2009-01-01

    The CallFleming syndrome (CFS) comprises acute severe recurrent (thunderclap) headaches, occasional transient or fluctuating neurological abnormalities and reversible segmental cerebral vasoconstriction. It is a benign condition with an excellent prognosis, yet because it is often clinically and radiologically similar to a number of commonly encountered conditions, diagnostic difficulties may arise, leading to inappropriate, and even potentially harmful, investigative and therapeutic approaches. Three personal cases are presented to highlight the occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) as part of CFS. In two patients with a positive CT head, SAH involved the sulci in the upper cerebral convexity, an unusual location in aneurysmal SAH. SAH is not an uncommon feature of CFS, occurring in approximately 25% of reported cases, and may pose a diagnostic challenge. CFS has a relatively characteristic spectrum of features, allowing a confident diagnosis in most cases, even when atypical features such as SAH are present. Recognising the spectrum of abnormalities seen in CFS, including particularly SAH, allows a sound approach to a safe diagnosis. PMID:21686521

  4. Clinical Features and Complications in Idiopathic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Plata Bello, Julio; Acosta-Lopez, Silvia; Garcia-Marin, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Background Negative angiography subarachnoid hemorrhage, also known as idiopathic subarachnoid hemorrhage (iSAH), is a challenging pathologic condition whose evolution and final outcome is difficult to predict with certainty. This article describes the clinical features, the type of complications and rates, as well as the final outcome of patients with iSAH. Methods A prospective evaluation of patients with SAH was performed. Patients with a diagnosis of iSAH were included. Demographic data, clinical features, complication rates, and functional outcomes were all collected. iSAH cases were subsequently compared with patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) taken from the same period. Results Forty-nine patients fulfilled the criteria for iSAH. Patients with aSAH presented with a worse clinical condition and had a larger amount of blood in the initial computed tomography (CT) scan than iSAH patients. There were no differences in the incidence of acute hydrocephalus, and there was a positive correlation with the Fisher score and the initial clinical status in both groups. Vasospasm was more frequent among patients with aSAH, but the relationship between the incidence of vasospasm and the amount of blood in the initial CT scan was not linear. Good functional outcome was present in > 90% of iSAH patients. Conclusions Although iSAH generally has a good prognosis, it may be accompanied with serious complications. The incidence of acute hydrocephalus in iSAH is similar to that in aSAH. There is a lower incidence of vasospasm in iSAH than aSAH. A different relationship seems to exist between these complications and the amount of blood in the CT scan. PMID:26216737

  5. The role of transcranial Doppler in the management of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage--a review.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, K F

    1999-01-01

    Introduced 15 years ago, transcranial Doppler (TCD) recordings of blood-velocity in patients with recent subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have two objectives: to detect elevated blood velocities suggesting cerebral vasospasm (VSP) and to identify patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemic deficits (DID). The pathophysiological cascade causing DID is complex. Discrepancies between blood velocities and DID (presuming that there actually is an "ischemic threshold" for blood velocity in absolute terms, which seems most unlikely) have been demonstrated, particularly in patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) levels. Furthermore, the vessel showing the highest blood velocity is not always the one perfusing the area where ischemic symptoms arise, nor does the site of the greatest subarachnoid blood clot always relate to the ischemic brain region. Moreover, it is probable that the complex haemodynamic changes following SAH and the subsequent development of VSP may be underestimated if only considering the crude intracranial artery blood velocities. Cerebral blood flow measurements combined with TCD to assess both flow and velocity have emphasised this point. Despite these findings and ignoring the basic principles of cerebral haemodynamics, cerebral vasospasm is still being assessed from the intracranial velocity measurement alone. The addition of at least a careful measurement from the extracranial internal carotid artery--using the same TCD equipment and taking only a few short minutes to perform--allows a much more accurate assessment of the degree and the effects of vasospasm. This probably explains why the clinical value of TCD is still debated. There is still uncertainty as to the best method to prevent and to treat VSP, and the overall outcome after SAH depends on so many factors besides VSP. Conclusive evidence may therefore be hard to obtain, and it appears sound to conclude that even with advanced investigation technology available, proper selection, pre- peri- and postoperative care and timing of surgery remain cornerstones in the management of these patients,--equal in importance to their treatment in the operating room or in the interventional angiography suite. PMID:10337413

  6. Early rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage under intensive blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Oheda, Motoki; Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Kumai, Tadashi; Kawazoe, Yushi; Nakae, Shunsuke; Kato, Yoko; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to report the frequency and clinical characteristics of early rebleeding in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients who underwent intensive blood pressure (BP) management. Patients with aneurysmal SAH frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with elevated BP. Intensive BP management has been recommended to lower the risk of early rebleeding. However, few studies have reported the frequency of early rebleeding in SAH patients undergoing BP management. In our institution, SAH patients with systolic BP (SBP)>140 mmHg received continuous intravenous nicardipine to maintain their SBP within 120±20 mmHg after diagnosis. An attempt to implement intensive BP management was made on 309 consecutive SAH patients who presented to our ED within 48 hours of SAH onset. Overall, 24 (7.8%) of the 309 patients sustained early rebleeding. Fifteen patients sustained early rebleeding before the implementation of BP management, and the other nine sustained early rebleeding after the implementation of BP management. Therefore, the frequency of early rebleeding under BP management was 3.1% (9/294). When the 309 patients were dichotomised using ED SBP of 140 mmHg as a cut off (SBP>140 mmHg; n=239 versus SBP⩽140 mmHg; n=70), the latter counter-intuitively exhibited a significantly higher frequency of early rebleeding (5.9% versus 14.2%; p=0.04). This relatively low frequency of early rebleeding under BP management may be acceptable. However, early rebleeding is not eradicated even with strict BP control as factors other than elevated BP are involved. ED SBP within the target range (SBP⩽140 mmHg) does not negate the risk of early rebleeding. Other treatment options that reduce the risk should also be explored. PMID:26077940

  7. Antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage risk. A nationwide case-control study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Pottegård, Anton; García Rodríguez, Luis Alberto; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Hallas, Jesper; Gaist, David

    2015-11-01

    The study objective was to investigate the relationship between use of antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We identified patients discharged from Danish neurosurgery units with a first-ever SAH diagnosis in 2000 to 2012 (n=5,834). For each case, we selected 40 age-, sex- and period-matched population controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (aOR), adjusted for comorbidity, education level, and income. Low-dose aspirin (ASA) use for < 1 month was associated with an increased risk of SAH (aOR 1.75, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.40). This aOR decreased to 1.26 (95 %CI: 0.98-1.63) with 2-3 months of ASA use, and approached unity with use for more than three months (1.11, 95 %CI 0.97-1.27). Analyses with first-time users confirmed this pattern, which was also observed for clopidogrel. ASA treatment for three or more years was associated with an aOR of SAH of 1.13 (95 %CI: 0.86-1.49). Short-term use (< 1 month) of vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) yielded an aOR of 1.85 (95 %CI 0.97-3.51) which dropped after 3+ years to 1.24, 95 %CI: 0.86-1.77. The risk of SAH was higher in subjects in dual antithrombotic treatment (aOR 2.08, 95 %CI: 1.26-3.44), and in triple antithrombotic treatment (aOR 5.74, 95 %CI: 1.76-18.77). In conclusion, use of aspirin,clopidogrel and VKA were only associated with an increased risk of SAH in the first three months after starting treatment. Long-term aspirin use carried no reduced SAH risk. Results should be interpreted cautiously due to their observational nature. PMID:26202836

  8. Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage from rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a patient with pituitary macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Almeida Silva, J M; Campos, R R; Souza, R R; Sette Dos Santos, M E; Aguiar, G B

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a cerebral aneurysm in patients with pituitary adenoma is a rare event. Diagnostic suspicion may stem from magnetic resonance imaging, which should lead to complementary investigation. As for treatment, even in conditions in which there has been no previous bleeding, the simultaneous approach should be considered, prioritising the aneurysm most of the time. The present report describes the case of a patient with a history of pituitary macroadenoma, who had undergone a partial transsphenoidal resection ten years earlier. Admission to our service occurred after a sudden headache followed by mental confusion. A cranial computed tomography showed subarachnoid haemorrhage and expansive suprasellar lesion. Cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm of the anterior communicating complex. The patient underwent a surgical procedure for microsurgical clipping of the aneurysm and partial resection of the pituitary tumour. We have also included a brief review of the literature on this subject. PMID:23845268

  9. Retrograde cannulation of the jugular vein: erroneous positioning of the catheter in the subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, P; Lusenti, F; Martini, C; Massei, R

    1995-03-01

    This report describes one complication related to retrograde positioning of a catheter in the jugular vein in a patient in a coma resulting from subarachnoid haemorrhage. The catheter was found in the cervical subarachnoid space, as confirmed by radiography with contrast medium. Attention is focused on the fact that this technique, usually performed easily and safely, may occasionally present potentially severe complications. PMID:7718388

  10. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%). Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65), with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64). Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681 PMID:20920243

  11. Predictive model for patients with poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage in 30-day observation: a 9-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Szklener, Sebastian; Melges, Anna; Korchut, Agnieszka; Zaluska, Wojciech; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Rejdak, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors and build the predictive model based on poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) population received only supportive symptomatic treatment. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Intensive care unit at the Clinical Department of Neurology. Participants A total of 101 patients with spontaneous SAH disqualified from neurosurgical operative treatment due to poor clinical condition. Data were collected over a 9-year period. Outcome measures Unfavourable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Score ≥5 at 30 days of observation. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale score, increasing age, Fisher grade and admission leucocytosis as independent predictive factors. The proposed scale subdivides the study population into four prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes: grade I: probability of favourable outcome 89.9%; grade II: 47.5%; grade III: 4.2%; grade IV: 0%. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the prediction of outcome performed by the new scale had an area under the curve (AUC)=0.910 (excellent accuracy). Conclusions Unfavourable outcome in non-operated patients with poor-grade SAH is strongly predicted by traditional unmodifiable factors such as age, amount of bleeding in CT, level of consciousness as well as leucocytosis. A new predictive scale based on the above parameters seems to reliably predict the outcome and may contribute to more effective planning of therapeutic management in patients with poor-grade SAH. PMID:26070797

  12. Spontaneous hyphaema and corneal haemorrhage as complications of microbial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, L D; Egan, K M

    1987-01-01

    Hyphaema developed spontaneously in 16 of 458 patients with microbial keratitis treated at two centres on the East and West Coasts of the United States. Chronic corneal conditions were often present, and three cases had rubeosis iridis. Inflamed iris vessels were assumed to be the source of the haemorrhage. The hyphaemas tended to persist longer than is usual, particularly when coincident with a hypopyon. Recurrent hyphaemas are reported in two patients from outside this series. Spontaneous corneal haemorrhage was seen in three cases. Subepithelial bleeding settled rapidly, but a combined midstromal and pre-Descemet's haematoma cleared more slowly. Anterior segment bleeding was significantly associated with advanced age, female sex, infection with Gram-positive organisms, and hypopyon. PMID:3427003

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  14. Topiramate attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats via duplex protection against inflammation and neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Guo, Song-Xue; Li, Jian-Ru; Du, Hang-Gen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun

    2015-10-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. PMID:26086367

  15. Improvement in patient outcomes following endovascular treatment of WFNS grade V subarachnoid haemorrhage from 2000 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Sadato, Akiyo; Oheda, Motoki; Hayakawa, Motoharu; Nakae, Shunsuke; Ohmi, Tatsuo; Adachi, Kazuhide; Nakahara, Ichiro; Hirose, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    Patient outcomes following grade V subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been dismal, although they may have improved following recent technological advances in endovascular treatment (EVT). A single-centre, retrospective study was conducted to evaluate whether outcomes have improved from 2000 to 2014 for patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade V SAH. Coiling has been the preferred first-line treatment for grade V SAH patients in our institution since 2000. Patients who underwent EVT (n=115) were grouped on the basis of their hospital admission year: 2000-2004 (n=44), 2005-2009 (n=37) and 2010-2014 (n=34). Patient demographics, outcomes and in-hospital mortality rates were compared between the groups. Patient outcomes at discharge were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), with GOS scores of 4-5 defined as favourable outcomes. There were no significant intergroup differences in patient demographics. In addition, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of favourable outcomes (14% in 2000-2004, 16% in 2005-2009 and 26% in 2010-2014). Mortality rates were 52% in 2000-2004, 43% in 2005-2009 and 24% in 2010-2014, with a significantly lower mortality rate in 2010-2014 than in 2000-2004 (p=0.01). Both perioperative rebleeding and delayed cerebral ischaemia decreased over time; however, multivariate regression analysis showed that the former contributed more to the decrease in mortality. Age was the only variable associated with favourable outcomes. The results of this study indicate that EVT is an appropriate therapeutic option for grade V SAH patients. However, multi-centre, prospective trials are required to provide evidence-based verification of the efficacy of EVT. PMID:26778358

  16. Difference in Aneurysm Characteristics between Patients with Familial and Sporadic Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Vlak, Monique H. M.; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Ruigrok, Ynte M.

    2016-01-01

    Object Patients with familial intracranial aneurysms (IA) have a higher risk of rupture than patients with sporadic IA. We compared geometric and morphological risk factors for aneurysmal rupture between patients with familial and sporadic aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) to analyse if these risk factors contribute to the increased rupture rate of familial IA. Methods Geometric and morphological aneurysm characteristics were studied on CT-angiography in a prospectively collected series of patients with familial and sporadic aSAH, admitted between September 2006 and September 2009, and additional patients with familial aSAH retrieved from the prospectively collected database of familial IA patients of our center. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare the aneurysm characteristics between patients with familial and sporadic aSAH. Results We studied 67 patients with familial and 184 with sporadic aSAH. OR’s for familial compared with sporadic aSAH were for oval shape 1.16(95%CI:0.65–2.09), oblong shape 0.26(95%CI:0.03–2.13), irregular shape 0.83(95%CI:0.47–1.49), aspect ratio ≥ 1.6 0.94(95%CI:0.54–1.66), contact with the perianeurysmal environment (PAE) 1.15(95%CI:0.56–2.40), deformation by the PAE 1.05(95%CI:0.47–2.35) and for dominance of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) in case of PCoA aneurysms 1.97(95% CI:0.50–7.83). Conclusions The geometric and morphological risk factors for aneurysm rupture do not have a higher prevalence in familial than in sporadic aSAH and thus do not explain the increased risk of IA rupture in patients with familial IA. We recommend further search for other potential risk factors for rupture of familial IA, such as genetic factors. PMID:27112915

  17. Predicting long-term outcome in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients utilising the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Starke, Robert M; Komotar, Ricardo J; Otten, Marc L; Schmidt, J Michael; Fernandez, Luis D; Rincon, Fred; Gordon, Errol; Badjatia, Neeraj; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

    2009-01-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most universally accepted system for grading level of consciousness. Predicting outcome is particularly difficult in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) patients. We hypothesised that the GCS and individual examination components would correlate with long-term outcome and have varying prognostic value depending on assessment time points. GCS scores of 160 aSAH patients presenting in stupor or coma were prospectively recorded on admission and each subsequent day until hospital day 14. Early treatment was planned for each patient unless the patient's family refused aggressive intervention or the patient died before surgery. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 14 days, 3 months, and one year. All patients who did not receive surgical treatment died within one year. Of the 104 patients who received surgical treatment, 13.5% of them had a favourable outcome at 14 days, 38.5% at 3 months, and 51% at one year (p<0.0001). Admission GCS scores significantly correlated with outcome (Spearman rank test, rs=0.472, p<0.0001). On admission, motor examination correlated best with one-year outcome (rs=0.533, p<0.0001). Each point increase in motor examination predicted a 1.8-fold increased odds of favourable long-term outcome (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.3). At discharge, eye examination (rs=0.760, p<0.0001) correlated best with one-year outcome, and a one point increase in eye examination predicted a 3.1-fold increased odds of favourable outcome (95% CI, 1.8-5.4). During hospitalisation, the best eye exam (rs=0.738, p<0.0001) and worst motor exam (rs=0.612, p<0.0001) were the most highly correlated with the one-year outcome. Long-term follow-up is necessary when evaluating recovery after aSAH, as outcomes improve significantly during the first year. The GCS and its individual components correlate well with long-term outcome. Admission motor examination and spontaneous eye opening during hospitalisation are most predictive of favourable recovery. PMID:19008104

  18. The Effect of Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis on the Vasospasm and Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Patients Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hatefi, Masoud; Azhary, Shirzad; Naebaghaee, Hussein; Mohamadi, Hasan Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: SAH (Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage) is a life threatening that is associated with complications such as vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of FLT (Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis) on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in ACoA (Anterior Communicating Artery) aneurismal in SAH. Materials and Methods: The data of 50 ruptured ACoA aneurism patients were selected during the year 2001-2009 admitted to Imam Hussein hospital, Tehran, IR. In a randomized double-blind trial patients assigned in two group {with fenestration (FLT, n=25), without fenestration (No FLT, n=25)}. All patients underwent craniotomy by a single neurosurgeon. Patient’s age, sex, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, vasospasm, presence of hydrocephalus and incidences of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were compared between groups. Results: There were no significant differences among groups in relation to demographic characteristics, neurological scale scores (Hunt-Hess grade) and the severity of the SAH (Fisher grade) (p>0.05). The rate of hydrocephalus on admission, were 24% and 16% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). The shunt placement postoperatively in FLT and no FLT group were 16% and 12% respectively (p>0.05). The clinical vasospasm was 20% and 24% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: Despite FLT can be a safe method there were not significant differences of FLT on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. A systematic evaluation with multisurgeon, multicentre and with greater sample size to disclose reality is suggested. PMID:26393164

  19. Pancreatico-enteric fistula post pancreatic duct ligation for delayed haemorrhage complicating pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Adarsh; Noaman, Islam; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Khawar, Mahwish; Khalaf, Hatem; Elaffandi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic fistula remains the main cause for postoperative morbidity following pancreaticoduodenectomy. The coincidence of sentinel bleed prior to post pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH) and pancreatic fistula is associated with very high mortality. Presentation of case We report a case of pancreaticoduodenectomy complicated by postoperative leak and hematemesis. Severe delayed haemorrhage from the pancreatico-jejunostomy necessitated re-laparotomy and complete disconnection of the pancreatic anastomosis. Hemodynamic instability precluded a pancreatectomy or creation of a new anastomosis. A follow up MRI done 3 weeks after the patient’s discharge demonstrated a fistulous tract causing a communication between both the pancreatic and biliary systems and the enteric loop. Discussion Spontaneous development a pancreatico-enteric fistula despite ligation of the pancreatic duct and complete disconnection of the pancreatic anastomosis has never been reported in literature to date. Conclusion Pancreatic duct occlusion may be considered over a completion pancreatectomy or revisional pancreatic anastomosis in hemodynamically unstable and challenging cases. PMID:26921533

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by diffuse alveolar haemorrhage: risk factors, therapy and survival

    PubMed Central

    Kazzaz, Nayef M; Coit, Patrick; Lewis, Emily E; McCune, W Joseph; Sawalha, Amr H; Knight, Jason S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is recognised as a life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), little is known about its risk factors and response to treatment. We describe 22 cases of DAH in a US lupus cohort of approximately 1000 patients, and compare them to 66 controls from the same outpatient cohort. Methods We captured variables pertaining to diagnoses of SLE and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and analysed them by univariate testing. Those variables with p values <0.05 were then further considered in a multivariate model. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for each group, and survival was analysed by Log-rank test. Results Of the 22 patients with DAH, 59% were diagnosed with DAH within 5 years of lupus diagnosis. By univariate testing, several manifestations of SLE and APS were more common in patients with DAH, including history of thrombocytopenia, cardiac valve disease, low C3, leucopenia, neuropsychiatric features, haemolysis, arterial thrombosis, lupus anticoagulant, secondary APS and low C4. On multivariate analysis, history of thrombocytopenia and low C3 were maintained as independent risk factors. Importantly, only two patients had platelet counts <50 000/µL at the time of the DAH episode, arguing that DAH was not simply a haemorrhagic complication of thrombocytopenia. All patients were treated with increased immunosuppression, including various combinations of corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil. Notably, all patients in the cohort survived their initial episode of DAH. While the patients with DAH did well in the short-term, their long-term survival was significantly worse than controls. Several of the deaths were attributable to thrombotic complications after recovering from DAH. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case–control study of lupus DAH to date. History of thrombocytopenia was strongly predictive of DAH (OR ∼40). A number of APS manifestations correlated with DAH by univariate analysis, and deserve further consideration in larger studies. PMID:26430514

  1. Tonic-Clonic Activity at Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Onset: Impact on Complications and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Lantigua, Hector; Zammit, Christopher; Tadi, Prasanna; Schmidt, J. Michael; Falo, M. Cristina; Agarwal, Sachin; Mayer, Stephan A.; Claassen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tonic-clonic activity (TCA) at onset complicates 3% to 21% of cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, including seizures, remains unclear. One study associated onset TCA with poor clinical outcome at 6 weeks after SAH, but to our knowledge no other studies have confirmed this relationship. This study aims to assess the impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months. Methods Analysis of a prospective study cohort of 1479 SAH patients admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between 1996 and 2012. TCA within 6 hours of hemorrhage onset was identified based on accounts of emergency care providers or family witnesses. Results TCA at onset was described in 170 patients (11%). Patients with onset TCA were younger (P = 0.002), presented more often with poor clinical grade (55% vs. 26%, P<0.001) and had larger amounts of cisternal, intraventricular, and intracerebral blood than those without onset TCA (all, P<0.001). After adjusting for known confounders, onset TCA was significantly associated with in-hospital seizures (OR 3.80, 95%-CI: 2.43–5.96, P<0.001), in-hospital pneumonia (OR 1.56, 95%-CI: 1.06–2.31, p = 0.02), and delayed cerebral ischemia (OR 1.77, 95%-CI: 1.21–2.58, P = 0.003). At 3 months, however, onset TCA was not associated with poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy after adjusting for age, admission clinical grade, and cisternal blood volume. Conclusions Onset TCA is not a rare event as it complicates 11% of cases of SAH. New and clinically relevant findings are the association of onset TCA with in-hospital seizures, pneumonia and delayed cerebral ischemia. Despite the increased risk of in-hospital complications, onset TCA is not associated with disability, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months. PMID:23951155

  2. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Chisho; Satoh, Noriyuki; Sugawara, Shinichi; Kuriyama, Chizuko; Kikuchi, Akio; Ohta, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman was admitted because of a high fever, right ptosis, chemosis, proptosis and ocular muscle palsy. Cranial MRI revealed a cavernous sinus thrombosis and a subarachnoid abscess. Carotid angio-gram demonstrated marked stenosis as well as aneurismal formation of the right internal carotid artery at the intracavernous portion. Chest radiograph showed bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules, some of which contained a cavity. Blood culture was positive for Streptococcus constellatus. She was diagnosed with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli. She recovered with partial ocular sequelae as a result of seven weeks of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. PMID:17380002

  3. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated with different manifestations of transient abnormal left ventricular wall motion: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Fumitaka; Tsuzuki, Takashi; Thoma, Yoshiki; Shiono, Shigeru; Tabuse, Hisayuki; Hoshida, Thoru; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2006-05-01

    Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient abnormal left ventricular wall motion. Case 1 was a 56-year-old man. Electrocardiography showed ST segment elevation in leads I, II, II, aVL, aVF, V3-V6. Echocardiography showed localized left ventricular hypokinesis around the apical area (takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy). Ejection fraction was 20% (1st hospital day). Troponin T was positive. Case 2 was a 48-year-old woman. Electrocardiography showed ST segment elevation in leads I, aVL, V2-V6 and ST segment depression in leads II, III, aVF, V1. Echocardiography showed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis. Ejection fraction was 21% (1st hospital day). Troponin T was positive. These two patients had no history of cardiac disease, and coronary angiography showed no stenosis or obstruction. Catecholamine was given for 1 day(Case 1) and for about 2 weeks (Case 2). Pimobendane was given to Case 2. Ejection fraction was 57% in Case 1 (2nd hospital day) and 33% (6th hospital day), 43% (7th hospital day)and 58% (16th hospital day)in Case 2. The recovery period of left ventricular abnormal wall motion and the medication period were longer in Case 2 showing diffuse hypokinesis than in Case 1 showing takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. PMID:16764331

  4. Complications of Uterine Fibroids and Their Management, Surgical Management of Fibroids, Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy versus Hysterectomy, Haemorrhage, Adhesions, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Liselotte; Schollmeyer, Thoralf; Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A critical analysis of the surgical treatment of fibroids compares all available techniques of myomectomy. Different statistical analyses reveal the advantages of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms. Very seldom does peritonitis occur. Infertility may result from continuous metro and menorrhagia. The difficulty of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic myomectomy lies in achieving satisfactory haemostasis using the appropriate sutures. The hysteroscopic myomectomy requires an operative hysteroscope and a well-experienced gynaecologic surgeon. PMID:22619681

  5. Postpartum Pyomyoma, a Rare Complication of Sepsis Associated with Chorioamnionitis and Massive Postpartum Haemorrhage Treated with an Intrauterine Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Mandeep; Gailer, Ruth; Iskaros, Joseph; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of a postpartum pyomyoma, a rare but serious complication of uterine leiomyomata in a 28-year-old primigravida. The patient was treated for an Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) at 16 weeks of gestation. She had asymptomatic short cervical length on ultrasound scan at 20 weeks that was managed conservatively due to the presence of further UTI and received antibiotics. She was known to have a left sided intramural leiomyoma. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 23+1 weeks of gestation and the next day she had spontaneous vaginal delivery and collapsed with E. Coli septic shock, massive postpartum haemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation and was successfully treated with oxytocic drugs, a Rusch intrauterine balloon, and intravenous antibiotics. Eleven days postnatally she re-presented with systemic sepsis and was treated for retained products of conception. Sepsis persisted and investigations showed a postpartum pyomyoma that was initially managed with intravenous antibiotics to avoid surgery. Ultimately she required laparotomy, drainage of pyomyoma, and myomectomy. Postoperative recovery was good and the patient had a successful pregnancy two years later. PMID:26199774

  6. Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Dutta, Tanya; Melcer, Joshua; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac manifestations are recognized complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy is one complication that is seen in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. It can present as transient diffuse left ventricular dysfunction or as transient regional wall motion abnormalities. It occurs more frequently with neurologically severe-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with increased morbidity and poor clinical outcomes. Managing this subset of patients is challenging. Early identification followed by a multidisciplinary team approach can potentially improve outcomes. PMID:25606704

  7. Haemorrhagic smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. F.; Coffee, G.; Creel, S. M.; Gaal, A.; Githens, J. H.; Rao, A. R.; Babu, B. V. Sundara; Kempe, C. H.

    1965-01-01

    In an investigation of specific haematological defects that might account for the haemorrhagic diathesis in certain smallpox patients, 93 patients with haemorrhagic and non-haemorrhagic forms of the disease were subjected to a variety of bleeding and coagulation studies. The findings indicate that smallpox patients with no clinical evidence of haemorrhage have no significant clotting defects although many have decreased platelets and clot retraction abnormality. Patients with the late haemorrhagic form of smallpox consistently show thrombocytopenia and associated abnormalities in the bleeding time, tourniquet test and clot retraction; some also have slightly depressed specific prothrombin activity. Patients with the severe, and uniformly fatal, early haemorrhagic form have severe thrombocytopenia, a marked decrease in specific prothrombin activity and prolongation of the prothrombin complex times. They also have a marked prolongation of the thrombin time, suggesting the presence of a circulating antithrombin. Both early and late haemorrhagic smallpox patients also have a marked abnormality of prothrombin consumption, indicating impaired plasma thromboplastin production. This finding could be explained by the thrombocytopenia present in all haemorrhagic cases. PMID:5295141

  8. The dilemma of complicated shunt valves: How to identify patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage who will benefit from a simple valve?

    PubMed Central

    von der Brelie, Christian; Meier, Ullrich; Gräwe, Alexander; Lemcke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sophisticated shunt valves provide the possibility of pressure adjustment and antisiphon control but have a higher probability of valve dysfunction especially in a posthemorrhagic setting. The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinical outcome of patients with shunt dependent posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to identify patients who would benefit from a simple differential pressure valve. Methods: From 2000 to 2013, 547 patients with aneurysmatic SAH were treated at our institution, 114 underwent ventricular shunt placement (21.1%). 47 patients with available pre- and post-operative computed tomography scans, and an available follow-up of minimum 6 months were included. In order to measure the survival time which a nonprogrammable differential pressure valve would have had in an individual patient we defined the initial equalized shunt survival time (IESS). IESS is the time until surgical revisions of fixed differential pressure or flow-regulated valves for the treatment of over- or under-drainage as well as re-programming of adjustable valves due to over- or under-drainage. Results: Twenty patients were treated with fixed differential pressure valves, 15 patients were treated with flow-regulated valves, and 12 underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement with differential pressure valves assisted by a gravitational unit. Patients who reacted with remarkable changes of the ventricular width after the insertion of external ventricular drainage (EVD), before shunt placement, showed a significantly longer IESS. Conclusions: Decline of the ventricular width after EVD placement was a predictor for successful VP shunt therapy in the later course of disease. Possibly, this could allow identifying patients who benefit from a simple differential pressure valve or a flow-regulated valve, and thus could possibly avoid valve-associated complications of a programmable valve in the later course of disease. PMID:26933344

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain CT scan angiography (using contrast dye) Transcranial Doppler ultrasound, to look at blood flow in the ... Other complications include: Complications of surgery Medicine side effects Seizures Stroke

  10. Pharmacologic management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Quandt, C M; de los Reyes, R A; Diaz, F G; Ausman, J I

    1982-12-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage, following rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, affects about 25 000 people in the U.S. each year. Less than half the patients who survive until hospital admission have an overall favorable outcome. This high morbidity and mortality rate is a result of serious complications following the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most significant of these being rebleeding and cerebral ischemia secondary to vasospasm. While surgical clipping of the aneurysm is the most definitive therapy, this procedure may be postponed for a week or two after the initial hemorrhage, depending on the patient's clinical condition. Pharmacological therapy is a critical part of the preoperative care of these patients and of the postoperative management of complications. This article discusses the syndromes of rebleeding and vasospasm and reviews the current pharmacologic therapy for each. PMID:6129959

  11. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Tushar B; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with the support of a stick for the last 3 months and suffered from constipation and intermittent urinary retention for the past 1 week. The patient had a history of swelling in the back of left thigh for which surgical resection was done 6 months back. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes all over the body, along with many caf-au-lait spots and Lisch nodule in iris. Patient had weakness in bilateral hip abduction, extension, knee flexion, extension and ankle dorsiflexion and plantiflexion. Bilateral ankle reflexes were absent while other deep tendon reflexes were sub-optimal. A noncontrast computed tomography brain indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage in left perisylvian region. Ultrasound of left thigh showed a hypoechoic solid lesion in the posterior aspect of left thigh in muscle plane. Histopathology of the lesion following resection showed features suggestive of a low-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Histology of cutaneous nodules was consistent with neurofibroma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated a tumor arising from cauda equina. Histopathological examination of the tumor suggested high-grade MPNST. Unfortunately, the patient's MPNST was inoperable, and he received palliative radiotherapy for local control of the disease. The care of a patient with neurofibromatosis requires a comprehensive multisystem evaluation. MPNST occurs in 8-13% patients with neurofibromatosis. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are key to prolong survival. Though rare, rhabdomyosarcoma can occur with a higher frequency in NF1, necessitating through clinical investigation. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can occur due to aneurismal rupture or vascular friability in NF1 patients. PMID:26283846

  12. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Tushar B.; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with the support of a stick for the last 3 months and suffered from constipation and intermittent urinary retention for the past 1 week. The patient had a history of swelling in the back of left thigh for which surgical resection was done 6 months back. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes all over the body, along with many caf-au-lait spots and Lisch nodule in iris. Patient had weakness in bilateral hip abduction, extension, knee flexion, extension and ankle dorsiflexion and plantiflexion. Bilateral ankle reflexes were absent while other deep tendon reflexes were sub-optimal. A noncontrast computed tomography brain indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage in left perisylvian region. Ultrasound of left thigh showed a hypoechoic solid lesion in the posterior aspect of left thigh in muscle plane. Histopathology of the lesion following resection showed features suggestive of a low-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Histology of cutaneous nodules was consistent with neurofibroma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated a tumor arising from cauda equina. Histopathological examination of the tumor suggested high-grade MPNST. Unfortunately, the patient's MPNST was inoperable, and he received palliative radiotherapy for local control of the disease. The care of a patient with neurofibromatosis requires a comprehensive multisystem evaluation. MPNST occurs in 8-13% patients with neurofibromatosis. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are key to prolong survival. Though rare, rhabdomyosarcoma can occur with a higher frequency in NF1, necessitating through clinical investigation. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can occur due to aneurismal rupture or vascular friability in NF1 patients. PMID:26283846

  13. Amphetamine abuse and intracranial haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, N; McConachie, N S

    2000-01-01

    Amphetamines taken by any route can cause cerebral vasculitis and intracranial haemorrhage. 8 cases were seen in a neurosurgical unit over 3.5 years. The published work indicates that those who experience these complications, mainly young adults, have poor outcomes. PMID:11089483

  14. Rivaroxaban and retropharyngeal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Jonathan Andrew; Bell, Philip Robert; McCadden, Luke; Scally, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Haemorrhage is a well-known and accepted complication of anticoagulation. A retropharyngeal haemorrhage (RH) is a rare condition that without prompt recognition and management may result in fatal complications. We report a case of RH in a 67-year-old man anticoagulated with rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation. The patient presented to the emergency department, with a two-day history of atraumatic right-sided neck swelling and associated progressive odynophagia, dysphagia and dysphonia. Rivaroxaban is a potent new oral anticoagulant that has been approved for use by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) but still has no approved reversal agent. Despite its rarity, an RH is a potentially life threatening complication of anticoagulation that must be carefully considered. This is especially true for a drug that cannot be easily reversed. We present a discussion of this case presentation with possible differential diagnoses and a review of the literature, and recommend the use of Capp's triad as a diagnostic criterion. PMID:26884072

  15. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage: protective hypotension in delayed surgery].

    PubMed

    Massei, R; Tavola, M; Mottura, G; Ciceri, R; Pontiggia, M

    1998-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is frequently observed in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Continuing systemic hypertension might augment the risk of rebleeding and also increase the blood flow and blood volume, resulting in more marked cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension. However, reduction of blood pressure might also decrease cerebral perfusion pressure in patient with an impaired autoregulation and in this way enhance the risk of cerebral ischemia. Anti-hypertensive therapy is not recommended to prevent rebleeding after SAH. The agents of choice for reduction of arterial blood pressure might be mixed alfa and beta adrenergic antagonists and barbiturates. PMID:9773659

  16. Viral haemorrhagic fevers of man.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D I

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases. PMID:310725

  17. Viral haemorrhagic fevers of man*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D. I. H.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases. PMID:310725

  18. [Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Proust, François; Douvrin, Françoise; Gilles-Baray, Marie; Levêque, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhages is about 10.5/100,000 persons/year. Early obliteration of the aneurysmal sac is necessary to avoid rebleeding. The neurovascular staff meeting must decide the appropriate obliteration procedure for each patient. Intraoperative morbidity is 8% after endovascular coiling and 10% after microsurgical clipping. Endovascular coiling leads to complete obliteration of the aneurysm in 60% of patients and microsurgical clipping in 95%. Delayed ischemic deficits may be prevented by volemic expansion and calcium channel blockers. Hospitalization and general prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis, pain and seizures are essential. Curative treatment is required against common complications such as intraparenchymatous hematoma, hydrocephalus, and delayed ischemic deficit. PMID:17296483

  19. Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage: computed tomographic patterns in Accra.

    PubMed

    Obajimi, M O; Nyame, P K; Jumah, K B; Wiredu, E K

    2002-01-01

    The diagnosis of stroke and the ability to distinguish the subtypes is central in the management of patients. This CT study has confirmed an increased prevalence of stroke (CVA) among Ghanaians. It has also reaffirmed a relatively higher incidence (52.9%) of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage over cerebral infarcts among the 1,172 stroke patients studied. The study points to a male preponderance and a mean age of 55.7 years. Parenchymal haemorrhage was found to be the commonest variety of these haemorrhages. It occurred in 83.6% of cases while primary subarachnoid haemorrhage was reported in only 8.1% of cases. Ventricular extension of the parenchymal haemorrhage was reported in 22.7% of cases. The latter were mostly unilateral and on the left side especially in the parietal lobe (70.9%), subdural haemorrhage like the parenchymal variety was also reported to be more on the left, mainly unilateral and acute. Haemorrhages in the cerebellum and pons which are normally difficult to diagnose were also outlined with ease in the CT images. Other CT findings in these patients include parilesional oedema and mass effect found in 87.10% and 77.4% respectively. PMID:12081348

  20. Spontaneously reported haemorrhagic adverse events associated with rivaroxaban and dabigatran in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Esa Y. H.; Diug, Basia; Bell, J. Simon; Mc Namara, Kevin P.; Dooley, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, Carl M.; McNeil, John J.; Caughey, Gillian E.; Ilomäki, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to describe spontaneously reported haemorrhagic adverse events associated with rivaroxaban and dabigatran in Australia. Methods: Data were sourced from the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Database of Adverse Event Notifications between June 2009 and May 2014. Records of haemorrhagic adverse events in which rivaroxaban or dabigatran was considered as a potential cause were analysed. Results: There were 240 haemorrhagic adverse events associated with rivaroxaban and 504 associated with dabigatran. Age was specified for 164 (68%) haemorrhages associated with rivaroxaban, of which 101 occurred in people aged ⩾75 years. Age was specified for 437 (87%) haemorrhages associated with dabigatran, of which 300 occurred in people aged ⩾75 years. Time from treatment initiation to haemorrhage was specified for 122 (51%) haemorrhages associated with rivaroxaban, with 69 (57%) haemorrhages occurring within 30 days of rivaroxaban initiation. Time from treatment initiation to haemorrhage was specified for 253 (50%) haemorrhages associated with dabigatran, with 123 (49%) haemorrhages occurring within 30 days of dabigatran initiation. Gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhages were the most frequent type of haemorrhages associated with both rivaroxaban (n = 105, 44%) and dabigatran (n = 302, 60%). Data were available on the severity of haemorrhage for 101 (42%) haemorrhages associated with rivaroxaban, with haemorrhage leading to death in 17 people. The severity of haemorrhage was specified for 384 (76%) haemorrhages associated with dabigatran, with haemorrhage leading to death in 61 people. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for research on the haemorrhagic complications of anticoagulation in clinical care. A considerable proportion of reported haemorrhagic events occurred within 30 days of rivaroxaban and dabigatran initiation. This highlights the importance of considering bleeding risk at the time of treatment initiation. PMID:26834958

  1. [Viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Masuda, G

    1997-08-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fever denotes various kinds of febrile illness caused by certain viruses which often presents with bleeding tendency and occasionally shock. Out of these, the four maladies, Lassa fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever which are endemically present in Africa or eastern Europe, are known to be such diseases with high man-to-man communicability. These four haemorrhagic fevers are, therefore, designated as special conditions requiring isolation during the period when the infected patients are shedding the viruses, not only in Japan but also in many other countries. We have so far only one such case of Lassa fever who returned to Japan from Sierra Leone in 1987. Some haemorrhagic fevers including dengue (haemorrhagic) fever and hantavirus infections (e.g. haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) are not known to be man-to-man transmissible and requiring no isolation. We have a number of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers here in Japan today among imported febrile cases from tropical or subtropical countries. Every physician should take viral haemorrhagic fevers into consideration as one of the possibilities in diagnosing patients returning from overseas travel. PMID:9283226

  2. Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious non contagious viral disease transmitted by insects of the genus Culicoides which affects wild and domestic ruminants. The causative agent, the epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus and sha...

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage then thrombosis of posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissection: is early surgical exploration warranted?

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Nikita G; Ellis, Jason A; Meyers, Philip M; Connolly, E Sander

    2016-06-01

    The natural history of spontaneous cerebral artery dissection and thrombosis remains uncertain. Concurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage further complicates the therapeutic approach. Thus the best strategy for managing patients with acute vessel thrombosis in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage is unclear. Here we present a case of spontaneous posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissection presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute thrombosis. Although the patient was initially managed conservatively, angiographic follow-up demonstrated recanalization of the diseased vessel, necessitating definitive treatment. Thus we propose that angiographic follow-up is necessary in the management of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage in association with apparent vessel thrombosis. PMID:25987592

  4. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg) and Flaviviridae (yellow fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus ... the Ebola vaccine trials in Guinea What is dengue and how is it treated? Fact sheets Crimean- ...

  5. Visual restoration after suprachoroidal haemorrhage in glaucoma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Suprachoroidal haemorrhage is the most dreaded complication feared by any surgeon during glaucoma surgery. Rapid explosive expulsion of intraocular contents can occur, which makes vision loss almost inevitable in most cases. Yet, adequate preparedness, prompt recognition of the earliest signs and quick closure of the wound can salvage the eye or even prevent loss of vision. This case highlights the successful visual rehabilitation and outcome in a patient with advanced glaucoma who experienced delayed expulsive haemorrhage intraoperatively. PMID:24596415

  6. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  7. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging. PMID:21905770

  8. Viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

  9. Remote Ischemic Limb Preconditioning After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sebastian; Katsnelson, Michael; Dong, Chuanhui; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Making a limb transiently ischemic has been shown to induce ischemic tolerance in a distant organ. This phenomenon is known as remote ischemic limb preconditioning. We conducted a Phase IB study of remote ischemic limb preconditioning to determine the safety and feasibility of increasing durations of limb ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent limb preconditioning every 24 to 48 hours for 14 days. Limb preconditioning consisted of 3 5-minute inflations of a blood pressure cuff to 200 mm Hg around a limb followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion. In the lead-in phase, we preconditioned the upper extremities, but this proved impractical and we began preconditioning the leg in a similar manner. Ischemia times were then escalated to 7.5 and 10 minutes. After each session, a visual analog scale was obtained and the extremity examined for neurovascular complications. Results A total of 33 patients completed the study. Mean age was 53±12 years and mean Hunt Hess score was 2.4±0.9. In the lead-in phase, an average of 7.7±2.4 preconditioning sessions was completed with mean visual analog scale 3.6±3.4. In the dose escalation phase, an average of 8.6±2.1 preconditioning sessions was done with mean visual analog scale 1.8±2.2 and 2.5±2.9 for the 7.5- and 10-minute cohorts, respectively. No session was prematurely terminated due to subject discomfort. No objective signs of neurovascular injury were observed. Conclusions We found limb preconditioning to be safe and well tolerated, even at ischemia times of 10 minutes, in critically ill patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:21415404

  10. Clarithromycin-induced haemorrhagic colitis.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Haemorrhagic colitis by Klebsiella oxytoca has been described as an antibiotic-associated colitis, particularly with the use of ampicillin. Here we report a patient with haemorrhagic colitis caused by K oxytoca after the use of clarithromycin. A 67-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes presented with mucobloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Stool culture grew K oxytoca. Colonoscopy showed the appearance of haemorrhagic colitis. Further history taking revealed that she had received a course of oral clarithromycin for upper respiratory tract infection. She had recovered by conservative treatment. We should be careful about gastrointestinal symptoms in patients on clarithromycin, which can cause haemorrhagic colitis associated with K oxytoca. PMID:23964038

  11. Subarachnoid-subarachnoid bypass for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2014-11-01

    The authors report a case of adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) and arachnoid cyst successfully treated by subarachnoid to subarachnoid bypass (S-S bypass). Arachnoid cysts or syringes sometimes compress the spinal cord and cause compressive myelopathy that requires surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment for AA is challenging. A 57-year-old woman developed leg pain and gait disturbance. A dorsal arachnoid cyst compressed the spinal cord at T7-9, the spinal cord was swollen, and a small syrinx was present at T9-10. An S-S bypass was performed from T6-7 to T11-12. The patient's gait disturbance resolved immediately after surgery. Two years later, a small arachnoid cyst developed. However, there was no neurological deterioration. The myelopathy associated with thoracic spinal AA, subarachnoid cyst, and syrinx improved after S-S bypass. PMID:25170651

  12. Foetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage in term newborn infants: Hacettepe University experience.

    PubMed

    Tavil, Betül; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Bayhan, Turan; Aytaç, Selin; Unal, Sule; Kuskonmaz, Baris; Yigit, Sule; Cetin, Mualla; Yurdakök, Murat; Gumruk, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, causes and clinical management of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) diagnosed during foetal life or in the first month of life in term neonates with a discussion of the role of haematological risk factors. This study included term neonates (gestational age 37-42 weeks) with ICH diagnosed, treated and followed up in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, between January 1994 and January 2014. Medical follow-up was obtained retrospectively from hospital files and prospectively from telephonic interviews and/or clinical visits. During the study period, 16 term neonates were identified as having ICH in our hospital. In six (37.5%) neonates, ICH was diagnosed during foetal life by obstetric ultrasonography, and in 10 (62.5%) neonates, it has been diagnosed after birth. Haemorrhage types included intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in eight (50.0%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage in six (37.5%), subarachnoid haemorrhage in one (6.2%) and subdural haemorrhage in one (6.2%) neonate. IVH was the most common (n = 5/6, 83.3%) haemorrhage type among neonates diagnosed during foetal life. Overall, haemorrhage severity was determined as mild in three (18.7%) neonates, moderate in three (18.75%) neonates and severe in 10 (62.5%) neonates. During follow-up, one infant was diagnosed as afibrinogenemia, one diagnosed as infantile spasm, one cystic fibrosis, one orofaciodigital syndrome and the other diagnosed as Friedrich ataxia. Detailed haematological investigation and search for other underlying diseases are very important to identify the reason of ICH in term neonates. Furthermore, early diagnosis, close monitoring and prompt surgical interventions are significant factors to reduce disabilities. PMID:26829281

  13. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in ten questions.

    PubMed

    Edjlali, M; Rodriguez-Régent, C; Hodel, J; Aboukais, R; Trystram, D; Pruvo, J-P; Meder, J-F; Oppenheim, C; Lejeune, J-P; Leclerc, X; Naggara, O

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has an annual incidence of 9 per 100 000 people. It is a rare but serious event, with an estimated mortality rate of 40% within the first 48hours. In 85% of cases, it is due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. In the early phase, during the first 24hours, cerebral CT, combined with intracranial CT angiography is recommended to make a positive diagnosis of SAH, to identify the cause and to investigate for an intracranial aneurysm. Cerebral MRI may be proposed if the patient's clinical condition allows it. FLAIR imaging is more sensitive than CT to demonstrate a subarachnoid hemorrhage and offers greater degrees of sensitivity for the diagnosis of restricted subarachnoid hemorrhage in cortical sulcus. A lumbar puncture should be performed if these investigations are normal while clinical suspicion is high. PMID:26141485

  14. Subaponeurotic haemorrhage in Malaysian neonates.

    PubMed

    Boo, N Y

    1990-06-01

    In a 30-month prospective study, between January 1987 and June 1989, 101 of 64,424 Malaysian neonates (1.6 per 1000 livebirths) born in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were found to have subaponeurotic haemorrhage shortly after delivery. The incidence was highest in neonates weighting 4000 gm or more. There was no significant difference in incidence of this condition in neonates of different ethnic origins. Hypoprothrombinemia was present in only 5/101 (5.0%) of the affected neonates. Sixty seven (66.3%) of the neonates with subaponeurotic haemorrhage had history of trial of vacuum extraction. The incidence of subaponeurotic haemorrhage was significantly higher in neonates delivered by vacuum extraction than by other modes of delivery in this hospital (41.4 per 1000 livebirths in neonates delivered by vacuum extraction versus 1.0 per 1000 livebirths in neonates delivered by other modes). Those neonates who developed subaponeurotic haemorrhage without trial of vacuum extraction had a history of either prolonged labour or difficult delivery. Thirty-three (32.7%) of the neonates with subaponeurotic haemorrhage developed anaemia which required blood transfusion and 3/33 (9.1%) were in shock. Fifty seven (56.4%) of the neonates with subaponeurotic haemorrhage developed hyperbilirubinemia due to the haemorrhage. Four (7.0%) of them had severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia which required exchange transfusion. The results of this study suggest that subaponeurotic haemorrhage in Malaysian neonates was commonly associated with vacuum extraction and was not a benign condition. PMID:2392696

  15. Amnesia due to spontaneous haemorrhage into a colloid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Ramanan; Edwards, Richard J

    2014-10-14

    Anterograde amnesia is a recognised complication of colloid cyst excision, occurring usually as a result of forniceal injury. However, spontaneous amnesia due to intra-cyst haemorrhage prior to excision has not been reported previously. We report such a case in which amnesia completely resolved following endoscopic cyst excision. PMID:25311041

  16. Intraventricular haemorrhage and haemostasis defects.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, D W; Chance, G W; Inwood, M J; Schaus, M; O'Keefe, B

    1984-01-01

    Twenty five of 106 preterm infants of 34 weeks' gestation or less developed intraventricular haemorrhage within the first 48 hours of life. A comparison of infants with and without intraventricular haemorrhage showed no significant differences in their haemostatic parameters at birth. At age 48 hours the group with intraventricular haemorrhage showed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and reduced factor II, VII, and X activity. There was a significant correlation between the severity of intraventricular haemorrhage and the degree of haemostasis abnormality both in cord blood and in blood obtained at age 48 hours. Those infants sustaining grade IV intraventricular haemorrhage had a significantly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, reduced factor II, VII, and X activity; and a decreased fibrinogen concentration at birth. At age 48 hours these defects were accompanied by reduced platelet counts and an increased megathrombocyte index. Although intraventricular haemorrhage is multifactorial, we postulate that correction of haemostasis abnormalities at birth may prevent progression to more severe grades of haemorrhage. PMID:6732274

  17. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Qian; Wu, Haijian; Krafft, Paul R.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH. PMID:25110700

  18. Vesical Artery Embolization in Haemorrhagic Cystitis in Children.

    PubMed

    García-Gámez, Andrés; Bermúdez Bencerrey, Patricia; Brio-Sanagustin, Sonia; Guerrero Vara, Rubén; Sisinni, Luisa; Stuart, Sam; Roebuck, Derek; Gómez Muñoz, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Haemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon and, in its severe form, potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or cancer therapy in children. The severe form involves macroscopic haematuria with blood clots, urinary obstruction and/or renal impairment. There are many therapeutic options to treat acute haemorrhage, but only recombinant factor VII has a high level of clinical evidence in children. Supraselective vesical artery embolization (SVAE) is an increasingly used therapeutic procedure for controlling haemorrhage in adults, but is less commonly used in children. This might be due to several factors, such as the invasive nature of the procedure, lack of appropriate medical experience and possible long-term side effects. We present three cases of children successfully treated by means of effective SVAE. PMID:26850734

  19. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of the CCHF virus ... be effective. Prevention and control Controlling CCHF in animals and ticks Ticks of the genus Hyalomma are ...

  20. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    PubMed

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials. PMID:21943539

  1. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  2. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Matua, Gerald A.; Van der Wal, Dirk M.; Locsin, Rozzano C.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world’s most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies. PMID:26052448

  3. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matua, Gerald A; Van der Wal, Dirk M; Locsin, Rozzano C

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world's most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies. PMID:26052448

  4. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, N J; Zientara, S; Savini, G; Daniels, P W

    2015-08-01

    Summary Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised than they are for BTV. Whereas most natural and experimental EHDV infections (other than Ibaraki virus infection) of livestock are subclinical or asymptomatic, outbreaks of EHD have recently been reported among cattle in the Mediterranean Basin, Reunion Island, South Africa, and the United States. Accurate and convenient laboratory tests are increasingly available for the sensitive and specific serological and virological diagnosis of EHDV infection and confirmation of EHD in animals, but commercial vaccines are available only for prevention of Ibaraki disease and not for protection against other strains and serotypes of EHDV. PMID:26601439

  5. Rest tremor and extrapyramidal symptoms after midbrain haemorrhage: clinical and 18F-dopa PET evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Defer, G L; Remy, P; Malapert, D; Ricolfi, F; Samson, Y; Degos, J D

    1994-01-01

    A 25 year old man had an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of a right peduncular subthalamic arteriovenous malformation. Seven months later he developed a left rest tremor associated with mild bilateral extrapyramidal symptoms and responsive to levodopa treatment. Surface EMG recording showed synchronous activity of agonist and antagonist muscles in the left limbs. A PET 18F-dopa study showed a large decrease of the Ki value in the right striatum. One year after the stroke a persistent postural component developed in the tremor. Images PMID:8057126

  6. Post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: A review.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nikhilkumar J; Agrawal, Manish; Sinha, Virendra Deo

    2016-01-01

    Head injury has been the leading cause of death and disability in people younger than 40 years and the incidence is rising continuously. Anticipation of the pathological consequences of post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) and an outcome-oriented management are very important in these cases. To encounter the complications pertaining to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and tSAH, various classifications have been proposed and goal-oriented screening strategies have been offered. The role of serial computed tomography (CT) scans, perfusion studies, transcranial Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and angiographic studies as diagnostic tools, has been described. Recently, MRI fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), gradient reversal echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) have emerged as excellent complimentary MRI sequences, and the authors of this article have evaluated their role in the diagnosis and prognostication of patients with tSAH. Numerous studies have been conducted on the various complications associated with tSAH such as vasospasm, hydrocephalus, and electrolyte disturbances and their management. This article discusses these aspects of tSAH and their management nuances. PMID:26954974

  7. Two cases of extrapulmonary onset granulomatosis with polyangiitis which caused diffuse alveolar haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Halide; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Ozlem; Taylan, Mahsuk; Sen, Hadice; Demir, Melike; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Senyigit, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare form of vasculitis. Multidisciplinary therapeutic approach and early diagnosis assume vital importance in management of patients with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage caused by GPA, which is a rare complication. The purpose of this study was to present the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges experienced by clinicians in management of two severe cases of GPA with insidious extrapulmonary manifestations which rapidly progressed into acute kidney injury, alveolar haemorrhage and acute respiratory failure. PMID:26029556

  8. Two cases of extrapulmonary onset granulomatosis with polyangiitis which caused diffuse alveolar haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Halide; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Ozlem; Taylan, Mahsuk; Sen, Hadice; Demir, Melike; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Senyigit, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare form of vasculitis. Multidisciplinary therapeutic approach and early diagnosis assume vital importance in management of patients with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage caused by GPA, which is a rare complication. The purpose of this study was to present the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges experienced by clinicians in management of two severe cases of GPA with insidious extrapulmonary manifestations which rapidly progressed into acute kidney injury, alveolar haemorrhage and acute respiratory failure. PMID:26029556

  9. Rehabilitation following intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

    PubMed

    Kilsby, Amanda; Buddha, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was first used in adults with severe respiratory failure in the 1970s. Its use has been steadily increasing since the 1990s after a trial demonstrated improved survival. There are currently seven centres in the UK offering ECMO to adults. Neurological complications are often picked up within the first few days of initiating ECMO. Intracerebral haemorrhage is a well recognised complication and it is the leading cause of death in infants on ECMO and rates of 9-18.9% in adults have been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman admitted in severe type 1 respiratory failure in January 2012. She was transferred to a tertiary centre and suffered bitemporal and right parietal haemorrhages on ECMO in late February. She was repatriated to our unit for rehabilitation in April 2012. Her rehabilitation needs represent the complexity of this patient group with multiple medical, behavioural and physical challenges. PMID:23709548

  10. Spontaneous Subdural Haemorrhage: A Rare Association with Plasmodium Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Hariprasad, Shetty; Koya, Rohini; Acharya, Vasudev; Krishna, Shastry Barkur Anantha

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease in tropical countries and disease of universal importance. Central Nervous System (CNS) complications of malaria are severe and associated with significant mortality. Thrombocytopaenia in malaria causing haemorrhagic CNS complications is rare. We report a case of 35-year-old male patient presented with headache, vomiting and was diagnosed to have subdural haemorrhage (SDH). On examination patient was found to be febrile with peripheral smear showing evidence of Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) infection with severe thrombocytopaenia. In endemic regions with malaria, SDH being rare presentation of malaria should be considered as a differential diagnosis in febrile patients with neurological manifestations. Rarity of spontaneous SDH in malaria and raising awareness amongst treating physicians about the same is the driving factor for reporting this case. PMID:26894111

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Vorselaars, Veronique MM; Velthuis, Sebastiaan; Snijder, Repke J; Vos, Jan Albert; Mager, Johannes J; Post, Martijn C

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterised by vascular malformations in predominantly the brain, liver and lungs. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is increasingly recognised as a severe complication of HHT. PH may be categorised into two distinct types in patients with HHT. Post-capillary PH most often results from a high pulmonary blood flow that accompanies the high cardiac output state associated with liver arteriovenous malformations. Less frequently, the HHT-related gene mutations in ENG or ACVRL1 appear to predispose patients with HHT to develop pre-capillary pulmonary arterial hypertension. Differentiation between both forms of PH by right heart catheterisation is essential, since both entities are associated with severe morbidity and mortality with different treatment options. Therefore all HHT patients should be referred to an HHT centre. PMID:26015855

  12. Biomarkers and vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J Dedrick; Nyquist, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage from the rupture of a saccular aneurysm is a devastating neurological disease that has a high morbidity and mortality not only from the initial hemorrhage, but also from the delayed complications, such as cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral vasospasm can lead to delayed ischemic injury 1 to 2 weeks after the initial hemorrhage. Although the pathophysiology of vasospasm has been described for decades, the molecular basis remains poorly understood. With the many advances in the past decade in the development of sensitive molecular biological techniques, imaging, biochemical purification, and protein identification, new insights are beginning to reveal the etiology of vasospasm. These findings will not only help to identify markers of vasospasm and prognostic outcome, but will also yield potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. This review focuses on the methods available for the identification of biological markers of vasospasm and their limitations, the current understanding as to the utility and prognostic significance of identified biomarkers, the utility of these biomarkers in predicting vasospasm and outcome, and future directions of research in this field. PMID:20380977

  13. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze. PMID:25685569

  14. Cardiac Abnormalities After Aneurysmal Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage: Effects of β-Blockers and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Elizabeth; Kerris, Kelly; Kuo, Chien-Wen J.; Sherwood, Paula; Hravnak, Marilyn; Crippen, David; Horowitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac abnormalities attributed to adrenergic surge are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prescribed medications that block adrenergic stimulation may suppress the onset of cardiopulmonary compromise in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Objectives To compare the incidence of early cardiac complications between patients who reported prescribed use of β-blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and patients who did not. Methods A retrospective review of 254 adult patients after acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were enrolled in an existing R01 study. Demographic data and history were obtained from patients’/proxies’ reports and charts. Cardiac enzyme levels, 12-lead electrocardiograms, and chest radiographs were obtained on admission. Holter monitoring and echocardiograms were completed as a part of the R01 study. Results Patients reporting prescribed use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or β-blockers before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage had more ventricular and supra-ventricular ectopy on a Holter report than did patients who did not (P < .05). When age, race, sex, and injury (Fisher grade) were controlled for, patients reporting use of β-blockers were 8 times more likely than others to have occasional to frequent ventricular ectopy (P = .02). Conclusion No concrete evidence was found that exposure to adrenergic blockade before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage provides protection from neurocardiac injury. PMID:24382615

  15. U.K. guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dhiraj; Stanley, Adrian J; Hayes, Peter C; Patch, David; Millson, Charles; Mehrzad, Homoyon; Austin, Andrew; Ferguson, James W; Olliff, Simon P; Hudson, Mark; Christie, John M

    2015-11-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool.The nature of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with its complex range of complications makes rigid guidelines inappropriate. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of varices in patients with cirrhosis under the following subheadings: (1) primary prophylaxis; (2) acute variceal haemorrhage; (3) secondary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage; and (4) gastric varices. They are not designed to deal with (1) the management of the underlying liver disease; (2) the management of variceal haemorrhage in children; or (3) variceal haemorrhage from other aetiological conditions. PMID:25887380

  16. UK guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Dhiraj; Stanley, Adrian J; Hayes, Peter C; Patch, David; Millson, Charles; Mehrzad, Homoyon; Austin, Andrew; Ferguson, James W; Olliff, Simon P; Hudson, Mark; Christie, John M

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. The nature of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with its complex range of complications makes rigid guidelines inappropriate. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of varices in patients with cirrhosis under the following subheadings: (1) primary prophylaxis; (2) acute variceal haemorrhage; (3) secondary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage; and (4) gastric varices. They are not designed to deal with (1) the management of the underlying liver disease; (2) the management of variceal haemorrhage in children; or (3) variceal haemorrhage from other aetiological conditions. PMID:25887380

  17. Anaesthesia in a patient with subarachanoidal haemorrhage and high oxygen affinity haemoglobinopathy (HB york): case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 90 haemoglobinopathies have been identified that result in abnormally high oxygen affinity. One of these is haemoglobinopathy York (HbY), first described in 1976. HbY causes an extreme leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve with the P50 value changing to 12.5 - 15.5 mmHg (normal value 26.7 mmHg), indicating that approximately half of the haemoglobin is not available as oxygen carrier. Patients with haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity could suffer from the risk developing ischaemic complications due to a lack of functional oxygen carriers. This is, to best of our knowledge, the first case report on a patient with HbY published in connection with anesthesia. Case Presentation A 42-year-old female with a severe headache and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 15 was admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit with a ruptured, right sided ICA aneurysm with consecutive subarachnoid haemorrhage [Fisher III, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) I)]. The medical history of the patient included an erythrocytosis (Hb 17.5 g/dl) on the base of a high-oxygen-affinity haemoglobinopathy, called Hb York (HbY). With no time available to take special preoperative precautions, rapid blood loss occurred during the first attempt to clip the aneurysm. General transfusion procedures, according to the guidelines based on haemoglobin and haematocrit values, could not be applied due to the uncertainty in the oxygen carrier reduction. To maintain tissue oxygen supply, clinical indicators of ischaemia were instead utilized to gauge the appropriate required blood products, crystalloids and colloids replacements. Despite this, the patient survived the neurosurgical intervention without any neurological deficit. Conclusions Family members of patients with HbY (and other haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity) should undergo clinical assessment, particularly if they are polycythaemic. If the diagnosis of HbY is confirmed, they should carry an "emergency anaesthesiology card" in order to avert perioperative risks arising from their "hidden" anemia. PMID:22870883

  18. Widened subarachnoid space in pre-discharge cranial ultrasound: evidence of cerebral atrophy in immature infants?

    PubMed

    Lui, K; Boag, G; Daneman, A; Costello, S; Kirpalani, H; Whyte, H

    1990-10-01

    The authors examined the incidence of widened subarachnoid spaces (SAS) among 75 infants with birthweights less than or equal to 1250g, and their significance in developmental outcome. Nine of 30 infants with gestations less than or equal to 27 weeks had widened SAS in their pre-discharge ultrasound scans. Three of the nine, including two with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), had late-onset ventricular enlargement, unrelated to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH): all three were developmentally impaired. The other six infants without ventricular enlargement developed normally, including one with IVH. Five of the remaining 21 infants with gestations less than or equal to 27 weeks and without widened SAS were developmentally impaired. Widened SAS was not associated with a significantly increased risk of developmental impairment; ventricular enlargement and PVL were the only significant factors. The authors conclude that an isolated finding of widened SAS is not predictive of impairment in immature infants. PMID:2257986

  19. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Ftika, L; Maltezou, H C

    2013-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound haemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. VHFs that have the potential for human-to-human transmission and onset of large nosocomial outbreaks include Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever. Nosocomial outbreaks of VHFs are increasingly reported nowadays, which likely reflects the dynamics of emergence of VHFs. Such outbreaks are associated with an enormous impact in terms of human lives and costs for the management of cases, contact tracing and containment. Surveillance, diagnostic capacity, infection control and the overall preparedness level for management of a hospital-based VHF event are very limited in most endemic countries. Diagnostic capacities for VHFs should increase in the field and become affordable. Availability of appropriate protective equipment and education of healthcare workers about safe clinical practices and infection control is the mainstay for the prevention of nosocomial spread of VHFs. PMID:23333147

  20. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Peyrefitte, C; Marianneau, P; Tordo, N; Bouloy, M

    2015-08-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widespread arboviroses in the world. It is present in Africa, south-east Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is caused by a nairovirus (Bunyaviridae family) transmitted by several species of ticks. The geographical distribution of the disease coincides with the distribution of Hyalomma ticks. While infected livestock do not show signs of illness, humans are severely affected, with a high mortality rate. The most common symptoms are high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and haemorrhages. Pathogenesis studies in interferon-receptor-deficient mice indicated that the interferon response is crucial in controlling virus propagation and in protecting against the disease. Detection of the virus in biological material is currently performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence are used to detect the presence of CCHF virus-specific antibodies. In the 1970s, a formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from suckling mouse brain was used in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but its efficacy remains to be proven. Treatment of patients with ribavirin is recommended by the World Health Organization, but it should be administered as early as possible. Although important progress has been made over the last few decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease are still to be addressed and there is a need to develop efficient vaccines and antivirals. PMID:26601443

  1. Intraparenchymal haemorrhage and uncal herniation resulting from dobutamine stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga Kobina; Ramoutar, Virin; Velarde, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) resulting from dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is a rare complication in an otherwise relatively safe procedure. There has been one previously reported case of ICH associated with DSE in a patient who was fully anticoagulated. The authors report a second case of ICH associated with DSE leading to a poor outcome. Unlike the previous report, this patient was not fully anticoagulated and bleeding resulted from uncontrolled hypertension. Clinicians should be attentive to the risk of ICH associated with DSE in the setting of uncontrolled hypertension. PMID:24642173

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the African-American population: a cooperative study.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, G. C.; Welch, B.; Cole, A. N.; Mendoza, R.; Morgan, J.; Epps, J.; Bernard, E.; St Louis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical outcome of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage is complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia and contributing factors such as hypertension. To observe the impact of hypertension and delayed cerebral ischemia on the outcome of a predominantly African-American cohort following subarachnoid hemorrhage, both retrospective (n = 42) and prospective (n = 21) studies were conducted. In the total pool (n = 63), the mean age was 49.7 years (range: 17 to 80) with a preponderance of female patients (70%). Aneurysm formation was significant in the region of the posterior communicating artery. Of the patients reviewed, 73.8% had preexisting hypertension and 45.9% developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Approximately 89% of the patients who suffered from delayed cerebral ischemia had hypertension. Results failed to display any significant beneficial association between the use of the calcium channel blocker nimodipine and delayed cerebral ischemia. Use of the antifibrinolytic drug aminocaproic acid demonstrated a worse patient outcome. It is not recommended that aminocaproic acid be used in this population. Subsequently, due to the proportional occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia in hypertensive patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is suggested that prophylactic surgical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms be considered in hypertensive patients. Further study is needed to discern the association between hypertension, delayed cerebral ischemia, and stroke in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:9046763

  3. A spinal dermoid tumor that ruptured into the subarachnoidal space and syrinx cavity.

    PubMed

    Altay, Hakan; Kitiş, Omer; Calli, Cem; Yünten, Nilgün

    2006-12-01

    The widespread use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has increased the preoperative diagnosis of dermoid tumors and detection of their complications. In particular, cases of ruptured dermoid tumors, which may manifest as emergent conditions with variable clinical pictures, have typical CT and MR imaging findings. In this report, we present a case of a spinal dermoid tumor, which ruptured into the syrinx cavity and subarachnoidal space. PMID:17160798

  4. [Giant racemose subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis: A case report].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Larsen, Alvaro; Monteagudo, Maria; Lozano-Setien, Elena; Garcia-Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, which can affect different anatomical sites. In Spain there is an increasing prevalence mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. The extraparenchymal forms are less common, but more serious because they usually develop complications. Neuroimaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease, supported by serology and a compatible clinical and epidemiological context. First-line treatments are cysticidal drugs such as albendazole and praziquantel, usually coadministered with corticosteroids, and in some cases surgery is indicated. We here report a case of neurocysticercosis with simultaneous intraventricular and giant racemose subarachnoid involvement. PMID:26321177

  5. Retinal and Conjunctival Haemorrhage in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J. D.; Bulpitt, C. J.

    1970-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty newborn infants were examined for retinal and conjunctival haemorrhages. Retinal photographs were taken in selected cases to record the morphological varieties and the different rates of disappearance of the retinal haemorrhages. The incidence of retinal and conjunctival haemorrhages was studied in relation to a number of possible aetiological factors. In the case of retinal haemorrhages we did not identify the critical factor or factors that determine their occurrence. Neither cephalic venous congestion, nor a coagulation defect, nor birth asphyxia was associated with retinal haemorrhages. It is likely that they are of multifactorial origin, and it is suggested that blood viscosity may be an important contributory factor. In contrast, conjunctival haemorrhages occurred in association with multiparity, rapid second stage of labour, Negro race, high Apgar score, and relatively high birthweight, head circumference, and gestational age. In addition the occurrence of conjunctival haemorrhage as part of the picture of `traumatic cyanosis' suggests that these lesions do result from changes in cephalic venous pressure. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:5464064

  6. Viral haemorrhagic fever in children.

    PubMed

    MacDermott, Nathalie E; De, Surjo; Herberg, Jethro A

    2016-05-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are currently at the forefront of the world's attention due to the recentZaire ebolavirusepidemic in West Africa. This epidemic has highlighted the frailty of the world's public health response mechanisms and demonstrated the potential risks to nations around the world of imported cases of epidemic diseases. While imported cases in children are less likely, the potential for such a scenario remains. It is therefore essential that paediatricians are aware of and prepared for potential imported cases of tropical diseases, VHFs being of particular importance due to their propensity to cause nosocomial spread. Examining the four families of viruses-Filoviridae,Arenaviridae,BunyaviridaeandFlaviviridae, we describe the different types of VHFs, with emphasis on differentiation from other diseases through detailed history-taking, their presentation and management from a paediatric perspective. PMID:26787609

  7. Chronic gastrointestinal haemorrhage controlled by antifibrinolytic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic agents are used chiefly for control of acute haemorrhage. Their applicability to chronic bleeding from inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract is illustrated by two case histories. PMID:2813242

  8. Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Morad, Yair; Wygnansky-Jaffe, Tamara; Levin, Alex V

    2010-07-01

    Paediatric abusive head injury may have grave consequences, especially when characterized by repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces (shaken baby syndrome). Death occurs in approximately 30% and permanent neurologic damage in up to 80% of the victims. Retinal haemorrhages are a cardinal sign seen in approximately 85% of cases. In most cases haemorrhages are preretinal, intraretinal and subretinal, too numerous to count, and involving the entire retinal surface extending to the ora serrata. Traumatic macular retinoschisis is a lesion with important diagnostic significance. Vitreoretinal traction appears to be the mechanism of haemorrhage and schisis formation along with a possible role of orbital tissue trauma from repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces. Ophthalmologists must carefully document ocular findings. Appropriate autopsy examination should include ocular and orbital tissue removal. Although there is a wide differential diagnosis for retinal haemorrhages, clinical appearance, when considered in the context of systemic and laboratory findings, usually leads to the correct diagnosis. PMID:20584025

  9. Amyloid angiopathy and lobar cerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, N; Nishihara, Y; Horie, A

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of lobar cerebral haemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy were found among 60 necropsy cases of intracerebral haemorrhage. Clinically five patients were demented and two had hypertension. Immediately after the onset of stroke there was a high incidence of headache and vomiting, followed by nuchal rigidity. Amyloid angiopathy was most prominent in the cerebral cortex and the leptomeninges. Senile plaques were noted in all cases. One should suspect that a haemorrhage may be due to amyloid angiopathy, when lobar cerebral haemorrhage occurs in an aged, normotensive patient with or without dementia. Surgical evacuation of the haematoma is inadvisable, because of the diffuse nature of amyloid angiopathy, high recurrence rate and less tendency to cause brain stem compression. Images PMID:6502178

  10. Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Vikram Jeet Singh

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) is a rare occurrence in children, with different aetiological factors, clinical characteristics and prognosis. A 14 year male child had sudden onset of headache associated with multiple vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging showed deep seated intracerebral haematoma. Haematoma was evacuated successfully and child recovered without deficits. A high index of suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in children. PMID:22953297

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in a patient with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Davinder; Handa, Ajay; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    A young male patient reported for evaluation of progressive easy fatigability, accompanied by a recent history of recurrent haemoptysis. His clinical examination was unremarkable except for evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Routine investigations (haemogram, coagulogram, serological tests for connective tissue disorders and a sputum Ziehl Neelsen stain for acid-fast bacilli) were normal. Two-dimensional echocardiography suggested PAH (pulmonary artery systolic pressure-67 mm Hg), whereas the 64-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiogram showed a dilated main pulmonary artery along with bilateral arteriovenous malformations. Cardiac catheterisation performed subsequently confirmed the presence of PAH. On the basis of the above findings, a diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) complicated with PAH was made, and the patient was started on oral sildenafil therapy to which he responded well. This rare complication of HHT, which requires a high degree of suspicion for diagnosis, is discussed. PMID:23378554

  12. Neurocritical care for intracranial haemorrhage: a systematic review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Badenes, R; Bilotta, F

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with significant early mortality (up to 50% at 30 days) and long-term morbidity (with permanent neurological deficits in 75-80% of patients) and represents a serious health issue worldwide. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in clinical research on ICH diagnosis and treatment that has led to revision of the guidelines for the diagnosis and management of ICH from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association in 2013. This systematic review reports recent clinical evidence (original studies published between September 2013 and July 2015) related to neurocritical care and intensive care unit management of patients with ICH. All but one publication included in this review report original studies related to managment of patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage. These include insights on risk stratification and neurocritical care or intensive care unit treatment, management of haemodynamic variables and mechanical ventilation (goal-directed fluid therapy, advanced haemodynamic monitoring, and avoidance of hyperoxia and hyperventilation), and pharmacological neuroprotection. PMID:26658203

  13. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Serviço de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor. PMID:14511296

  14. Pathogenesis of filoviral haemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Bray, Mike

    2004-08-01

    The filoviruses, marburgvirus and ebolavirus, cause epidemics of haemorrhagic fever with high case-fatality rates. The severe illness results from a complex of pathogenetic mechanisms that enable the virus to suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, infect and kill a broad variety of cell types, and elicit strong inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation, producing a syndrome resembling septic shock. Most experimental data have been obtained on Zaire ebolavirus, which causes uniformly lethal disease in experimentally infected non-human primates but produces a broader range of outcomes in naturally infected human beings. 10-30% of patients can survive the illness by mobilising adaptive immune responses, and there is limited evidence that mild or symptomless infections also occur. The other filoviruses that have caused human disease, Sudan ebolavirus, Ivory Coast ebolavirus, and marburgvirus, produce a similar illness but with somewhat lower case-fatality rates. Variations in outcome during an epidemic might be due partly to genetically determined differences in innate immune responses to the viruses. Recent studies in non-human primates have shown that blocking of certain host responses, such as the coagulation cascade, can result in reduced viral replication and improved host survival. PMID:15288821

  15. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years. PMID:25660265

  16. The clinical significance of small subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Paul; Borofsky, Samuel; Brown, Derek; Patel, Smita; Lee, Woojin; Caputy, Anthony; Taheri, M Reza

    2016-06-01

    With advancing technology, the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) for the detection of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) continues to improve. Increased resolution has allowed for the detection of hemorrhage that is limited to one or two images of the CT exam. At our institution, all patients with a SAH require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, regardless of size. It was our hypothesis that patients with small subarachnoid hemorrhage experience favorable outcomes, and may not require the intensive monitoring offered in the ICU. This retrospective study evaluated 62 patients between 2011 and 2014 who presented to our Level I trauma center emergency room for acute traumatic injuries, and found to have subarachnoid hemorrhages on CT examination. The grade of subarachnoid hemorrhage was determined using previously utilized scoring systems, such as the Fisher, Modified Fisher, and Claassen grading systems. Electronic medical records were used to evaluate for medical decline, neurological decline, neurosurgical intervention, and overall hospital course. Admitting co-morbidities were noted, as were the presence of patient intoxication and use of anticoagulants. Patient outcomes were based on discharge summaries upon which the neurological status of the patient was assessed. Each patient was given a score based on the Glasgow outcome scale. The clinical and imaging profile of 62 patients with traumatic SAH were studied. Of the 62 patients, 0 % underwent neurosurgical intervention, 6.5 % had calvarial fractures, 25.8 % had additional intracranial hemorrhages, 27.4 % of the patients had significant co-morbidities, and 1.6 % of the patients expired. Patients with low-grade tSAH spent less time in the ICU, demonstrated neurological and medical stability during hospitalization. None of the patients with low-grade SAH experienced seizure during their admission. In our study, patients with low-grade tSAH demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes. This suggests that patients may not require as aggressive monitoring as is currently provided for those with tSAH. PMID:26873602

  17. [Diagnostic challenges of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Vehviläinen, Juho; Niemelä, Mika; Korja, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Diagostic approach to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is based on computer tomography (CT) imaging, although a lumbar puncture and subsequent cerebrospinal fluid analysis is sometimes necessary. Identification of the ruptured aneurysm is done using angiography. Despite of modern imaging techniques, diagnostic definition of aSAH is still occasionally challenging. We describe three cases in which the diagnosis of aSAH has been delayed, in spite of positive imaging or lumbar puncture findings. PMID:27089620

  18. Life threatening intracerebral haemorrhage following saw- scaled viper (Echis carinatus) envenoming-authenticated case report from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper {SSV}) is a venomous snake found in the parts of Middle East and Central Asia. SSV envenoming is characterized by local swelling and coagulopathy. Various bleeding manifestations are commonly seen with SSV envenoming. In contrast to other part of Asia, saw scale viper envenoming has not been reported to cause life threatening haemorrhagic manifestations in Sri Lanka. Case presentation We report a 19 years old healthy boy who developed massive left temporo-parietal intra cerebral haemorrhage following Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper) bite in Sri Lanka. Conclusion Although subspecies of SSV in Sri Lanka is regarded as a ‘non lethal venomous snake’, the occurrence of rare potentially fatal complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage should be considered in their management. This case report is intended to bring the awareness of this fatal complication of SSV envenoming in Sri Lanka. PMID:23565979

  19. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sumarmo

    1987-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first recognized in Indonesia in the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya in 1968, 15 years after its recognition in the Philippines. During the 1968 outbreak, a total of 58 clinical cases with 24 deaths were reported. The number of reported cases since then has increased sharply, with the highest number of cases recorded in the years 1973 (10, 189 cases), 1983 (13,668 cases), and 1985 (13,588 cases). Outbreaks of the disease have spread to involve most of the major urban areas, as well as some of the rural areas. In 1985, the disease had spread to 26 of 27 Provinces and 160 of 300 regencies or municipalities. At present, the disease is endemic in many large cities and small towns. Interestingly, DHF has not been reported in some cities, even though dengue virus transmission rates in those cities are high. The epidemic pattern of DHF for the country as a whole has become irregular. Since 1982, the intensity and spread of DHF has created an increasing public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in Java where 60% of the total population of the country resides. Java contributed about 71% of all cases occurring in the country in 1982, 84% in 1983, and 91% in 1984. The peak monthly incidence of DHF was frequently reported during October through April, months which coincide with the rainy season. The morbidity rate for Indonesia, estimated from reported cases over five years (1981-1985), ranged between 3.39 to 8.65 per 100,000 population. PMID:3433157

  20. Laparoscopic management of massive spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix due to recanalisation of the paraumbilical vein in a patient with 'Child's Class A' liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Sanoop K; Krishnankutty, Sreejith L; Raja, Nirmalan

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix is an extremely rare complication of portal hypertension. Bleeding is usually into the peritoneal cavity and the treatment involves urgent laparotomy and ligation of the bleeding varices. We describe a cirrhotic 38-year-old man who presented with spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix which was successfully managed laparoscopically by in-situ distal clipping and proximal transcutaneous ligation of the recanalised paraumbilical veins. We therefore feel that laparoscopy can be safely and effectively employed to control external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix associated with liver cirrhosis. This novel technique can help avoid a laparotomy and also help preserve the umbilicus. PMID:22623827

  1. Perioperative critical care management for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442

  2. Complicated pneumothorax and congenital lung cystic malformation.

    PubMed

    Attou, Rachid; Reper, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, also named congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), is a congenital lung abnormality which is uncommon in adults. The usual radiological appearance of CPAM is a cystic space-occupying lesion. We present one case of CPAM with unusual clinical and radiological findings, a complicated spontaneous pneumothorax with intracystic haemorrhage with successful conservative initial treatment, despite acute haemodynamic instability. PMID:24694267

  3. Intracranial tumour haemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Christian; Haux, Daniel; Sahm, Felix; Unterberg, Andreas W; Beynon, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous administration of thrombolytic agents is considered to be contraindicated in patients with intracranial neoplasms. However, only a single case of thrombolysis-related intracranial tumour haemorrhage has been reported to our knowledge and several studies have suggested that systemic thrombolysis can be safely carried out in these patients. Here we report a patient who developed haemorrhage into a previously unknown intracranial tumour following intravenous thrombolysis for acute myocardial ST-elevation infarction. Identification of abnormal tissue during surgical haematoma evacuation initiated histopathological examination which revealed meningioma World Health Organization Grade I. Intracranial tumours may represent the causative pathology in cases of thrombolysis-related intracranial haemorrhage and this should be considered in the treatment of these patients. PMID:26646504

  4. Haemorrhagic strokes in pregnancy and puerperium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Maria; Wasay, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    There is an increased risk of strokes in pregnancy and puerperium. Intracranial haemorrhage is the rarer of the two stroke subtypes but carries a greater morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the child. This review highlights the causes of pregnancy-related intracranial haemorrhage and its management. The incidence varies from region to region with the highest being reported from China and Taiwan. Majority of these haemorrhages are secondary to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with smaller proportions related to aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation rupture. A small but important contributor is cortical venous thrombosis which, although predominantly gives rise to ischaemic lesions, may lead to parenchymal haemorrhages as well. Presentation is usually with headaches or seizures, with or without focal deficits. Diagnosis requires brain imaging with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and the necessity of investigation when this diagnosis is suspected supersedes the small risk of fetal malformation. Management follows the general management principles for intracranial haemorrhage management. Blood pressures need to be strictly monitored and medicines used for controlling them may differ slightly due to teratogenic effects. For preeclampsia, early but safe delivery is the best treatment. For cortical venous thrombosis, low-molecular-weight heparin is the preferred agent. Aneurysms and vascular malformations need to be definitively treated to prevent re-bleed and this can be achieved through surgical or endovascular procedures. The timing of surgery depends on neurosurgical considerations. However, the timing and mode of delivery are governed by obstetric factors. Risk of future haemorrhage depends on whether the underlying aetiology can be and has been definitively treated. PMID:22863273

  5. Haemorrhagic effects of sodium heparin and calcium heparin prophylaxis in patients undergoing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, R E; Ho, K N; Karran, S J; Taylor, I

    1989-06-01

    In a double-blind prospective clinical trial 75 consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Twenty-five patients received perioperative anti-thromboembolic therapy with sodium heparin and 25 with calcium heparin. The remaining 25 patients were given anti-embolism stockings but no heparin. The total postoperative blood loss and period of drainage did not differ between the two groups given heparin, but a total of 10 of these 50 patients suffered haemorrhagic complications in the form of severe bruising or haematoma postoperatively. Of the patients given no heparin, none suffered haemorrhagic complications and the blood loss following the first 24-hour postoperative period was significantly less than in the groups given heparin. PMID:2681717

  6. [Continuous EEG monitoring for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Pugin, D; Vulliemoz, S; Bijlenga, P; Gasche, Y

    2014-12-10

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still carries a high morbidity and mortality, despite improvement in surgical and medical management. Seizures and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) secondary to vasospasm or cortical spreading depression are frequent after SAH. Continuous EEG allows early detection of non-convulsive seizures or delayed cerebral ischemia and may become a promissing tool in the monitoring of SAH patients. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited because many resources are required for recording and analyzing continuous EEG. Moreover, we require more data to confirm the relationship between aggressive treatment of non-convulsive seizure or delayed cerebral ischemia triggered by continuous EEG and outcome. PMID:25632630

  7. [Viral haemorrhagic fevers--evolution of the epidemic potential].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Markov, V I

    2002-01-01

    In this review modern data on dangerous and particularly dangerous viral haemorrhagic fevers caused by a group of viruses belonging to the families of phylo-, arena-, flavi-, bunya- and togaviruses are presented. Morbidity rates and epidemics caused by Marburg virus, Ebola fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Argentinian and Bolivian haemorrhagic fever viruses, dengue haemorrhagic fever virus, Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaviruses are analyzed. Mechanisms of the evolution of the epidemic manifestation of these infections are considered. The importance of the development of tools and methods of diagnosis, rapid prevention and treatment of exotic haemorrhagic fevers is emphasized. PMID:11949268

  8. Transient global amnesia and left frontal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, D. E.; Yanez, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    A patient developed spontaneous, acute, dominant frontal lobe haemorrhage neighbouring on a zone of pre-existing post-traumatic encephalomalacia manifesting clinically as transient global amnesia. Amnesia can be secondary to disease of the frontal lobe, affecting pathways interconnecting the basal forebrain and hippocampus of the temporal lobe. Images Figure 1 PMID:3174526

  9. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia manifesting as subdural empyema.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Sandeep P; Taylor, Christopher; Robertson, Iain

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is a rare autosomal dominant condition causing vascular dysplasia. Cerebral abscess formation, secondary to paradoxical septic emboli via HHT-derived pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs) in this context is well documented. Herein, we present the first case of subdural empyema with this aetiology. PMID:26982736

  10. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, Aditya; Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Ghosh, Shibajyoti

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a primary adrenal cortical malignancy presenting with spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth such case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:24658522

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  12. Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  13. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following hemodynamic treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Awori, Jonathan; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-04-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon but significant complication of hemodynamic therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-induced vasospasm. We performed a PubMed literature search for the period January 1999 to January 2015 using the search terms "posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome", "subarachnoid hemorrhage", "vasospasm", and "hypertensive encephalopathy", and identified nine cases of PRES after aSAH-induced vasospasm in the literature. We also present a 63-year-old man with aSAH complicated by vasospasm treated with hemodynamic augmentation who subsequently developed PRES. Imaging following development of PRES symptoms shows vasogenic edema in the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes. Age, sex, history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure were variable among patients in the literature review. In all cases, patients improved both from a radiological and clinical perspective following blood pressure reduction. To summarize, PRES is a rare complication of hemodynamic therapy for vasospasm following aSAH. The literature at the time of writing demonstrates no common pattern with regard to patient demographics, medical history, or mode of treatment for symptomatic vasospasm. Given its sporadic and unpredictable nature, considering PRES in the differential diagnosis is important when addressing neurological decline following hemodynamic treatment of vasospasm related to aSAH. PMID:26755456

  14. Cerebral Vasospasm and Intracerebral Haemorrhage in a Case of Pregnancy-Related Thrombotic Thrombocytopoenic Purpura / Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    Summary We report a case of a woman with pregnancyrelated thrombotic thrombocytopoenic purpura / haemolytic uraemic syndrome (TTP/HUS) who developed cerebral vasospasm similar to that seen in the other pregnancy-related thrombotic microangiopathic syndromes of eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. A further complication in this case was the development of a focal intracerebral haemorrhage necessitating surgical removal. Despite a successful evacuation of the haematoma and several plasma exchange treatments she developed recurrent haemolysis and thrombocytopoenia with an eventual fatal outcome due to severe pulmonary and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. PMID:20584498

  15. An unusual cause of haemorrhagic shock from a subcutaneous haematoma: a Morel-Lavallée lesion.

    PubMed

    Mao, Renhao Desmond; Tan, Enjiu Pauleon; Goh, Hsin Kai

    2015-04-01

    20-year-old man presented to our emergency department after he was hit by a forklift. He developed haemorrhagic shock from a subcutaneous haematoma in his left thigh and required monitoring in the surgical intensive care unit. He stabilised with aggressive fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and blood transfusion. The recovery was complicated by an infection of the subcutaneous haematoma. Following open drainage of the infected subcutaneous haematoma, he improved and was discharged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a subcutaneous haematoma causing haemorrhagic shock. PMID:25917478

  16. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists data repository (SAHIT).

    PubMed

    Macdonald, R Loch; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Jaja, Blessing; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved slowly over the past 25 years. This improvement may be due to early aneurysm repair by endovascular or open means, use of nimodipine, and better critical care management. Despite this improvement, mortality remains at about 40%, and many survivors have permanent neurologic, cognitive, and neuropsychologic deficits. Randomized clinical trials have tested pharmacologic therapies, but few have been successful. There are numerous explanations for the failure of these trials, including ineffective interventions, inadequate sample size, treatment side effects, and insensitive or inappropriate outcome measures. Outcome often is evaluated on a good-bad dichotomous scale that was developed for traumatic brain injury 40 years ago. To address these issues, we established the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) data repository. The primary aim of the SAHIT data repository is to provide a unique resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase III trials in aneurysmal SAH. With this aim in mind, we convened a multinational investigator meeting to explore merging individual patient data from multiple clinical trials and observational databases of patients with SAH and to create an agreement under which such a group of investigators could submit data and collaborate. We welcome collaboration with other investigators. PMID:23295631

  17. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dredla, Brynn

    2015-01-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  18. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

  19. Effect of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Word Generation

    PubMed Central

    Ladowski, Daniella; Qian, Winnie; Kapadia, Anish N.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors commonly exhibit impairment on phonemic and semantic fluency tests; however, it is unclear which of the contributing cognitive processes are compromised in aSAH patients. One method of disentangling these processes is to compare initial word production, which is a rapid, semiautomatic, frontal-executive process, and late phase word production, which is dependent on more effortful retrieval and lexical size and requires a more distributed neural network. Methods. Seventy-two individuals with aSAH and twenty-five control subjects were tested on a cognitive battery including the phonemic and semantic fluency task. Demographic and clinical information was also collected. Results. Compared to control subjects, patients with aSAH were treated by clipping and those with multiple aneurysms were impaired across the duration of the phonemic test. Among patients treated by coiling, those with anterior communicating artery aneurysms or a neurological complication (intraventricular hemorrhage, vasospasm, and edema) showed worse output only in the last 45 seconds of the phonemic test. Patients performed comparably to control subjects on the semantic test. Conclusions. These results support a “diffuse damage” hypothesis of aSAH, indicated by late phase phonemic fluency impairment. Overall, the phonemic and semantic tests represent a viable, rapid clinical screening tool in the postoperative assessment of patients with aSAH. PMID:24803729

  20. Application of lumbar drainage in vasospasm after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and prevention of late cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hasan Emre; Ozbek, Zühtü; Aydin, Nevin; Bolluk, Ozge; Vural, Murat; Arslantas, Ali; Atasoy, Metin Ant

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm, especially delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most important complication that effects mortality and morbidity of patients with intracranial aneurysms. The presence of cerebral vasospasm has been correlated with an increase in mortality in the first 2 weeks after SAH. Despite clinical studies and research, the etiopathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm is not understood exactly and there is not yet an effective therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of application of lumber drainage on vasospasm and delayed cerebral infarction following SAH and to examine the incidence of complications. Patient groups were determined by retrospective screening of 70 patients who underwent a surgical operation at the Osmangazi University Medical Faculty Department of Neurosurgery between 2009 and 2013 after a diagnosis of ruptured aneurysmal SAH. After the application of lumbar drainage, the complications and mortality after aneurysm surgery was significantly decreased and correlated with the amount of hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid drainage. PMID:25366633

  1. Time trends in outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, C.E.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Rothwell, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has changed substantially over the last 25 years but there is a lack of reliable population-based data on whether case-fatality or functional outcomes have improved. Methods: We determined changes in the standardized incidence and outcome of SAH in the same population between 1981 and 1986 (Oxford Community Stroke Project) and 2002 and 2008 (Oxford Vascular Study). In a meta-analysis with other population-based studies, we used linear regression to determine time trends in outcome. Results: There were no reductions in incidence of SAH (RR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–1.29, p = 0.34) and in 30-day case-fatality (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p = 0.14) in the Oxford Vascular Study vs Oxford Community Stroke Project, but there was a decrease in overall mortality (RR = 0.47, 0.23–0.97, p = 0.04). Following adjustment for age and baseline SAH severity, patients surviving to hospital had reduced risk of death or dependency (modified Rankin score > 3) at 12 months in the Oxford Vascular Study (RR = 0.51, 0.29–0.88, p = 0.01). Among 32 studies covering 39 study periods from 1980 to 2005, 7 studied time trends within single populations. Unadjusted case-fatality fell by 0.9% per annum (0.3–1.5, p = 0.007) in a meta-analysis of data from all studies, and by 0.9% per annum (0.2–1.6%, p = 0.01) within the 7 population studies. Conclusion: Mortality due to subarachnoid hemorrhage fell by about 50% in our study population over the last 2 decades, due mainly to improved outcomes in cases surviving to reach hospital. This improvement is consistent with a significant decrease in case-fatality over the last 25 years in our pooled analysis of other similar population-based studies. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; mRS = modified Rankin score; OCSP = Oxford Community Stroke Project; OXVASC = Oxford Vascular Study; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; WFNS = World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. PMID:20375310

  2. Lessons from nosocomial viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    The outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola in 2004-2005 shows once again the devastating and rapid spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers in medical settings where hygiene practices are poorly applied or ignored. The legacy of years of war and poverty in Angola has resulted in very poor medical education and services. The initial high rate of infection among infants in Angola may have been related to poor hospital practices, possibly administration of vaccines. Though the outbreak in Angola was in a part of Africa not previously known to have filovirus infection, prior ecological modelling had predicted this location and many others. Prevention of future outbreaks will not be easy. The urgent need is dissemination of knowledge and the training, discipline and resources for good clinical practice. Educating the public to demand higher standards could be a powerful tool. Good practices are difficult to establish and maintain on the scale needed. PMID:16373655

  3. European Research Priorities for Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Christensen, Hanne; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Csiba, Laszlo; Harnof, Sagi; Krieger, Derk; Mendelow, David; Molina, Carlos; Montaner, Joan; Overgaard, Karsten; Roine, Risto O.; Schmutzhard, Erich; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Toni, Danilo; Stapf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time. No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH. PMID:21986448

  4. Jugular Foramen Arteriovenous Shunt with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, G.; Comoy, J.; Hurth, M.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man with an extracerebral arteriovenous fistula at the skull base, revealed by subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into left laterobulbar veins. Embolization with bucrylate was performed and occluded totally the shunting zone. A 1-year follow-up angiogram confirmed the good stability of the result, the patient being asymptomatic. This case emphasizes the quality of results that can be obtained with bucrylate in arterioverious fistulas presenting with hemorrhage. It confirms that the external carotid artery must be studied when dealing with intracranial hemorrhage. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography may depict vascular abnormalities but do not always indicate the shunting area, thus the pathologic type of the malformation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 5p136-b PMID:17170835

  5. Endovascular Perforation Murine Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo Jia; Lu, Gang; Zheng, Zhi Yuan; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, Kwok Chu George

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subtype of stroke with disastrous outcomes of high disability and mortality. A variety of endeavors have been developed to explore a SAH animal model for investigation of the disease. Among these models, the endovascular perforation SAH model was considered to be the most simulative to the clinical human SAH because it reproduces several pathophysiology procedures and presents some of the most important post-hemorrhage features. An applicable SAH animal model should have the characteristics of low mortality rate, limited surgical manipulation, and adaptation to many species, which permits reproducibility and standardization. An intensive discussion of how to improve the techniques and refine the procedure has taken place in the last decade. This report describes our experiences with a murine model of SAH. We aim to standardize and optimize the procedures to establish a relatively stable animal model for SAH research. PMID:26463927

  6. Breastfeeding in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Ayse; Cevik, Mustafa Aydin; Onguru, Pinar; Gözel, Gökhan; Akinci, Esragul; Kubar, Ayhan; Bodur, Hurrem

    2008-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is potentially a fatal disease transmitted by tick bite, close contact with blood or tissues of infected humans or viraemic livestock. We present the clinical course of 2 breastfeeding women with CCHF and their babies. Both the mothers had positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for CCHF virus in blood and it was negative in breast milk. At follow-up, babies did not develop CCHF infection. PMID:17934982

  7. Viral haemorrhagic fevers: current status, future threats.

    PubMed

    Speed, B R; Gerrard, M P; Kennett, M L; Catton, M G; Harvey, B M

    1996-01-15

    In developing countries, the major outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola and Lassa fever viruses have been nosocomially spread. The high mortality and absence of specific treatment have had a devastating effect. Epidemics of this highly contagious disease remain a constant threat to Australia and, as a result, carefully planned laboratory and public health strategies and clinical infection control measures have been instituted for the management of suspected cases. PMID:8569577

  8. The subarachnoid spaces in children: normal variations in size

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.; Zito, J.L.; Davidson, R.I.; Raptopoulos, V.

    1983-05-01

    Intra- and extraventricular subarachnoid spaces in children were studied by high-resolution computed tomography. Scans were reviewed of 34 patients who were selected as highly likely to have normal scans. Sizes of the ventricular system and the seven extraventricular subarachnoid compartments were analyzed and graded on a subjective scale from 0 (not visible) to 4 (markedly enlarged). Data were also analyzed by age group (greater or less than 2 years of age). The subarachnoid spaces were found to be both larger and more variable in size before the age of 2 years and to be quite uniform thereafter. Based on these findings, it is inadvisable to base specific diagnoses during the first 2 years of life solely upon modest enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces.

  9. Plasma leakage in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2009-12-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV), a group of four serologically distinct but related flaviviruses, are the cause of one of the most important emerging viral diseases. DENV infections result in a wide spectrum of clinical disease including dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a viral haemorrhagic disease characterised by bleeding and plasma leakage. The characteristic feature of DHF is the transient period of plasma leakage and a haemorrhagic tendency. DHF occurs mostly during a secondary DENV infection. Serotype cross-reactive antibodies and mediators from serotype cross-reactive Dengue-specific T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis. A complex interaction between virus, host immune response and endothelial cells likely impacts the barrier integrity and functions of endothelial cells leading to plasma leakage. Recently the role of angiogenic factors and the role of dengue virus on endothelial cell transcription and functions have been studied. Insights into the mechanisms that confer protection or cause disease are critical in the development of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for this important disease. PMID:19967133

  10. Tranexamic acid in the prevention of periventricular haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hensey, O J; Morgan, M E; Cooke, R W

    1984-01-01

    Increased fibrinolytic activity in the ganglionic eminence of the preterm human brain has been proposed as a factor in the aetiology of periventricular haemorrhage. The effect of tranexamic acid in preventing periventricular haemorrhage was evaluated in 100 infants in a double blind, randomised controlled trial. Haemorrhages developed in 22 infants who received tranexamic acid and in 20 of those who received placebo. A significant reduction in fibrin degradation products in treated infants was seen. Our study suggests that excessive fibrinolytic activity is not an important factor in the aetiology of periventricular haemorrhage and that treatment with tranexamic acid will not prevent its occurrence. PMID:6383225

  11. Paravascular pathways contribute to vasculitis and neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage independently of glymphatic control.

    PubMed

    Luo, C; Yao, X; Li, J; He, B; Liu, Q; Ren, H; Liang, F; Li, M; Lin, H; Peng, J; Yuan, T F; Pei, Z; Su, H

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation. Clearance of the paravascular pathway with tissue-type plasminogen activator ameliorates the behavioral deficits and alleviates histological injury of SAH. Interestingly, AQP4(-/-) mice showed no improvements in neurological deficits and neuroinflammation at day 7 after SAH compared with WT control mice. In conclusion, our study proves that the paravascular pathway dynamically mediates the pathological complications following acute SAH independently of glymphatic control. PMID:27031957

  12. Paravascular pathways contribute to vasculitis and neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage independently of glymphatic control

    PubMed Central

    Luo, C; Yao, X; Li, J; He, B; Liu, Q; Ren, H; Liang, F; Li, M; Lin, H; Peng, J; Yuan, T F; Pei, Z; Su, H

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation. Clearance of the paravascular pathway with tissue-type plasminogen activator ameliorates the behavioral deficits and alleviates histological injury of SAH. Interestingly, AQP4−/− mice showed no improvements in neurological deficits and neuroinflammation at day 7 after SAH compared with WT control mice. In conclusion, our study proves that the paravascular pathway dynamically mediates the pathological complications following acute SAH independently of glymphatic control. PMID:27031957

  13. Laparoscopic management of massive spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix due to recanalisation of the paraumbilical vein in a patient with ‘Child's Class A’ liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sanoop K; Krishnankutty, Sreejith L; Raja, Nirmalan

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix is an extremely rare complication of portal hypertension. Bleeding is usually into the peritoneal cavity and the treatment involves urgent laparotomy and ligation of the bleeding varices. We describe a cirrhotic 38-year-old man who presented with spontaneous external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix which was successfully managed laparoscopically by in-situ distal clipping and proximal transcutaneous ligation of the recanalised paraumbilical veins. We therefore feel that laparoscopy can be safely and effectively employed to control external haemorrhage from the umbilical varix associated with liver cirrhosis. This novel technique can help avoid a laparotomy and also help preserve the umbilicus. PMID:22623827

  14. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

  15. Neonatal cranial ultrasound screening for intraventricular haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tudehope, D I; Lamont, A C

    1998-04-01

    The cost effectiveness of performing routine neonatal cranial ultrasound scans to diagnose intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) on cohorts of high risk infants is in question. In the early 1980s cranial ultrasound scans were performed on preterm infants to expand knowledge of the incidence, aetiology, pathogenesis and evolution of IVH. In many neonatal units high risk infants are scanned on days 5-7 and 10-14 and prior to discharge for extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. Cranial ultrasound scanning is often used as a surrogate for assessment of neurodevelopmental outcome with information from meta analyses used to counsel parents about the likelihood of subsequent neurosensory disability. PMID:9588629

  16. Epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    McMoli, T. E.; Bordoh, A. N.; Munube, G. M.; Bell, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Enterovirus 70 has recently emerged as a causative agent of epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( AHC ). This paper is a report of the first association of enterovirus 70 with epidemic AHC in Nigeria. Despite numerous symptoms, including reduction in visual acuity, eventual recovery in 2 to 3 weeks with no functional loss was the rule except in 11 patients. Five of these patients ended up with superficial corneal scarring. Two had evisceration for unresolving panophthalmitis, while 4 went blind from ruptured corneal abscesses or ulcers. All the 11 patients had treated themselves or used traditional medications. None of the patients had signs of involvement of the central nervous system. PMID:6326796

  17. Outcome following subdural haemorrhages in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, Sandeep; Parr, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Subdural haemorrhages (SDH) are associated with significant neurodisability in affected individuals. The incidence of SDH in infants is between 12 and 25 cases per 100 000 children and most detected SDH are due to physical abuse. In the infant brain, SDH are caused by tearing of the bridging veins in the subdural space and may result in significant brain injury. The challenge of assessing outcome in infants with SDH is evaluating whether SDH or other accompanying brain insults are instrumental in the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:17376941

  18. Outcome following subdural haemorrhages in infancy.

    PubMed

    Jayawant, Sandeep; Parr, Jeremy

    2007-04-01

    Subdural haemorrhages (SDH) are associated with significant neurodisability in affected individuals. The incidence of SDH in infants is between 12 and 25 cases per 100,000 children and most detected SDH are due to physical abuse. In the infant brain, SDH are caused by tearing of the bridging veins in the subdural space and may result in significant brain injury. The challenge of assessing outcome in infants with SDH is evaluating whether SDH or other accompanying brain insults are instrumental in the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:17376941

  19. Intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants--can we improve outcome by addressing coagulation?

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Amir A; Brenner, Benjamin; Kenet, Gili

    2015-11-01

    During the last few decades, the survival of preterm infants has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, with the increasing number of very young and extremely low birth weight infants, morbidity is still a major problem. Intraventricular Haemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth, and large haemorrhages or haemorrhages associated with parenchymal brain lesions may yield a high rate of future disability. IVH is a complex, multi-factorial disorder. Prematurity and low birth weight remain as its most important risk factors, affecting vulnerability of the germinal matrix as well as the coagulation system. Approximately 80% of IVHs occur by 72 h after birth, but a considerable proportion of IVH is already visible on the first cranial ultrasound scan within a few hours of birth. The hypothesis that a severe coagulation deficiency in the premature newborn could be a major contributing factor to IVH has been suggested, and small open label interventional studies targeting the premature coagulation system have been conducted with ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate. The outcome of these studies will be reviewed. PMID:23968273

  20. Multimodal MRI characterization of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Shen, Q; Watts, L T; Muir, E R; Huang, S; Yang, G-Y; Suarez, J I; Duong, T Q

    2016-03-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We implemented an in-scanner rat model of mild SAH in which blood or vehicle was injected into the cistern magna, and applied multimodal MRI to study the brain prior to, immediately after (5min to 4h), and upto 7days after SAH. Vehicle injection did not change arterial lumen diameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2, venous signal, vascular reactivity to hypercapnia, or foot-fault scores, but mildly reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF) up to 4h, and open-field activity up to 7days post injection. By contrast, blood injection caused: (i) vasospasm 30min after SAH but not thereafter, (ii) venous abnormalities at 3h and 2days, delayed relative to vasospasm, (iii) reduced basal CBF and to hypercapnia 1-4h but not thereafter, (iv) reduced ADC immediately after SAH but no ADC and T2 changes on days 2 and 7, and (v) reduced open-field activities in both SAH and vehicle animals, but no significant differences in open-field activities and foot-fault tests between groups. Mild SAH exhibited transient and mild hemodynamic disturbances and diffusion changes, but did not show apparent ischemic brain injury nor functional deficits. PMID:26708744

  1. Acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage: the role of the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Kerr, S F; Puppala, S

    2011-05-01

    Acute gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage is a frequent and potentially life threatening medical presentation, the management of which depends on more than one speciality. Upper GI haemorrhage is often treated by endoscopic methods, failing which radiological intervention or surgery are the alternative methods of treatment. Radiology is crucial both in the diagnosis and treatment of lower GI haemorrhage, where the role of endoscopy is limited by poor visibility. CT angiography is now the first line investigation of choice and catheter angiography is used as a prelude to intervention. Interventional radiological techniques for treatment include embolisation for both upper and lower GI arterial haemorrhage and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting for upper GI variceal haemorrhage refractory to endoscopic treatment. PMID:21398684

  2. Impact of Comorbidity on Early Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Avdagic, Selma Sijercic; Brkic, Harun; Avdagic, Harun; Smajic, Jasmina; Hodzic, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the complications aneurysms subarachnoid hemorrhage is the development of vasospasm, which is the leading cause of disability and death from ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Aim: To evaluate the significance of previous comorbidities on early outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm in the prevention of vasospasm. Patients and methods: The study had prospective character in which included 50 patients, whose diagnosed with SAH caused by the rupture of a brain aneurysm in the period from 2011to 2013. Two groups of patients were formed. Group I: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered nimodipine at a dose of 15-30 mg / kg bw / h (3-10 ml) for the duration of the initial treatment. Group II: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered with MgSO4 at a dose of 12 grams in 500 ml of 0.9% NaCl / 24 h during the initial treatment. Results: Two-thirds of the patients (68%) from both groups had a good outcome measured with values according to GOS scales, GOS IV and V. The poorer outcome, GOS III had 20% patients, the GOS II was at 2% and GOS I within 10% of patients. If we analyze the impact of comorbidity on the outcome, it shows that there is a significant relationship between the presence of comorbidity and outcomes. The patients without comorbidity (83.30%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), the same outcome was observed (59.4%) with comorbidities, which has a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). Patients without diabetes (32%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), while the percentage of patients with diabetes less frequent (2%) with a good outcome, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.009). Conclusion: The outcome of treatment 30 days after the subarachnoid hemorrhage analyzed values WFNS and GOS, is not dependent on the method of prevention and treatment of vasospasm. Most concomitant diseases in patients with SAH which, requiring additional treatment measures are arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The best predictors in the initial treatment of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm has the presence of comorbidity, which has statistical significance. PMID:26622076

  3. Laboratory control of minimal heparinization during haemodialysis in patients with a risk of haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hafner, G; Klingel, R; Wandel, E; Ehrenthal, W; Konheiser, U; Lotz, J; Köhler, H; Prellwitz, W

    1994-04-01

    For patients undergoing dialysis with a high risk of haemorrhage there is no standardized procedure for anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation. Minimal heparinization with a dose equivalent to half that used for chronic haemodialysis was employed in 49 patients (125 haemodialyses) performed after operative interventions (83.3%), after haemorrhagic events (5.2%) and after invasive investigations (11.5%). Using a biocompatible membrane and a low molecular weight heparin (bolus dose 500-1300 U; continuous infusion 100-400 U) it was possible to complete haemodialysis in 74 cases (Group 0) without clots appearing in the venous bubble trap of the tubing system. In 30 cases (Group 1) only small clots were detected at the end of haemodialysis, and in 13 cases (Group 2) larger clots (exceeding a diameter of 1 cm) were found. In eight cases (Group 3) partial or complete clot formation occurred in the tubing. No haemorrhagic complications were observed. Anti-Xa activity, thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) and D-dimer were determined before haemodialysis, 2 h after the start of haemodialysis and on completion of the procedure. The anti-Xa activities ranged between < 0.2 and 0.56 U/ml. In contrast, at 2 h there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the TAT concentrations between Group 0 and the other groups, as well as between Group 1 and Group 2 and 3. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in D-dimer levels occurred only at the end of haemodialysis. Minimal heparinization in haemodialysis is a practicable alternative in patients with a high risk of haemorrhage and extended coagulation monitoring is helpful in adjusting heparin dosage. PMID:8054454

  4. A rare case of delayed subarachnoid anesthetic blockade effects in a 103-year-old female patient

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The elderly represent a unique challenge for the effects of regional anesthesia, and very few cases of block onset delay have been described. Their delayed response is attributed to a number of factors that include: Physiologic deterioration, musculoskeletal contractures, degenerative joint disease, autonomic regulatory dysfunction, cognitive dysfunction, altered pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of local anesthetics and adjuvants. Case Description: In this report we present the rare case of 45-min delay between the administration and onset of action of a subarachnoid blockade in a 103-year-old female, who was scheduled for left hip pinning, for repair of a femoral neck fracture. Patient received an injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 1.5 ml of 0.75% (11.25 mg), with 15 mcg of fentanyl into the subarachnoidal space and underwent the surgical procedure without complications. Conclusions: Delayed responses to subarachnoid anesthesia can be expected in extremely elderly patients. Anesthetic procedures should be monitored and managed on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26060597

  5. The Relationship between Localized Subarachnoid Inflammation and Parenchymal Pathophysiology after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, James W.; Afshar, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid inflammation following spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to the formation of localized subarachnoid scarring and the development of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). While PTS is a devastating complication of SCI, its relative rarity (occurring symptomatically in about 5% of clinical cases), and lack of fundamental physiological insights, have led us to examine an animal model of traumatic SCI with induced arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that arachnoiditis associated with SCI would potentiate early parenchymal pathophysiology. To test this theory, we examined early spatial pathophysiology in four groups: (1) sham (non-injured controls), (2) arachnoiditis (intrathecal injection of kaolin), (3) SCI (35-g clip contusion/compression injury), and (4) PTS (intrathecal kaolin+SCI). Overall, there was greater parenchymal inflammation and scarring in the PTS group relative to the SCI group. This was demonstrated by significant increases in cytokine (IL-1α and IL-1β) and chemokine (MCP-1, GRO/KC, and MIP-1α) production, MPO activity, blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, and MMP-9 activity. However, parenchymal inflammatory mediator production (acute IL-1α and IL-1β, subacute chemokines), BSCB permeability, and fibrous scarring in the PTS group were larger than the sum of the SCI group and arachnoiditis group combined, suggesting that arachnoiditis does indeed potentiate parenchymal pathophysiology. Accordingly, these findings suggest that the development of arachnoiditis associated with SCI can lead to an exacerbation of the parenchymal injury, potentially impacting the outcome of this devastating condition. PMID:22655536

  6. Causes of 30-day readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Washington, Chad W; Guniganti, Ridhima; Dacey, Ralph G; Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Hospital readmission is a common but controversial quality measure increasingly used to influence hospital compensation in the US. The objective of this study was to evaluate the causes for 30-day hospital readmission following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to determine the appropriateness of this performance metric and to identify potential avenues for improved patient care. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who received surgical orendovas-cular treatment for aneurysmal SAH at Barnes-Jewish Hospital between 2003 and 2013. Two senior faculty identified by consensus the primary medical/surgical diagnosis associated with readmission as well as the underlying causes of rehospitalization. RESULTS Among 778 patients treated for aneurysmal SAH, 89 experienced a total of 97 readmission events, yielding a readmission rate of 11.4%. The median time from discharge to readmission was 9 days (interquartile range 3-17.5 days). Actual hydrocephalus or potential concern for hydrocephalus (e.g., headache) was the most frequent diagnosis (26/97, 26.8%), followed by infections (e.g., wound infection [5/97, 5.2%], urinary tract infection [3/97, 3.1%], and pneumonia [3/97, 3.1%]) and thromboembolic events (8/97, 8.2%). In most cases (75/97, 77.3%), we did not identify any treatment lapses contributing to readmission. The most common underlying causes for readmission were unavoidable development of SAH-related pathology (e.g., hydrocephalus; 36/97, 37.1%) and complications related to neurological impairment and immobility (e.g., thromboembolic event despite high-dose chemoprophylaxis; 21/97, 21.6%). The authors determined that 22/97 (22.7%) of the readmissions were likely preventable with alternative management. In these cases, insufficient outpatient medical care (for example, for hyponatremia; 16/97, 16.5%) was the most common shortcoming. CONCLUSIONS Most readmissions after aneurysmal SAH relate to late consequences of hemorrhage, such as hydrocephalus, or medical complications secondary to severe neurological injury. Although a minority of readmissions may potentially be avoided with closer medical follow-up in the transitional care environment, readmission after SAH is an insensitive and likely inappropriate hospital performance metric. PMID:26361278

  7. Decorin alleviated chronic hydrocephalus via inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Chen, Yujie; Li, Lingyong; Jiang, Jiaode; Wu, Guangyong; Zuo, Yuchun; Zhang, John H; Feng, Hua; Yan, Xiaoxin; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus is one of the severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there is no efficient treatment for the prevention of chronic hydrocephalus, partially due to poor understanding of underlying pathogenesis, subarachnoid fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) is a potent fibrogenic factor implicated in wide range of fibrotic diseases. To investigate whether decorin, a natural antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and chronic hydrocephalus after SAH, two-hemorrhage-injection SAH model was conducted in 6-week-old rats. Recombinant human decorin(rhDecorin) (30ug/2ul) was administered before blood injection and on the 10th day after SAH. TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide were assessed via western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. And neurobehavioral tests and Morris water maze were employed to evaluate long-term neurological functions after SAH. We found that SAH induced heightened activation of TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF axis, presenting as a two peak response of TGF-β1 in cerebrospinal fluid, elevation of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I in brain parenchyma and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide in cerebrospinal fluid, and increased lateral ventricle index. rhDecorin treatment effectively inhibited up-regulation of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide after SAH. Moreover, rhDecorin treatment significantly reduced lateral ventricular index and incidence of chronic hydrocephalus after SAH. Importantly, rhDecorin improved neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, rhDecorin suppresses extracellular matrix accumulation and following subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF pathway, preventing development of hydrocephalus and attenuating long-term neurocognitive defects after SAH. PMID:26556770

  8. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-01

    Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy. PMID:15677844

  9. Terson Syndrome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Won, Yu Hui; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-08-01

    Terson syndrome refers to oculocerebral syndrome of retinal and vitreous hemorrhage associated with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage or all forms of intracranial bleeding. Recent observations have indicated that patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage have an 18% to 20% concurrent incidence of retinal and vitreous hemorrhages with about 4% incidence of vitreous hemorrhage alone. Clinical ophthalmologic findings may have significant diagnostic and prognostic value for clinicians. Here we report a 45-year-old female patient who suffered from blurred vision after subarachnoid hemorrhage. She was diagnosed as Terson syndrome. After vitrectomy, she recovered with normal visual acuity which facilitated the rehabilitative process. We also performed visual evoked potentials to investigate abnormalities of visual dysfunction. Based on this case, we emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of Terson syndrome. PMID:26361603

  10. Spontaneous thoracic spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed with brain computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sasaji, Tatsuro; Shinagawa, Kiyotsugu; Matsuya, Shigetsune

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous thoracic spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage is rare, and thus no useful radiological findings for preoperative diagnosis have been reported. We experienced a patient with spontaneous thoracic spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 37-year-old female presented with sudden-onset paraplegia and numbness in the trunk and bilateral lower extremities. The patient had no past history of trauma, lumbar puncture and bleeding disorder. T2-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical and thoracic spines showed a mass occupied in the ventral space of spinal cord that was dorsally shifted. The mass extended from C6 to Th6 levels, with its largest size at Th2 level. Thoracic spine T2-weighted sagittal and axial MRI showed that the mass compressed spinal cord and was located in the intradural space. There was no spinal cord tumor and no spinal vascular malformation around the mass. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed a high-density area in the subarachnoid space, indicating the possibility of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain MRI showed no ruptured aneurysm. The patient was diagnosed as a spontaneous thoracic spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage and emergency surgery was selected. We performed right-side hemilaminectomy at Th1-Th6 and opened dura mater and arachnoid membrane. Hematoma was found in the ventral space of spinal cord and was removed. One year after surgery, numbness in the trunk and bilateral lower extremities had disappeared but paraplegia remained unchanged. Thoracic spine T2-weighted MRI confirmed no hematoma but showed a newly formed intradural cyst. Preoperative combination of brain CT and thoracic MRI is useful to diagnose thoracic spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24131866

  11. Axonal pathology in subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Rejdak, K; Belli, A; Sen, J; Keir, G; Kitchen, N; Smith, M; Thompson, E J

    2005-03-01

    Electrically active axons degenerate in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. High CSF NO concentrations have been observed in patients with hemorrhagic brain injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study investigated the evidence for axonal injury in SAH and ICH and related this to CSF NO levels. In this study, neurofilament phosphoforms (NfH(SMI34), NfH(SMI35), NfH(SMI38), NfH(SMI310)), surrogate markers for axonal injury, and NO metabolites (nitrate, nitrite = NOx) were measured by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with SAH and ICH and from a group of controls. Injury severity was classified using the Glasgow Coma Scale, and survival was used as the outcome measure. Compared to the control group, a higher proportion of patients with SAH and ICH had elevated NfH(SMI34) levels from day 0 to day 6 (p < 0.001), elevated NfH(SMI35) levels from day 1 to 6 (p < 0.001), and elevated NfH(SMI310) levels at day 0, 1, 4, and 6 (p < 0.001). The NOx levels were higher in the SAH and ICH patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and distinguished the non-survivors from the survivors (p < 0.05). No direct correlation was found for NOx with any of the NfH phosphoforms. This study provides evidence for primary and secondary axonal injury in patients with SAH and ICH, with non-survivors also having higher NOx levels. CSF NfH phosphoforms might emerge as a putative surrogate marker for monitoring the development for secondary axonal degeneration in neurocritical care and guiding targeted neuroprotective strategies. PMID:15785235

  12. Basal Ganglia Damage in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haining; Okubo, Shuichi; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a primary therapeutic target, and early SAH-induced basal ganglia injury is not well studied. The present study examined basal ganglia injury in a rat model of SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) weighing 275-300 g underwent endovascular perforation to mimic aneurysmal SAH. Sham rats (n = 12) underwent the same procedure but without perforation. Magnetic resonance imaging (T2 MRI) was performed at 24 h after SAH to measure ventricle volumes and brain T2 lesion. Hydrocephalus in SAH rats was defined as a ventricular volume greater than three standard deviations above that in shams. Western blotting and immunochemistry were utilized to assess basal ganglia damage. Sixty rats survived the SAH and 40 % of those animals had T2 lesions in the basal ganglia. Twenty-six SAH rats had hydrocephalus. Rats with hydrocephalus had higher incidence of basal ganglia lesion (69 vs. 18 % in rats without hydrocephalus; p < 0.01). Basal ganglia neuronal injury was also determined by examining the levels of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32). We found that rats with hydrocephalus had more severe basal ganglia injury with greater DARPP-32 depletion (DARPP-32/beta-actin: 0.38 ± 0.32 vs. 0.86 ± 0.45 in rats without hydrocephalus and 1.10 ± 0.28 in sham, p < 0.05). In conclusion, SAH resulted in severe basal ganglia damage, which is associated with hydrocephalus development. PMID:26463938

  13. Effect of statins treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhui; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm is one of the most common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.Statins have been proven to be effective to reduce the incidence of vasospasm both in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and several clinical trials before. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of statins for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We made strict search strategies to select the randomized controlled trial and observational studies published up to December 20th 2014. Outcomes of interest were cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. Data analyses of RCTs and observational studies were made separately. Finally six randomized clinical trial and eight observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were in total 1031 patients in six RCTs with 504 patients received statins and 527 patients in placebo group. 561 patients with statins compared with 1579 patients in no statin-use group were finally included in 8 observational studies. Outcomes included in this meta-analysis (cerebral vasospasm, DIC and poor outcome) all indicated no statistical significance between two groups both in RCTs and observational studies. No benefits of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed in both RCTs and observational studies, which was quite different from the results of several previous meta-analysis. PMID:26221259

  14. When is enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces not benign? A genetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Paciorkowski, Alex R; Greenstein, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    Enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces is occasionally encountered during neuroimaging of children. This enlargement is generally regarded as a nonpathologic process that resolves uneventfully. However, there are several genetic disorders in which enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces can be an early sign, or the feature of an associated syndrome, that may aid in the underlying diagnosis. Recognizing subarachnoid space enlargement in these circumstances requires an understanding of the normal physiology of the subarachnoid space at different time points in a child's neurodevelopment. This article reviews the events shaping the subarachnoid space, both during normal physiologic maturation and in specific genetic disorders. PMID:17628215

  15. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed. PMID:18278167

  16. Retinal haemorrhages associated with fatal paediatric infections.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Marcus C; Lantz, Patrick E

    2015-04-01

    For many physicians, retinal haemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children remain highly diagnostic of non-accidental (abusive) head trauma. Because clinicians have applied indirect ophthalmoscopy selectively to cases of suspected child abuse, the association between RH and other conditions such as infection, coagulopathy and accidental trauma has encountered habitual bias, creating the potential for iatrogenic misdiagnosis of child abuse. We present an autopsy case series of four children, aged three years old or younger, in whom RHs were detected by post-mortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy after the patients had died from infections. We discuss the laterality, number, type and location of RHs in these cases, and summarize proposed mechanisms of RH formation in fatalities from paediatric infection. We demonstrate that many of the ophthalmological findings that have been considered diagnostic of abusive head trauma can also occur in association with infective processes. PMID:24644226

  17. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H

    2015-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973

  18. [Anticoagulants after intracerebral haemorrhage in frail elderly].

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Claassen, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Restarting anticoagulants in frail older patients who have had an intracerebral haemorrhage as an adverse reaction to anticoagulant therapy is a major dilemma, and one which is not specifically addressed in the state-of-the-art paper on restarting anticoagulants elsewhere in this issue. Frail older persons have the highest risk of recurrent bleeding, but, in theory, also have the most benefit from anticoagulants due to the high absolute risk for ischemic events in atrial fibrillation, which is the major indication. However, frail older persons are largely excluded from trials with anticoagulants, which makes it impossible to solve this dilemma in an evidence-based way. Therefore, we argue that sound decision making cannot only be based on neurological or cardiological expertise, as proposed by others, but should include an overall comprehensive geriatric assessment, and, most importantly, patients and caregivers should be included in shared goal setting and shared decision making. PMID:25873225

  19. Chronic hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Peter; Vahmjanin, Alexander; Hu, Qin; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William; Zhang, John H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic communicating hydrocephalus is a significant health problem affecting up to 20% of survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The development of new treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of well characterized disease models. This study investigated the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus by evaluating the temporal profile of intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation after SAH, induced by endovascular perforation in rats. Twenty-five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (260-320 g) were subjected to either endovascular perforation or sham surgery. Five animals died after SAH induction. At 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery ICP was measured by stereotaxic puncture of the cisterna magna in SAH (n=10) and SHAM (n=10) animals. On day 21 T-maze test was performed and the number of alterations and latency to decision was recorded. On day 23, samples were processed for histological analyses. The relative ventricle area was evaluated in coronal Nissl stained sections. On day 7 after surgery all animals showed normal ICP. The absolute ICP values were significantly higher in SAH compared to SHAM animals on day 21 (8.26±4.53 mmHg versus 4.38±0.95 mmHg) but not on day 14. Observing an ICP of 10 mmHg as cut-off, 3 animals showed elevated ICP on day 14 and another animal on day 21. The overall incidence of ICP elevation was 40% in SAH animals. On day 21, results of T-maze testing were significantly correlated with ICP values, i.e. animals with elevated ICP showed a lower number of alterations and a delayed decision. Histology yielded a significantly higher (3.59 fold increased) relative ventricle area in SAH animals with ICP elevation compared to SAH animals without ICP elevation. In conclusion, the current study shows that experimental SAH leads to chronic hydrocephalus, which is associated with ICP elevation, behavioral alterations and ventricular dilation in about 40% of SAH animals. PMID:23936048

  20. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Manoranjan, Branavan; Turner, Ryan C.; McConnell, Evan; Vates, George Edward; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Simard, J. Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials. PMID:27049383

  1. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Manoranjan, Branavan; Turner, Ryan C; McConnell, Evan; Vates, George Edward; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Simard, J Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials. PMID:27049383

  2. Computed tomography demonstration of subarachnoid-pleural fistula.

    PubMed

    Hicken, P; Martin, J; Hakanson, S

    1990-08-01

    A persistent left pleural effusion caused diagnostic difficulty in a young girl, 2 years after a road accident had rendered her paraplegic. Eventually, after instillation of a contrast medium into the pleural fluid, computed tomography showed a fistulous communication between the subarachnoid and pleural spaces at the level in the dorsal spine where trauma had occurred. PMID:2207780

  3. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome involving the liver.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Wong, T W; Yap, E H; Tan, H C; Lee, H W; Chu, Y K; Lee, P W

    1987-09-01

    A case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that originated in Malaysia is reported. The patient presented with clinical symptoms which were not typical of the disease as seen in endemic regions. Renal involvement, which is characteristic of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, was mild, and the predominant symptom was a persistently marked elevation of serum transaminase levels that was suggestive of hepatitis. Liver involvement has not been described in the Asian form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The patient developed a petechial skin rash and had severe thrombocytopenia. Serological confirmation of the diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome was obtained by the demonstration of significant antibody rises to hantaviruses in the patient's acute- and convalescent-phase sera. PMID:2890086

  4. [Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia diagnosed in connection with a traffic accident.

    PubMed

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Demény, Ann Kathrin; Almind, Merete; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2014-02-17

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by vascular dysplasia and haemorrhage. It is manifested by mucocutaneous telangiec-tases and arteriovenous malformations in organs such as lungs, liver and brain. We present a case of HHT. A 16-year-old patient with a history of recurrent epistaxis was admitted to the local hospital with chest pain and desaturation. A CT scan revealed pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. PMID:25350308

  5. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper. PMID:25181505

  6. Ventriculomammary shunt: an unusual ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Morcos, Jacques J

    2015-02-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunctions are common and can result in significant consequences for patients. Despite the prevalence of breast augmentation surgery and breast surgery for other pathologies, few breast related VP shunt complications have been reported. A 54-year-old woman with hydrocephalus post-subarachnoid hemorrhage returned 1 month after VP shunt placement complaining of painful unilateral breast enlargement. After investigation, it was determined that the distal VP shunt catheter had migrated from the peritoneal cavity into the breast and wrapped around her breast implant. The breast enlargement was the result of cerebrospinal fluid retention. We detail this unusual case and review all breast related VP shunt complications reported in the literature. To avoid breast related complications related to VP shunt procedures, it is important to illicit pre-procedural history regarding breast implants, evade indwelling implants during catheter tunneling and carefully securing the abdominal catheter to prevent retrograde catheter migration to the breast. PMID:25127261

  7. Toxic megacolon complicating Escherichia coli O157 infection.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Deepa M; Vetrivel, Shanmu; McElroy, Jack; Pai, Pearl; Koerner, Roland J

    2006-04-01

    Toxic megacolon is a well known complication in inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The development of toxic megacolon as a complication of infectious colitis is rare. However it is recognised as a complication of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Salmonella species, Cytomegalovirus and amoebae. We describe a case of necrotising haemorrhagic ileo-colitis in a previously fit and healthy young adult female caused by Escherichia coli O157 where toxic megacolon developed as a complication along with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). PMID:16126276

  8. Fracture complications.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Kristen

    2013-06-01

    This article highlights 2 important complications of fracture: acute compartment syndrome and fat embolism syndrome (FES). FES is most commonly associated with long-bone and pelvic fracture, whereas acute compartment syndrome is often associated with tibia or forearm fracture. The onset of both of these complications may be difficult to assess in the nonverbal patient or in the patient with multiple trauma. Careful, serial assessment of the patient with fracture is necessary to recognize and treat these complications promptly. Early treatment and supportive care are crucial to positive outcomes for patients with complications of fracture. PMID:23692947

  9. Genetic risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Amanda M; Singh, Inder P; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the greatest morbidity and mortality of all stroke subtypes. Established risk factors for ICH include hypertension, alcohol use, current cigarette smoking, and use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents. Familial aggregation of ICH has been observed, and the heritability of ICH risk has been estimated at 44%. Few genes have been found to be associated with ICH at the population level, and much of the evidence for genetic risk factors for ICH comes from single studies conducted in relatively small and homogenous populations. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of genetic variants associated with primary spontaneous ICH. Two variants of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE) - which also contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy - are the most likely candidates for variants that increase the risk of ICH. Other promising candidates for risk alleles in ICH include variants of the genes ACE, PMF1/SLC25A44, COL4A2, and MTHFR. Other genetic variants, related to haemostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and the CNS microenvironment, have been linked to ICH in single candidate gene studies. Although evidence for genetic contributions to the risk of ICH exists, we do not yet fully understand how and to what extent this information can be utilized to prevent and treat ICH. PMID:26670299

  10. The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) Repository: advancing clinical research in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Attalla, Daniel; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Johnston, S Claiborne; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Noble, Adam; Quinn, Audrey; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Singh, Jeffrey; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Tseng, Ming; van den Bergh, William; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C

    2014-12-01

    Researchers and other stakeholders continue to express concern about the failure of randomized clinical trials (RCT) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to show efficacy of new treatments. Pooled data may be particularly useful to generate hypotheses about causes of poor outcomes and reasons for failure of RCT in SAH, and strategies to improve them. Investigators conducting SAH research collaborated to share data with the intent to develop a large repository of pooled individual patient data for exploratory analysis and testing of new hypotheses relevant to improved trial design and analysis in SAH. This repository currently contains information on 11,443 SAH patients from 14 clinical databases, of which 9 are datasets of recent RCTs and 5 are datasets of prospective observational studies and hospital registries. Most patients were managed in the last 15 years. Data validation and quality checks have been conducted and are satisfactory. Data is available on demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory results and various outcome measures. We have compiled the largest known dataset of patients with SAH. The SAHIT repository may be an important resource for advancing clinical research in SAH and will benefit from contributions of additional datasets. PMID:24865271

  11. Astrocyte Ca2+ Signaling Drives Inversion of Neurovascular Coupling after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Anthony C.; Koide, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically, neurovascular coupling (NVC) matches focal increases in neuronal activity with local arteriolar dilation. Astrocytes participate in NVC by sensing increased neurotransmission and releasing vasoactive agents (e.g., K+) from perivascular endfeet surrounding parenchymal arterioles. Previously, we demonstrated an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous Ca2+ events in astrocyte endfeet and inversion of NVC from vasodilation to vasoconstriction in brain slices obtained from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model rats. However, the role of spontaneous astrocyte Ca2+ signaling in determining the polarity of the NVC response remains unclear. Here, we used two-photon imaging of Fluo-4-loaded rat brain slices to determine whether altered endfoot Ca2+ signaling underlies SAH-induced inversion of NVC. We report a time-dependent emergence of endfoot high-amplitude Ca2+ signals (eHACSs) after SAH that were not observed in endfeet from unoperated animals. Furthermore, the percentage of endfeet with eHACSs varied with time and paralleled the development of inversion of NVC. Endfeet with eHACSs were present only around arterioles exhibiting inversion of NVC. Importantly, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores using cyclopiazonic acid abolished SAH-induced eHACSs and restored arteriolar dilation in SAH brain slices to two mediators of NVC (a rise in endfoot Ca2+ and elevation of extracellular K+). These data indicate a causal link between SAH-induced eHACSs and inversion of NVC. Ultrastructural examination using transmission electron microscopy indicated that a similar proportion of endfeet exhibiting eHACSs also exhibited asymmetrical enlargement. Our results demonstrate that subarachnoid blood causes a delayed increase in the amplitude of spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ release events leading to inversion of NVC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)—strokes involving cerebral aneurysm rupture and release of blood onto the brain surface—are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A common complication observed after SAH is the development of delayed cerebral ischemia at sites often remote from the site of rupture. Here, we provide evidence that SAH-induced changes in astrocyte Ca2+ signaling lead to a switch in the polarity of the neurovascular coupling response from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Thus, after SAH, signaling events that normally lead to vasodilation and enhanced delivery of blood to active brain regions cause vasoconstriction that would limit cerebral blood flow. These findings identify astrocytes as a key player in SAH-induced decreased cortical blood flow. PMID:26424885

  12. Astrocyte Ca2+ Signaling Drives Inversion of Neurovascular Coupling after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Anthony C; Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C

    2015-09-30

    Physiologically, neurovascular coupling (NVC) matches focal increases in neuronal activity with local arteriolar dilation. Astrocytes participate in NVC by sensing increased neurotransmission and releasing vasoactive agents (e.g., K(+)) from perivascular endfeet surrounding parenchymal arterioles. Previously, we demonstrated an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous Ca(2+) events in astrocyte endfeet and inversion of NVC from vasodilation to vasoconstriction in brain slices obtained from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model rats. However, the role of spontaneous astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling in determining the polarity of the NVC response remains unclear. Here, we used two-photon imaging of Fluo-4-loaded rat brain slices to determine whether altered endfoot Ca(2+) signaling underlies SAH-induced inversion of NVC. We report a time-dependent emergence of endfoot high-amplitude Ca(2+) signals (eHACSs) after SAH that were not observed in endfeet from unoperated animals. Furthermore, the percentage of endfeet with eHACSs varied with time and paralleled the development of inversion of NVC. Endfeet with eHACSs were present only around arterioles exhibiting inversion of NVC. Importantly, depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores using cyclopiazonic acid abolished SAH-induced eHACSs and restored arteriolar dilation in SAH brain slices to two mediators of NVC (a rise in endfoot Ca(2+) and elevation of extracellular K(+)). These data indicate a causal link between SAH-induced eHACSs and inversion of NVC. Ultrastructural examination using transmission electron microscopy indicated that a similar proportion of endfeet exhibiting eHACSs also exhibited asymmetrical enlargement. Our results demonstrate that subarachnoid blood causes a delayed increase in the amplitude of spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) release events leading to inversion of NVC. Significance statement: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)--strokes involving cerebral aneurysm rupture and release of blood onto the brain surface--are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A common complication observed after SAH is the development of delayed cerebral ischemia at sites often remote from the site of rupture. Here, we provide evidence that SAH-induced changes in astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling lead to a switch in the polarity of the neurovascular coupling response from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Thus, after SAH, signaling events that normally lead to vasodilation and enhanced delivery of blood to active brain regions cause vasoconstriction that would limit cerebral blood flow. These findings identify astrocytes as a key player in SAH-induced decreased cortical blood flow. PMID:26424885

  13. The metabolic effects of moderately severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in man.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. J.; Alberti, K. G.; Binder, C.; Holdstock, G.; Karran, S. J.; Smith, C. L.; Talbot, S.; Turnell, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic effects of moderately severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage were investigated in man. Before resuscitation, patients had raised circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, alanine, glycerol and cortisol. After urgent operation for haemorrhage, metabolite concentrations were similar to those of control patients having elective abdominal surgery, but insulin concentrations were higher and cortisol lower in haemorrhage patients. There were no significant differences in nitrogen excretion between haemorrhage patients and their controls, but urinary 3-methyl-histidine excretion by haemorrhage patients was lower indicating decreased muscle protein breakdown. Decreased amino acid release from muscle might account for previously reported imparied wound healing after haemorrhage. PMID:7045838

  14. Tonsilar haemorrhage and re-admission: a questionnaire based study.

    PubMed

    Sarny, Stephanie; Habermann, Walter; Ossimitz, Guenther; Schmid, Christoph; Stammberger, Heinz

    2011-12-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the accuracy of haemorrhage rate in the community (i.e., actual rate versus hospital recorded rate) for tonsil operations. Bleeding episodes were investigated for 695 consecutive patients undergoing tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy and tonsillotomy at the Department of ORL, H&NS, MU of Graz, Austria, between January 1 2007 and June 30 2008 by questionnaire. Main purposes of our study were the evaluation of the incidence of postoperative haemorrhage, need for revision surgery, medical care of patients experiencing postoperative bleeding and multiple bleeding episodes. Haemorrhage was defined as any bleeding, be it minimal or significant, after extubation. The study group comprised 407 patients who answered the questionnaire: 61.7% adults, 22.1% school children between 6 and 15 years and 16.2% children aged less than 6 years. Exactly 100 patients (24.6% of 407) showed some kind of postoperative bleeding, but only 79 of them (19.4% of 407) were recorded at hospital. A return to theatre due to haemorrhage was required in 4.7% of all 407 cases. Combining hospital records and data from the questionnaire allowed us to estimate an overall haemorrhage rate of 21.4% for all 695 patients. Every fifth patient experiencing postoperative haemorrhage did not return to the hospital he or she was operated in. We would have missed 21.0% of all bleeding episodes by assessing re-admitting patients suffering postoperative bleeding only. We conclude that haemorrhage rate is considerably higher than assumed by investigating hospital records only and strongly related to the definition of postoperative bleeding and to the study design. PMID:21373896

  15. Cerebral infarction secondary to vasospasm after perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Bond, R L; Aziz-Sultan, M A; Olvey, S E; Mangat, H S

    2011-07-01

    Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (pSAH) has been described as a distinct form of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) associated with good outcomes. We report a 48-year-old female who developed cerebral infarction due to severe diffuse vasospasm following pSAH. The patient presented with non-aneurysmal pSAH and was discharged home on day 5. However, one week later she developed an acute onset of right hemiparesis. A brain MRI showed acute infarctions on diffusion weighted imaging and her cerebral angiogram showed diffuse vasospasm. The patient received intra-arterial diltiazem and hypervolemic-hypertensive-hemodilution therapy with resulting resolution of the vasospasm and hemiparesis. While not as common as in SAH, there is a potential for the occurrence of cerebral infarction due to vasospasm after pSAH. PMID:21565507

  16. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with atypical imagingfindings of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tempaku, Akira; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Nitta, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is observed in most cases of nonhypertensive subcortical hemorrhage involving elderly patients. We herein describe the case of a female in whom a convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed at 55 years of age. The cerebral hemorrhage occurred repeatedly; however, no obvious vascular lesions were observed on a cerebral angiography, and no signs of microbleeding or lesions in the deep white matter were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Partial excision of the right frontal cortex and hematoma evacuation were performed, and histopathological examination showed deposition of an acidophilic substance with positive staining for Direct Fast Scarlet (DFS) in the cerebral vascular wall. Finally, brain hemorrhage due to CAA was diagnosed. This case suggests that CAA is an important differential diagnosis in patients with localized non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the convexity sulcus. PMID:26705433

  17. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors.The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister.Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic.Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation.This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 10(6.5)-10(4.5) infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

  18. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic. Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 106.5-104.5 infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

  19. Diphtheria Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  20. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Eye Complications You may have heard that diabetes causes ... work well if you begin them right away. Eye Insight To understand what happens in eye disorders, ...

  1. Diode laser treatment and clinical management of multiple oral lesions in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Favia, G; Tempesta, A; Limongelli, L; Suppressa, P; Sabbà, C; Maiorano, E

    2016-05-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is rare, and characterised by vascular dysplasia that leads to various symptoms including visceral arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous telangiectatic lesions. Our aim was to describe the clinical features and options for the treatment of multiple oral lesions, and to illustrate the efficacy of the diode laser in the treatment of early (<2mm) and advanced lesions (2mm or more). We report 24 patients with 1200 oral telangiectatic lesions, which were often associated with regular bleeding (from monthly to daily), superinfection, pain, and swelling, and treated with multiple sessions of laser according to the number and size of the lesions. Early lesions were treated with a single laser impulse in ultrapulsed mode, and advanced lesions with repeated laser impulses in pulsed mode (t-on 200ms/t-off 500ms), at a power of 8W. Early lesions healed completely after laser photocoagulation with no operative or postoperative complications, while advanced lesions improved with a remarkable reduction in size but more discomfort. Protective occlusal plates were sometimes used to reduce the incidence of new lesions caused by dental trauma. The treatment of oral telangiectatic lesions is still being debated, and it is important to improve quality of life for patients. Diode laser surgery could be an effective treatment for oral lesions in those with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. PMID:26360009

  2. Role of self-expanding metal stents in the management of variceal haemorrhage: Hype or hope?

    PubMed

    Hogan, Brian J; O'Beirne, James P

    2016-01-10

    Despite the advances of medical, endoscopic and radiological therapy over recent years the mortality rates of acute variceal haemorrhage are still 16%-20% and the medium term outcome has not improved in the last 25 years. Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has proved to be an effective therapy for selected groups of patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and moderate liver disease. However, there is an unmet need for a therapy that can be applied in patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and advanced liver disease either as definitive therapy or as a bridge to permanent therapy. Self-expanding metal stents can be placed without the need for endoscopic or fluoroscopic control and, once in place, will provide effective haemostasis and allow a route for oral fluids and nutrition. They can remain in place whilst liver function recovers and secondary prophylaxis is initiated. We review the results of 6 case series including a total of 83 patients and the first randomised controlled trial of self-expanding metal stents vs balloon tamponade (BT) in the management of refractory variceal haemorrhage. We report that self-expanding metal stents provide effective haemostasis and perform better than BT in refractory bleeding, where they are associated with fewer complications. Whilst the most effective place for self-expanding metal stents in the management algorithm needs to be determined by further randomised controlled trials, currently they provide an effective alternative to BT in selected patients. PMID:26788260

  3. Role of self-expanding metal stents in the management of variceal haemorrhage: Hype or hope?

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Brian J; O’Beirne, James P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advances of medical, endoscopic and radiological therapy over recent years the mortality rates of acute variceal haemorrhage are still 16%-20% and the medium term outcome has not improved in the last 25 years. Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has proved to be an effective therapy for selected groups of patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and moderate liver disease. However, there is an unmet need for a therapy that can be applied in patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and advanced liver disease either as definitive therapy or as a bridge to permanent therapy. Self-expanding metal stents can be placed without the need for endoscopic or fluoroscopic control and, once in place, will provide effective haemostasis and allow a route for oral fluids and nutrition. They can remain in place whilst liver function recovers and secondary prophylaxis is initiated. We review the results of 6 case series including a total of 83 patients and the first randomised controlled trial of self-expanding metal stents vs balloon tamponade (BT) in the management of refractory variceal haemorrhage. We report that self-expanding metal stents provide effective haemostasis and perform better than BT in refractory bleeding, where they are associated with fewer complications. Whilst the most effective place for self-expanding metal stents in the management algorithm needs to be determined by further randomised controlled trials, currently they provide an effective alternative to BT in selected patients. PMID:26788260

  4. Antibodies to haemorrhagic fever viruses in Madagascar populations.

    PubMed

    Mathiot, C C; Fontenille, D; Georges, A J; Coulanges, P

    1989-01-01

    Sera of 381 adult people from 5 areas in Madagascar were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence method for antibodies against Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley fever viruses (Bunyaviridae), Ebola (strains Zaire and Sudan) and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), and Lassa virus (Arenaviridae). The highest prevalence rate was that of Ebola virus (4.5%). As no haemorrhagic syndrome has been found associated with this virus, the possible presence of a less pathogenic, antigenically related, strain is discussed. The prevalences of Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley viruses were very low, despite previous viral isolations from potential vectors. No serum reacted against Lassa or Marburg antigens. The results are analysed in the light of the geographical and bioecological characteristics of Madagascar, which is a true 'microcontinent' very different from the African mainland. PMID:2515626

  5. Massive obstetric haemorrhage following removal of a cervical suture.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Louise Ann; Sherliker, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of massive ante partum haemorrhage following removal of a cervical suture. This patient was admitted for routine removal of a McDonald's cervical suture at 37 weeks gestation. The suture was densely adherent and after removal she suffered a haemorrhage of 2500 ml from where the suture was removed which led to fetal distress and an emergency caesarean section. The cervix was sutured and a vaginal pack inserted. During the procedure she developed hypovolaemic shock requiring 7 units of blood, 4 units of fresh frozen plasma, 1 unit of platelets and 1 unit of cryoprecipitate. Ten days later she was readmitted with a postpartum haemorrhage of 1000 ml requiring further haemostatic sutures to the cervix. PMID:22696714

  6. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome complicating pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Andérica, José; Herrera, José

    2012-01-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that affects one or more limbs. It is characterised by cutaneous vascular nevi, venous malformations and hypertrophy of soft tissues and bone. There are very few cases reported in pregnant women, so the level of uncertainty is high when it appears during gestation. It is a disease that increases obstetric risk and can exacerbate complications, mainly thromboembolic and haemorrhagic. We report below the case of a pregnant woman diagnosed with this syndrome and the multidisciplinary management held in our centre. PMID:22854239

  7. Angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage: outcomes data and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Scott; Thorell, William; Gogela, Steve; Lyden, Elizabeth; Surdell, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most commonly caused by rupture of a saccular aneurysm or other structural pathologies. Occasionally, no structural cause for the hemorrhage can be identified by radiographic imaging. These hemorrhages, termed angiogram-negative SAH, are generally considered to have a better prognosis than aneurysmal SAH. Angiogram-negative SAH subgroups include benign perimesencephalic SAH (PMH) and aneurysmal-type SAH. Outcome data for these subgroups differ from those for the group as a whole. We report data for 31 patients who presented to our institution from 2006 to the present. We performed a retrospective chart review, and report outcome data that include rates of rehemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm, permanent ischemic deficits, headaches, and outcomes based on modified Rankin Scale scores. We also performed a review of the literature and meta-analysis of the data therein. We compared rates of complications in the PMH subgroup and the diffuse-type hemorrhage subgroup. The chart review revealed no poor outcomes and no rehemorrhages in the patients with PMH. In the diffuse hemorrhage subgroup, 1 patient had a rehemorrhage and 2 patients had a poor outcome. Our literature review found an OR of 6.23 for a good outcome for PMH versus diffuse-type hemorrhage, and an OR of 2.78 for rehemorrhage in PMH versus diffuse-type hemorrhage. Angiogram-negative SAH is not a benign entity. Complications are present but are significantly reduced, and outcomes are improved, compared with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:22465208

  8. Aberrant innominate artery may complicate a potentially safe surgery.

    PubMed

    Dave, Varun Jitendra; Upadhya, Ila Balakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Surgeries of the anterior neck include thyroid surgery, open or percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy, bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy and oesophagoscopy. These are potentially safe surgeries with mortality rates less than 1%. Today, the most common cause of death following a tracheotomy is haemorrhage and, following thyroid surgery, the causes are haemorrhage, giant goitres and upper airway complications. Bronchoscopies and mediastinoscopies are almost never fatal. While operating around the trachea, no major vessel is encountered in the surgical field. We report a case in which an aberrant innominate artery was encountered crossing anterior to the trachea just below the thyroid isthmus. As it is an uncommon finding, even minor complacency can lead to torrential bleeding culminating in death. Thus, we recommend surgeons to be vigilant for any aberrant artery in the surgical field rather than finding it accidentally; thereby preventing any complications in a potentially safe surgery. PMID:26795742

  9. Multiple non-branching dissecting aneurysms of the mid-basilar trunk presenting with sequential subarachnoid hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Defillo, Archie; Nussbaum, Eric S.; Zelensky, Andrea; Nussbaum, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We describe a rare case of a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ventral dissecting mid-basilar aneurysm that was treated surgically. One week after surgery, the patient experienced sudden deterioration due to a new SAH caused by the development of a new aneurysm of the basilar trunk distinct from the previously clipped aneurysm. Case Description: A 54-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a small, broad-based aneurysm arising from the ventral aspect of the mid-basilar artery. This complicated lesion was treated with a microsurgical clipping via a translabyrinthine pre-sigmoidal sub-temporal approach. One week postoperatively, the patient suffered a new SAH and was found to have developed a distinct basilar artery aneurysm. The patient was returned to the Operating Room for microsurgical clipping via the previous craniotomy. After surgery, the patient made a slow, but steady, recovery. She underwent repeated angiographic imaging, demonstrating a stable appearance. Two years post surgery, the patient had returned to work and had no obvious neurological deficit, with the exception of unilateral iatrogenic hearing loss. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of multiple aneurysms originating in relation to a mid-basilar dissection, resulting in multiple episodes of SAH. These are difficult and dangerous lesions that can be treated with open microsurgical reconstruction or possibly via an endovascular approach. The intricate location of the lesions poses a particular challenge to neurosurgeons attempting to directly treat mid-basilar lesions. PMID:22059122

  10. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; de Azevedo, Milena Krajnyk; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses. PMID:26109948

  11. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage associated with aerosol propellant use

    PubMed Central

    Kelchen, Phillip; Jamous, Fady; Huntington, Mark K

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome resulting from injury to the alveolar microcirculation, most commonly associated with not only autoimmune disorders or connective tissue disease, but also a variety of infections, neoplasms and toxins. We report here a case of an otherwise healthy young man with DAH attributable to an inhalation injury resulting from use of aerosol spray paint. PMID:23955981

  12. Haemophagocytosis in dengue haemorrhagic fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Duraisamy, G

    1991-11-01

    Virus associated haemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), a distinct clinico-pathologic entity, is characterised by systemic proliferation of non-neoplastic histotiocytes showing haemophagocytosis resulting in blood cytopaenia. It has been described in relation to several viruses earlier. Here we describe a young girl who developed this reactive process during the course of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). PMID:1803975

  13. [Massive obstetric haemorrhage in a patient with placenta percreta].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, J; Mompó, B; Gredilla, E; López, M A; Gilsanz, F

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of a 38 year-old patient with prenatal diagnosis of placenta praevia. When the elective caesarean began it was found a placenta accreta. In spite of an emergency hysterectomy, embolisation using interventional radiography was needed after a massive obstetric haemorrhage. The post-operative period progressed without incidents. PMID:22632905

  14. Immunopathogenesis of haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Rautenschlein, S; Sharma, J M

    2000-01-01

    Infection of turkeys with the haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), a type II avian adenovirus, results in varying rates of morbidity and mortality. The disease is characterised by splenomegaly, intestinal haemorrhage, sudden death and immunosuppression. The mechanisms of HEV immunopathogenesis and immunosuppression are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that immune responses play a central role in disease pathogenesis. HEV infects B cells and macrophages and induces necrosis as well as apoptosis in infected and possibly in by-stander cells. The ability of the infected birds to mount an optimum humoral immune response as well as normal macrophage functions such as phagocytosis may be impaired. Elevated numbers of splenic CD4(+) cells during the acute phase of infection may be associated with viral clearance. Types I and II interferons (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis-like factors (TNF) are released at the peak of the infection. Cytokines may play a protective as well as a destructive role. While a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines may lead to systemic shock associated with haemorrhagic enteritis and death, release of IFNs may protect turkeys from the disease. Treatment with thalidomide, which is a potent TNF down-regulatory drug, prevented HEV-induced intestinal haemorrhage and treatment with an IFN-inducing chemical prevented HEV-replication and inhibited HEV-induced pathological and histopathological lesions. PMID:10717290

  15. Breathing-Impaired Speech after Brain Haemorrhage: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselwood, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from an auditory and acoustic analysis of the speech of an adult male with impaired prosody and articulation due to brain haemorrhage. They show marked effects on phonation, speech rate and articulator velocity, and a speech rhythm disrupted by "intrusive" stresses. These effects are discussed in relation to the speaker's…

  16. Serum cholinesterase activity in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Djojodibroto, R D; Santoso, B; Ngatidjan; Soetrisno, U

    1978-09-01

    Serum cholinesterase was estimated in eight male and 18 female children, 4 to 12 years old, admitted to the paediatric ward of the Gadjah Mada University Hospital, Yogyakarta, with dengue haemorrhagic fever. The mean serum cholinesterase activity was low, i.e., 0.299 +/- 0.036 deltapH/hour (mean +/- s.e.m.). PMID:734761

  17. Delayed Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Behcet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Hak; Lee, Si-Un; Huh, Choonwoong; Oh, Chang Wan; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-01-01

    A man visited the emergency room with a headache. Brain computed tomography showed aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and multiple aneurysms. After aneurysm clipping surgery, the patient was discharged. After 5 days, he was admitted to the hospital with skin ulceration and was diagnosed with Behcet syndrome. An angiogram taken 7 weeks after aneurysmal SAH showed intracranial vasospasm. Because inflammation in Behcet syndrome may aggravate intracranial vasospasm, intracranial vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH in Behcet syndrome should be monitored for longer compared to general aneurysmal SAH. PMID:27114963

  18. Gadolinium leakage into subarachnoid space and cystic metastases.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Adalet Elçin; Atlı, Eray; Oğuz, Kader Karlı

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid space (SAS) and cystic metastatic lesions of brain parenchyma appear hypointense on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unless there is a hemorrhage or elevated protein content. Otherwise, delayed enhancement and accumulation of contrast media in SAS or cyst of metastases should be considered. We present hyperintense SAS and cystic brain metastases of lung cancer on FLAIR and T1-weighted MRI, respectively, in a patient who had been previously given contrast media for imaging of spinal metastases and had mildly impaired renal functions, and discuss the relevant literature. PMID:23337096

  19. Delayed Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Behcet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hak; Lee, Si-Un; Huh, Choonwoong; Oh, Chang Wan; Bang, Jae Seung; Kim, Tackeun

    2016-03-01

    A man visited the emergency room with a headache. Brain computed tomography showed aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and multiple aneurysms. After aneurysm clipping surgery, the patient was discharged. After 5 days, he was admitted to the hospital with skin ulceration and was diagnosed with Behcet syndrome. An angiogram taken 7 weeks after aneurysmal SAH showed intracranial vasospasm. Because inflammation in Behcet syndrome may aggravate intracranial vasospasm, intracranial vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH in Behcet syndrome should be monitored for longer compared to general aneurysmal SAH. PMID:27114963

  20. Correlation of Transcranial Color Doppler to N20 Somatosensory Evoked Potential Detects Ischemic Penumbra in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Piero; Zanatta, Paolo; Morghen, Ilaria; Bosco, Enrico; Forini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normal subjects present interhemispheric symmetry of middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity and N20 cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) can modify this pattern, since high regional brain vascular resistances increase blood flow velocity, and impaired regional brain perfusion reduces N20 amplitude. The aim of the study is to investigate the variability of MCA resistances and N20 amplitude between hemispheres in SAH. Methods: Measurements of MCA blood flow velocity (vMCA) by transcranial color-Doppler and median nerve SSEP were bilaterally performed in sixteen patients. MCA vascular changes on the compromised hemisphere were calculated as a ratio of the reciprocal of mean flow velocity (1/vMCA) to contralateral value and correlated to the simultaneous variations of interhemispheric ratio of N20 amplitude, within each subject. Data were analysed with respect to neuroimaging of MCA supplied areas. Results: Both interhemispheric ratios of 1/vMCA and N20 amplitude were detected >0.65 (p <0,01) in patients without neuroimages of injury. Both ratios became <0.65 (p <0.01) when patients showed unilateral images of ischemic penumbra and returned >0.65 if penumbra disappeared. The two ratios no longer correlated after structural lesion developed, as N20 detected in the damaged side remained pathological (ratio <0.65), whereas 1/vMCA reverted to symmetric interhemispheric state (ratio >0.65), suggesting a luxury perfusion. Conclusion: Variations of interhemispheric ratios of MCA resistance and cortical N20 amplitude correlate closely in SAH and allow identification of the reversible ischemic penumbra threshold, when both ratios become <0.65. The correlation is lost when structural damage develops. PMID:21660110

  1. Biomarkers of vasospasm development and outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Ruiz de Azúa-López, Zaida; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco

    2014-06-15

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic emergency caused by a brain aneurysm burst, resulting in a bleeding into the subarachnoid space. Its incidence is estimated between 4 and 28/10,000 inhabitants and it is the main cause of sudden death from stroke. The prognosis of patients with SAH is directly related to neurological status on admission, to the magnitude of the initial bleeding, as well as to the development of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Numerous researchers have studied the role of different biomarkers in CVS development. These biomarkers form part of the metabolic cascade that is triggered as a result of the SAH. Hence, among these metabolites we found biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation biomarkers, indicators of brain damage, and markers of vascular pathology. However, to the author knowledge, none of these biomarkers has been demonstrated as a useful tool for predicting neither CVS development nor outcome after SAH. In order to reach success on future researches, firstly it should be stated which pathophysiological process is mainly responsible for CVS development. Once this process has been determined, the temporal course of this pathophysiologic cascade should be characterized, and then, perform further studies on biomarkers already analyzed, as well as on new biomarkers not yet studied in the SAH pathology, focusing attention on the temporal course of the diverse metabolites and the sampling time for its quantification. PMID:24811975

  2. Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

  3. Primary cytomegalovirus ileitis complicated by massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with steroid refractory Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Le, S T T; Lee, S S K; Prideaux, L; Block, A A; Moore, G T C

    2010-11-01

    A young man with known steroid refractory terminal ileal Crohn's disease developed torrential gastrointestinal bleeding necessitating an emergency ileal resection. Serology was indicative of primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and this was confirmed with histopathology of the resected ileum. We highlight the difficulty in clinical practice of distinguishing between CMV infection and CMV disease as well as the different investigations available to aid in the diagnosis of pathogenic CMV disease. PMID:21155157

  4. CSF and Serum Biomarkers Focusing on Cerebral Vasospasm and Ischemia after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Carla S.; Lange, Bettina; Zimmermann, Michael; Seifert, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remain severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although focal changes in cerebral metabolism indicating ischemia are detectable by microdialysis, routinely used biomarkers are missing. We therefore sought to evaluate a panel of possible global markers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients after SAH. CSF and serum of SAH patients were analyzed retrospectively. In CSF, levels of inhibitory, excitatory, and structural amino acids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In serum, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B level were measured and examined in conjunction with CVS and DCI. CVS was detected by arteriography, and ischemic lesions were assessed by computed tomography (CT) scans. All CSF amino acids were altered after SAH. CSF glutamate, glutamine, glycine, and histidine were significantly correlated with arteriographic CVS. CSF glutamate and serum S100B were significantly correlated with ischemic events after SAH; however, NSE did not correlate neither with ischemia nor with vasospasm. Glutamate, glutamine, glycine, and histidine might be used in CSF as markers for CVS. Glutamate also indicates ischemia. Serum S100B, but not NSE, is a suitable marker for ischemia. These results need to be validated in larger prospective cohorts. PMID:23509668

  5. Evidence that a Panel of Neurodegeneration Biomarkers Predicts Vasospasm, Infarction, and Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Siman, Robert; Giovannone, Nicholas; Toraskar, Nikhil; Frangos, Suzanne; Stein, Sherman C.; Levine, Joshua M.; Kumar, Monisha A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers for neurodegeneration could be early prognostic measures of brain damage and dysfunction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with clinical and medical applications. Recently, we developed a new panel of neurodegeneration biomarkers, and report here on their relationships with pathophysiological complications and outcomes following severe aSAH. Fourteen patients provided serial cerebrospinal fluid samples for up to 10 days and were evaluated by ultrasonography, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical examination. Functional outcomes were assessed at hospital discharge and 6–9 months thereafter. Eight biomarkers for acute brain damage were quantified: calpain-derived α-spectrin N- and C-terminal fragments (CCSntf and CCSctf), hypophosphorylated neurofilament H, 14-3-3 β and ζ, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, neuron-specific enolase, and S100β. All 8 biomarkers rose up to 100-fold in a subset of patients. Better than any single biomarker, a set of 6 correlated significantly with cerebral vasospasm, brain infarction, and poor outcome. Furthermore, CSF levels of 14-3-3β, CCSntf, and NSE were early predictors of subsequent moderate-to-severe vasospasm. These data provide evidence that a panel of neurodegeneration biomarkers may predict lasting brain dysfunction and the pathophysiological processes that lead to it following aSAH. The panel may be valuable as surrogate endpoints for controlled clinical evaluation of treatment interventions and for guiding aSAH patient care. PMID:22174930

  6. Syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Kentaro; Otsuka, Munehiro; Fukuda, Shuji; Tsunoda, Keishi; Ushijima, Ryujiro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with primary Sjogren syndrome developed syringomyelia following two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of basilar artery aneurysms. Gait disturbance and abnormal sensation with pain over the foot and abdomen appeared 3 years after the last SAH. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a syringomyelia throughout the thoracic cord, from the T2 to T11 levels. In addition, the thoracic cord was compressed by multiple arachnoid cysts in the ventral side of spinal cord. Computed tomography myelography revealed complete block of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the T7 level. Surgery for microlysis of the adhesions and restoration of the CSF flow pathway was performed. Postoperatively, leg motor function slowly improved and she could walk unaided. However, abdominal paresthesia was persisted. Postoperative MR imaging revealed diminished size of the syrinxes. We should recognize syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts due to adhesive arachnoiditis as a late complication of SAH. Microlysis of the adhesions focusing on the lesion thought to be the cause of the symptoms is one of the choices to treat massive syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with arachnoiditis following SAH. PMID:23006888

  7. Differentiation between traumatic tap and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Alyahya, Bader; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; mond, Marcel; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Hohl, Corinne; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary A; Pauls, Merril; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the findings in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute headache that could distinguish subarachnoid hemorrhage from the effects of a traumatic lumbar puncture. Design A substudy of a prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting 12 Canadian academic emergency departments, from November 2000 to December 2009. Participants Alert patients aged over 15 with an acute non-traumatic headache who underwent lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main outcome measure Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring intervention or resulting in death. Results Of the 1739 patients enrolled, 641 (36.9%) had abnormal results on cerebrospinal fluid analysis with >1106/L red blood cells in the final tube of cerebrospinal fluid and/or xanthochromia in one or more tubes. There were 15 (0.9%) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage based on abnormal results of a lumbar puncture. The presence of fewer than 2000106/L red blood cells in addition to no xanthochromia excluded the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval 74.7% to 100%) and specificity of 91.2% (88.6% to 93.3%). Conclusion No xanthochromia and red blood cell count <2000106/L reasonably excludes the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most patients with acute headache who meet this cut off will need no further investigations and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can be excluded as a cause of their headache. PMID:25694274

  8. Spontaneous haemorrhage into metastatic brain tumours after stereotactic radiosurgery using a linear accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Toyoda, S; Muramatsu, M; Shimizu, T; Kojima, T; Taki, W

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of spontaneous haemorrhage into metastatic brain tumours after radiosurgery. Methods: Intratumour haemorrhage rate, clinical features, and treatment were evaluated in 54 patients with 131 brain metastases of varying origin who were treated using linear accelerator radiosurgery. The marginal dose was maintained constant at 20 or 25 Gy, irrespective of tumour size. Results: Haemorrhage was identified in 7.4% of the metastases (five tumours in four patients) before radiosurgery and in 18.5% (10 tumours in 10 patients) after radiosurgery. In three cases, haemorrhage into the tumour after radiosurgery was symptomatic. Half the haemorrhages occurred within one month of radiosurgery. The changes in tumour size observed at the time of haemorrhage were an increase in one tumour, no change in five, and a decrease in four. Haemorrhage into a tumour after radiosurgery was more likely to occur in female patients, in tumours with a larger volume on pretreatment neuroimaging, and in tumours treated with a larger number of isocentres or a higher maximum dose. Haemorrhagic features in the patients or their tumours on presurgical assessment were not disposing factors to haemorrhage after radiosurgery. Conclusions: When larger brain metastases are aggressively treated by radiosurgery, better local control may be attained but there may also be a higher risk of haemorrhage soon after the treatment. PMID:12810777

  9. Delayed torrential haemorrhage after firearm injury

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Singhal, Maneesh; Sagar, Sushma; Gupta, Amit

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old man was referred to us after 48 days of gunshot injury to left groin, with torrential bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm of the left external iliac artery. He was successfully managed with a team of specialists involving trauma surgeon, vascular and plastic surgeon, general surgeons and intervention radiologist with the help of critical care specialists. He required judicious debridement, a transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, stenting of the external iliac artery, repair of the external iliac vein and ligation of the bilateral internal iliac artery. He had prolonged intensive care unit stay with open abdomen requiring specialised care. Errors in regular assessment of patient by clinical and radiological examination along with failure in early adequate debridement were responsible for trauma suffered by him. Though it is a rare injury, these devastating complications can occur after any gunshot injury and proper management guidelines must be established. PMID:24810442

  10. Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage with a positive angiographic finding: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Ahmad; Numminen, Jussi; Rahul, Raj; Järveläinen, Juha; Niemelä, Mika

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage cases are reported as negative-finding etiologies. Recently, high-resolution images allowed us to overcome the previous difficulty of finding the source of bleeding, which underlies the concept of a "negative finding". We discovered a venous etiology, hidden behind the tip of the basilar artery; namely, the lateral pontine vein. Here, we review the literature on perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and on venous aneurysm. We highlight this type of aneurysm as a candidate source of perimesencephalic hemorrhage. This case may change our way of dealing with what we have termed a negative finding of subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:27106848

  11. Remote intracerebral haemorrhage post intravenous thrombolysis: experience from an Australian stroke centre.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Churilov, Leonid; Teo, Sarah; Yan, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Remote intracerebral haemorrhage (rICH) is defined as intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) post thrombolysis in brain regions without visible ischaemic changes. There is uncertainty that clinical outcomes and risk factors for rICH are different to those for local ICH. We investigated the morbidity, mortality and factors associated with rICH. We hypothesised that a previous history of cerebral ischaemic events is associated with increased risk of rICH. We included consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients from 2003 to 2012 who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Clinical data included demographics, stroke classification, vascular risk factors and laboratory results. Clinical outcome was defined by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Baseline and follow-up CT scans were analysed for all ICH, and further dichotomised to rICH and local ICH. Clinical outcomes between rICH and local ICH were compared after adjustment for confounding factors. Four hundred and two patients were included in the study. The median age was 71 (interquartile range 60-79)years, and 54% were male. ICH (local ICH and rICH) was detected in 21.6% (87/402) of all patients post thrombolysis. The incidence of rICH was 2.2% (9/402). Most rICH were classified as haemorrhagic infarct category 2 (HI2) (p = 0.002). The proportion of patients with previous transient ischaemic attacks was significantly higher in the rICH group (33.33% versus 2.56%; odds ratio [OR] 18.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.06-114.38; p = 0.007). The proportion of mRS scores 0-2 at 3 months was significantly higher in the rICH group (50% versus 28%; adjusted OR 10.469, 95%CI 1.474-74.338; p = 0.019). The 3 month mortality rate was 22.2% (2/9) in the rICH group and 36% (27/75) in the local ICH group (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0-2.51, p = 0.703). rICH was an infrequent complication after intravenous thrombolysis in our series. The clinical outcome of rICH was significantly better than local ICH. Of note, previous episodes of transient ischaemic attack were significantly higher in the rICH group, suggesting previous ischaemic injury as an underlying mechanism. PMID:25304437

  12. Pneumonitis and pulmonary haemorrhage after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Sathish K; Teo, Alison Ic; Millar, Colin Gm; Noman, Awsan

    2015-12-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. He received rescue angioplasty with one drug eluting stent. He developed marked breathlessness and haemoptysis two days later. Investigations led to the diagnosis of pulmonary haemorrhage, possibly from pneumonitis caused by ticagrelor. He was successfully managed with high-dose steroids and ticagrelor was replaced with clopidogrel. On stopping the steroids a month later, mild haemoptysis recurred and this was managed conservatively. Pneumonitis and pulmonary haemorrhage is rarely reported with acute myocardial infarction, but poses serious challenge to the patient and the clinician. Diagnosis may be delayed as breathlessness can occur due to myriad causes after myocardial infarction. Interrupting dual anti-platelet therapy after angioplasty could lead to devastating stent thrombosis. PMID:26621956

  13. Antibodies against haemorrhagic fever viruses in Kenya populations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B K; Ocheng, D; Gichogo, A; Okiro, M; Libondo, D; Tukei, P M; Ho, M; Mugambi, M; Timms, G L; French, M

    1983-01-01

    Human sera from Lodwar (77 sera), Nzoia (841 sera), Masinga (251 sera), Laisamis (174 sera) and the Malindi/Kilifi area (556 sera) in Kenya were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for antibodies against Marburg, Ebola (Zaire and Sudan strains), Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Lassa viruses. Antibodies against Ebola virus, particularly the Zaire strain, were detected in all regions and were, over-all, more abundant than antibodies against the other antigens. Ebola and Marburg antibody prevalence rates were highest in the samples from Lodwar and Laisamis, both semi-desert areas. Antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus were also highest in the Lodwar sample followed by Malindi/Kilifi and Laisamis. Congo haemorrhagic fever virus antibodies were rare and no antibodies against Lassa virus were detected in the 1899 sera tested. PMID:6419422

  14. Dengue haemorrhagic fever integral hypothesis: confirming observations, 1987-2007.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria G; Kouri, Gustavo

    2008-06-01

    In 1987, Kouri et al. published in Transactions their integral hypothesis to explain the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) epidemics (Kouri, G.P., Guzmán, M.G., Bravo, J.R., 1987. Why dengue haemorrhagic fever in Cuba? 2. An integral analysis. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81, 821-823). Based on observations carried out during the 1981 Cuban DHF epidemic, the authors integrated in one model the most advanced knowledge at that time. Observations in the last 20 years confirm the importance of this multifactorial and unifying view of the problem, where the interaction between the host, the virus and the vector in an epidemiological and ecosystem setting might determine DHF as a final outcome. Investigations on the interaction among host, virus and mosquito with an ecosystemic view are needed. PMID:18420239

  15. Targeting secondary injury in intracerebral haemorrhage--perihaematomal oedema.

    PubMed

    Urday, Sebastian; Kimberly, W Taylor; Beslow, Lauren A; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Selim, Magdy H; Rosand, Jonathan; Simard, J Marc; Sheth, Kevin N

    2015-02-01

    Perihaematomal oedema (PHO) is an important pathophysiological marker of secondary injury in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). In this Review, we describe a novel method to conceptualize PHO formation within the framework of Starling's principle of movement of fluid across a capillary wall. We consider progression of PHO through three stages, characterized by ionic oedema (stage 1) and progressive vasogenic oedema (stages 2 and 3). In this context, possible modifiers of PHO volume and their value in identifying patients who would benefit from therapies that target secondary injury are discussed; the practicalities of using neuroimaging to measure PHO volume are also considered. We examine whether PHO can be used as a predictor of neurological outcome following ICH, and we provide an overview of emerging therapies. Our discussion emphasizes that PHO has clinical relevance both as a therapeutic target, owing to its augmentation of the mass effect of a haemorrhage, and as a surrogate marker for novel interventions that target secondary injury. PMID:25623787

  16. Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (≤1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume). Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p < 0.05) with 80% power. Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs) of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days). Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:21586127

  17. Blood products and their use in traumatic major haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Simon Ross

    2016-02-01

    Blood loss due to trauma is a leading cause of death in young people and is the result of the 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy, which collectively reduce haemostasis. Emergency department nurses can help to reverse the triad through the timely and efficient use of blood products and fluids. This article briefly examines different blood groups, describes the elements of the lethal triad, and discusses the blood products used to transfuse patients with major haemorrhage. PMID:26853674

  18. Experimental intracerebral haemorrhage: the effect of nimodipine pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sinar, E J; Mendelow, A D; Graham, D I; Teasdale, G M

    1988-05-01

    The effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the pathophysiological events which follow an intracerebral haemorrhage in rats was compared with a similar control group. Cerebral blood flow was higher and the amount of pathologically determined ischaemic damage measured by light microscopy was less in the nimodipine pretreated group. Bloodbrain barrier permeability was increased in the nimodipine group, but there was no evidence of cerebral oedema. Nimodipine appeared to have no effect on the intracranial pressure. PMID:3245862

  19. Experimental intracerebral haemorrhage: the effect of nimodipine pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sinar, E J; Mendelow, A D; Graham, D I; Teasdale, G M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the pathophysiological events which follow an intracerebral haemorrhage in rats was compared with a similar control group. Cerebral blood flow was higher and the amount of pathologically determined ischaemic damage measured by light microscopy was less in the nimodipine pretreated group. Bloodbrain barrier permeability was increased in the nimodipine group, but there was no evidence of cerebral oedema. Nimodipine appeared to have no effect on the intracranial pressure. Images PMID:3245862

  20. Haemorrhagic thiamine deficient encephalopathy following prolonged parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Vortmeyer, A O; Hagel, C; Laas, R

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathological examination of three patients who were maintained on parenteral nutrition without substitution of thiamine demonstrated an acute haemorrhagic encephalopathy. The lesions differed substantially from the classic features of thiamine deficient encephalopathy regarding the histopathological alterations and the topographical distribution. The extreme rapidity of thiamine deprivation may have been responsible for the abrupt clinical onset of the disease and the intensity of the morphological alterations. Images PMID:1402975

  1. Prevention of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: current controversies and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Johanne; Warburton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency and associated with significant morbidly and mortality. The risk of bleeding from peptic ulceration and oesophagogastric varices can be reduced by appropriate primary and secondary preventative strategies. Helicobacter pylori eradication and risk stratification with appropriate gastroprotection strategies when used with antiplatelet drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in preventing peptic ulcer bleeding, whilst endoscopic screening and either nonselective beta blockade or endoscopic variceal ligation are effective at reducing the risk of variceal haemorrhage. For secondary prevention of variceal haemorrhage, the combination of beta blockade and endoscopic variceal ligation is more effective. Recent data on the possible interactions of aspirin and NSAIDs, clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and the increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with all nonaspirin cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors have increased the complexity of choices for preventing peptic ulcer bleeding. Such choices should consider both the GI and cardiovascular risk profiles. In patients with a moderately increased risk of GI bleeding, a NSAID plus a PPI or a COX-2 selective agent alone appear equivalent but for those at highest risk of bleeding (especially those with previous ulcer or haemorrhage) the COX-2 inhibitor plus PPI combination is superior. However naproxen seems the safest NSAID for those at increased cardiovascular risk. Clopidogrel is associated with a significant risk of GI haemorrhage and the most recent data concerning the potential clinical interaction of clopidogrel and PPIs are reassuring. In clopidogrel-treated patients at highest risk of GI bleeding, some form of GI prevention is indicated. PMID:23997925

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance in Kenya, 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B K; Ocheng, D; Gitau, L G; Gichogo, A; Tukei, P M; Ngindu, A; Langatt, A; Smith, D H; Johnson, K M; Kiley, M P; Swanepoel, R; Isaacson, M

    1983-03-01

    Following two cases of Marburg virus disease in Kenya in 1980, viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance was undertaken in western Kenya. Over a 21-month period investigations, including virus isolation attempts, patient and contact serology, visits to areas where suspected cases occurred, interviewing family members and neighbours of suspected cases and following up any additional illnesses in these areas, were carried out. During the study two cases were found that were likely to have been Ebola haemorrhagic fever based on rising antibody titres or positive serology in contacts. Diagnoses of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, malaria, bacterial septicaemia or other causes were arrived at in 24 cases. No diagnosis could be made in 26 instances. 741 human sera were tested for antibodies against Marburg, Ebola, Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever or Lassa fever viruses by indirect fluorescence. Eight sera were positive for Ebola virus antibodies, all of which were from suspected cases or contacts of suspected cases. Two sera were antibody positive to Congo virus and one had antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus. No Marburg or Lassa virus antibodies were detected. PMID:6684336

  3. Dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are major causes of hospital admission and mortality in children. Up to 5% of people with dengue haemorrhagic fever die of the infection, depending on availability of appropriate supportive care. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of supportive treatments for dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding blood component transfusion to standard intravenous fluids; adding carbazochrome sodium sulfonate, corticosteroids, or intravenous immunoglobulin to standard intravenous fluids; adding recombinant-activated factor VII to blood component transfusion; colloids; crystalloids; and intravenous fluids. PMID:19445771

  4. Cerebral thrombosis, cerebral haemorrhage, and ABO blood-groups.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D A; Marcu, I; Bicescu, E

    1976-02-01

    The ABO blood-group distributions of 1460 patients who had died from a stroke were compared with those of a control group of 20 705 controls selected at random from the healthy population at risk (i.e., over thirty-five years of age and matched for age and sex ratio). The cause of death was certified as cerebral thrombosis in 329 cases and as cerebral haemorrhage in 482 cases, these diagnoses being established in neurological hospitals; the remaining 649 cases had an unspecified type of stroke, the diagnosis being made by general practitioners. In the group with unspecified type of stroke the blood-group distribution was practically the same as the distribution in the controls. In the thrombosis cases there was an excess of blood-groups A and AB and a deficiency of O and B; in cerebral haemorrhage this situation was reversed. However, these were only trends; the differences were not significant at the 5% level. A statistically significant difference did emerge when the A+AB excess in thrombosis was contrasted with the O+B excess in haemorrhage, suggesting that this difference might be accounted for the major A subgroup (A1) and, consequently, A1B. PMID:55589

  5. Referral pattern of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; van der Werf, D J; Hageman, L M; Dreissen, J J

    1988-05-01

    The referral pattern of 334 patients admitted to a neurosurgical clinic with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was analyzed. Forty-nine percent of the patients were admitted after the day following the SAH. Failure of patients to seek prompt medical care was a cause of delay in 29 patients and of physician diagnostic errors in 95 patients. Common misdiagnoses included migraine, mental exhaustion, sinusitis, and influenza. A delay at the referring hospital was observed in 97 patients. Early intervention is important for the optimal management of patients with SAH. Educating the public, medical students, and physicians about the signs and symptoms of SAH and the importance of prompt therapy is likely to improve overall outcome after aneurysmal rupture. PMID:3363473

  6. Musical murmurs in human cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Aaslid, R; Nornes, H

    1984-01-01

    A transcranial ultrasonic method for the recording of murmurs from cerebral vessels is described. Using the new approach the authors have observed musical murmurs of pure tone quality in 15 patients with increased flow velocities in the cerebral arteries after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The frequency range of the pure tones was from 140 to 820 Hz, corresponding to flow velocities between 73 and 215 cm/sec. The musical murmurs occurred as a transitional state between silent flow and the well known phenomenon of bruit. They were observed between the 4th and the 20th day after SAH. The most likely cause of the musical murmur is a periodic shedding of vortices in the cerebral arteries, commonly referred to as "a von Kármán vortex street." Clinically the presence of musical murmurs indicated that pathologically increased blood velocities were present in the artery under investigation. This probably reflected the degree of spasm. PMID:6689725

  7. Subarachnoid midazolam: histologic study in rats and report of its effect on chronic pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Schoeffler, P; Auroy, P; Bazin, J E; Taxi, J; Woda, A

    1991-01-01

    Subarachnoid administration via a catheter of a water-soluble benzodiazepine, midazolam, was tested in the control of cancer pain. First, the lack of its toxicity during constant subarachnoid administration (50 micrograms per day) was assessed in the rat. After 15 days of treatment, a histologic examination of the spinal cord revealed the same amount of fibrosis, infiltration, and deformation in the control group (n = 14), which had received only saline, as in the test group (n = 18), treated with subarachnoid midazolam. Therefore, the histologic changes observed in the spinal cord probably are related to the presence of the catheter. After these results, a mixture of 2 mg midazolam and a variable dose of subarachnoid morphine was injected in two patients presenting chronic neoplastic pain resistant to high doses of morphine. In these two cases, the addition of midazolam appeared to be effective in controlling intractable neoplastic pain. PMID:1772817

  8. Continuous subarachnoid analgesia in two adolescents with severe scoliosis and impaired pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Sethna, N F; Berde, C B

    1991-01-01

    We report postoperative pain management of two adolescents after upper abdominal procedures, one with Hurler-Scheie syndrome and a second with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and both had progressive spinal scoliosis with poor pulmonary function. A combined technique of subarachnoid and general anesthesia was used during surgery. Postoperative administration of small intermittent doses of subarachnoid morphine produced profound analgesia, which eliminated the need for systemic opioids, restored preoperative arterial oxygenation within 48 hours after the operation, and expedited postoperative recovery. PMID:1772818

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Hyponatremia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Marupudi, Neena I.; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common, clinically-significant electrolyte abnormality seen in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Controversy continues to exist regarding both the cause and treatment of hyponatremia in this patient population. Lack of timely diagnosis and/or providing inadequate or inappropriate treatment can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. We review recent literature on hyponatremia in subarachnoid hemorrhage and present currently recommended protocols for diagnosis and management. PMID:25937938

  10. Catastrophic gastrointestinal complication of systemic immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lyn Alexandra; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Gaya, Daniel R

    2015-02-28

    We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25741165

  11. Addition of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine clonidine mixture effect on quality of subarachnoid block and postoperative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Nazareth, Marilyn; Ghoshal, Pabitra; Namshikar, Viraj; Gaude, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Context: This study was undertaken in 100 patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgeries. Aim: The objective of this study was to study the effect of addition of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine clonidine mixture on the quality of subarachnoid block and compare it with intrathecal bupivacaine clonidine mixture without fentanyl. Settings and Design: In this prospective and double blind randomized controlled study, one hundred patients, between 20-40 years of age, of either sex, weighing between 40-65 Kg, measuring more than 150 cm in height, of ASA Grade I and II who were undergoing orthopaedic lower limb surgeries were selected in order to study the quality of subarachnoid block and post-operative analgesia produced by a combination of bupivacaine clonidine and fentanyl in comparison with bupivacaine clonidine. Materials and Methods: The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 50 each: Group BC: 2.4 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12 mg) + 0.2 ml (30 μg) clonidine + 0.4 ml of 0.9% NaCl. Group BCF: 2.4 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12 mg) + 0.2 ml (30 μg) clonidine + 0.4 ml (20 μg) of fentanyl. The total volume of solution in both the groups was 3.0 ml. The quality of subarachnoid block and post-operative analgesia were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: The data thus obtained was statistically analysed using the following tests: Unpaired student's t-test. Average % change in data over baseline values to detect trends. A ‘P’ value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of sensory and motor blockade in group BCF compared to BC. The duration of analgesia as assessed by, either VAS score of >5 or demand of additional analgesia was > 524.6 ± 32.21 mins in group BC and > 774.4 ± 59.59 mins in group BCF. This prolongation of duration of analgesia in group BCF compared to group BC has statistical significance. Blood pressure and heart rate changes were not significantly different among groups, whereas sedation and pruritus were significantly more frequent in Group BCF. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that addition of 20 μg fentanyl to intrathecal 30 μg clonidine and 12 mg bupivacaine enhanced the duration of post-operative analgesia with moderately increased sedation and was not associated with hemodynamic instability or other complications. PMID:25885725

  12. Clinical Neurochemistry of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Toward Predicting Individual Outcomes via Biomarkers of Brain Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tholance, Yannick; Barcelos, Gleicy; Dailler, Frederic; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Renaud, Bernard

    2015-12-16

    The functional outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is difficult to predict at the individual level. The monitoring of brain energy metabolism has proven to be useful in improving the pathophysiological understanding of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nonetheless, brain energy monitoring has not yet clearly been included in official guidelines for the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, likely because previous studies compared only biological data between two groups of patients (unfavorable vs favorable outcomes) and did not determine decision thresholds that could be useful in clinical practice. Therefore, this Viewpoint discusses recent findings suggesting that monitoring biomarkers of brain energy metabolism at the level of individuals can be used to predict the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Indeed, by taking into account specific neurochemical patterns obtained by local or global monitoring of brain energy metabolism, it may become possible to predict routinely, and with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, the individual outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Moreover, combining both local and global monitoring improves the overall performance of individual outcome prediction. Such a combined neurochemical monitoring approach may become, after prospective clinical validation, an important component in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to adapt individualized therapeutic interventions. PMID:26595414

  13. The risk of medical complications after female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Dirie, M A; Lindmark, G

    1992-09-01

    The medical complications of the practice of circumcision were studied in 290 Somali women between ages of 18-54. Thirty-nine percent of the interviewed women had experienced significant complications after circumcision, most commonly haemorrhage, infection or urinary retention. Thirty-seven of the women reported a late complication of circumcision. Among these complications were dermoid cyst at the site of the amputated clitoris, urinary problems such as pain at micturition, dribbling urine incontinence and poor urinary flow. Forty of the women had experienced problems at the time of menarche and ten of them were operated because of haematocolpos. Most of the married women of the study sample were defibulated naturally by their husbands. PMID:1286628

  14. Intracranial haemorrhages in French haemophilia patients (1991-2001): clinical presentation, management and prognosis factors for death.

    PubMed

    Stieltjes, N; Calvez, T; Demiguel, V; Torchet, M F; Briquel, M E; Fressinaud, E; Claeyssens, S; Coatmelec, B; Chambost, H

    2005-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is known to be a severe although uncommon complication of haemophilia. A national survey has been conducted in France in order to collect information about ICHs which occurred in haemophiliacs between 1991 and 2001 and to propose recommendations for the diagnostic and treatment of ICH. Within this period, 123 episodes of ICH were recorded from 106 patients. Two-thirds of ICH concerned patients with severe haemophilia. Half of the cases occurred in patients under 15 years of age, 67.2% of which were post-traumatic. Ten cases occurred in neonates with three fatal outcomes. Overall mortality was high (21.9%) suggesting that availability of clotting factor concentrates has not improved the prognosis of this event. Morbidity was also high with 60% of long-term sequelae. The following parameters have been identified as prognostic factors for death: thrombocytopenia, HCV infection, intraventricular or intraparenchymatous haemorrhage. A delay in diagnosis was mentioned in 43.3% of cases, often related to the lack of recognition of the initial symptoms, which may be very common (apathy, tearfulness in young children and headache in elder patients). Delayed replacement therapy was recorded in 37.2% of cases. Emergency units initially dealt with half of these patients. Information concerning recognition and management of these episodes, not only in severe haemophilia, but also in moderate and mild forms, should be regularly supplied to paediatricians in maternity and physicians from emergency units, as well as to patients and their relatives. PMID:16128887

  15. Quantification of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage with bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T S; Fedde, M R; Gaughan, E M; Langsetmo, I; Erickson, H H

    1998-07-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) causes serious economic losses in the horse racing industry. Endoscopic examination indicates that 40-90% of horses exhibit EIPH following sprint exercise, but the limitations of the endoscope prevent diagnosis in many horses. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was utilised to detect red blood cells (RBCs) in the terminal airways in 6 horses. Two lavages were performed at weekly intervals prior to exercise, one within 90 min after exercise, and 5 at weekly intervals after exercise. The horses were exercised strenuously at 12.5-14.6 m/s on a treadmill (3 degree incline). Heart rates ranged from 192-207 beats/min, and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) ranged from 80-102 mmHg. Neither epistaxis nor endoscopic evidence of EIPH was seen in any of the 6 horses following exercise. However, the number of RBCs in the lavage fluid increased significantly over control values immediately after exercise in all horses but returned to control values by one week after exercise. Haemosiderophages in the BAL fluid did not increase until one week after exercise and remained elevated for 3 weeks after exercise. Twenty per cent of the total population of alveolar macrophages contained haemosiderin. A positive relationship occurred between the number of RBCs in the lavage fluid and mPAP; the amount of haemorrhage increased as the mPAP exceeded 80 to 90 mmHg. The results with BAL used as the diagnostic tool, suggest that all strenuously exercised horses may exhibit EIPH; the amount of haemorrhage appears to be associated with the magnitude of the high pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:9705109

  16. [Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].

    PubMed

    Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

    2014-01-01

    A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1 : 800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis. PMID:25423604

  17. Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage: An ophthalmologic emergency for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Can; Odabaşı, Mahmut

    2015-07-01

    Acute retrobulbar haemorrhage (ARBH) is a rare ophthalmic emergency observed following blunt eye trauma. Multiple trauma and loss of consciousness can hide symptoms of ARBH. Rapid diagnosis and immediate lateral canthotomy and cantholysis must be performed to prevent permanent visual loss in patients. Medical treatment can be added to surgical therapy. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis are simple procedures that can be performed by emergency physicians. In this report, it was aimed to present a case with post-traumatic ARBH and provide general knowledge about the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of ARBH. PMID:26374422

  18. [Spontaneous liver haemorrhage during pregnancy: a rare and life-threatening situation].

    PubMed

    Boormans, E M A; Bekedam, D J; Lenters, E; Schoonderbeek, F J; Tilanus, H W

    2007-05-26

    Three pregnant women, of whom 2 were 33 and 1 was 35 years of age, were seen; 2 of them had upper abdominal pain and 1had oedema. All had proteinuria and liver enzyme abnormalities, and pre-eclampsia or the HELLP syndrome was suspected. They were consequently admitted and at first treated with antihypertensive agents. One patient underwent a Caesarean section and the baby had a good start. Afterwards, however, the patient developed shock. A CT-scan revealed a hepatic rupture, for which repeated surgical packing of the liver was carried out. The postoperative course was complicated. A second patient developed shock and the foetus died. Here the CT-scan revealed a liver haematoma. At surgery the next day, removal of the foetus was followed by heavy uterine bleeding. The patient again developed shock and the uterus was resected. A haematoma that was seen in the liver was treated expectatively. The postoperative course was not complicated. In a third patient, abdominal echography revealed bleeding from the liver. Simultaneous Caesarean section and surgical exploration of the liver took place, with packing of the liver. The child had Apgar scores of 4, 7 and 9. After re-laparotomy because of persistent bleeding from the liver the patient recovered. Spontaneous liver haemorrhage and hepatic rupture during pregnancy is a rare condition associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. The majority of cases occur during pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia or the HELLP syndrome. The presenting symptoms are non-specific. A high index of suspicion is important and early evaluation with imaging is necessary to improve the prognosis of both mother and child. PMID:17557753

  19. The Effect of Gender on Acute Hydrocephalus after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hajime; Zhang, Haining; Okubo, Shuichi; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Acute hydrocephalus is a common complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We investigated the effect of gender on acute hydrocephalus development in a rat SAH model. SAH was induced in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using endovascular perforation. Sham rats underwent the same procedure without perforation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 24 h after SAH to determine ventricular volume. Hydrocephalus was defined as a ventricular volume that was more than 3 standard deviations from the mean value in sham-operated animals. After MRI, animals were euthanized and the extent of SAH was assessed using a modified grading system. No sham animals died. Mortality rates after SAH induction in male and female animals were 27 and 22 %, respectively. SAH induced significant ventricular enlargement compared with sham-operated rats (p < 0.01). The T2* hypointensity volume in the ventricle (used to assess intraventricular blood) was correlated with ventricular volume after SAH (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). The incidence of acute hydrocephalus 24 h after SAH was greater in female (75 %) than in male animals (47 %, p < 0.05) and the relative changes in ventricular volume were significantly larger in female than in male rats (292 ± 150 % vs 216 ± 127 % of sham-operated animals, respectively, p < 0.05). The increased hydrocephalus occurred even though SAH severity grade and ventricular T2* hypointensity volumes were not significantly different between male and female animals. Our data demonstrate that gender influences acute hydrocephalus development in a rat SAH model. Future studies should determine the role of estrogen in SAH-induced hydrocephalus. PMID:26463971

  20. Impairment of cardiac metabolism and sympathetic innervation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a nuclear medicine imaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often complicated by myocardial injury, whether this neurogenic cardiomyopathy is associated with the modification of cardiac metabolism is unknown. This study sought to explore, by positron emission tomography/computed tomography, the presence of altered cardiac glucose metabolism after SAH. Methods During a 16-month period, 30 SAH acute phase patients underwent myocardial 18 F- fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDGPET), 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy, respectively, assessing glucose metabolism, cardiac perfusion, and sympathetic innervation. Patients with initial abnormalities were followed monthly for two months for 18F-FDG, and six months later for 123I-mIBG. Results In this SAH population, acute cardiac metabolic disturbance was observed in 83% of patients (n = 25), and sympathetic innervation disturbance affected 90% (n = 27). Myocardial perfusion was normal for all patients. The topography and extent of metabolic defects and innervation abnormalities largely overlapped. Follow-up showed rapid improvement of glucose metabolism in one or two months. Normalization of sympathetic innervation was slower; only 27% of patients (n = 8) exhibited normal 123I-mIBG scintigraphy after six months. Presence of initial altered cardiac metabolism was not associated with more unfavorable cardiac or neurological outcomes. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis of neurogenic myocardial stunning after SAH. In hemodynamically stable acute phase SAH patients, cardiomyopathy is characterized by diffuse and heterogeneous 18F-FDG and 123I-mIBG uptake defect. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01218191. Registered 6 October 2010. PMID:24964817

  1. Association of early post-procedure hemodynamic management with the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Ishikawa, Koichi B; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fujimori, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    Post-procedure hemodynamic management for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is controversial because of the paucity of studied patients. Using a Japanese administrative database, we tested whether increased albumin, catecholamine, and volumes of fluid administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day would be associated with outcomes of mortality, consciousness deterioration at discharge and re-intubation between the 5th and 14th post-procedure days. Across 550 hospitals, 5,400 patients were identified who received clipping, wrapping and endovascular coiling within 48h after admission in 2010. Patient characteristics and the administration of albumin, catecholamine, and volume of fluid normalized by body weight were analyzed among the groups and categorized according to the presence of albumin and catecholamine administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day. The association of early hemodynamic management with outcomes was measured using logistic regression models, through controlling for the preference of early administration of albumin and catecholamine. For the patients, 9.3% received albumin only, 14.4% catecholamine only, and 4.9% both between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day, while 16.5% received albumin or catecholamine on other days. Variation in albumin and catecholamine administration was observed. Higher normalized fluid volume, commenced before the 4th post-procedure day, was associated with increased mortality and re-intubation (although with decreased complications), and vice versa between the 4th and 14th post-procedure days. Catecholamine administration was associated with worsened outcomes. Hypervolemic and hypertensive therapies commenced before the 4th post-procedure day require further research to determine whether their associations with outcomes in this administrative data base are causal or not. PMID:23096067

  2. Ventricular pneumocephalus, cervical subarachnoid pneumorrhachis, and meningoencephalitis in a dog following rhinotomy for chronic fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Launcelott, Zoë A; Palmisano, Mathew P; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Whitney, Beth L

    2016-02-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old 35.8-kg (78.8-lb) neutered male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge associated with a fungal infection. The dog had previously been prescribed antimicrobials and antifungal treatment, but owner compliance was lacking. CLINICAL FINDINGS Bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, mild ulceration of the left nasal commissure, and hyperkeratosis of the dorsal nasal planum were present. Computed tomography revealed destruction of the intranasal structures, focal lysis of the cribriform plate, and invasion of a soft-tissue mass into the frontal cortex. Rhinoscopy revealed a large pale mass in the caudal aspect of the right nasal passage; a biopsy sample was consistent with Aspergillus sp on histologic evaluation. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment included medical management with an antifungal agent. Approximately 3 months later, a large fungal granuloma in the right frontal sinus was removed and debridement was performed via dorsal rhinotomy. One month after surgery, the dog was evaluated for signs of cervical pain and altered mentation. An MRI and CSF analysis were performed; diagnoses of ventricular pneumocephalus, subarachnoid pneumorrhachis, and meningoencephalitis were made. Management included oxygen therapy and administration of antimicrobials, analgesics, and antifungal medications. On follow-up 9 months after initial evaluation, neurologic deficits were reportedly resolved, and the dog was doing well. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This report emphasizes the importance of prompt, appropriate treatment of fungal rhinitis in dogs. Although rare, pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis should be included as differential diagnoses for neurologic signs following treatment for this condition. In this dog, the complications were not considered severe and improved over time with supportive care. PMID:26829276

  3. Stem Cells as a Potential Adjunctive Therapy in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Hesham T.; Shah, Sumedh S.; Thompson, John W.; Ambekar, Sudheer; Peterson, Eric C.; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite advances in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage, a considerable proportion of patients are still left with severe and disabling long-term consequences. Unfortunately, there are limited therapeutic options to counteract the sequelae following the initial insult. The role of stem cells has been studied in the treatment of various diseases. The goal of this study was to provide a literature review regarding the potential advantages of stem-cell therapy to counteract or minimize the sequelae of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov searches were conducted to incorporate pertinent studies that discussed stem cell use in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Included articles were subjected to data extraction for the synthesis of the efficacy of stem-cell therapy. RESULTS Four preclinical studies with 181 animal model subjects (44 mice, 137 rats) were incorporated in our review. Endovascular punctures (65%) and blood injections in subarachnoid spaces (17%) were used to induce hemorrhage models. Stem cells were administered intravenously (3.0 × 106 cells) or intranasally (1.5 × 106 cells). According to literature, mesenchymal cell therapy significantly (p<0.05) induces stem-cell migration to lesion sites, decreases associated neural apoptosis and inflammation, improves ultrastructural integrity of cerebral tissue, and aids in improving sensorimotor function post subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSION Stem cells, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, have shown promising cellular, morphological, and functional benefits in animal models suffering from induced subarachnoid hemorrhages. However, further studies are warranted to elucidate the full effects of stem-cell therapy for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26958151

  4. Regional anesthesia in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery: A comparative study between saddle block and subarachnoid block

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Susmita; Bisai, Subrata; Biswas, Hirak; Tiwary, Mandeep Kumar; Mallik, Suchismita; Saha, Swarna Mukul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal anesthesia is the technique of choice in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). The major complication of spinal technique is risk of hypotension. Saddle block paralyzed pelvic muscles and sacral nerve roots and hemodynamic derangement is less. Aims and objectives: To compare the hemodynamic changes and adequate surgical condition between saddle block and subarachnoid block for TURP. Material and methods: Ninety patients of aged between 50 to 70 years of ASA-PS I, II scheduled for TURP were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 45 in each group. Group A patients were received spinal (2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine) and Group B were received saddle block (2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine). Baseline systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation were recorded and measured subsequently. The height of block was noted in both groups. Hypotension was corrected by administration of phenylephrine 50 mcg bolus and total requirement of vasopressor was noted. Complications (volume overload, TURP syndrome etc.) were noted. Results: Incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement was less (P < 0.01) in Gr B patients. Adequate surgical condition was achieved in both groups. There was no incidence of volume overload, TURP syndrome, and bladder perforation. Conclusion: TURP can be safely performed under saddle block without hypotension and less vasopressor requirement. PMID:26240544

  5. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3 days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours. PMID:26023146

  6. Comparative studies for serodiagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle sera.

    PubMed

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Ali, Samah Said; El-Shafii, Soumaya Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Mohamed, Moussa I

    2016-01-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida is a major epizootic disease in cattle and buffaloes in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the present study, a total of 88 P. multocida isolates were isolated from 256 nasopharyngeal swabs and lung tissues samples (34.4%) during the period from January, 2013 to March, 2014 from different governorates located in Egypt. Dead calves showed the highest percentage of P. multocida isolation followed by the emergency slaughtered calves, diseased calves then apparently healthy ones. These isolates were confirmed as P. multocida microscopically, biochemically by traditional tests and by API 20E commercial kit then by PCR. The percentages of positive serum samples using somatic antigen and micro-agglutination test at 1/1280 diluted serum were 10%, 54.49% and 0% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively whereas, the percentages using capsular antigen and indirect haemagglutination test were 40%, 60.89% and 60% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively. The ELISA showed the highest sensitivity for diagnosing P. multocida in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered animals with percentages of 42%; 92.9% and 80%, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the ELISA using capsular antigen of P. multocida is a more sensitive and specific serological test for diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. PMID:26858538

  7. Intracerebral haemorrhage in Down syndrome: protected or predisposed?

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Lewis; Fisher, Elizabeth; Hardy, John; Nizetic, Dean; Groet, Jurgen; Pulford, Laura; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), which arises from trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with deposition of large amounts of amyloid within the central nervous system. Amyloid accumulates in two compartments: as plaques within the brain parenchyma and in vessel walls of the cerebral microvasculature. The parenchymal plaque amyloid is thought to result in an early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia, a phenomenon so common amongst people with DS that it could be considered a defining feature of the condition. The amyloid precursor protein ( APP) gene lies on chromosome 21 and its presence in three copies in DS is thought to largely drive the early onset AD. In contrast, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the main clinical consequence of vascular amyloidosis, is a more poorly defined feature of DS. We review recent epidemiological data on stroke (including haemorrhagic stroke) in order to make comparisons with a rare form of familial AD due to duplication (i.e. having three copies) of the APP region on chromosome 21, here called ‘dup-APP’, which is associated with more frequent and severe ICH. We conclude that although people with DS are at increased risk of ICH, this is less common than in dup-APP, suggesting the presence of mechanisms that act protectively. We review these mechanisms and consider comparative research into DS and dup-APP that may yield further pathophysiological insight.

  8. Comparative studies for serodiagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle sera

    PubMed Central

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Ali, Samah Said; El-Shafii, Soumaya Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan M.; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A.; Mohamed, Moussa I.

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida is a major epizootic disease in cattle and buffaloes in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the present study, a total of 88 P. multocida isolates were isolated from 256 nasopharyngeal swabs and lung tissues samples (34.4%) during the period from January, 2013 to March, 2014 from different governorates located in Egypt. Dead calves showed the highest percentage of P. multocida isolation followed by the emergency slaughtered calves, diseased calves then apparently healthy ones. These isolates were confirmed as P. multocida microscopically, biochemically by traditional tests and by API 20E commercial kit then by PCR. The percentages of positive serum samples using somatic antigen and micro-agglutination test at 1/1280 diluted serum were 10%, 54.49% and 0% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively whereas, the percentages using capsular antigen and indirect haemagglutination test were 40%, 60.89% and 60% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively. The ELISA showed the highest sensitivity for diagnosing P. multocida in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered animals with percentages of 42%; 92.9% and 80%, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the ELISA using capsular antigen of P. multocida is a more sensitive and specific serological test for diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. PMID:26858538

  9. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, O E; Amoni, S S; Samaila, E; Thaker, U; Darougar, S

    1990-01-01

    Clinical studies were carried out on two groups of patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) during an epidemic in 1985 in Northern Nigeria. Group 1 consisted of 99 students attending a girls' boarding school, group 2 of 200 patients selected randomly from 1000 examined at the local clinic. Moderate to severe hyperaemia and papillary responses were present in the palpebral conjunctiva of all patients, and 234 (66%) had subconjunctival haemorrhages. Transient superficial punctate keratitis was noted in over 60% of patients. A transient flare suggestive of a low grade iritis was seen in five patients. No neurological disorders were noted. Serological studies were carried out on patients from group 2. Fifteen paired and 20 single serum samples were titrated against adenovirus type 4 (Ad-4) and enterovirus type 70 (EV-70). Two pairs of sera showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to EV-70, whereas the antibody titres to EV-70 in the rest of the sera ranged from 1:20 (no antibody) to 1:160. None of the paired serum samples showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to adenovirus. The results of clinical studies and serological findings support EV-70 as a probable cause of AHC in Nigeria. PMID:2155654

  10. Neutrophil depletion after subarachnoid hemorrhage improves memory via NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Provencio, Jose Javier; Swank, Valerie; Lu, Haiyan; Brunet, Sylvain; Baltan, Selva; Khapre, Rohini V; Seerapu, Himabindu; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Lamb, Bruce T; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are common and disabling. Patients who experience delayed deterioration associated with vasospasm are likely to have cognitive deficits, particularly problems with executive function, verbal and spatial memory. Here, we report neurophysiological and pathological mechanisms underlying behavioral deficits in a murine model of SAH. On tests of spatial memory, animals with SAH performed worse than sham animals in the first week and one month after SAH suggesting a prolonged injury. Between three and six days after experimental hemorrhage, mice demonstrated loss of late long-term potentiation (L-LTP) due to dysfunction of the NMDA receptor. Suppression of innate immune cell activation prevents delayed vasospasm after murine SAH. We therefore explored the role of neutrophil-mediated innate inflammation on memory deficits after SAH. Depletion of neutrophils three days after SAH mitigates tissue inflammation, reverses cerebral vasoconstriction in the middle cerebral artery, and rescues L-LTP dysfunction at day 6. Spatial memory deficits in both the short and long-term are improved and associated with a shift of NMDA receptor subunit composition toward a memory sparing phenotype. This work supports further investigating suppression of innate immunity after SAH as a target for preventative therapies in SAH. PMID:26872422

  11. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Sukhotinsky, Inna; Ayata, Cenk; Wellman, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders. PMID:23577279

  12. Impact of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Parenchymal Arteriolar Function

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, George C.; Koide, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Intracerebral or parenchymal arterioles play an important role in the regulation of both global and regional blood flow within the brain. Brain cortex lacks significant collateral sources of blood and are thus at risk if blood flow through parenchymal arterioles is restricted. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating that abnormal parenchymal arteriolar constriction contributes to the development of neurological deficits caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For example, parenchymal arterioles isolated from SAH model rats exhibit enhanced constriction in response to increased intravascular pressure. This increased pressure-dependent constriction or myogenic tone would result in a shift in the cerebral autoregulatory response and decreased cerebral perfusion. Here, we summarize our current knowledge regarding cellular mechanisms contributing to enhanced contractility of parenchymal arteriolar myocytes following SAH. Our studies demonstrate SAH-induced membrane potential depolarization involving altered K+ homeostasis leads to enhanced voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity, increased smooth muscle cytosolic Ca2+ and parenchymal arteriolar constriction. In summary, emerging evidence demonstrates that SAH can profoundly affect parenchymal arteriolar tone promoting decreased cortical blood flow and compromised neuronal viability. PMID:22890665

  13. Microglia inflict delayed brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ulf C; Davids, Anja-Maria; Brandenburg, Susan; Müller, Annett; Elke, Anna; Magrini, Salima; Atangana, Etienne; Turkowski, Kati; Finger, Tobias; Gutenberg, Angelika; Gehlhaar, Claire; Brück, Wolfgang; Heppner, Frank L; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory changes have been postulated to contribute to secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In human specimens after SAH as well as in experimental SAH using mice, we show an intracerebral accumulation of inflammatory cells between days 4 and 28 after the bleeding. Using bone marrow chimeric mice allowing tracing of all peripherally derived immune cells, we confirm a truly CNS-intrinsic, microglial origin of these immune cells, exhibiting an inflammatory state, and rule out invasion of myeloid cells from the periphery into the brain. Furthermore, we detect secondary neuro-axonal injury throughout the time course of SAH. Since neuronal cell death and microglia accumulation follow a similar time course, we addressed whether the occurrence of activated microglia and neuro-axonal injury upon SAH are causally linked by depleting microglia in vivo. Given that the amount of neuronal cell death was significantly reduced after microglia depletion, we conclude that microglia accumulation inflicts secondary brain injury after SAH. PMID:25956409

  14. Role of levosimendan in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Varvarousi, Giolanda; Xanthos, Theodoros; Sarafidou, Pavlina; Katsioula, Ellisavet; Georgiadou, Marianthi; Eforakopoulou, Maria; Pavlou, Hlias

    2016-02-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is one of the leading causes of neurologic disability accounting for dismal long term survival rates. aSAH leads to a sudden increase in intracranial pressure and a massive sympathetic discharge. Excessive sympathetic stimulation leads to catecholamine mediated myocardial dysfunction and hemodynamic instability which may critically hamper brain perfusion and oxygenation. In the setting of acute aSAH, administration of vasoactive drugs aims at stabilizing impaired hemodynamics. However, studies have shown that conventional treatment with vasoactive drugs that lead to Ca(+2) overload and increase myocardial oxygen consumption, fail to restore hemodynamics and decrease cerebral blood flow. Levosimendan is a non-adrenergic inotropic Ca(+2) sensitizer with not only beneficial hemodynamic properties but also pleiotropic effects, contributing to its cardioprotective and neuroprotective role. Although there have been limited data available regarding the use of levosimendan in patients with aSAH, current evidence suggests that levosimendan may have a role in the setting of post-aSAH cardiomyopathy and decreased cerebral blood flow both in the emergency departments and in intensive care units. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of studies of levosimendan therapy for aSAH, and describe current knowledge about the effects of levosimendan in the management of aSAH. PMID:26669277

  15. Brain Volume Determination in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Rats.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Hardy, Maurice; Fujii, Mutsumi; McBride, Devin W; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema is routinely measured using the wet-dry method. Volume, however, is the sum total of all cerebral tissues, including water. Therefore, volumetric change following injury may not be adequately quantified using percentage of edema. We thus tested the hypothesis that dried brains can be reconstituted with water and then re-measured to determine the actual volume. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30). Animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h after evaluation of neurobehavior for determination of brain water content. Dried brains were thereafter reconstituted with equal parts of water (lost from brain edema) and centrifuged to remove air bubbles. The total volume was quantified using hydrostatic (underwater) physics principles that 1 ml water (mass) = 1 cm(3) (volume). The amount of additional water needed to reach a preset level marked on 2-ml test tubes was added to that lost from brain edema, and from the brain itself, to determine the final volume. SAH significantly increased both brain water and volume while worsening neurological function in affected rats. Volumetric measurements demonstrated significant brain swelling after SAH, in addition to the brain edema approach. This modification of the "wet-dry" method permits brain volume determination using valuable post hoc dried brain tissue. PMID:26463930

  16. Neuroprotective Effect of Radix Trichosanthis Saponins on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Sun, Haiyan; Huang, Liyong; Li, Juxiang; Zhou, Wenke; Chang, Jingling

    2015-01-01

    Redox homeostasis has been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As a result, antioxidants and/or free radical scavengers have become an important therapeutic modality. Considering that radix trichosanthis (RT) saponins exhibited strong antioxidant ability both in vivo and in vitro, the present study aimed to reveal whether the neuroprotective activities of RT saponins were mediated by p38/p53 signal pathway after SAH. An established SAH model was used and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), p-p38, and p53 activation were detected after 48 h of SAH. The results showed that RT saponins inhibited iNOS expression to restore NO to basal level. Moreover, compared with Cu/Zn-SOD, RT saponins (2 mg/kg/d dosage) significantly increased Mn-SOD activity after SAH. Accompanied with lowered NO and elevated SOD, decreased p38 phosphorylation and p53 activities were observed, especially for RT saponins at 2 mg/kg/d dosage. In this setting, the neurological outcome was also improved with less neuronal cells damage after RT saponins pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated the beneficial effects of RT saponins in enhancing neuroprotective effects by deducing iNOS activity, normalizing SOD level, and inhibiting p-p38 and p53 expression, hence offering significant therapeutic implications for SAH. PMID:26089937

  17. Myocarditis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: A histopathologic study.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, Ivo A C; Vendeville, Jean-Paul; van de Hoef, Tim P; Begieneman, Mark P V; Lagrand, Wim K; Kros, Johan M; Wilde, Arthur A M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Niessen, Hans W M

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) such as electrocardiographic changes, echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, and elevated troponin levels are independently associated with a poor prognosis. They are caused by catecholaminergic stress coinciding with influx of inflammatory cells into the heart. These abnormalities could be a sign of a myocarditis, potentially giving insight in pathophysiology and treatment options. These inflammatory cells are insufficiently characterized, and it is unknown whether myocarditis is associated with SAH. Myocardium of 25 patients who died of SAH and 18 controls was stained with antibodies identifying macrophages (CD68), lymphocytes (CD45), and neutrophil granulocytes (myeloperoxidase). Myocytolysis was visualized using complement staining (C3d). CD31 was used to identify putative thrombi. We used Mann-Whitney U testing for analysis. In the myocardium of SAH patients, the amount of myeloperoxidase-positive (P < .005), CD45-positive (P < .0005), and CD68-positive (P < .0005) cells was significantly higher compared to controls. Thrombi in intramyocardial arteries were found in 22 SAH patients and 1 control. Myocytolysis was found in 6 SAH patients but not in controls. Myocarditis, consisting of an influx of neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages, coinciding with myocytolysis and thrombi in intramyocardial arteries, occurs in patients with SAH but not in controls. These findings might explain the cardiac abnormalities after SAH and may have implications for treatment. PMID:26777746

  18. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  19. Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Focusing on Subcellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy–lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles. PMID:25366597

  20. Original surgical treatment of thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts in six chondrodystrophic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid cysts are rare conditions in veterinary medicine, associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Most of the 100 cases of subarachnoid cysts described since the first report in 1968 were apparently not true cysts. Reported cysts are usually situated in the cervical area and occur in predisposed breeds such as the Rottweiler. The purpose of this retrospective study, from May 2003 to April 2012, was to describe the distinctive features of thoracolumbar spinal subarachnoid cysts, together with their surgical treatment and outcome in 6 chondrodystrophic dogs. Results Five Pugs and 1 French Bulldog were examined. Images suggestive of a subarachnoid cyst were obtained by myelography (2/6) and computed tomography myelography (4/6), and associated disc herniation was observed in 3/6 dogs. A hemilaminectomy was performed. The protruding disc eventually found in 5/6 dogs was treated by lateral corpectomy. The ventral leptomeningeal adhesions observed in all dogs after durotomy were dissected. No or only mild post-operative neurological degradation was observed. Follow-up studies (7 months to 4 years) indicated good outcome and no recurrence. Conclusions All the thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts described in these 6 chondrodystrophic dogs were associated with leptomeningeal adhesions. Good results seemed to be obtained by dissecting and removing these adhesions. A protruding disc, found here in 5/6 dogs, needs to be ruled out and can be treated by lateral corpectomy. PMID:24884635

  1. Complications of pregnancy and benign familial joint hyperlaxity.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J G; Hill, J; Bird, H A

    1988-01-01

    A family is described in which four generations were affected by benign familial joint hyperlaxity and, in the two generations for which obstetric data were available, pregnancies were complicated by unexplained mid-trimester vaginal bleeding. This prompted a study to determine whether unexplained antepartum haemorrhage (APH) and premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) both of which might reflect the structure of fetal collagen, were associated with joint hyperlaxity in offspring. The joint hyperlaxity of children born from such pregnancies was slightly greater than that found in age matched children born from uncomplicated pregnancies. PMID:3355259

  2. Complications of nephropathia epidemica: three cases.

    PubMed

    Forslund, T; Saltevo, J; Anttinen, J; Auvinen, S; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Korhonen, A; Poutiainen, M

    1992-07-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Scandinavia is called nephropathia epidemica (NE), and is caused by the Puumala-virus, which belongs to the Hanta-virus genus. The clinical course of NE is mostly benign, complications are uncommon, and deaths are rarely observed. We report the cases of three patients who developed serious complications in the course of NE caused by the Puumala-virus. One patient died within 24 h after admission, another developed progressive neuromuscular dysfunction (Guillain-Barré syndrome) which required auxiliary ventilation for several weeks before a slow recovery, and a third patient developed empty sella syndrome with pituitary gland insufficiency. In the first two cases the diagnosis of NE was confirmed by a rapid avidity assay for IgG antibody against Puumala-virus. In the third case the clinical course, and demonstration of NE immunity 16 years later, suggested that NE might have caused the hypopituitarism. Some patients with NE caused by the Puumala-virus may require intensive-care treatment, and the development of late complications such as empty sella syndrome and hypopituitarism should be taken into consideration. PMID:1353521

  3. Isolated Cranial Nerve-III Palsy Secondary to Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Abbatemarco, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe isolated cranial nerve-III palsy as a rare clinical finding in a patient with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this unusual case, the patient presented with complete cranial nerve-III palsy including ptosis and pupillary involvement. Initial studies revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the perimesencephalic, prepontine, and interpeduncular cisterns. Angiographic studies were negative for an intracranial aneurysm. The patient's neurological deficits improved with no residual deficits on follow-up several months after initial presentation. Our case report supports the notion that patients with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage have an excellent prognosis. Our report further adds a case of isolated cranial nerve-III palsy as a rare initial presentation of this type of bleeding, adding to the limited body of the literature. PMID:26949557

  4. Blood clot placement model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Ali Reza; Bakhtian, Kamran D; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Pluta, Ryszard M

    2015-01-01

    Despite ongoing extensive and promising research to prevent and treat cerebrovascular vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), clinical outcomes remain unsatisfying. Neuroprotective strategies developed in basic science research laboratories need to be translated from bench-to-bedside using appropriate animal models. While a primate model is widely accepted as the best animal model mimicking development of delayed cerebral vasospasm after aSAH, its worldwide usage has dramatically decreased because of ethical and financial limitations. However, the use of primate models of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a recommended bridge for translation of early preclinical studies in rodents to human clinical trials. This paper discusses the technical aspects as well as advantages and disadvantages of a blood clot placement model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in non-human primates. PMID:25366649

  5. [Neurologic manifestations of subarachnoid and parenchymatous hemorrhages caused by arterial aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Bykovnikov, L D

    1991-01-01

    Overall 155 patients with subarachnoidal and parenchymatous hemorrhages from arterial aneurysms, mainly of the anterior part of the circle of Willis, were examined. The intensity of subarachnoidal and parenchymatous hemorrhages varied, with the ++diencephalo-hypothalamic area being largely involved. The volume of intraparenchymatous hemorrhages ranged from 10 to 90 ml. Massive basal SAH was accompanied, in a number of cases, by blood congestion in the fourth ventricle. Correlations were established between the gravity of the health status, clinical cerebral decompensation, and the intensity of hemorrhage to the basal subarachnoidal space and cerebral parenchyma. Three variants of clinical decompensation of the brain were revealed: it ran a torpid course in the majority of cases (64%), it increased dramatically in every fourth patient, and gradually regressed in every 10th patient. PMID:1661472

  6. Platelet count and transfusion requirements during moderate or severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jones, R M; de Lloyd, L; Kealaher, E J; Lilley, G J; Precious, E; Burckett St Laurent, D; Hamlyn, V; Collis, R E; Collins, P W

    2016-06-01

    Limited data exist on platelet transfusion during postpartum haemorrhage. We retrospectively analysed a consecutive cohort from a single centre of 347 women with moderate or severe postpartum haemorrhage, transfused according to national guidelines. Twelve (3%) women required a platelet transfusion. There were no differences between women who did and did not receive platelets with respect to age, mode of initiation of labour or mode of delivery. Women receiving a platelet transfusion had a lower median (IQR [range]) platelet count at study entry than women who did not receive platelets before haemorrhage (135 (97-175 [26-259])×10(9) .l(-1) vs 224 (186-274 [91-1006])×10(9) .l(-1) ), respectively), and at diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage (median 114 (78-153 [58-238])×10(9) .l(-1) vs 193 (155-243 [78-762])×10(9) .l(-1) respectively). Six women were thrombocytopenic pre-delivery. The cause of haemorrhage that was associated with the highest rate of platelet transfusion was placental abruption, with three of 14 women being transfused. If antenatal thrombocytopenia or consumptive coagulopathy were not present, platelets were only required for haemorrhage > 5000 ml. Early formulaic platelet transfusion would have resulted in many women receiving platelets unnecessarily. Using current guidelines, the need for platelet transfusion is uncommon without antenatal thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy or haemorrhage > 5000 ml. We found no evidence to support early fixed-ratio platelet transfusion. PMID:27062151

  7. Dexamethasone and haemorrhage risk in paediatric tonsillectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bellis, J R; Pirmohamed, M; Nunn, A J; Loke, Y K; De, S; Golder, S; Kirkham, J J

    2014-07-01

    Summary In children undergoing tonsillectomy, dexamethasone is recommended to reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting while non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for pain relief. We aimed to determine whether children who receive dexamethasone or dexamethasone with NSAID are more likely to experience haemorrhage post-tonsillectomy. Randomized and non-randomized studies in which children undergoing tonsillectomy received dexamethasone or dexamethasone and NSAID were sought within bibliographic databases and selected tertiary sources. The risk of bias assessment and evaluation of haemorrhage rate data collection and reporting were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and McHarm tool. Synthesis methods comprised pooled estimate of the effect of dexamethasone on the risk of haemorrhage rate using the Peto odds ratio (OR) method. The pooled estimate for haemorrhage rate in children who received dexamethasone was 6.2%, OR 1.41 (95% confidence interval 0.89-2.25, P=0.15). There was risk of bias and inconsistent data collection and reporting rates of haemorrhage in many of the included studies. Clinical heterogeneity was observed between studies. The pooled analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage with dexamethasone with/without NSAID use in children. However, the majority of the included studies were not designed to investigate this endpoint, and thus large studies which are specifically designed to collect data on haemorrhage rate are needed. PMID:24942713

  8. The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

  9. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE LINK INFLAMMATION AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Albers, David; Schmidt, J. Michael; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Falo, Christina Maria; Mayer, Stephan A.; Cremers, Serge; Agarwal, Sachin; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Connolly, E. Sander; Dukic, Vanja; Hripcsak, George; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Pro-inflammatory states are common after many brain injuries and inflammatory mediated changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability have experimentally been linked to seizures. Methods In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS) and laboratory markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1,TNF-R1; high sensitivity C-reactive protein,hsCRP). Logistic regression, cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships. Results Among 479 SAH patients, 53(11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (OR1.9 per point increase in SIRS; 95%-CI1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR1.2 per 20 point hsCRP increase [95%-CI1.1-1.4]; OR2.5 per 100 point TNF-R1 increase [95%-CI2.1-2.9]). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz. Interpretation In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a pro-inflammatory state following SAH reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz. PMID:24771589

  10. Subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown origin: prognosis and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Brismar, J; Sundbärg, G

    1985-09-01

    The cases of 127 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in whom cerebral panangiography revealed no cause for the bleeding nor any sign of an intraparenchymatous hemorrhage, were reviewed in a study of the long-term prognosis and the possible prognostic factors in this condition. Data for all 127 patients in the study were obtained, with an average follow-up period of 5.4 years. After the 1st week post-SAH, only three rebleeds had occurred. In all, 80% of the patients had returned to full activity, 91% to at least part-time work; if the patients with hypertension were excluded, these figures rose to 86% and 95%, respectively. Decreased wakefulness on admission related to a slightly poorer prognosis, whereas age and red blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid had no prognostic significance. Of those patients who, at the end of the 2nd week following the SAH, were fully awake and had not developed any symptoms of delayed cerebral ischemia (87% of all patients admitted), 88% returned to full activity, 97% to at least part-time work. The survival rate for this group, as well as causes of death, seem to be within the range for normal individuals. It should thus be possible to inform these patients (at least the normotensive ones) of the benignity of their condition, directly after normal angiography. Even among the patients who were able to return to full activity, symptoms attributable to the SAH were common: 22% experienced problems such as frequent headaches, vertigo, irritability, and increased fatigability. PMID:4020460

  11. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE: MULTIMODAL DETECTION AND OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Perotte, Adler; Albers, David; Kleinberg, Samantha; Schmidt, J. Michael; Tu, Bin; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lantigua, Hector; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hripcsak, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed intracortical EEG and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury. Results Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (P=0.001), blood pressure (P<0.001), and respiratory rate (P<0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (P=0.03) and intracranial pressure (P =0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (P=0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs. 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively). Interpretation We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in regional cerebral blood flow. These real-world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. PMID:23813945

  12. The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Hillered, Lars; Stridsberg, Mats; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In patients with severe illness, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a physiologic stress response is triggered. This includes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the very early responses of these systems. Methods A porcine animal model of aneurysmal SAH was used. In this model, blood is injected slowly to the basal cisterns above the anterior skull base until the cerebral perfusion pressure is 0 mm Hg. Sampling was done from blood and urine at -10, +15, +75 and +135 minutes from time of induction of SAH. Analyses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, catecholamines and chromogranin-A were performed. Results Plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma aldosterone increased in the samples following induction of SAH, and started to decline after 75 minutes. Urine cortisol also increased after SAH. Urine catecholamines and their metabolites were found to increase after SAH. Many samples were however below detection level, not allowing for statistical analysis. Plasma chromogranin-A peaked at 15 minutes after SAH, and thereafter decreased. Conclusions The endocrine stress response after aneurysmal SAH was found to start within 15 minutes in the HPA axis with early peak values of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone. The fact that the concentrations of the HPA axis hormones decreased 135 minutes after SAH may suggest that a similar pattern exists in SAH patients, thus making it difficult to catch these early peak values. There were also indications of early activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the small number of valid samples made interpretation difficult. PMID:27007694

  13. Protective Role of P450 Epoxyeicosanoids in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Dominic A.; Martini, Ross; Ward, Jonathan; Nelson, Jonathan; Borkar, Rohan; Zuloaga, Kristen; Liu, Jesse; Fairbanks, Stacy; Raskin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Valerie; Dogan, Aclan; Wang, Ruikang K.; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Cetas, Justin S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients recovering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are at risk for developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Experimental and human studies implicate the vasoconstrictor P450 eicosanoid 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in the pathogenesis of DCI. To date, no studies have evaluated the role of vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in DCI. Methods Using mass spectrometry, we measured P450 eicosanoids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 34 SAH patients from 1 to 14 days after admission. CSF eicosanoid levels were compared in patients who experienced DCI versus those who did not. We then studied the effect of EETs in a model of SAH using mice lacking the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase, which catabolizes EETs into their inactive diol. To assess changes in vessel morphology and cortical perfusion in the mouse brain we used optical microangiography, a non-invasive coherence based imaging technique. Results Along with increases in 20-HETE, we found that CSF levels of 14, 15-EET were elevated in SAH patients compared to control CSF, and levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced DCI compared to those who did not. Mice lacking sEH had elevated 14, 15-EET and were protected from the delayed decrease in microvascular cortical perfusion after SAH, compared to wild type mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that P450 eicosanoids play an important role in the pathogenesis of DCI. While 20-HETE may contribute to the development of DCI, 14, 15-EET may afford protection against DCI. Strategies to enhance 14, 15-EET, including sEH inhibition, should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to preventing DCI. PMID:25231529

  14. Consent for Brain Tissue Donation after Intracerebral Haemorrhage: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Samarasekera, Neshika; Lerpiniere, Christine; Farrall, Andrew J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; White, Philip M.; Torgersen, Antonia; Ironside, James W.; Smith, Colin; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is a devastating form of stroke and its incidence increases with age. Obtaining brain tissue following intracerebral haemorrhage helps to understand its cause. Given declining autopsy rates worldwide, the feasibility of establishing an autopsy-based collection and its generalisability are uncertain. Methods We used multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment to identify every adult diagnosed with intracerebral haemorrhage between 1st June 2010-31st May 2012, whilst resident in the Lothian region of Scotland. We sought consent from patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (or their nearest relative if the patient lacked mental capacity) to conduct a research autopsy. Results Of 295 adults with acute intracerebral haemorrhage, 110 (37%) could not be approached to consider donation. Of 185 adults/relatives approached, 91 (49%) consented to research autopsy. There were no differences in baseline demographic variables or markers of intracerebral haemorrhage severity between consenters and non-consenters. Adults who died and became donors (n = 46) differed from the rest of the cohort (n = 249) by being older (median age 80, IQR 76–86 vs. 75, IQR 65–83, p = 0.002) and having larger haemorrhages (median volume 23ml, IQR 13–50 vs. 13ml, IQR 4–40; p = 0.002). Conclusions Nearly half of those approached consent to brain tissue donation after acute intracerebral haemorrhage. The characteristics of adults who gave consent were comparable to those in an entire community, although those who donate early are older and have larger haemorrhage volumes. PMID:26302447

  15. Outcome after intracranial haemorrhage from dural arteriovenous fistulae; a systematic review and case-series.

    PubMed

    Jolink, W M T; van Dijk, J M C; van Asch, C J J; de Kort, G A P; Algra, A; Groen, R J M; Rinkel, G J E; Klijn, C J M

    2015-12-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) are a rare cause of intracranial haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate outcome of patients with intracranial haemorrhage from a DAVF. We performed a systematic literature search for studies reporting outcome after intracranial haemorrhage caused by a DAVF. We used predefined selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. In addition, we studied outcome in all patients with DAVF who had presented with intracranial haemorrhage at two university centers in the Netherlands, between January 2007 and April 2012. We calculated case fatality and proportions of patients with poor outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale ≥ 3 or Glasgow Outcome Scale ≤ 3) during follow-up. We investigated mean age, sex, mid-year of study and percentage of patients with parenchymal haemorrhage as determinants of case fatality and poor outcome. The literature search yielded 16 studies, all but two retrospective and all hospital-based. Combined with our cohort of 29 patients the total number of patients with DAVF-related intracranial haemorrhage was 326 (58% intracerebral haemorrhage). At a median follow-up of 12 months case fatality was 4.7% (95% CI 2.5-7.5; 17 cohorts) and the proportion of patients with poor outcome 8.3% (95% CI 3.1-15.7; nine cohorts). We found no effect of mean age, sex, mid-year of the cohorts and percentage of patients with parenchymal haemorrhage on either outcome. Hospital based case-series suggest a relatively low risk of death and poor outcome in patients with intracranial haemorrhage due to rupture of a DAVF. These risks may be underestimated because of bias. PMID:26410748

  16. Treatment of Syringomyelia due to Chiari Type I Malformation with Syringo-Subarachnoid-Peritoneal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Akakın, Akın; Yılmaz, Baran; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-01-01

    Chiari type I malformation is a tonsillar herniation more than 3 mm from the level of foramen magnum, with or without concurrent syringomyelia. Different surgical treatments have been developed for syringomyelia secondary to Chiari's malformations: craniovertebral decompression with or without plugging of the obex, syringo-subarachnoid, syringo-peritoneal, and theco-peritoneal shunt placement. Shunt placement procedures are useful for neurologically symptomatic large-sized syrinx. In this paper, authors define the first successful treatment of a patient with syringomyelia due to Chiari type I malformation using a pre-defined new technique of syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt with T-tube system. PMID:25932303

  17. Threat of Marburg and Ebola viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tukei, P M

    1996-01-01

    Marburg and Ebola viruses are members of the filovirus family that can be regarded as recently emerged. These viruses have caused sporadic outbreaks of fatal haemorrhagic disease in Africa, Europe and recently in the USA. The case fatality rates rank among the highest ranging from 33-80%. The mode of transmission of these viruses are clearly through close contact with blood and body fluids. Disease outbreaks have been amplified in hospital situations with poor blood precautions. In villages disease has been amplified through contamination with blood and fluids during nursing the sick and burial rituals. The source of the viruses has eluded discovery and new theories regarding the nature of these viruses are being entertained. The threat of new outbreaks in Africa is real since serological evidence of the presence of the virus has been documented in Kenya, Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Cote-d'Ivoire and Gabon. PMID:8625857

  18. Seroprevalance of Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever in Bulgarian livestock

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Robert; Mohareb, Emad; Younan, Rasha; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Moemen, Abdel; Mansour, Sameh S.; Rossi, Cynthia; Schoepp, Randal; Christova, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease. Over the past decade, CCHF cases in humans have emerged in Turkey and reemerged in the Balkan countries, Ukraine and Tajikistan. Occupational contact with infected livestock has been recognized as a common cause of the disease. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study in livestock was conducted in farming communities of an endemic area in Bulgaria, southeastern Europe. Overall, 72% of the tested animals were positive for IgG antibodies to CCHF virus. By the time the animals were one-year old almost 50% had serologic evidence of CCHF infection, and by two years already 80% of them had been infected. The data obtained in this study reflect current situation of CCHF virus infection among livestock in Bulgaria. The results showed active CCHF virus circulation that poses risk for humans to be infected during contacts with animals and requires public health awareness. PMID:26019541

  19. Viewpoint: filovirus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks: much ado about nothing?

    PubMed

    Borchert, M; Boelaert, M; Sleurs, H; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Pirard, P; Colebunders, R; Van der Stuyft, P; van der Groen, G

    2000-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo has put the filovirus threat back on the international health agenda. This paper gives an overview of Marburg and Ebola outbreaks so far observed and puts them in a public health perspective. Damage on the local level has been devastating at times, but was marginal on the international level despite the considerable media attention these outbreaks received. The potential hazard of outbreaks, however, after export of filovirus from its natural environment into metropolitan areas, is argued to be considerable. Some avenues for future research and intervention are explored. Beyond the obvious need to find the reservoir and study the natural history, public health strategies for a more timely and efficient response are urgently needed. PMID:10886793

  20. Progress towards the treatment of Ebola haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ströher, Ute; Feldmann, Heinz

    2006-12-01

    Being highly pathogenic for human and nonhuman primates and the subject of former weapon programmes makes Ebola virus one of the most feared pathogens worldwide today. Due to a lack of licensed pre- and postexposure intervention, the current response depends on rapid diagnostics, proper isolation procedures and supportive care of case patients. Consequently, the development of more specific countermeasures is of high priority for the preparedness of many nations. Over the past years, enhanced research efforts directed to better understand virus replication and pathogenesis have identified potential new targets for intervention strategies. The authors discuss the most promising therapeutic approaches for Ebola haemorrhagic fever as judged by their efficacy in animal models. The current development in this field encourages discussions on how to move some of the experimental approaches towards clinical application. PMID:17107278

  1. Haemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in two newborns.

    PubMed

    Guzoglu, Nilufer; Demirkol, Fatma Nur; Aliefendioglu, Didem

    2015-05-01

    Invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment increase the risk of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. Early identification and appropriate treatment is important. Herein we report two cases of massive hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The first case was diagnosed with congenital pneumonia; a chest tube was inserted because of pneumothorax on the third day of life. The second case had been referred with respiratory distress syndrome, and bilateral pneumothorax was present on admission. Upon follow up, the cases' clinical condition worsened; acute respiratory distress syndrome and massive pulmonary haemorrhage developed. After Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated in blood cultures, the cases were treated successfully using a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolone. PMID:25989175

  2. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsive Persistent Thrombocytopenia after Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prabhat; Charaniya, Riyaz; Ghosh, Anindya; Sahoo, Ratnakar

    2016-04-01

    Dengue outbreak is common in Indian subcontinent and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Year 2015 has witnessed yet another Dengue epidemic in northern India and the number of cases this year is maximum in a decade. Dengue infection is a viral disease and there are 4 different serotypes DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. This year DENV2 and DENV4 have been isolated from most of the patients. Thrombocytopenia is hallmark of dengue infection and generally recovers within ten days of onset of symptoms. We report a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever in which thrombocytopenia persisted for almost a month and improved after Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration. This is the first case where IVIG has been successfully used for treating persisting thrombocytopenia after dengue infection. PMID:27190868

  3. Experimental systems which modify and simulate rapeseed-induced liver haemorrhages in in-lay hens.

    PubMed

    Wight, P A; Shannon, D W; McCorquodale, C C; Scougall, R K

    1987-11-01

    The occurrence of liver haemorrhages was compared when diets containing 30 or 40 per cent rapeseed meal (RSM) or 30 per cent soybean meal (SBM), with and without experimental additives, were fed to in-lay hens of a commercial egg-producing strain for 12 weeks. The incidence of haemorrhages was significantly greater when the birds were maintained on the basal (unsupplemented) RSM diet than on the equivalent SBM diet. Haemorrhages were either small and infrequent, minute and multiple as in peliosis hepatis, or large enough to rupture the liver capsule. They might be recent or old and encapsulated, sometimes both varieties affecting the same specimen, and they occurred in any part of the liver. Histologically, hepatocyte necrosis and reticulin derangement were not detected in livers without gross haemorrhages and even in those with haemorrhages these abnormalities were only seen closely adjacent to haemorrhages or to foci of eosinophilic fibrinoid. In some instances there was sinusoidal ectasia. Separate additions of 50 g dried skimmed milk powder, 0.5 g zinc oxide, 0.25 g ferrous sulphate or 2.0 mg selenium (as sodium selenite) kg-1 to the basal RSM diet did not significantly modify the incidence of haemorrhage. Ferrous sulphate slightly reduced goitrogenicity. Supplements of 2.2 mg menadione and 1.0 g sodium phenobarbital kg-1 RSM diet induced slight reductions in the number of cases of liver haemorrhage or their severity, indicating that the multifunction oxidase system may be involved in rapeseed hepatotoxicity. The addition of 0.5 g methimazole kg-1 to the basal SBM diet induced severe colloid goitre but did not induce liver haemorrhage. Both thiouracil (0.5 g kg-1 diet) and beta-aminopropionitrile (0.5 g and 2.5 g kg-1 diet) when added to the basal SBM diet induced liver haemorrhages which did not differ in incidence or histological appearance from those induced by RSM. Hyperplastic goitre was caused by thiouracil. Intrahepatic cholestasis induced by sodium taurolithocholate, bilirubin and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate and extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation resulted in hepatocyte necrosis but not gross liver haemorrhages. Spontaneous deaths due to conditions other than liver haemorrhages were significantly more numerous in RSM-fed than SBM-fed hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3444982

  4. A risk scoring system for prediction of haemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, S P; Tiwari, R R

    2005-01-01

    The present pair-matched case control study was carried out at Government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital with the objective to devise and validate a risk scoring system for prediction of hemorrhagic stroke. The study consisted of 166 hospitalized CT scan proved cases of hemorrhagic stroke (ICD 9, 431-432), and a age and sex matched control per case. The controls were selected from patients who attended the study hospital for conditions other than stroke. On conditional multiple logistic regression five risk factors- hypertension (OR = 1.9. 95% Cl = 1.5-2.5). raised scrum total cholesterol (OR = 2.3, 95% Cl = 1.1-4.9). use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (OR = 3.4, 95% Cl =1.1-10.4). past history of transient ischaemic attack (OR = 8.4, 95% Cl = 2.1- 33.6) and alcohol intake (OR = 2.1, 95% Cl = 1.3-3.6) were significant. These factors were ascribed statistical weights (based on regression coefficients) of 6, 8, 12, 21 and 8 respectively. The nonsignificant factors (diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, type A personality, history of claudication, family history of stroke, history of cardiac diseases and oral contraceptive use in females) were not included in the development of scoring system. ROC curve suggested a total score of 21 to be the best cut-off for predicting haemorrhag stroke. At this cut-off the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and Cohen's kappa were 0.74, 0.74, 0.74 and 0.48 respectively. The overall predictive accuracy of this additive risk scoring system (area under ROC curve by Wilcoxon statistic) was 0.79 (95% Cl = 0.73-0.84). Thus to conclude, if substantiated by further validation, this scorincy system can be used to predict haemorrhagic stroke, thereby helping to devise effective risk factor intervention strategy. PMID:16479901

  5. Use of recombinant activated factor VII in a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Verre, M; Bossio, F; Mammone, A; Piccirillo, M; Tancioni, F; Varano, M

    2006-02-01

    We describe the case of a 24 year old woman, affected by haemorrhagic shock due to post-partum uterine atony, who underwent an emergency hysterectomy with persistent postoperative bleeding, successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII (Novoseven). PMID:16498374

  6. Prenatal cranial haemorrhages in 47 Pacific Islander infants: is traditional massage the cause?

    PubMed

    Becroft, D M; Gunn, T R

    1989-05-10

    Intracranial haemorrhage is usually a very rare occurrence in the fetus before the onset of labour but we have identified major, mostly subdural, prenatal intracranial haemorrhages in 47 infants of immigrant Pacific Islander parentage. Forty-four infants have been stillborn and the numbers from 1983 to 1986 were sufficient to account for the stillbirth rate for Pacific Islanders in Auckland being approximately 60% higher than rates for Europeans or Maoris. Two of three liveborn infants survived with neurological sequelae. Similar haemorrhages may be the cause of a congenital hydrocephalus in Pacific Islanders. A bleeding disorder can be excluded in most cases, as can trauma from accidents or assaults. Trauma during attempts at cephalic version of breech presentations by traditional methods could explain why 53% of deliveries were breech and other pathological and clinical features. Advice at antenatal clinics about possible dangers of traditional massage has coincided with a reduction in the incidence of haemorrhages since 1986. PMID:2717100

  7. A modified double injection model of cisterna magna for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical complication, characterized by constriction of cerebral arteries leading to varying degrees of cerebral ischemia. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have been performed in the last decades; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH still remains unclear. Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. PMID:23194464

  8. Early identification of individuals at high risk for cerebral infarction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: the BEHAVIOR score.

    PubMed

    Jabbarli, Ramazan; Reinhard, Matthias; Roelz, Roland; Shah, Mukesch; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Kaier, Klaus; Taschner, Christian; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Van Velthoven, Vera

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a crucial complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) associated with poor clinical outcome. We aimed at developing an early risk score for CI based on clinical characteristics available at the onset of SAH. Out of a database containing 632 consecutive patients with SAH admitted to our institution from January 2005 to December 2012, computed tomography (CT) scans up to day 42 after ictus were evaluated for CIs. Different parameters from admission up to aneurysm treatment were collected with subsequent construction of a risk score. Seven clinical characteristics were independently associated with CI and included in the Risk score (BEHAVIOR Score, 0 to 11 points): Blood on CT scan according to Fisher grade ⩾3 (1 point), Elderly patients (age ⩾55 years, 1 point), Hunt&Hess grade ⩾4 (1 point), Acute hydrocephalus requiring external liquor drainage (1 point), Vasospasm on initial angiogram (3 points), Intracranial pressure elevation >20 mm Hg (3 points), and treatment of multiple aneurysms ('Overtreatment', 1 point). The BEHAVIOR score showed high diagnostic accuracy with respect to the absolute risk for CI (area under curve=0.806, P<0.0001) and prediction of poor clinical outcome at discharge (P<0.0001) and after 6 months (P=0.0002). Further validation in other SAH cohorts is recommended. PMID:25920954

  9. Severe Dextran-Induced Anaphylactic Shock during Induction of Hypertension-Hypervolemia-Hemodilution Therapy following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Tohru; Sato, Atsushi; Fukuzawa, Masao; Kondo, Naoko; Tanno, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Dextran is a colloid effective for volume expansion; however, a possible side effect of its use is anaphylaxis. Dextran-induced anaphylactoid reaction (DIAR) is a rare but severe complication, with a small dose of dextran solution sufficient to induce anaphylaxis. An 86-year-old female who underwent clipping for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm was admitted to the intensive care unit. Prophylactic hypertension-hypervolemia-hemodilution therapy was induced for cerebral vasospasm following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient went into severe shock after administration of dextran for volume expansion, and dextran administration was immediately discontinued. The volume administered at that time was only 0.8 mL at the most. After fluid resuscitation with a crystalloid solution, circulatory status began to recover. However, cerebral vasospasm occurred and the patient's neurological condition deteriorated. Five weeks after the shock, she was diagnosed with hypersensitivity to dextran by a skin test. When severe hypotension occurs after dextran administration, appropriate treatments for shock should be performed immediately with discontinuation of dextran solution. Although colloid administration is recommended in some guidelines and researches, it is necessary to consider concerning the indication for volume expansion as well as the risk of colloid administration. PMID:26171255

  10. Plasma Catecholamine Profile of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients with Neurogenic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moussouttas, Michael; Mearns, Elizabeth; Walters, Arthur; DeCaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the connection between sympathetic function and neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC), and to determine whether NC is mediated primarily by circulating adrenal epinephrine (EPI) or neuronally transmitted norepinephrine (NE), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods This is a prospective observational investigation of consecutive severe-grade SAH patients. All participants had transthoracic echocardiography and serological assays for catecholamine levels – dopamine (DA), NE and EPI – within 48 h of hemorrhage onset. Clinical and serological independent predictors of NC were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the accuracy of predictors was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate correlations among the catecholamines. Results The investigation included a total of 94 subjects: the mean age was 55 years, 81% were female and 57% were Caucasian. NC was identified in approximately 10% (9/94) of cases. Univariate analyses revealed associations between NC and worse clinical severity (p = 0.019), plasma DA (p = 0.018) and NE levels (p = 0.024). Plasma NE correlated with DA levels (ρ = 0.206, p = 0.046) and EPI levels (ρ = 0.392, p < 0.001), but was predicted only by plasma EPI in bivariate [parameter estimate (PE) = 1.95, p < 0.001] and multivariate (PE = 1.89, p < 0.001) linear regression models. Multivariate logistic regression analyses consistently demonstrated the predictive value of clinical grade for NC (p < 0.05 for all analyses) except in models incorporating plasma NE, where NC was independently predicted by NE level (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55) over clinical grade (OR 4.19, 95% CI 0.874-20.1). ROC curves similarly revealed the greater accuracy of plasma NE [area under the curve (AUC) 0.727, 95% CI 0.56-0.90, p = 0.02] over clinical grade (AUC 0.704, 95% CI 0.55-0.86, p = 0.05) for identifying the presence or absence of NC. Conclusions Following SAH, the development of NC is primarily related to elevated plasma NE levels. Findings implicate a predominantly neurogenic process mediated by neuronal NE (and not adrenal EPI), but cannot exclude synergy between the catecholamines. PMID:26120322

  11. Changes in the Metabolism of Sphingolipids after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Testai, Fernando D; Xu, Hao-Liang; Kilkus, John; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Gorshkova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Pelligrino, Dale A; Dawson, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously described that ceramide (Cer), a mediator of cell death, increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study investigated the alterations of biochemical pathways involved in Cer homeostasis in SAH. Methods Cer, dihydroceramide (DHC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the activities of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), sphingomyelinase synthase (SMS), S1P-lyase, and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were determined in the CSF of SAH subjects and in brain homogenate of SAH rats. Results Compared to controls (n=8), SAH patients (n=26) had higher ASMase activity (10.0±3.5 IF/µl.min vs. 15.0±4.6 IF/µl.min; p=0.009) and elevated levels of Cer (11.4±8.8 pmol/ml vs. 33.3±48.3 pmol/ml; p=0.001) and DHC (1.3±1.1 pmol/ml vs. 3.8±3.4 pmol/ml; p=0.001) in the CSF. The activities of GCS, NSMase, and SMS in the CSF were undetectable. Brain homogenates from SAH animals had increased ASMase activity (control: 9.7±1.2 IF/µg.min; SAH: 16.8±1.6 IF/µg.min; p<0.05) and Cer levels (control: 3422±26 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; SAH: 7073±2467 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; p<0.05) compared to controls. In addition, SAH was associated with a reduction of 60% in S1P levels, a 40% increase in S1P-lyase activity, and a 2-fold increase in the activity of GCS but similar NSMase and SMS activities than controls. Conclusions Our results show an activation of ASMase, S1P-lyase, and GCS resulting in a shift in the production of protective (S1P) in favor of deleterious (Cer) sphingolipids after SAH. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of modulators of the pathways here described in the outcome of SAH. PMID:25597763

  12. Changes in the metabolism of sphingolipids after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Testai, Fernando D; Xu, Hao-Liang; Kilkus, John; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Gorshkova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Pelligrino, Dale A; Dawson, Glyn

    2015-05-01

    We previously described how ceramide (Cer), a mediator of cell death, increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study investigates the alterations of biochemical pathways involved in Cer homeostasis in SAH. Cer, dihydroceramide (DHC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and the activities of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), sphingomyelinase synthase (SMS), S1P-lyase, and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were determined in the CSF of SAH subjects and in brain homogenate of SAH rats. Compared with controls (n = 8), SAH patients (n = 26) had higher ASMase activity (10.0 ± 3.5 IF/µl· min vs. 15.0 ± 4.6 IF/µl • min; P = 0.009) and elevated levels of Cer (11.4 ± 8.8 pmol/ml vs. 33.3 ± 48.3 pmol/ml; P = 0.001) and DHC (1.3 ± 1.1 pmol/ml vs. 3.8 ± 3.4 pmol/ml; P = 0.001) in the CSF. The activities of GCS, NSMase, and SMS in the CSF were undetectable. Brain homogenates from SAH animals had increased ASMase activity (control: 9.7 ± 1.2 IF/µg • min; SAH: 16.8 ± 1.6 IF/µg • min; P < 0.05) and Cer levels (control: 3,422 ± 26 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; SAH: 7,073 ± 2,467 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; P < 0.05) compared with controls. In addition, SAH was associated with a reduction of 60% in S1P levels, a 40% increase in S1P-lyase activity, and a twofold increase in the activity of GCS. In comparison, NSMase and SMS activities were similar to controls and SMS activities similar to controls. In conclusion, our results show an activation of ASMase, S1P-lyase, and GCS resulting in a shift in the production of protective (S1P) in favor of deleterious (Cer) sphingolipids after SAH. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of modulators of the pathways described here in SAH. PMID:25597763

  13. [How to diagnose intracranial haemorrhages in infants by two-dimensional ultrasound scanning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strassburg, H M; Bohlayer, R; Niederhoff, H; Pringsheim, W; Knzer, W

    1982-01-01

    Applying a rotatory sector-scanner, in 437 infants between the 29th gestational week and 18th month of life, a sonographic study was performed in order to look for an intracranial haemorrhage. The recording was performed real-time, using the anterior fontanelle as an acoustic window. In 42 infants we saw signs of an intracranial haemorrhage, which was confirmed 11 times anatomically and 11 times by CAT. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. PMID:7099679

  14. Paediatric pulmonary haemorrhage: Independent lung ventilation as effective strategy in management

    PubMed Central

    Murkute, Amol; Angadi, Ullas; Jain, Pawan; Sharique, Tanzila; Hegde, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary haemorrhage is an uncommon symptom in paediatrics with the etiology varying among the series by age, location, and the diagnostic tests employed. Once airway protection and volume resuscitation are ensured, localization of the anatomic site of bleeding, isolation of the involved airway, control of haemorrhage and treatment of the underlying cause of becomes essential. In localized persistent bleeding, airway control may be achieved by lung isolation with double lumen endotracheal tube and synchronous independent lung ventilation PMID:25316981

  15. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  16. Complications Following Anorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, Hiroko; Poylin, Vitaliy

    2016-03-01

    Anorectal surgery is well tolerated. Rates of minor complications are relatively high, but major postoperative complications are uncommon. Prompt identification of postoperative complications is necessary to avoid significant patient morbidity. The most common acute complications include bleeding, infection, and urinary retention. Pelvic sepsis, while may result in dramatic morbidity and even mortality, is relatively rare. The most feared long-term complications include fecal incontinence, anal stenosis, and chronic pelvic pain. PMID:26929747

  17. Complications in Eyelid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Karimnejad, Kaveh; Walen, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Eyelid surgery consists of challenging reconstructive and cosmetic procedures. Because of the complex anatomy and corresponding vital functions of the upper and lower eyelids, the avoidance of eyelid complications is of vital importance. Complications after eyelid surgery include basic complications (infection, granuloma) and vision-threatening complications. Preoperative history, physical examination, surgical planning, and meticulous surgical technique must be undertaken to prevent complications after eyelid surgery. In addition, patient knowledge, expectations, and motivations must be determined before surgery is performed. PMID:27105805

  18. Japanese Encephalitis Complicated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Suman, Vivek; Roy, Ujjawal; Panwar, Ajay; Raizada, Alpana

    2016-02-01

    Japanese Encephalitis (JE), caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavi-virus, is the most significant aetiology of arboviral encephalitis worldwide. It has resulted in epidemics of encephalitis in the Indian subcontinent. Here, we report a case of 36-year-old female who presented with a short history of fever and headache followed by altered sensorium. Funduscopic examination revealed Papilloedema. Pyogenic or viral meningoencephalitis along with complicated malaria were kept as initial differential diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain revealed involvement of posterior limb of internal capsule and bilateral thalami in the form of haemorrhagic encephalitis along with obstructive hydrocephalus. Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) serology (IgM ELISA) showed JE as the causative agent. Despite extensive literature search, we could not find a case of JE reported with hydrocephalus as a complication. This case highlights the typical and atypical features of JE including imaging findings and exemplifies the way, how diversely JE can present and would thus help in preparing management paradigms accordingly. PMID:27042509

  19. Japanese Encephalitis Complicated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Vivek; Panwar, Ajay; Raizada, Alpana

    2016-01-01

    Japanese Encephalitis (JE), caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavi-virus, is the most significant aetiology of arboviral encephalitis worldwide. It has resulted in epidemics of encephalitis in the Indian subcontinent. Here, we report a case of 36-year-old female who presented with a short history of fever and headache followed by altered sensorium. Funduscopic examination revealed Papilloedema. Pyogenic or viral meningoencephalitis along with complicated malaria were kept as initial differential diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain revealed involvement of posterior limb of internal capsule and bilateral thalami in the form of haemorrhagic encephalitis along with obstructive hydrocephalus. Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) serology (IgM ELISA) showed JE as the causative agent. Despite extensive literature search, we could not find a case of JE reported with hydrocephalus as a complication. This case highlights the typical and atypical features of JE including imaging findings and exemplifies the way, how diversely JE can present and would thus help in preparing management paradigms accordingly.

  20. Neurological Complications of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Block, H Steven

    2016-07-01

    Physiologic alterations during pregnancy create an environment for the occurrence of disease states that are either unique to pregnancy, occur more frequently in pregnancy, or require special management considerations that may be different from the nonpregnancy state. In the realm of cerebrovascular disease, preeclampsia, eclampsia, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, sources of cardiogenic embolization including peripartum cardiomyopathy, cerebral venous thrombosis, pituitary apoplexy, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and special considerations for anticoagulation during pregnancy will be discussed. Management of epilepsy during pregnancy counterbalances maternal freedom from seizures against the potential for major, minor, cognitive, and behavioral fetal deformities. Teratogenic potential of the most common anticonvulsants are described. Considerations for anticonvulsant level monitoring during pregnancy are based upon differences in medication clearance in comparison to the prepregnancy state. The most common neuromuscular disorders of pregnancy are reviewed. PMID:27230113

  1. Dose response study of subarachnoid diamorphine for analgesia after elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R W; Kinsella, S M; Smith, A; Thomas, T A

    1999-10-01

    Subarachnoid diamorphine provides excellent analgesia after elective caesarean section but the optimum dose is still uncertain. We therefore investigated the effects of three regimens of subarachnoid diamorphine. Forty parturients were assigned to one of four groups. A control group received no diamorphine in their subarachnoid bupivacaine and three study groups received 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg or 0.3 mg diamorphine added to 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in a semi-blind randomised design study. All women received a 100 mg diclofenac suppository at the end of the caesarean section and were provided with morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. The patients were assessed for pain, morphine usage and side-effects at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the subarachnoid injection. Postoperative visual analogue scores for pain and PCA morphine consumption were significantly lower, and mean time to first use of morphine was significantly longer in the 0.3 mg diamorphine group. The mean (SD) dose of PCA morphine used over 24 h was 39.4 (14.7), 25.6 (16.5), 21.6 (15.9) and 3.1 (3.6) mg, and mean time to first use of morphine was 1.6 (0.5), 3.0 (1.4), 3.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (9.4) h, in the 0, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg groups respectively. Side-effects of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were dependent on the dose of spinal diamorphine but did not require treatment in any patients. We conclude that 0.3 mg subarachnoid diamorphine provides significantly better postoperative pain relief than the smaller doses with an acceptable increase in side-effects. PMID:15321116

  2. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  3. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  4. Relevance of quantitative assessment of bleeding in haemorrhagic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodeghiero, F; Kadir, R A; Tosetto, A; James, P D

    2008-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing interest in the diagnosis of mild bleeding disorders (MBD) to find reliable tools for the assessment of their inherent bleeding risk and minimum criteria for the definition of a clinically useful diagnosis. Unlike in more severe haemorrhagic disorders, in MBD, the bleeding history may overlap with that reported by normal people. This problem has required the development of strategies that could allow the assessment of bleeding symptoms from both a qualitative (presence or absence) and quantitative (bleeding severity) aspect. An example of high quality clinical research in bleeding disorders was given by the systematic approach used for the evaluation of menorrhagia. For this symptom, the most common in women with bleeding disorders, the use of pictorial charts provided many new insights. Dr Kadir will review its use in a clinical context. The assessment of the whole bleeding history requires first, the development of reproducible tools to collect symptoms and secondly, formulation of easily applicable criteria to convert the collected data into clinical information. Dr Tosetto will propose a bleeding questionnaire in which clinical criteria were developed and validated, and show how a summative, quantitative index of bleeding severity (the Bleeding Score) could be used in von Willebrand disease. Finally, Dr James will review the development of quantitative analysis in children, a particularly important and difficult application, but one that needs to be tackled urgently. PMID:18510525

  5. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Chlbek, R; Smetana, J; Vackov, M

    2006-12-01

    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections. PMID:17230375

  6. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  7. Reversal of haemorrhagic shock in rats by cholinomimetic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Guarini, S.; Tagliavini, S.; Ferrari, W.; Bertolini, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. In an experimental model of haemorrhagic shock resulting in the death of all rats within 20-30 min, the intravenous (i.v.) injection of the tertiary amine cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (17-70 micrograms kg-1) induced a prompt, sustained and dose-dependent improvement of cardiovascular and respiratory function, with marked increase in the volume of circulating blood and survival of all treated animals, at least for the 2 h of observation. 2. Similar results were obtained with the i.v. injection of the cholinoceptor agonist oxotremorine (5-25 micrograms kg-1), while neostigmine (54 or 70 micrograms kg-1), a quaternary cholinesterase inhibitor which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, had negligible effects. 3. The anti-shock activities of oxotremorine and physostigmine were blocked by the intracerebroventricular injection of either of the combined nicotinic and M2-muscarinic receptor antagonists gallamine and pancuronium, or of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. They were also blocked by intraperitoneal injection of the adrenergic neurone blocking agent guanethidine, but they were not antagonized by either the combined M1- and M2-muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine, or the M2-muscarinic receptor 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide. 4. It is concluded that cholinomimetic drugs can reverse hypovolaemic shock through central activation (seemingly mediated by nicotinic receptors) of sympathetic tone, with mobilization and redistribution of the residual blood. PMID:2804546

  8. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  9. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  10. Imaging cerebral haemorrhage with magnetic induction tomography: numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Zolgharni, M; Ledger, P D; Armitage, D W; Holder, D S; Griffiths, H

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new electromagnetic imaging modality which has the potential to image changes in the electrical conductivity of the brain due to different pathologies. In this study the feasibility of detecting haemorrhagic cerebral stroke with a 16-channel MIT system operating at 10 MHz was investigated. The finite-element method combined with a realistic, multi-layer, head model comprising 12 different tissues, was used for the simulations in the commercial FE package, Comsol Multiphysics. The eddy-current problem was solved and the MIT signals computed for strokes of different volumes occurring at different locations in the brain. The results revealed that a large, peripheral stroke (volume 49 cm(3)) produced phase changes that would be detectable with our currently achievable instrumentation phase noise level (17 m degrees ) in 70 (27%) of the 256 exciter/sensor channel combinations. However, reconstructed images showed that a lower noise level than this, of 1 m degrees , was necessary to obtain good visualization of the strokes. The simulated MIT measurements were compared with those from an independent transmission-line-matrix model in order to give confidence in the results. PMID:19491437

  11. Systemic vasculitis with bilateral perirenal haemorrhage in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Aslangul-Castier, E.; Papo, T.; Amoura, Z.; Baud, O.; Leblond, V.; Charlotte, F.; Bricaire, F.; Degos, L.; Piette, J.

    2000-01-01

    The cases of two patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with periarteritis nodosa-like, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody negative, systemic vasculitis, are reported.
  A 61 year old man was admitted with fever, diffuse myalgia, and abdominal pain. Blood and bone marrow examination showed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Vasculitis of the gall bladder was responsible for acalculous cholecystitis. A massive spontaneous bilateral perirenal haemorrhage occurred. A 73 year old woman with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia had been followed up for one year when unexplained fever occurred. Two months after the onset of fever, sudden abdominal pain was ascribed to spontaneous bilateral renal haematoma related to bilateral renal arterial aneurysms. Neuromuscular biopsy showed non-necrotising periarteriolar inflammation.
  To our knowledge, systemic vasculitis has never been reported in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. In our two cases a non-random association is suggested because (a) chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome, (b) spontaneous bilateral perirenal haematoma is not a usual feature of periarteritis nodosa.

 PMID:10784523

  12. Delineating the Association between Heavy Postpartum Haemorrhage and Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eckerdal, Patricia; Kollia, Natasa; Löfblad, Johanna; Hellgren, Charlotte; Karlsson, Linnea; Högberg, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD), taking into account the role of postpartum anaemia, delivery experience and psychiatric history. Methods A nested cohort study (n = 446), based on two population-based cohorts in Uppsala, Sweden. Exposed individuals were defined as having a bleeding of ≥1000ml (n = 196) at delivery, and non-exposed individuals as having bleeding of <650ml (n = 250). Logistic regression models with PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) score ≥ 12) as the outcome variable and PPH, anaemia, experience of delivery, mood during pregnancy and other confounders as exposure variables were undertaken. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was also conducted. Results There was no association between PPH and PPD symptoms. A positive association was shown between anaemia at discharge from the maternity ward and the development of PPD symptoms, even after controlling for plausible confounders (OR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.15–4.58). Path analysis revealed significant roles for anaemia at discharge, negative self-reported delivery experience, depressed mood during pregnancy and postpartum stressors in increasing the risk for PPD. Conclusion This study proposes important roles for postpartum anaemia, negative experience of delivery and mood during pregnancy in explaining the development of depressive symptoms after PPH. PMID:26807799

  13. Global spread and evolution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Studer, J; Janies, D A

    2011-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus that infects over 48 species of teleosts and is lethal in many. VHSV threatens marine and aquatic fisheries. VHSV was first discovered outside Europe in 1988 in fish from the Pacific coast of North America. In 1994, VHSV was discovered in Newfoundland. In 2003, VHSV was isolated from fish in Lake St. Clair (Michigan and Ontario). In this study, we used 46 nucleotide sequences for the glycoprotein gene from 12 studies and 150 nucleotide sequences for the nucleoprotein gene from nine studies. We combined phylogenetics and a geographic information system to visualize the transmission paths of VHSV lineages. We also reconstructed the spread of VHSV lineages through optimization of geographic data for viral isolates on phylogenetic trees. We demonstrate that VHSV was transmitted from the North Atlantic Ocean and/or Baltic Sea to the Atlantic coast of North America and Japan in independent events. From the Atlantic coast, the virus was transmitted independently to the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Pacific coast of Canada and the contiguous United States. From the Pacific Northwest, the virus was transmitted to Asia and Alaska in independent events. These results clarify the debate ongoing in the literature on the geographic spread of VHSV. PMID:21916899

  14. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  15. Early ductal shunting and intraventricular haemorrhage in ventilated preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, N; Kluckow, M

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To establish if there is an association between early cardiovascular adaptation and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). METHODS: One hundred and seventeen ventilated preterm infants (mean gestational age 27 weeks, mean birthweight 993 g) were studied echocardiographically within the first 36 hours. Measurements included right (RVO) and left ventricular outputs (LVO), ductus arteriosus (PDA) and atrial shunt diameter using colour Doppler and pulsed Doppler direction and velocity of both shunts. Clinical variables collected over the first 24 hours included use of antenatal steroids, respiratory severity, and mean blood pressure. Cerebral ultrasound scans were reported by a radiologist blinded to clinical and echocardiographic data. RESULTS: Antenatal steroids (two doses) had been given to 73% of the 86 infants with no IVH compared with 48% of the 21 infants with grades 1 and 2 IVH, and just 10% of 10 babies with grades 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Both groups with IVH had significantly larger PDA diameters than the group with no IVH. Infants with grades 3 and 4 IVH had significantly lower RVO than the other infants. These differences were more pronounced when only infants with definite late IVH were analysed. Logistic regression analysis showed lack of antenatal steroids and larger PDA diameters were significantly associated with any grade of IVH and lack of antenatal steroids; lower RVO was significantly associated with grades 3 and 4 IVH. CONCLUSIONS: Larger early PDA shunts, lower RVO, and lack of antenatal steroids were significantly associated with IVH. PMID:8976684

  16. Tuberculous radiculomyelitis complicating tuberculous meningitis: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Albújar, S; Arribas, J R; Royo, A; González-García, J J; Peña, J M; Vázquez, J J

    2000-06-01

    Tuberculous radiculomyelitis (TBRM) is a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), which has been reported rarely in the modern medical literature. We describe a case of TBRM that developed in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient, despite prompt antituberculous treatment. To our knowledge, this is the second case of TBRM reported in an HIV-infected patient. We also review 74 previously reported cases of TBRM. TBRM develops at various periods after TBM, even in adequately treated patients after sterilization of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The most common symptoms are subacute paraparesis, radicular pain, bladder disturbance, and subsequent paralysis. CSF evaluation usually shows an active inflammatory response with a very high protein level. MRI and CT scan are critical for diagnosis, revealing loculation and obliteration of the subarachnoid space along with linear intradural enhancement. As in other forms of paradoxical reactions to antituberculous treatment, there is evidence that steroid treatment might have a beneficial effect. PMID:10854362

  17. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  18. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Information Page Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... resources from MedlinePlus What are Neurological Complications of AIDS? AIDS is primarily an immune system disorder caused ...

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Preexisting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preexisting diabetes Preexisting diabetes E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... to help prevent problems like these. Can preexisting diabetes cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If it’s not ...

  20. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  1. Intra-alveolar haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome: a cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Yukawa, N; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Green, M A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Back to Sleep" campaign in 1991 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The proportion of presumed SIDS deaths being actually suspicious deaths from airway obstruction is likely to have become relatively greater. There is usually little pathological evidence to suggest smothering, but intra-alveolar haemorrhage appears to be more prominent in cases where interference with the airway is suspected. AIM: To attempt to quantify intra-alveolar haemorrhage to see whether it could be used as a marker to distinguish between smothering/overlaying and SIDS. METHODS: Intra-alveolar haemorrhage was quantified using digital image analysis on haematoxylin/eosin stained sections taken from the lungs of 62 consecutive infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Cases were initially classified according to the original cause of death. After quantitation, the case histories were critically reviewed. Three pathologists independently made microscopic assessments of the degree of intra-alveolar haemorrhage in the first 24 cases to see whether these accurately reflected the quantitative results. RESULTS: 73% of those infants with a history suggesting possible involuntary overlaying and 45% of those with a history suspicious of smothering had significant intra-alveolar haemorrhage (> 5% of total lung surface area assessed). From the history, the cause of death in 11 cases initially classified as SIDS would better have been given as "Unascertained." Simple microscopic assessments underestimated the true extent of the haemorrhage in 33% (8/24). CONCLUSIONS: If a moderate degree (at least 5%) of pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage is observed, this may be an indicator of airway obstruction for a significant period, either from overlaying or possibly smothering. The diagnosis of SIDS may be being used inappropriately in such cases. Images PMID:10645227

  2. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466?686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandz-Dia?, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366?350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53?292), fathers with separate partners (n=47?054), sister pairs (n=97?228), brother pairs (n=91?168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177?944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total variation in liability is attributable to factors that are not shared in families. PMID:25121825

  3. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  4. Elevated Baseline C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (STASH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There remains a proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, of particular relevance in those who present with a good clinical grade. A forewarning of those at risk provides an opportunity towards more intensive monitoring, investigation, and prophylactic treatment prior to the clinical manifestation of advancing cerebral injury. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether biochemical markers sampled in the first days after the initial hemorrhage can predict poor outcome. METHODS: All patients recruited to the multicenter Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Hemorrhage Trial (STASH) were included. Baseline biochemical profiles were taken between time of ictus and day 4 post ictus. The t-test compared outcomes, and a backwards stepwise binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors providing independent prediction of an unfavorable outcome. RESULTS: Baseline biochemical data were obtained in approximately 91% of cases from 803 patients. On admission, 73% of patients were good grade (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades 1 or 2); however, 84% had a Fisher grade 3 or 4 on computed tomographic scan. For patients presenting with good grade on admission, higher levels of C-reactive protein, glucose, and white blood cells and lower levels of hematocrit, albumin, and hemoglobin were associated with poor outcome at discharge. C-reactive protein was found to be an independent predictor of outcome for patients presenting in good grade. CONCLUSION: Early recording of C-reactive protein may prove useful in detecting those good grade patients who are at greater risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome. ABBREVIATIONS: ALP, alkaline phosphatase ALT, alanine aminotransferase CK, creatine kinase CRP, C-reactive protein EVD, external ventricular drainage ICH GCP, International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for good clinical practice mRS, modified Rankin Scale SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage STASH, Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Trial WBC, white blood cells WFNS, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons PMID:26280117

  5. Transoesophageal Echocardiography Related Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, S K; Singh, Pooja

    2009-01-01

    Summary The application of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been continuously increasing over past several decades. It is usually considered a very safe diagnostic and monitoring device. Though the complications are rare, but these complications must be known to the operators performing TEE. The goal of this article is to encapsulate the potential complications associated with TEE. The complications are primarily related to gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems along with some miscellaneous problems related to probe insertion, drugs and inexperience of the operator. Strategies for the prevention of these complications are also analyzed in order to avoid the risk. PMID:20640107

  6. Central nervous system haemorrhage causing early death in acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Anna; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Pawelec, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a rare type of paediatric leukaemia characterised by a specific genetic mutation and life-threatening coagulopathy. The discovery of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which acts directly on promyelocytic locus-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) gene product, brought a revolution to the therapy of this disorder. Unfortunately, despite an improvement in the complete remission rate, the early death (ED) rate has not changed significantly, and the haemorrhages remain a major problem. The most common bleeding site, which accounts for about 65-80% of haemorrhages, is the central nervous system. Second in line are pulmonary haemorrhages (32%), while gastrointestinal bleedings are relatively rare. Haemorrhages result from thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), and systemic fibrinolysis. Herein we present a boy aged one year and nine months with APL. The patient was not eligible for ATRA administration due to poor clinical condition. He developed bleeding diathesis that presented as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and led to intracranial haemorrhage, which resulted in the patient's death. PMID:26862315

  7. Central nervous system haemorrhage causing early death in acute promyelocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borowska, Anna; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a rare type of paediatric leukaemia characterised by a specific genetic mutation and life-threatening coagulopathy. The discovery of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which acts directly on promyelocytic locus-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) gene product, brought a revolution to the therapy of this disorder. Unfortunately, despite an improvement in the complete remission rate, the early death (ED) rate has not changed significantly, and the haemorrhages remain a major problem. The most common bleeding site, which accounts for about 65-80% of haemorrhages, is the central nervous system. Second in line are pulmonary haemorrhages (32%), while gastrointestinal bleedings are relatively rare. Haemorrhages result from thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), and systemic fibrinolysis. Herein we present a boy aged one year and nine months with APL. The patient was not eligible for ATRA administration due to poor clinical condition. He developed bleeding diathesis that presented as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and led to intracranial haemorrhage, which resulted in the patient's death. PMID:26862315

  8. Clinical audit: a useful tool for reducing severe postpartum haemorrhages?

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Corinne; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Touzet, Sandrine; Colin, Cyrille; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hlne; Lansac, Jacques; Thevenet, Simone; Boberie-Moyrand, Claire; Piccin, Galle; Fernandez, Marie-Pierre; Rudigoz, Ren-Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objective Reducing the rate of severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major challenge in obstetrics today. One potentially effective tool for improving the quality of care is the clinical audit, that is, peer evaluation and comparison of actual practices against explicit criteria. Our objective was to assess the impact of regular criteria-based audits on the prevalence of severe PPH. Design Quasi-experimental before-and-after survey Setting Two French maternity units in the Rhne-Alpes region, with different organisation of care. Participants All staff of both units. Intervention Quarterly clinical audit meetings at which a team of reviewers analysed all cases of severe PPH and provided feedback on quality of care and where all staff actively participated. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the prevalence of severe PPH. Secondary outcomes included the global quality of care for women with severe PPH, including the performance rate for each recommended procedure. Differences in these variables between 2005 and 2008 were tested. Results The prevalence of severe PPH declined significantly in both units, from 1.52% to 0.96% of deliveries in the level III hospital (p=0.048) and from 2.08% to 0.57% in the level II hospital (p<0.001). From 2005 to 2008, the proportion of deliveries with severe PPH that were managed consistently with the guidelines increased for all of its main components, in both units. Conclusion Regular clinical audits of cases severe PPH were associated with a persistent reduction in the prevalence of severe PPH. PMID:21733978

  9. Dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese B encephalitis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nathin, M A; Harun, S R; Sumarmo

    1988-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first recognized in Indonesia in the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya in 1968, 15 years after its recognition in the Philippines. During the 1968 outbreak, a total of 58 clinical cases with 24 deaths were reported. The number of reported cases since then has increased sharply, with the highest number of cases recorded in the years 1973 (10,189 cases), 1983 (13,668 cases), and 1985 (13,588 cases). Outbreaks of the disease have spread to involve most of the major urban areas, as well as some of the rural areas. In 1985, the disease had spread to 26 of 27 Provinces and 160 of 300 regencies of municipalities. At present, the disease is endemic in many large cities and small towns. Interestingly, DHF has not been reported in some cities, even though dengue virus transmission rates in those cities are high. The epidemic pattern of DHF for the country as a whole has become irregular. Since 1982, the intensity and spread of DHF has created an increasing public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in Java where 60% of the total population of the country resides. Java contributed about 71% of all cases occurring in the country in 1982, 84% in 1983, and 91% in 1984. The peak monthly incidence of DHF was frequently reported during October through April, months which coincide with the rainy season. The morbidity rate for Indonesia, estimated from reported cases over five years (1981-1985), ranged between 3.39 to 8.65 per 100,000 population. The overall case fatality rate has steadily declined from 41.3% in 1968 to 3% in 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2851186

  10. Periventricular haemorrhage in very low birth weight Malaysian neonates.

    PubMed

    Boo, N Y; Ong, L C; Lye, M S; Wong, K P; Mastura, M

    1993-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, early outcome, and risk factors associated with periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) in 88 (84 per cent) of the 105 consecutive very low birth weight (VLBW) (< 1500 g) Malaysian neonates born in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Based on the cranial ultrasound findings, PVH was detected in 86 of the 88 neonates (98 per cent, 95 per cent confidence intervals: 95 to 101). Seventeen (20 per cent) of them had grade I, 52 (61 per cent) had grade II, 7 (8 per cent) had grade III and 10 (12 per cent) had grade IV PVH. PVH was detected in all the affected neonates by the fifth day of life. Sixty-four neonates (74 per cent) were symptomatic when PVH was first detected. Shock (P < 0.01), pallor (P = 0.028), low haematocrit of less than 40 per cent (P < 0.01), convulsion (P < 0.001), and bulging of anterior fontanelle (P = 0.019) were significantly more common in the neonates with severe PVH (grades III or IV). Death occurred in 43/86 (50 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval: 39-61 per cent) of the neonates with PVH before their first discharge from the hospital. Ventriculomegaly developed in 29/43 (67 per cent, 95 per cent confidence intervals: 54.4-81.4) of the survivors with PVH. Our study suggests that PVH is a common problem in the Malaysian VLBW neonates. To reduce the incidence and severity of this condition, prevention of preterm delivery and improvement in the basic facilities for neonatal care would help. PMID:8411316

  11. Postprandial Hypotension and Coma Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Patient with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Hara, Kenjyu; Nishimaki, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson's disease was admitted to our hospital because of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. She underwent clipping the next day. On postoperative days 7-9, she exhibited hypotension and disturbance of consciousness after each meal. The administration of midodrine relieved the hypotension, and postprandial coma was no longer observed. In this case, the autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and impairment of cerebral autoregulation during cerebral vasospasm may have been involved in the postprandial hypotension (PPH) and coma. PPH occurs not only in patients with Parkinson's disease but also in elderly patients, particularly those with diabetes or hypertension. Therefore, PPH must be considered in the management of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26884093

  12. Thrombin-induced TGF-β1 pathway: a cause of communicating hydrocephalus post subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Zhang, Peng; Yuan, Bin; Zhao, Dongliang; Chen, Yueqin; Zhang, Xinzhong

    2013-03-01

    The mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. Revealing a signaling cascade may provide significant insights into the molecular etiology of the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cerebral compartments during SAH. To investigate the mechanism of the communicating hydrocephalus following SAH, we infused CSF with thrombin (TH), resulting in proinflammatory and proliferative responses in rat meninges of SAH. The effect of TH could be completely blocked by a transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) inhibitor, SB-431542, suggesting that TH-stimulated proliferation of meninges is through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. The cascade of TGF β1-Smad3 was significantly upregulated by TH, which, in turn, stimulated the proliferation of subarachnoid meninges. TH-induced overexpression of TGF-β1 and activation of its downstream factors might be a mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus after SAH. PMID:23338707

  13. [A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage and left phrenic nerve paralysis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kyoko; Ohoba, Hiromi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yukihisa; Jinn, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Nobuyuki

    2011-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) in 2000 because of peripheral blood eosinophilia, eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, polyarticular pain, and limb numbness. She was treated with prednisolone (PSL), and the above symptoms improved but then relapsed on tapering of PSL. In September 2009, after 7 days of tapering of PSL to 5mg/day, the patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage and was admitted. MRA and cerebral angiography revealed no aneurysm; the source of bleeding could not be determined, but her symptoms indicated a benign course. A chest X-ray 27 days after admission showed left diaphragmatic elevation, and left phrenic nerve paralysis was diagnosed by a phrenic nerve stimulation test. Peripheral blood eosinophilia had progressed gradually during the admission period, and although it is rare for subarachnoid hemorrhage and phrenic nerve paralysis to be associated with CSS, we regarded these as vasculitis symptoms related to CSS. PMID:22073608

  14. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4 days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6 months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25854687

  15. Trends in blood pressure, osmolality and electrolytes after subarachnoid hemorrhage from aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Disney, L; Weir, B; Grace, M; Roberts, P

    1989-08-01

    Daily trends in blood pressure, osmolality and electrolytes were analyzed in a series of 173 operated aneurysm cases who had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and were admitted within 4 days of the ictus. High blood pressure was associated with a greater risk of mortality and the development of clinically significant vasospasm (VSP). High osmolality shortly after admission was related to mortality but not VSP. Changes in sodium and potassium had no obvious relationship to mortality or VSP. PMID:2766122

  16. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Presenting with Seizure due to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Mesut Emre

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leakage may commonly occur during spinal surgeries and it may cause dural tears. These tears may result in hemorrhage in the entire compartments of the brain. Most common site of such hemorrhages are the veins in the cerebellar region. We report a case of hemorrhage, mimicking aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a cerebrospinal fluid leakage following lumbar spinal surgery and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26885288

  17. Temporary trigeminal disorder as a result of pneumocephalus after subarachnoid block.

    PubMed

    Cosío, F; Bermejo-Alvarez, M A; Fervienza, P; Jiménez, L J; Castañón, E; Díaz, M L

    2003-09-01

    A patient was scheduled for inguinal herniorrhaphy under subarachnoid block. Lumbar puncture was difficult and several attempts were needed before it could be achieved. During the immediate postoperative period, the patient developed paraesthesia and anaesthesia on the right side of the face, mostly in the nose, cheek and upper lip areas. A CT scan showed a small pneumocephalus at the level of the brainstem. The symptoms persisted for approximately 70 min, after which they disappeared. PMID:12925487

  18. Leptospirosis among the self-supporting convicts of Andaman Island during the 1920s - the first report on pulmonary haemorrhage in leptospirosis?

    PubMed Central

    Vijayachari, P.; Sugunan, A.P.; Singh, S.S.; Mathur, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers had carried out investigations on the possibility of existence of Weil's disease in Andaman Islands during early 20th century. The first report of a series of confirmed cases of leptospirosis that occurred during1929 was published in 1931. There were several reports during 1995 to 2009 that described detailed account of leptospirosis including various clinical syndromes. The possibility of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis being a manifestation historically overlooked rather than newly emerged during the past two decades is examined in this review in the context of Andaman Islands. Two case series of leptospirosis, one occurred in 1929 and the other in 1996-1997 were reviewed with special emphasis on pulmonary involvement and haemorrhagic manifestations. The similarities and differences in the clinical profile of patients of the two case series were analysed. The review shows that respiratory system involvement and pulmonary haemorrhage as evidenced by presence of haemoptysis as a complication of leptospirosis was occurring during 1920s in Andaman Islands. The incidence of pulmonary involvement, however, rose from 9.4 per cent during 1929 to 52 per cent in 1996-1997. The case fatality ratio in patients with pulmonary involvement, which was 50 per cent during 1929 and 42.9 per cent during 1996-1997, was higher than that in cases without pulmonary involvement. Fever, conjunctival congestion, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatomagaly, haemoptysis, haematemesis and subconjunctival haemorrhage were common in both series. The case series in Andaman Islands in 1929 was probably the first report of pulmonary haemorrhage as a manifestation of leptospirosis. The increase in the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in the recent past is probably due to the increase in the density and diversityof its animal vectors, the broadening of the range of circulating serovars and the interactions between the vector and the agent. An increased virulence of Leptospira through gene acquisition and loss on an evolutionary time scale and the resulting change in the gene content, gene order and gene expression cannot be ruled out. PMID:26261162

  19. Diagnostic yield and accuracy of CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography for detection of macrovascular causes of intracerebral haemorrhage: prospective, multicentre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Velthuis, Birgitta K; Rinkel, Gabriël J E; Algra, Ale; de Kort, Gérard A P; Witkamp, Theo D; de Ridder, Johanna C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Schonewille, Wouter J; de Kort, Paul L M; Dippel, Diederik W; Raaymakers, Theodora W M; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Wermer, Marieke J H; Kerkhoff, Henk; Jellema, Korné; Bronner, Irene M; Remmers, Michel J M; Bienfait, Henri Paul; Witjes, Ron J G M; Greving, Jacoba P; Klijn, Catharina J M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What are the diagnostic yield and accuracy of early computed tomography (CT) angiography followed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage? Methods This prospective diagnostic study enrolled 298 adults (18-70 years) treated in 22 hospitals in the Netherlands over six years. CT angiography was performed within seven days of haemorrhage. If the result was negative, MRI/MRA was performed four to eight weeks later. DSA was performed when the CT angiography or MRI/MRA results were inconclusive or negative. The main outcome was a macrovascular cause, including arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm, dural arteriovenous fistula, and cavernoma. Three blinded neuroradiologists independently evaluated the images for macrovascular causes of haemorrhage. The reference standard was the best available evidence from all findings during one year’s follow-up. Study answer and limitations A macrovascular cause was identified in 69 patients (23%). 291 patients (98%) underwent CT angiography; 214 with a negative result underwent additional MRI/MRA and 97 with a negative result for both CT angiography and MRI/MRA underwent DSA. Early CT angiography detected 51 macrovascular causes (yield 17%, 95% confidence interval 13% to 22%). CT angiography with MRI/MRA identified two additional macrovascular causes (18%, 14% to 23%) and these modalities combined with DSA another 15 (23%, 18% to 28%). This last extensive strategy failed to detect a cavernoma, which was identified on MRI during follow-up (reference strategy). The positive predictive value of CT angiography was 72% (60% to 82%), of additional MRI/MRA was 35% (14% to 62%), and of additional DSA was 100% (75% to 100%). None of the patients experienced complications with CT angiography or MRI/MRA; 0.6% of patients who underwent DSA experienced permanent sequelae. Not all patients with negative CT angiography and MRI/MRA results underwent DSA. Although the previous probability of finding a macrovascular cause was lower in patients who did not undergo DSA, some small arteriovenous malformations or dural arteriovenous fistulas may have been missed. What this study adds CT angiography is an appropriate initial investigation to detect macrovascular causes of non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage, but accuracy is modest. Additional MRI/MRA may find cavernomas or alternative diagnoses, but DSA is needed to diagnose macrovascular causes undetected by CT angiography or MRI/MRA. Funding, competing interests, data sharing Dutch Heart Foundation and The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, ZonMw. The authors have no competing interests. Direct requests for additional data to the corresponding author. PMID:26553142

  20. Hyaline membrane disease and intraventricular haemorrhage in small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed Central

    Procianoy, R S; Garcia-Prats, J A; Adams, J M; Silvers, A; Rudolph, A J

    1980-01-01

    19 small for gestational age (SGA) infants with gestational ages less than or equal to 32 weeks were matched with 19 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm neonates with similar risk factors for intraventricular haemorrhage and hyaline membrane disease. Gestational age, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, type of delivery, survival rate, use of corticosteroids before delivery, sex, twinning, presence of premature rupture of membranes, and birth date were comparable in the two groups. Gestational age of both groups was 30 (+/- 1.8) weeks, and birthweights were 919 (+/- 202) g (SGA group) and 1268 (+/- 212) g (AGA group). The incidences of hyaline membrane disease and intraventricular haemorrhage were different: 74 and 42% respectively for AGA neonates, 5 and 11% respectively for SGA infants. We suggest that a stressful environment in utero may enhance maturation and prevent hyaline membrane disease and intraventricular haemorrhage. PMID:7436499

  1. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zare and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area. PMID:2559514

  2. Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhages (SICHs). Clinical and CT features; immediate evaluation of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hungerbühler, M D; Regli, M D; Van Melle, P D; Bogousslavsky, M D

    1983-01-01

    108 cases of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhages (SICHs) are reviewed. Over 50% were in a mild condition on admission. 31% could not be accurately diagnosed as SICHs before CT. Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) was observed in 38%. 36% of cases died during the first month and 13 patients died during the follow-up period. At the time of the follow-up or of death 66% of cases had a fair recovery. Level of consciousness predicted both mortality and functional recovery. Degree of initial neurologic deficit (IND) was correlated with functional recovery, not significantly with immediate mortality. CT images revealed that mortality and functional recovery were significantly correlated with size and location of SICHs as well as with the occurrence of an IVH involving two or more ventricles. Effects of intraparenchymatous haemorrhage and IVH upon mortality were additional. Casting of the third ventricle was indicative of poor outcome. PMID:6857161

  3. Mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fevers of South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Halstead, S B

    1966-01-01

    During the past decade outbreaks of a severe haemorrhagic disease caused by dengue viruses of multiple types have been reported in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Viet-Nam and eastern India. In many of these outbreaks chikungunya virus, a group A arbovirus, was simultaneously the cause of similar but probably milder disease. Both these viruses appear to be able to be able to produce classical dengue fever in some individuals and disease with haemorrhagic manifestations in others. Because of the growing public health importance and the progressive spread of this disease a unified review of its clinical and epidemiological features has been needed. This paper presents the history and salient clinical features of mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fever and summarizes recent epidemiological studies and current diagnostic and control methods. PMID:5297536

  4. Spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: a rare cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Sivarajah, Surendra; Fiscus, Valena; York, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, flank pain with nausea and no history of preceding trauma. The patient had finished a course of azithromycin and oral methylprednisolone 1 day prior to presentation. Abdominal and pelvic CT scan identified changes suggestive of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The patient did not show signs of acute adrenal insufficiency but was started on steroid replacement therapy because of concerns about possible disease progression. All recognised causes of adrenal haemorrhage were excluded suggesting this was a case of spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, a rarely reported phenomenon in the literature. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement following 6 days in hospital, taking oral steroid replacement. PMID:27166002

  5. Dengue type 1 epidemic with haemorrhagic manifestations in Fiji, 1989-90.

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, A. H.; Mataika, J. U.; Shrestha, M.; Gubler, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A dengue type 1 epidemic occurred in Fiji between July 1989 and July 1990. Virus isolation in C6/36 cell cultures and Toxorhynchites mosquitos yielded 36 strains. Of the 3686 cases recorded by the Ministry of Health, 60% involved indigenous Fijians and 37%, Indians. A house-to-house survey revealed that a large majority of patients had classical dengue symptoms and 8% reported haemorrhagic manifestations. Among the children and adults hospitalized for dengue, 43% had haemorrhagic manifestations, including epistaxis, gingival bleeding, haematemesis, melaena and haematuria. A total of 15 patients with haemorrhagic manifestations and/or shock died, 10 of whom were aged 0-15 years; the diagnoses were confirmed in four cases by virus isolation or serology. PMID:7614660

  6. Complications of Elbow Trauma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Emilie V; Sarkissian, Eric J

    2015-11-01

    The elbow is a highly congruent trochoginglymoid joint allowing motion in both flexion-extension and pronosupination across 3 articulations. Therefore, treatment of fractures of the elbow can be technically challenging to manage, even after initial surgery. The posttraumatic elbow is prone to complications such as stiffness associated with heterotopic ossification, instability or subluxation (posterolateral rotatory instability and varus posteromedial instability patterns), and wound complications. This article discusses the pathoanatomy, prevention, and treatment of these complications. PMID:26498555

  7. Complications of Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Anjeni; Peters, Anju T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic rhinitis involves inflammation of the upper airways. An association with comorbid conditions, such as rhinosinusitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has been commonly observed in epidemiologic studies. The underlying pathogenesis of these disorders may be similar. Complications of rhinitis include sleep disturbances, learning impairment, and decreased quality of life. It is vital to recognize the complications of rhinitis so that treatment strategies can address rhinitis as well as its comorbidities and complications in a coordinated manner. PMID:27083108

  8. Complicated Perianal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Abhishek; Yadav, Amitabh; Mehta, Naimish; Varma, Vibha; Kumaran, Vinay; Nundy, Samiran

    2015-12-01

    Management of benign anorectal conditions like abscesses and haemorrhoids is usually uneventful. However, complicated perianal complications can result and have sparsely been reported in literature. Hereby, we report a series of seven patients who presented with rare sequelae like necrotising fasciitis, intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal involvement. All patients responded well to surgical management. Accordingly, complicated perianal sepsis warrants a timely and aggressive surgical intervention. PMID:27011454

  9. Microvascular complications of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cypress, Marjorie; Tomky, Donna

    2006-12-01

    The microvascular complications of diabetes are serious, and can be life threatening. They involve injury to the blood vessels in the retina, kidney, nervous system, gingiva, and skin. Controlling the risk factors for microvascular complications involves controlling glucose level, blood pressure, and lipids, along with healthy lifestyle changes. Early identification of these complications can promote early interventions and prevent of slow progression of these diseases. Nurses can play a major role through patient care and self-management education. PMID:17059984

  10. Facial Filler Complications.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julie; Khan, Tanya; Martin, John

    2015-11-01

    The use of facial fillers has greatly expanded over the past several years. Along with increased use comes a rise in documented complications, ranging from poor cosmetic result to nodules, granulomas, necrosis, and blindness. Awareness of the potential types of complications and options for management, in addition to the underlying facial anatomy, are imperative to delivering the best patient care. This article defines the complications and how to treat them and provides suggestions to avoid serious adverse outcomes. PMID:26505541

  11. Complications of Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve ending. Some patients notice temporary improvement with oral corticosteroids; however, others may not experience any improvement. Mucocele A mucocele is a complication of sinusitis caused ...

  12. Lung Cancer Ablation: Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Ishii, Hiroaki; Tomita, Koji; Uka, Mayu; Makimoto, Satoko; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Although radiofrequency ablation for lung cancer is generally safe (with a mortality rate <1%), it may cause various complications. Common complications include pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and parenchymal hemorrhage. Although most complications can be treated conservatively or with minimal therapy, physicians should be aware of rare but serious complications. Potentially fatal complications include massive hemorrhage, intractable pneumothorax due to bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm, systemic air embolism, and pneumonitis. Other serious complications include injury to the nearby tissues (e.g., brachial nerve plexus, phrenic nerve, diaphragm, and chest wall), needle tract seeding, lung abscess, empyema, and skin burn. Although cavitation of the ablation zone is usually insignificant clinically, such a cavity occasionally ruptures, leading to pneumothorax and bleeding. Cavities may also serve as a scaffold for fungal colonization. Precautions to minimize risk should be taken whenever possible. Nevertheless, serious complications may occur, and thus physicians should be aware of the appropriate treatments for these complications. This article reviews complications associated with lung cancer ablation. PMID:24436533

  13. Complications of nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il

    2011-08-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect children. Renal histology reveals the presence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in more than 80% of these patients. Most patients with MCNS have favorable outcomes without complications. However, a few of these children have lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, suffer from severe and prolonged proteinuria, and are at high risk for complications. Complications of NS are divided into two categories: disease-associated and drug-related complications. Disease-associated complications include infections (e.g., peritonitis, sepsis, cellulitis, and chicken pox), thromboembolism (e.g., venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism), hypovolemic crisis (e.g., abdominal pain, tachycardia, and hypotension), cardiovascular problems (e.g., hyperlipidemia), acute renal failure, anemia, and others (e.g., hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, bone disease, and intussusception). The main pathomechanism of disease-associated complications originates from the large loss of plasma proteins in the urine of nephrotic children. The majority of children with MCNS who respond to treatment with corticosteroids or cytotoxic agents have smaller and milder complications than those with steroid-resistant NS. Corticosteroids, alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, and mycophenolate mofetil have often been used to treat NS, and these drugs have treatment-related complications. Early detection and appropriate treatment of these complications will improve outcomes for patients with NS. PMID:22087198

  14. Effects of Prophylactic Antiepileptic Drugs on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with a Good Clinical Grade Suffering from Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon Jin; Joo, Jin-Yang; Kim, Yong Bae; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Routine use of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AED) has been debated. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of prophylactic AED on clinical outcomes in patients with a good clinical grade suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Materials and Methods Between September 2012 and December 2014, 84 patients who met the following criteria were included: (1) presence of a ruptured aneurysm; (2) Hunt-Hess grade 1, 2, or 3; and (3) without seizure presentation. Patients were divided into two groups; the AED group (n = 44) and the no AED group (n = 40). Clinical data and outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results Prophylactic AEDs were used more frequently in patients who underwent microsurgery (84.1%) compared to those who underwent endovascular surgery (15.9%, p < 0.001). Regardless of prophylactic AED use, seizure episodes were not observed during the six-month follow-up period. No statistical difference in clinical outcomes at discharge (p = 0.607) and after six months of follow-up (p = 0.178) were between the two groups. After six months, however, favorable outcomes in the no AED group tended to increase and poor outcomes tended to decrease. Conclusion No difference in the clinical outcomes and systemic complications at discharge and after six months of follow-up was observed between the two groups. However, favorable outcomes in the no AED group showed a slight increase after six months. These findings suggest that discontinuation of the current practice of using prophylactic AED might be recommended in patients with a good clinical grade. PMID:26526008

  15. Use of cervical spinal cord stimulation in treatment and prevention of arterial vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Technical details.

    PubMed

    Slavin, K V; Vannemreddy, P S S V; Goellner, E; Alaraj, A M; Aydin, S; Eboli, P; Mlinarevich, N; Watson, K S; Walters, L E; Amin-Hanjani, S; Deveshwar, R; Aletich, V; Charbel, F T

    2011-03-29

    Based on past laboratory and anecdotal clinical experience, we hypothesized that prolonged cervical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the acute settings of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) would be both safe and feasible, and that 2-week stimulation will reduce incidence of cerebral arterial vasospasm. The goal of our clinical study was to establish feasibility and safety of cervical SCS in a small group of selected aSAH patients. Single-arm non-randomized prospective study of cSCS in aSAH patients involved percutaneous implantation of 8-contact electrode in 12 consecutive aSAH patients that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. The electrode insertion was performed immediately upon surgical or endovascular securing of the ruptured aneurysm while the patient was still under general anesthesia. Patients were stimulated for 14 consecutive days or until discharge. There were no complications related to the electrode insertion or to SCS during the study and no long-term side effects of SCS during 1-year follow-up. There was 1 unrelated death and two electrode pullouts. This article summarizes technical details of SCS electrode insertion and the stimulation parameters used in the research study. Our study of SCS for prevention of vasospasm after aSAH conclusively shows both safety and feasibility of this promising treatment approach. Despite high level of acuity in aSAH patients, impaired level of consciousness, frequent patient re-positioning, need in multiple tests and variety of monitors, SCS electrodes may be safely implanted and maintained for the two-week period. Long-term follow up shows no adverse effects of cervical SCS in this patient category. PMID:24059581

  16. Association between circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme and exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Costa, M F M; Ronchi, F A; Ivanow, A; Carmona, A K; Casarini, D; Slocombe, R F

    2012-10-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage has an impact on racehorse performance. Although endoscopic diagnosis (with or without the aid of bronchoalveolar lavage) is considered to be the standard diagnostic method for this condition, the use of biomarkers that could aid in quantifying risk and severity of the condition would represent an advance in equine sport medicine. This preliminary research investigated the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in plasma of racehorses and demonstrated that ACE activity is increased in horses with higher degrees of haemorrhage and is a promising biomarker for EIPH in racehorses. PMID:22196974

  17. Advances in transfusion science for shock-trauma: Optimising the clinical management of acute haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    The primary resuscitation of severely injured patients, acute haemorrhage and shock-trauma has been well reported in the literature. Resuscitation protocols include the use of diverse agents such as fresh whole blood [FWB], packed red blood cells [PRBCs], reconstituted blood products, fresh frozen plasma [FFP] and its derivative concentrates or recombinant products, volume expanders and tranexamic acid [TXA]. The reasonably prudent use of these agents and products is necessary to reverse risk factors of haemorrhagic shock such as haemodilution, hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. Addressing the mechanisms of haemoregulation in the pathophysiology of DIC is important to optimise transfusion practice. PMID:26653928

  18. Violence is not necessary to produce subdural and retinal haemorrhage: a reply to Punt et al.

    PubMed

    Geddes, J F; Tasker, R C; Adams, G G W; Whitwell, H L

    2004-01-01

    In this article we reply to the recent critique by Punt et al. in Pediatric Rehabilitation. Our hypothesis about the pathogenesis of intracranial bleeding in infants has three important implications. First, in the case of an infant with a swollen brain, subdural and retinal haemorrhage but no objective evidence of trauma, the findings by themselves are not certain evidence of abuse; second, violence is not necessary to produce subdural and retinal haemorrhage; and lastly, non-traumatic events producing apnoea with a catastrophic rise in intracranial pressure could produce a clinical picture identical to that seen in trauma. PMID:15513769

  19. Infrequent Hemorrhagic Complications Following Surgical Drainage of Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Simone; Bifone, Lidia; Balbi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas mainly occur amongst elderly people and usually develop after minor head injuries. In younger patients, subdural collections may be related to hypertension, coagulopathies, vascular abnormalities, and substance abuse. Different techniques can be used for the surgical treatment of symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas : single or double burr-hole evacuation, with or without subdural drainage, twist-drill craniostomies and classical craniotomies. Failure of the brain to re-expand, pneumocephalus, incomplete evacuation, and recurrence of the fluid collection are common complications following these procedures. Acute subdural hematomas may also occur. Rarely reported hemorrhagic complications include subarachnoid, intracerebral, intraventricular, and remote cerebellar hemorrhages. The causes of such uncommon complications are difficult to explain and remain poorly understood. Overdrainage and intracranial hypotension, rapid brain decompression and shift of the intracranial contents, cerebrospinal fluid loss, vascular dysregulation and impairment of venous outflow are the main mechanisms discussed in the literature. In this article we report three cases of different post-operative intracranial bleeding and review the related literature. PMID:26113968

  20. [On the miliary intracranial aneurysm --its significance in subarachnoid hemorrhage (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Y; Ando, E

    1976-09-01

    Clinical use of four-vessels angiography increased the frequency of detection of intracranial aneurysm in patients who had episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, some cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage did not show intracranial and intraspinal source of bleeding angiographically. Bjökesten and Troupp pointed out that some cases who were negative in angiography may have a very small intracranial aneurysm. Hassler described the minute aneurysm sized less than 2 mm in diameter from finding autpsy of the cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage and he emphasized that source of subarachnoid hemorrhage in tow cases were ruptured minute aneurysm. From the authors' experiences of ten very small intracranial aneurysms, the authors' advocated a name of miliary intracranial aneurysm in clinical practice. The author's criteria of the miliary intracranial aneurysm are as follows: (1) the miliary aneurysm grew from the wall of main trunk of intracranial artery, (2) the maximum diameter and height of protrusion of the miliary intracranial aneurysm are less than the diameter of parent artery. Ten miliary intracranial aneurysms are divided into two groups, one is the miliary intracranial aneurysm which is source of subarachnoid hemorrhage and the other is an accessory aneurysm bedise the another ruptured main aneurysm. These two groups were 5 aneurysms respectively. The majority of the accessory miliary intracranial aneurysms were observed in middle cerebral artery but the ruptured miliary intracranial aneurysms were observed in internal carotid artery, anterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery. When the clinical symptom occurred at the time of rupture of miliary intracranial aneurysm compare with the one by rupture of usual major intracranial aneurysm, clinical symptom due to meningeal irritation was not different with each other but disturbance of consciousness and other neurological symptom were slight in miliary intracranial aneurysm cases. Angiographic diagnosis of miliary intracranial aneurysm is difficult, because differentiation of the miliary intracranial aneurysm from the loop or angulation of small artery is difficult in routine angiogram. In the case who showed questionable shadow as miliary intracranial aneurysm, the repeated angiography under modified direction of X-ray and modified head position of patient is required. The magnification cerebral angiography of three fold is also useful in diagnosis of miliary intracranial aneurysm. The intracranial treatment of miliary intracranial aneurysms were done by coating except one case whose aneurysm was clipped. PMID:988491

  1. Complications of Transjugular Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Navuluri, Rakesh; Ahmed, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Transvenous biopsy was first performed in 1964 by Charles Dotter. Now routinely performed in the liver and kidney by interventional radiologists, the transjugular approach to biopsy has assumed a central role in coagulopathic patients. Major arterial complications from transjugular liver and renal biopsy are rare. In this article, the authors describe such complications in both organs that necessitated selective endovascular coil embolization. PMID:25762847

  2. COMPLICATIONS IN HIP ARTHROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Marcos Emílio Kuschnaroff; Hoffmann, Rafael Barreiros; de Araújo, Lúcio Cappelli Toledo; Dani, William Sotau; José Berral, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of complications in a series of consecutive cases of hip arthroscopy; to assess the progression of the sample through a learning curve; and to recognize the causes of complications in arthroscopic hip operations. Method: 150 consecutive cases that underwent hip arthroscopy between May 2004 and December 2008 were evaluated. The complications encountered were classified in three ways: organic system affected, severity and groups of 50 consecutive cases. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Results: We observed 15 complications in this study (10%): ten were neurological, two were osteoarticular, one was vascular-ischemic and two were cutaneous. In the classification of severity, three were classified as major, 12 as intermediate and none as minor. The incidence of complications over the course of the learning curve did not present any statistically significant difference (p = 0.16). Conclusions: Hip arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that involves low morbidity, but which presents complications in some cases. These complications are frequently neurological and transitory, and mainly occur because of joint traction. The complication rate did not decrease with progression of our sample. PMID:27022521

  3. [Complications in thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C P; Raffaelli, M; De Crea, C; Traini, E; Oragano, L; Sollazzi, L; Bellantone, R

    2007-10-01

    Thyroidectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedure worldwide, even if the risks of lethal postoperative complications prevented its evolution and diffusion until the beginning of the XX century. At that time, T. Kocher described his meticulous technique, reporting excellent results in terms of mortality and morbidity. At present, mortality for this procedure approaches 0% and overall complication rate is less than 3%. Nonetheless, major complications of thyroidectomy (i.e. compressive hematoma, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism) are still fearful complications and account for a significant percentage of medico-legal claims. Patients volume and surgical skill play an important role in reducing the risk of complications. Accurate knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology, complications incidence and pathogenesis and a careful surgical performance are essential. In this review, post-thyroidectomy complications basing on literature analysis and personal experience are described. The main anatomical, technical and pathophysiological factors that help preventing post-thyroidectomy complications are analyzed, taking into proper account new technologies and the minimally invasive surgical procedures that influenced thyroid surgery during the last decade. PMID:17947950

  4. [Complications of patient positioning].

    PubMed

    Staender, S

    1995-01-01

    Complications related to wrong or improper perioperative positioning are preventable events. Nevertheless patients may suffer from these complications much more than from the original pathology. In a short review a focus is set on the prone and supine position. Finally remarks for prevention are added. PMID:8590298

  5. Anorexia nervosa - medical complications.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Philip S; Brown, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other mental health disorders, eating disorders have a high prevalence of concomitant medical complications. Specifically, patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) have a litany of medical complications which are commonly present as part of their eating disorders. Almost every body system can be adversely, affected by this state of progressive malnutrition. Moreover, some of the complications can have permanent adverse effects even after there is a successful program of nutritional rehabilitation and weight restoration. Within this article we will review all body systems affected by AN. There is also salient information about both, how to diagnose these medical complications and which are the likely ones to result in permanent sequelae if not diagnosed and addressed early in the course of AN. In a subsequent article, the definitive medical treatment for these complications will be presented in a clinically practical manner. PMID:25834735

  6. Coma from wall suction-induced CSF leak complicating spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fehnel, Corey R; Razmara, Ali; Feske, Steven K

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman was admitted for elective L4/L5 laminectomy. The operative procedure was extradural, and a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain was placed in the tissue bed and set to wall suction during skin closure. During closure, the patient developed a 15 s period of asystole. The patient was haemodynamically stable, but was comatose for 3 days postoperatively. Cardiac enzymes and EEG were unrevealing. Head CT showed traces of subarachnoid haemorrhage and signs suggestive of cerebral anoxia. JP drain at the incision produced 170–210 mL/day of fluid, positive for β-2 transferrin, indicating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient fully returned to baseline on hospital day 10. MRI on hospital day 8 normalised. The reversible coma and radiographic findings were most consistent with acute intracranial hypotension relating to acute loss of CSF. Because radiographic findings can mimic hypoxic-ischaemic injury, acute intracranial hypotension should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postoperative coma after cranial or spinal surgery. PMID:24623547

  7. Delayed postpartum haemorrhage secondary to a ruptured uterine artery pseudo-aneurysm, successfully treated by transarterial embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Moatti, Zoe; Nisner, Tamar; Saini, Ashish; Karoshi, Mahantesh

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman (gravida 1, para 1) had an uneventful first pregnancy and a delivery by emergency caesarean section at term. The caesarean section was complicated by a massive obstetric haemorrhage of 5000 ml. After closure, an immediate re-laparotomy was indicated due to heavy vaginal bleeding. The site of bleeding was identified as an extension of the uterine incision, and was sutured. She was stabilised by transfusion of blood and blood products in the intensive therapy unit, and discharged 5 days later. The patient was re-admitted 6 weeks later with brisk, painless vaginal bleeding, passing large clots from a well-contracted uterus. Her haemoglobin decreased from 11.8 to 7.8 g/dl overnight. In view of her history, an urgent CT angiogram was performed, which revealed the presence of a pseudo-aneurysm arising from the left uterine artery. This was successfully occluded by transarterial embolisation, obviating the need for further surgical exploration. PMID:22674937

  8. Modelling impact-initiated wave transmission through lung parenchyma in relation to the aetiology of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schroter, R C; Leeming, A; Denny, E; Bharath, A; Marlin, D J

    1999-07-01

    Recently we proposed that exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) results from locomotory-impact-induced trauma by impact of the scapula on the chest wall during footfall and the consequent transmission of waves through the lung. A computational model has been developed to demonstrate that wave amplification and focusing occur in the dorsocaudal tip of the lung for waves originating on the anterior subscapular surface. The propagation of an acoustic wave was investigated in a simplified 2-dimensional representation of a vertical anterio-dorsal section of horse lung. It was demonstrated that a complicated pattern of waves is transmitted from the scapula to the dorsal region. Wave motion was characterised using the instantaneous rate of change of pressure with time (dp/dt) which is associated with lung injury. Due to wave reflection and focusing, dp/dt is transiently very high on the spinal and diaphragmatic lung walls, particularly in the vicinity of the dorsal tip. The model therefore predicts that lung injury may occur in the region in which EIPH is reported to originate. PMID:10659218

  9. Specific cancer rates may differ in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, affects ~1 in 5,000, and causes multi-systemic vascular lesions and life-limiting complications. Life expectancy is surprisingly good, particularly for patients over 60ys. We hypothesised that individuals with HHT may be protected against life-limiting cancers. Methods To compare specific cancer rates in HHT patients and controls, we developed a questionnaire capturing data on multiple relatives per respondent, powered to detect differences in the four most common solid non skin cancers (breast, colorectal, lung and prostate), each associated with significant mortality. Blinded to cancer responses, reports of HHT-specific features allowed assignment of participants and relatives as HHT-subjects, unknowns, or controls. Logistic and quadratic regressions were used to compare rates of specific cancer types between HHT subjects and controls. Results 1,307 participants completed the questionnaire including 1,007 HHT-subjects and 142 controls. The rigorous HHT diagnostic algorithm meant that 158 (12%) completed datasets were not assignable either to HHT or control status. For cancers predominantly recognised as primary cancers, the rates in the controls generally matched age-standardised rates for the general population. HHT subjects recruited through the survey had similar demographics to controls, although the HHT group reported a significantly greater smoking habit. Combining data of participants and uniquely-reported relatives resulted in an HHT-arm of 2,161 (58% female), and control-arm of 2,817 (52% female), with median ages of 66ys [IQR 53–77] and 77ys [IQR 65–82] respectively. In both crude and age-adjusted regression, lung cancers were significantly less frequent in the HHT arm than controls (age-adjusted odds ratio 0.48 [0.30, 0.70], p = 0.0012). Breast cancer prevalence was higher in HHT than controls (age-adjusted OR 1.52 [1.07, 2.14], p = 0.018). Overall, prostate and colorectal cancer rates were equivalent, but the pattern of colorectal cancer was modified, with a higher prevalence in younger HHT patients than controls. Conclusions These preliminary survey data suggest clinically significant differences in the rates of lung, breast and colorectal cancer in HHT patients compared to controls. For rare diseases in which longitudinal studies take decades to recruit equivalent datasets, this type of methodology provides a good first-step method for data collection. PMID:24354965

  10. Complications of glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christina; Westphal, Manfred; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Even with current advances in adjunctive therapies, including radiation, chemotherapy, and various clinical trials of gene therapy and immunotherapy, surgical resection remains one of the most effective treatment for intra-axial gliomas. Survival in these patients has been shown to be related to the extent of resection. In some cases, it can provide cures of long-term remission; in others, it can provide disease control when combined with the above adjunctive treatments. However, surgical resection carries its own risks and complications. These complications can be broadly divided into neurologic, regional, and systemic, including direct cortical and vascular injury, surgical wound complications, and postsurgical medical complications. Certain patient characteristics, including Karnofsky performance status score (KPS) and pathology of the tumor, have been shown to have an impact on the risk of postsurgical complications. Advancement in preoperative and intraoperative adjunct technology such as cortical mapping and navigation has improved the surgeon's ability to safely and maximally resect the tumors. It is therefore important to understand the perioperative complications after craniotomy and tumor resection and factors affecting morbidity and mortality in order for surgeons to optimally select and counsel patients who will benefit the most from surgical resection. This chapter will focus on the complications associated with craniotomy for intrinsic glioma and ways of avoiding these events. PMID:26948356

  11. Nosocomial infection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Shayesteh, Majid; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Rasi Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever occurred in the county of Birjand in eastern Iran in November 2011. Four cases were involved in this outbreak. Two patients died after admission to hospital, one of whom was a nurse who acquired the infection nosocomially, and the others were treated successfully. PMID:23266037

  12. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  13. Superselective embolization in an errosive haemorrhage of a carcinoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Feifel, H; Volle, E; Riediger, D; Gustorf-Aeckerle, R

    1991-12-01

    Haemorrhage due to errosion of blood vessels in tumors of the head and neck are a dramatic event. Superselective embolization plays an important role in the treatment of these entities. A therapeutic approach and method of embolization is described. PMID:1770245

  14. Feasibility of electrical impedance tomography in haemorrhagic stroke treatment using adaptive mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J.; Anderson, C.; Jin, C.; van Schaik, A.; Holder, D.; McEwan, A.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been proposed for acute stroke differentiation, specifically to determine the type of stroke, either ischaemia (clot) or haemorrhage (bleed) to allow the rapid use of clot-busting drugs in the former (Romsauerova et al 2006) . This addresses an important medical need, although there is little treatment offered in the case of haemorrhage. Also the demands on EIT are high with usually no availability to take a 'before' measurement, ruling out time difference imaging. Recently a new treatment option for haemorrhage has been proposed and is being studied in international randomised controlled trial: the early reduction of elevated blood pressure to attenuate the haematoma. This has been shown via CT to reduce bleeds by up to 1mL by Anderson et al 2008. The use of EIT as a continuous measure is desirable here to monitor the effect of blood pressure reduction. A 1mL increase of haemorrhagic lesion located near scalp on the right side of head caused a boundary voltage change of less than 0.05% at 50 kHz. This could be visually observed in a time difference 3D reconstruction with no change in electrode positions, mesh, background conductivity or drift when baseline noise was less than 0.005% but not when noise was increased to 0.01%. This useful result informs us that the EIT system must have noise of less than 0.005% at 50 kHz including instrumentation, physiological and other biases.

  15. Acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis localised to the brainstem and cerebellum: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Jean; Helle, Todd L

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis localised to the brainstem and cerebellum are reported. One followed the insertion of a ventriculoatrial shunt and the other an upper respiratory tract infection. The rare previously reported cases of this condition involving mainly the posterior fossa structures are reviewed. Images PMID:7069428

  16. Pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography of operated primary pontine haemorrhage with long survival: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kowada, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Ito, Z.; Matsuoka, S.

    1972-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography has been carried out in two cases of primary pontine haemorrhage with long survival. A pontine or cerebellar atrophy was revealed in case 1, in whom an intrapontine haematoma was removed. A markedly hollowed pons on the affected side has been demonstrated nearly five months after ventriculoatrial shunting in case 2. Images PMID:4537661

  17. Bilateral subhyaloid haemorrhage in a conscious patient: a new spectrum of ocular involvement by Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Nasar; Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with a history of high-grade fever with rigours since 3 days and bilateral sudden loss of vision since 6 h. She was conscious, oriented and her vitals were stable. She had a temperature of 101°F, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, normal white cell count and moderate splenomegaly. On testing visual activity, she could only perceive hand movements although her pupils were bilaterally equal, and normal in size and reaction. On indirect ophthalmoscopy, optic discs were normal bilaterally; however, fovea of both eyes was masked by subhyaloid haemorrhage. Peripheral smear showed gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The patient was started on arteminsinin-combined therapy and advised to be in propped-up position to help resolution of the haemorrhage. The patient was afebrile in 4 days and follow-up fundus examination showed gradual resolution of the haemorrhage. After two months, the patient regained normal visual acuity in both eyes; however, it took nearly 3 months for complete resolution of the haemorrhage. PMID:24862605

  18. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  19. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. PMID:25380792

  20. Complicated migraine: case report.

    PubMed

    Meco, G; Bozzao, L; Formisano, R; Del Castillo, G; Linfante, I

    1988-06-01

    The occurrence of long lasting focal neurological deficit as a complication of migraine is well known. A high incidence of C.T. scan abnormalities have been seen in subjects affected by severe complicated migraine; in some cases such lesions had the aspect of cerebral infarction. In this report we will relate case of a 29 year old woman with complicated migraine and multifocal suffering within the area of the hind brain circulation. The hypodense area we found with C.T. in the left cerebellar hemisphere and the reversibility of this lesion could support the hypothesis of focal edema in our case. PMID:3042690

  1. Complications Following Radical Nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jay D; Jafri, Syed M

    2016-05-01

    Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is the gold standard treatment strategy for bulky, high-grade, or muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Many patients with UTUC who require RNU are elderly, comorbid, and at risk for perioperative complications. Recognition of likelihood and extent of such complications guides preoperative counseling, decision-making process for major surgery, and perioperative care. A critical review of such data is essential, given the inevitable impact of complications on hospital duration, need for readmission, resource utilization, and costs associated with management. PMID:26968416

  2. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Risk Modeling Study for Individual Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-02-01

    The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT.The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT.In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database.The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity.The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824-0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively.Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were independent risk factors of poor outcome for elderly aSAH patients underwent EVT. In combination with these risk factors, the Changhai score can be a useful tool in the prediction of clinical outcome but needs to be validated in various centers before it can be recommended for application. PMID:26886607

  3. Intracisternal naloxone and cardiac nerve blockade prevent vasodilatation during simulated haemorrhage in awake rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R G; Ludbrook, J; Potocnik, S J

    1989-01-01

    1. Acute haemorrhage was simulated in five unanaesthetized rabbits, by inflating a cuff on the inferior vena cava so that cardiac output fell by 8.3% of its resting level per minute. Simulated haemorrhage was performed after sham treatment, after graded doses of intravenous and intracisternal naloxone, and after cardiac nerve blockade with intrapericardial procaine. 2. After sham treatment, the haemodynamic response to simulated haemorrhage was biphasic. During the first phase, systemic vascular conductance fell steadily, heart rate rose steadily, and arterial pressure fell only slightly. A second decompensatory phase began abruptly when cardiac output had fallen to approximately 55% of its resting level. Vascular conductance rose steeply, heart rate fell slowly, and arterial pressure fell precipitately. 3. Treatment with naloxone (intravenous, 0.04-0.4 mg kg-1; intracisternal, 0.2-2 micrograms kg-1) did not affect either phase of the haemodynamic response to simulated haemorrhage. 4. After treatment with larger doses of naloxone (intravenous, 4-8 mg kg-1; intracisternal, 4-69 micrograms kg-1), the first phase was unaffected, but the second phase no longer occurred. Throughout simulated haemorrhage, systemic vascular conductance fell steadily, heart rate rose, and arterial pressure was well maintained. The dose of intracisternal naloxone which prevented the second phase was 90-900 times less than the corresponding intravenous dose. The second phase was also prevented by cardiac nerve blockade. 5. We conclude that an endogenous opiate mechanism is responsible for the haemodynamic decompensation that occurs when cardiac output falls to a critical level. The mechanism is located within the central nervous system. It is triggered by a signal from the heart. PMID:2585286

  4. Intrathecal Opioid-Induced Hypothermia Following Subarachnoid Block With Morphine Injection for Elective Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mach, John; Van Havel, Teresa; Gadwood, John; Biegner, M Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Opioids have been administered intrathecally with subarachnoid block for postoperative pain relief in parturients undergoing elective cesarean deliveries. This case report presents the uncommon occurrence of intrathecal opioid-induced hypothermia in the latent phase of recovery following elective cesarean delivery. There are few case reports on the occurrence of latent-phase postanesthesia care hypothermia in patients receiving subarachnoid block with morphine sulfate injection (Duramorph). Hypothermia can occur postoperatively for many reasons and can be life-threatening. In this case, hypothermia developed and progressed throughout the postoperative period. The causes of hypothermia were evaluated and treated without success initially. Thyroid dysfunction and alternative differential diagnoses were ruled out. Further assessment determined that the morphine injection might have been a contributing factor. Naloxone at 40-μg increments was administered intravenously and corrected the hypothermia. Awareness of hypothermia postoperatively with associated morphine administration through subarachnoid block must be ruled out in cases of progressing hypothermia. PMID:26939385

  5. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  6. Complications and Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... been shown to decrease several complications of SCD. Stem cell transplants ( A stem cell transplant , also called a bone marrow transplant, is a procedure that infuses healthy cells , called stem cells , into the body to replace damaged or diseased ...

  7. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... but some less serious ones occur more frequently. Kidney stones These are probably the most commonly encountered kidney complications of IBD—particularly oxalate stones. Kidney stones are more common in Crohn's patients with disease ...

  8. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the muscles of the jaw, or "lockjaw". Tetanus symptoms include: Headache Jaw cramping Sudden, involuntary muscle ... sweating High blood pressure and fast heart rate Tetanus complications include: Uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction of the ...

  9. Infection and Other Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage 3 Infection and Other Complications NLN Position Papers Lymphedema Awareness Campaign Education Kits Educational Videos What ... Patients (8) LymphLink Articles (175) FAQ's (6) Position Papers (9) LSAP Perspective (9) Become a member now » ...

  10. Chickenpox (Varicella) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Chickenpox Home About Chickenpox Signs & Symptoms Complications Transmission Prevention & Treatment Photos Fact Sheet for Kids Vaccination ... Surveillance Outbreaks Control & Investigation of Varicella Outbreaks Outbreaks Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline ...

  11. [Complications of liposuction].

    PubMed

    Sattler, G; Eichner, S

    2013-03-01

    Liposuction is the most frequent aesthetic procedure worldwide for adipose tissue reduction and treatment of lipedema. It is being employed with increasing frequency. In 2010, in the USA more than 200.000 liposuctions were performed. Apart from aesthetic indications, liposuction also is suitable for treatment of benign adipose tissue diseases. This intervention is not a simple procedure but requires extensive knowledge and experience to prevent irreversible medical or aesthetic complications. Severe complications including necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, hemorrhage, perforation of inner organs und pulmonary embolism - some even with lethal outcome - occasionally have been reported. These complications were mostly due to inadequate hygiene measures, inappropriate patient selection, use of excessive local anesthesia during mega-liposuction (tumescent technique) and inadequate post-operative surveillance. The complication rate usually reflects a lack of medical experience as well as technical inadequacies. PMID:23494094

  12. [Complications of liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, H; Tennert, U; Berg, T

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of complications increases the mortality in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Therefore, early detection and treatment of complications of cirrhosis is of major importance. Following diagnosis of cirrhosis, a screening gastroscopy detects esophageal varices. Primary prevention of variceal bleeding can be initiated with β-receptor antagonists or variceal band ligation. With the first episode of ascites or the manifestation of other complications of cirrhosis such as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome, a paracentesis excludes spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatorenal syndrome can be treated with a combination of vasopressors and albumine. Furthermore, occurrence of complications in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should prompt the evaluation of an indication for liver transplantation. PMID:21611819

  13. Complications of pancreatic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Many diseases, including pancreatitis benign tumors and cancer, may require pancreas surgery. Pancreatic resection can lead to a prolonged survival in pancreatic cancer and even a potential chance for cure. However, the pancreatic surgery can result in complications, and high postoperative morbidity rates are still presence. This article reviews the pancreatic abstracts of American Pancreas Club 2011, which involves the more common complications, their prevention and treatment. PMID:22363072

  14. Complications of auricular correction

    PubMed Central

    Staindl, Otto; Siedek, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction. PMID:22073079

  15. On complicity theory.

    PubMed

    Kline, A David

    2006-04-01

    The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper examines the Complicity Theory. The supposed anomalies rest on misunderstandings of the received view or misreadings of model cases of whistleblowing, for example, the Challenger disaster and the Ford Pinto. Nevertheless, the Complicity Theory is important for as in science the contrast with alternative competing accounts often helps us better understand the received view. Several aspects of the received view are reviewed and strengthened through comparison with Complicity Theory, including why whistleblowing needs moral justification. Complicity Theory is also critiqued. The fundamental failure of Complicity Theory is its failure to explain why government and the public encourage and protect whistleblowers despite the possibility of considerable harm to the relevant company in reputation, lost jobs, and lost shareholder value. PMID:16609713

  16. Ocular Ultrasound as an Easy Applicable Tool for Detection of Terson's Syndrome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Knospe, Volker; Richard, Gisbert; Vettorazzi, Eik; Wagenfeld, Lars; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan; Skevas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular hemorrhage in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is known as Terson's syndrome and is an underestimated but common pathology. We therefore designed a prospective single-blinded study to evaluate the validity of ocular ultrasound compared to the gold standard indirect funduscopy in the diagnosis of Terson's syndrome. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients (104 eyes in total) suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in this study. Two investigators independently performed a single-blinded ocular ultrasound using a standard intensive care ultrasound system to detect an intraocular hemorrhage. Indirect funduscopy following iatrogenic mydriasis served as the gold standard for confirmation or exclusion of an intraocular hemorrhage. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the method as well as the learning curve of ocular ultrasound. Results Indirect funduscopy detected Terson's syndrome in 11 of 52 (21.2%) respectively in 21 of 104 (20.2%) eyes in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sensitivity and specificity increased with the number of ocular ultrasound examinations for both investigators, reaching 81.8% and 100% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were different for both investigators (63.6% vs. 100% positive and 100% vs. 95.7% negative) but were both correlated to the amount of intraocular hemorrhage. A low Glasgow Coma scale (p = 0.015) and high Hunt & Hess grade (p = 0.003) was associated with a higher rate of Terson's syndrome. Conclusions Ocular ultrasound using standard ultrasound equipment has been confirmed as a reliable, easy-to-handle bedside screening tool for detecting Terson's syndrome. Nevertheless funduscopy remains the gold standard to detect Terson's syndrome. PMID:25502695

  17. Systemic glucose variability predicts cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral glucose metabolism and energy production are affected by serum glucose levels. Systemic glucose variability has been shown to be associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to assess whether glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 28 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring, were studied. Metabolic distress was defined as lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) >40. The relationship between daily glucose variability, the development of cerebral metabolic distress and hospital outcome was analyzed using a multivariable general linear model with a logistic link function for dichotomized outcomes. Results Daily serum glucose variability was expressed as the standard deviation (SD) of all serum glucose measurements. General linear models were used to relate this predictor variable to cerebral metabolic distress and mortality at hospital discharge. A total of 3,139 neuromonitoring hours and 181days were analyzed. After adjustment for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and brain glucose, SD was independently associated with higher risk of cerebral metabolic distress (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.5 (1.1 to 2.1), P?=?0.02). Increased variability was also independently associated with in hospital mortality after adjusting for age, Hunt Hess, daily GCS and symptomatic vasospasm (P?=?0.03). Conclusions Increased systemic glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased hospital mortality. Therapeutic approaches that reduce glucose variability may impact on brain metabolism and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24887049

  18. Erythropoietin for the Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Feasible Ingredient for a Successful Medical Recipe

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Giovanni; Tomasello, Giovanni; Noto, Marcello; Alafaci, Concetta; Cappello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following aneurysm bleeding accounts for 6% to 8% of all cerebrovascular accidents. Although an aneurysm can be effectively managed by surgery or endovascular therapy, delayed cerebral ischemia is diagnosed in a high percentage of patients resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Cerebral vasospasm occurs in more than half of all patients after aneurysm rupture and is recognized as the leading cause of delayed cerebral ischemia after SAH. Hemodynamic strategies and endovascular procedures may be considered for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. In recent years, the mechanisms contributing to the development of vasospasm, abnormal reactivity of cerebral arteries and cerebral ischemia following SAH, have been investigated intensively. A number of pathological processes have been identified in the pathogenesis of vasospasm, including endothelial injury, smooth muscle cell contraction from spasmogenic substances produced by the subarachnoid blood clots, changes in vascular responsiveness and inflammatory response of the vascular endothelium. To date, the current therapeutic interventions remain ineffective as they are limited to the manipulation of systemic blood pressure, variation of blood volume and viscosity and control of arterial carbon dioxide tension. In this scenario, the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been found to exert neuroprotective action during experimental SAH when its recombinant form (rHuEPO) is administered systemically. However, recent translation of experimental data into clinical trials has suggested an unclear role of recombinant human EPO in the setting of SAH. In this context, the aim of the current review is to present current evidence on the potential role of EPO in cerebrovascular dysfunction following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26581085

  19. Prevalence and incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in a population of children with haemophilia. The Hemophilia Growth and Development Study.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M D; Maeder, M A; Usner, D; Mitchell, W G; Fenstermacher, M J; Wilson, D A; Gomperts, E D

    1999-09-01

    The prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in our population of haemophiliacs was 12%. The incidence of ICH was approximately 2% per year. At entry, 7% (21/309) had clinical histories of ICH without MRI evidence of old haemorrhage, indicating that either the haemorrhages had completely resolved, that routine MRI sequences are not particularly sensitive for the detection of old blood products, or a combination of both of these factors. One half (4/8) of the ICHs documented by entry MRI were clinically silent, and three of the 11 incident cases documented by MRI were clinically silent. HIV infection did not increase the risk of ICH. PMID:10583511

  20. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Lumboperitoneal Shunt for Fulminant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fok, Anthony; Chandra, Ronil V; Gutman, Matthew; Ligtermoet, Matthew; Seneviratne, Udaya; Kempster, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with severe visual loss from fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Her lumbar puncture opening pressure was 97 cm H2O. Soon after lumboperitoneal shunt surgery, she had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated frontal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and neuroimaging findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We hypothesize that an abrupt drop in intracranial pressure after lumboperitoneal shunting led to maladjustment of cerebral vascular autoregulation, which caused SAH and PRES. PMID:26919070

  1. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  2. Three-dimensional computational modeling of subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid flow in the subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumeet; Soellinger, Michaela; Boesiger, Peter; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2009-02-01

    This study aims at investigating three-dimensional subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the inferior cranial space, the superior spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), and the fourth cerebral ventricle using a combination of a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. An anatomically accurate 3D model of the entire SAS of a healthy volunteer was reconstructed from high resolution T2 weighted MRI data. Subject-specific pulsatile velocity boundary conditions were imposed at planes in the pontine cistern, cerebellomedullary cistern, and in the spinal subarachnoid space. Velocimetric MRI was used to measure the velocity field at these boundaries. A constant pressure boundary condition was imposed at the interface between the aqueduct of Sylvius and the fourth ventricle. The morphology of the SAS with its complex trabecula structures was taken into account through a novel porous media model with anisotropic permeability. The governing equations were solved using finite-volume CFD. We observed a total pressure variation from -42 Pa to 40 Pa within one cardiac cycle in the investigated domain. Maximum CSF velocities of about 15 cms occurred in the inferior section of the aqueduct, 14 cms in the left foramen of Luschka, and 9 cms in the foramen of Magendie. Flow velocities in the right foramen of Luschka were found to be significantly lower than in the left, indicating three-dimensional brain asymmetries. The flow in the cerebellomedullary cistern was found to be relatively diffusive with a peak Reynolds number (Re)=72, while the flow in the pontine cistern was primarily convective with a peak Re=386. The net volumetric flow rate in the spinal canal was found to be negligible despite CSF oscillation with substantial amplitude with a maximum volumetric flow rate of 109 mlmin. The observed transient flow patterns indicate a compliant behavior of the cranial subarachnoid space. Still, the estimated deformations were small owing to the large parenchymal surface. We have integrated anatomic and velocimetric MRI data with computational fluid dynamics incorporating the porous SAS morphology for the subject-specific reconstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow in the subarachnoid space. This model can be used as a basis for the development of computational tools, e.g., for the optimization of intrathecal drug delivery and computer-aided evaluation of cerebral pathologies such as syrinx development in syringomelia. PMID:19102569

  3. Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

  4. A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by tumour lysis syndrome and choriocarcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Koji; Takaoka, Ei-Ichiro; Naoi, Makito; Mori, Kensaku; Minami, Manabu; Shimazui, Toru; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2006-10-01

    A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of metastatic testicular cancer. The pathological diagnosis was choriocarcinoma with seminoma. Sequential computerized tomography examinations revealed rapidly progressing bulky liver metastases and a lung metastasis. Chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was started on the day of admission. Subsequently, the patient suffered from tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) and massive haemorrhage at metastatic sites. The latter complication is also called choriocarcinoma syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of testicular cancer complicated with both critical conditions. Intensive care and radiological intervention barely prevented a fatal outcome. The urological oncologist should be aware of the potential complications TLS and choriocarcinoma syndrome in cases of rapidly progressive and high-volume choriocarcinoma. PMID:16935862

  5. Treating Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The death of a loved one is one of life’s greatest, universal stressors to which most bereaved individuals successfully adapt without clinical intervention. For a minority of bereaved individuals, grief is complicated by superimposed problems and healing does not occur. The resulting syndrome of complicated grief causes substantial distress and functional impairment even years after a loss, yet knowing when and how to intervene can be a challenge. OBJECTIVE To discuss the differential diagnosis, risk factors for and management of complicated grief based on available evidence and clinical observations. EVIDENCE REVIEW MEDLINE was searched from January 1990 to October 2012. Additional citations were procured from references of select research and review articles. Available treatment studies targeting complicated grief were included. RESULTS A strong research literature led to inclusion of complicated grief in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (termed persistent complex bereavement disorder as a subtype of other specified trauma and stressor-related disorders), although it is a condition for which more research is formally recommended, and there is still ongoing discussion about the optimal name and diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Reliable screening instruments are available, and the estimated prevalence rate is 7% of bereaved people. Randomized controlled data support the efficacy of a targeted psychotherapy including elements that foster resolution of complicating problems and facilitate the natural healing process. Preliminary studies suggest antidepressant medications may be helpful. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Individuals with complicated grief have greater risk of adverse health outcomes, should be diagnosed and assessed for suicide risk and comorbid conditions such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and should be considered for treatment. PMID:23917292

  6. Metabolomics in diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Filla, Laura A; Edwards, James L

    2016-04-22

    With a global prevalence of 9%, diabetes is the direct cause of millions of deaths each year and is quickly becoming a health crisis. Major long-term complications of diabetes arise from persistent oxidative stress and dysfunction in multiple metabolic pathways. The most serious complications involve vascular damage and include cardiovascular disease as well as microvascular disorders such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Current clinical analyses like glycated hemoglobin and plasma glucose measurements hold some value as prognostic indicators of the severity of complications, but investigations into the underlying pathophysiology are still lacking. Advancements in biotechnology hold the key to uncovering new pathways and establishing therapeutic targets. Metabolomics, the study of small endogenous molecules, is a powerful toolset for studying pathophysiological processes and has been used to elucidate metabolic signatures of diabetes in various biological systems. Current challenges in the field involve correlating these biomarkers to specific complications to provide a better prediction of future risk and disease progression. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in the field of metabolomics including technological advancements, the identification of potential biomarkers, and metabolic pathways relevant to macro- and microvascular diabetic complications. PMID:26891794

  7. HIV and the Risk of Direct Obstetric Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Clara; Ronsmans, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age in parts of sub-Saharan Africa are faced both with high levels of HIV and the threat of dying from the direct complications of pregnancy. Clinicians practicing in such settings have reported a high incidence of direct obstetric complications among HIV-infected women, but the evidence supporting this is unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether HIV-infected women are at increased risk of direct obstetric complications. Methods and findings Studies comparing the frequency of obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, dystocia and intrauterine infections in HIV-infected and uninfected women were identified. Summary estimates of the odds ratio (OR) for the association between HIV and each obstetric complication were calculated through meta-analyses. In total, 44 studies were included providing 66 data sets; 17 on haemorrhage, 19 on hypertensive disorders, five on dystocia and 25 on intrauterine infections. Meta-analysis of the OR from studies including vaginal deliveries indicated that HIV-infected women had over three times the risk of a puerperal sepsis compared with HIV-uninfected women [pooled OR: 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00–5.85]; this figure increased to nearly six amongst studies only including women who delivered by caesarean (pooled OR: 5.81, 95% CI: 2.42–13.97). For other obstetric complications the evidence was weak and inconsistent. Conclusions The higher risk of intrauterine infections in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women may require targeted strategies involving the prophylactic use of antibiotics during labour. However, as the huge excess of pregnancy-related mortality in HIV-infected women is unlikely to be due to a higher risk of direct obstetric complications, reducing this mortality will require non obstetric interventions involving access to ART in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:24124458

  8. Comparative Study of Processing of Haemorrhagic Body Fluids by Using Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Shabnam, Mirza; Sharma, Sangeeta; Upreti, Sanjay; Bansal, Rani; Saluja, Mahip; Khare, Anjali; Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Shrey

    2013-01-01

    Background: Haemorrhagic fluids are samples which are commonly received for cytological examination. The diagnostic efficacy suffers when large numbers of red blood cells are present in the sample. Haemorrhagic fluids are processed by a variety of techniques and the common goal of each technique is selection and concentration of an adequate number of tumour cells with intact cell morphologies, without losing them during processing. Aim: Present study was undertaken to improve the quality of haemorrhagic fluid by using three different haemolysing agents, namely Carnoy’s Fixative (CF), saline in Normal Saline Rehydration Technique (NSRT) and Glacial Acetic Acid (GAA) for haemolysis and to find out the most effective processing technique for better cytomorphological assessment. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 51 haemorrhagic fluids. Processing of haemorrhagic fluid was done by using haemolysing agents, namely CF, GAA and NSRT. After processing fluids with these three techniques, three smears were prepared from each of them, out of which one was air dried and two were wet fixed. Fourth type of smear made without application of haemolysing agent was used as control.The smears were stained with Leishman’s stain and wet fixed smears were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) , and Papanicolou’s stain (Pap) respectively. Results: NSRT showed lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) in 72.5% of cases, followed by that of CF in 60.8% cases and that of GAA in only 3.9% of cases. Retention of epithelial/mesothelial cells was seen in 70.5% cases with NSRT, followed by that of CF in 57.8% of cases and then by that of GAA in 50.9% of cases. Cytomorphological details were best preserved in CF in 60.6% of cases, followed by GAA in 58.8% of cases and NSRT in 52.9% of cases. Conclusion: The most effective method for RBC lysis in smear background and cell retention is NSRT and cytomorphological details are best preserved with CF. But, considering the overall results and procedural simplicity, it was concluded that NSRT was a better technique for processing of haemorrhagic fluid. PMID:24298471

  9. Post dengue neurological complication.

    PubMed

    Hasliza, A H; Tohid, H; Loh, K Y; Santhi, P

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection is highly endemic in many tropical countries including Malaysia. However, neurological complications arising from dengue infection is not common; Gullain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is one of these infrequent complications. In this paper, we have reported a case in which a 39-year-old woman presented with a neurological complication of dengue infection without typical symptoms and signs of dengue fever. She had a history of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) followed by an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) weeks prior to her presentation rendering GBS secondary to the post viral URTI and AGE as the most likely diagnosis. Presence of thrombocytopenia was the only clue for dengue in this case. PMID:27099661

  10. Complications of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, N R; Carson, C C; Braun, S D; Miller, G A; Cohan, R; Degesys, G E; Illescas, F F; Newman, G E; Weinerth, J L

    1985-10-01

    In 224 patients, renal stones were removed from the urinary tract using either direct extraction with a basket or forceps (59 patients), ultrasonic lithotripsy (164 patients), or infusion chemotherapy (one patient). Residual stone fragments were present more frequently in patients treated with ultrasonic lithotripsy (27%) than with direct extraction (5%). Other complications included hemorrhage (eight patients), catheter dislodgement (four patients), large amounts of urine extravasation (three patients), glycine ascites (three patients), infection (two patients), pneumothorax (one patient), and a prolonged ileus (one patient). More complications occurred among the first 50 patients than the last 50 patients, even though more difficult cases, including patients with staghorn calculi, were accepted during the latter period. Although a learning curve exists, complications can be minimized by attempting to treat more favorable cases during the initial experience. PMID:4034977

  11. Silicone breast implants: complications.

    PubMed

    Iwuagwu, F C; Frame, J D

    1997-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have been used for augmentation mammoplasty for cosmetic purposes as well as for breast reconstruction following mastectomy for more than three decades. Though the use of the silicone gel filled variety has been banned in the USA except for special cases, they continue to be available elsewhere in the world including the UK. Despite the immense benefit they provide, their usage is associated with some complications. Most of these are related to the surgery and can be reduced by good surgical management. The major complications associated with their use is adverse capsular contracture, an outcome which can be very frustrating to manage. This article reviews the commonly reported complications and suggested management alternatives. PMID:9613406

  12. Late complications of tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Wood, D E; Mathisen, D J

    1991-09-01

    Complications of tracheotomy are largely preventable. Although some authors cite these complications as indications for prolonged endotracheal intubation to avoid tracheotomy, others believe that the laryngotracheal complications of prolonged endotracheal intubation warrant early tracheotomy. Obviously, unnecessary tracheotomies should not be performed, and the controversy regarding the timing of conversion of endotracheal intubation to tracheotomy is handled in an earlier article in this issue. We feel, however, that a properly performed tracheotomy has a low incidence of complications that are more easily managed than are the complex laryngotracheal complications of prolonged endotracheal intubation. Significant post-tracheotomy tracheal stenosis occurs in 8% of patients and is secondary to an overly large tracheotomy stoma or damage at the tracheostomy tube cuff site. Stoma stenosis can be minimized by not making an overly large tracheal stoma and by prevention of undue leverage on the tracheostomy tube. Cuff stenosis can be minimized by the use of the high-volume low-pressure cuffs with careful prevention of overdistention of the cuff. Bronchoscopic dilatation, laser resection, and Silastic T-tube placement provide control of the airway until definitive surgical resection and reconstruction can be performed safely. Tracheoesophageal fistula is an uncommon but life-threatening complication that can be prevented by avoiding overdistention of the tracheostomy tube cuff and by avoiding the concomitant use of a stiff nasogastric tube. These patients are best managed conservatively until they are able to be weaned from a ventilator. A single-stage repair of both the esophagus and the trachea should then be done. Tracheoinnominate artery fistula can be avoided by correct placement of the tracheostomy stoma through the second and third tracheal rings rather than lower in the trachea and by avoidance of overinflation of tracheostomy tube cuffs. PMID:1934960

  13. High Risk for Seizures Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Regardless of Referral Bias

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Kathryn L.; Westover, M. Brandon; Phillips, Michael T.; Iftimia, Nicolae A.; Buckley, Deidre A.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Shafi, Mouhsin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the frequency, predictors, and clinical impact of electrographic seizures in patients with high clinical or radiologic grade non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), independent of referral bias. Methods We compared rates of electrographic seizures and associated clinical variables and outcomes in patients with high clinical or radiologic grade non-traumatic SAH. Rates of electrographic seizure detection before and after institution of a guideline which made continuous EEG monitoring routine in this population were compared. Results Electrographic seizures occurred in 17.6 % of patients monitored expressly because of clinically suspected subclinical seizures. In unselected patients, seizures still occurred in 9.6 % of all cases, and in 8.6 % of cases in which there was no a priori suspicion of seizures. The first seizure detected occurred 5.4 (IQR 2.9–7.3) days after onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage with three of eight patients (37.5 %) having the first recorded seizure more than 48 h following EEG initiation, and 2/8 (25 %) at more than 72 h following EEG initiation. High clinical grade was associated with poor outcome at time of hospital discharge; electrographic seizures were not associated with poor outcome. Conclusions Electrographic seizures occur at a relatively high rate in patients with non-traumatic SAH even after accounting for referral bias. The prolonged time to the first detected seizure in this cohort may reflect dynamic clinical features unique to the SAH population. PMID:24723663

  14. A non-human primate model of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

    PubMed

    Pluta, Ryszard M; Bacher, John; Skopets, Boris; Hoffmann, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is relatively rare form of hemorrhagic stroke, which produces significant social and medical challenges. As it affects people in their high productivity age and leaves 50 % of them dead and almost 70 % of survivors disabled, many of them severely, the reasons of such a dismal outcome have been intensively researched all over the world. Nevertheless, despite more than a half a century of clinical and scientific effort and dramatic improvement of surgical repair of aneurysms, the causes of poor outcome remain enigmatic. Introduction of numerous in vitro and in vivo models to study the unleashed by SAH mechanisms that injured the brain significantly advanced our understanding of biology of cerebral vessels, brain responses to intracranial pressure changes, and the presence of blood clot in subarachnoid space. One of the most important animal models that significantly contributed to those advances has been a non-human primate model introduced at the Bryce Weir laboratory in the University of Alberta, Canada, in 1984. Since then, this model, with some modifications, has been successfully used in several animal laboratories in the USA, Canada, and Japan. We present the model characteristics and describe in details medical, surgical, imagining techniques that we have used at the Surgical Neurology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke from 1989. PMID:25216692

  15. Reversible and Asymptomatic Gyral and Subarachnoid Contrast Enhancement after Carotid Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Vangosa, Alessandra Briatico; Tortora, Domenico; Modestino, Francesco; Cotroneo, Antonio R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of sulcal hyperdensity in patients after endovascular procedures is not necessarily attributable to hemorrhage. It may frequently indicate the absolute or concomitant extravasation of contrast material into the subarachnoid spaces. This case report describes the clinical case of an 84-year-old patient with 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid who presented with a diffuse gyral and sulcal hyperdensity in the right temporal-occipital and frontal lobes at routine post-carotid stenting (CAS) brain CT scan. The patient was asymptomatic and CT findings were interpreted as contrast enhancement hyperattenuation and no therapeutic decisions were made. A 24-hour follow-up brain CT demonstrated the complete resolution of the hyperdensity, confirming the diagnosis. In this patient we considered the concomitant presence of gyral and sulcal hyperdensity as the consequence of reversible damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) determining a transitory extravasation of contrast material. Asymptomatic gyral and subarachnoid contrast enhancement following CAS is generally indicative of benign and transitory damage to the BBB and is not to be misinterpreted as hemorrhage. PMID:25923674

  16. A Site-Specific, Sustained-Release Drug Delivery System for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hänggi, Daniel; Etminan, Nima; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Johnson, Mark; Peet, M Melissa; Tice, Tom; Burton, Kevin; Hudson, Bruce; Turner, Michele; Stella, Angela; Heshmati, Parissa; Davis, Cara; Faleck, Herbert J; Macdonald, R Loch

    2016-04-01

    Nimodipine is the only drug approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration for improving outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has less than optimal efficacy, causes dose-limiting hypotension in a substantial proportion of patients, and is administered enterally 6 times daily. We describe development of site-specific, sustained-release nimodipine microparticles that can be delivered once directly into the subarachnoid space or cerebral ventricles for potential improvement in outcome of patients with aneurysmal SAH. Eight injectable microparticle formulations of nimodipine in poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers of varying composition were tested in vitro, and 1 was advanced into preclinical studies and clinical application. Intracisternal or intraventricular injection of nimodipine-PLGA microparticles in rats and beagles demonstrated dose-dependent, sustained concentrations of nimodipine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for up to 29 days with minimal toxicity in the brain or systemic tissues at doses <2 mg in rats and 51 mg in beagles, which would be equivalent of up to 612-1200 mg in humans, based on scaling relative to cerebrospinal fluid volumes. Efficacy was tested in the double-hemorrhage dog model of SAH. Nimodipine-PLGA microparticles significantly attenuated angiographic vasospasm. This therapeutic approach shows promise for improving outcome after SAH and may have broader applicability for similar diseases that are confined to body cavities or spaces, are self-limited, and lack effective treatments. PMID:26935204

  17. A case of cerebral aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Cui, Victoria; Kouliev, Timur; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    During air travel, passengers are exposed to unique conditions such as rapid ascent and descent that can trigger significant physiological changes. In addition, the cabins of commercial aircraft are only partially pressured to 552-632 mmHg or the equivalent terrestrial altitudes of 1,500-2,500 m (5,000-8,000 feet) above sea level. While studies in high-altitude medicine have shown that all individuals experience some degree of hypoxia, cerebral edema, and increased cerebral blood flow, the neurological effects that accompany these changes are otherwise poorly understood. In this study, we report a case of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with travel on commercial aircraft. We then review relevant cases of neurological incidents with possible air travel-related etiology and discuss the physiological factors that may have contributed to the patient's acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the future, this report may serve as reference for more detailed and conservative medical guidelines and recommendations regarding air travel. PMID:27147875

  18. A case of cerebral aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with air travel

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Victoria; Kouliev, Timur; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    During air travel, passengers are exposed to unique conditions such as rapid ascent and descent that can trigger significant physiological changes. In addition, the cabins of commercial aircraft are only partially pressured to 552–632 mmHg or the equivalent terrestrial altitudes of 1,500–2,500 m (5,000–8,000 feet) above sea level. While studies in high-altitude medicine have shown that all individuals experience some degree of hypoxia, cerebral edema, and increased cerebral blood flow, the neurological effects that accompany these changes are otherwise poorly understood. In this study, we report a case of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with travel on commercial aircraft. We then review relevant cases of neurological incidents with possible air travel-related etiology and discuss the physiological factors that may have contributed to the patient’s acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the future, this report may serve as reference for more detailed and conservative medical guidelines and recommendations regarding air travel.

  19. [A case of HELLP syndrome resulting in eclampsia with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yoshikane, Tsutomu; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Aoki, Showa; Kambara, Mizuki; Hagiwara, Shinya; Miyazaki, Kohji; Akiyama, Yasuhiko

    2013-02-01

    It is known that hemorrhagic stroke at the perinatal period are caused by specifics conditions like eclampsia as well as by the existing abnormal vessels. We treated a case of HELLP syndrome resulting in eclampsia with non-aneurysmal, convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 34-year-old female, who had been pointed out to have a high level of urinal protein at the 37th week, was seen in the emergency department because of severe headache, vomiting and respiratory discomfort. Her systolic blood pressure was over 190mmHg, and caesarean section was selected. On the way to the operating room, she had a generalized convulsion with loss of consciousness. The delivery was carried out. The CT immediately after the caesarean section revealed faint and localized subarachnoid hemorrhage in the bilateral convexity areas. Additionally, the FLAIR image of MRI demonstrated increased intensity in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, basal ganglion and subcortical area, suggesting vasogenic edema. The patient had a good clinical course and the abnormal signal of MRI also recovered by treatment with oral iron and zinc. Here, we report a speculation for the mechanism of this case and precautions against stroke in the perinatal period. PMID:23378389

  20. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thoracic radicular artery pseudoaneurysm after methamphetamine and synthetic cannabinoid abuse: case report.

    PubMed

    Ray, Wilson Z; Krisht, Khaled M; Schabel, Alex; Schmidt, Richard H

    2013-06-01

    Background Context?Isolated spinal artery aneurysms not associated with vascular malformations are exceedingly rare. Purpose?To present a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage after thoracic radiculomedullary artery pseudoaneurysm rupture in a patient who abused synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamines. Study Design?Case report. Methods?A 41-year-old man with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with acute-onset headache, back pain, and transient bilateral lower-extremity numbness. He reported daily use of the synthetic cannabinoid "Spice." He denied use of other illegal drugs, but laboratory testing was positive for methamphetamines. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal hematoma at T2-3, and spinal angiography was negative for vascular abnormalities; however, a follow-up angiogram 6 days later revealed interval development of an irregular dilation of the left T3 radiculomedullary artery originating from the left supreme intercostal artery. Results?Surgical trapping and resection of the lesion yielded a good clinical outcome. Conclusions?Although two previous case reports have described patients with thoracic radiculomedullary pseudoaneurysm causing spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), this is the first reported case associated with synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamine abuse. Although this diagnosis is exceptionally rare, clinical presentation of SAH with associated back pain and lower-extremity symptoms warrants an aggressive imaging workup. Even in the setting of negative angiography, repeat cerebral and spinal angiograms may be necessary to identify a potentially treatable cause of spinal SAH. PMID:24436861

  1. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Study for Medical Decision-Making Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Dredla, Brynn; Freeman, William D

    2016-04-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient's medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  2. Genetic determinants of cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ducruet, Andrew F; Gigante, Paul R; Hickman, Zachary L; Zacharia, Brad E; Arias, Eric J; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Gorski, Justin W; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive effort to elucidate the cellular and molecular bases for delayed cerebral injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the pathophysiology of these events remains poorly understood. Recently, much work has focused on evaluating the genetic underpinnings of various diseases in an effort to delineate the contribution of specific molecular pathways as well as to uncover novel mechanisms. The majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage genetic research has focused on gene expression and linkage studies of these markers as they relate to the development of intracranial aneurysms and their subsequent rupture. Far less work has centered on the genetic determinants of cerebral vasospasm, the predisposition to delayed cerebral injury, and the determinants of ensuing functional outcome after aSAH. The suspected genes are diverse and encompass multiple functional systems including fibrinolysis, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and neuronal repair. To this end, we present a systematic review of 21 studies suggesting a genetic basis for clinical outcome after aSAH, with a special emphasis on the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. In addition, we highlight potential pitfalls in the interpretation of genetic association studies, and call for uniformity of design of larger multicenter studies in the future. PMID:20068580

  3. Copeptin as a Marker for Severity and Prognosis of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Christian; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Katan, Mira; Seiler, Marleen; Arnold, Marcel; Gralla, Jan; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background Grading of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is often confounded by seizure, hydrocephalus or sedation and the prediction of prognosis remains difficult. Recently, copeptin has been identified as a serum marker for outcomes in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated whether copeptin might serve as a marker for severity and prognosis in aSAH. Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with aSAH had plasma copeptin levels measured with a validated chemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was the association of copeptin levels at admission with the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade score after resuscitation. Levels of copeptin were compared across clinical and radiological scores as well as between patients with ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm and ischemia. Results Copeptin levels were significantly associated with the severity of aSAH measured by WFNS grade (P = 0.006), the amount of subarachnoid blood (P = 0.03) and the occurrence of ICH (P = 0.02). There was also a trend between copeptin levels and functional clinical outcome at 6-months (P = 0.054). No other clinical outcomes showed any statistically significant association. Conclusions Copeptin may indicate clinical severity of the initial bleeding and may therefore help in guiding treatment decisions in the setting of aSAH. These initial results show that copeptin might also have prognostic value for clinical outcome in aSAH. PMID:23326397

  4. Continuous subarachnoid infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine for analgesia during labour.

    PubMed

    McHale, S; Mitchell, V; Howsam, S; Carli, F

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 20 primiparous women requesting pain relief for labour, to determine the feasibility of subarachnoid infusions of bupivacaine for analgesia. A 28-gauge catheter was inserted into the subarachnoid space through a modified 22-gauge Sprotte needle. After a bolus dose of up to 1.5 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine, a continuous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine was commenced. If analgesia became inadequate, additional 0.5-ml boluses of 0.25% bupivacaine were given (mean number of top-ups 2.8; range 0-6). Persistent perineal pain occurred in four women and this was relieved by 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Analgesia was good or excellent in 15 of 20 mothers within 10 min and in 19 of 20 within 30 min, and it remained good or excellent throughout labour and delivery. Motor block was complete in three of the women who needed hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. There were no difficulties with insertion of the catheter, no episodes of significant hypotension (systolic arterial pressure less than 100 mm Hg) or postdural puncture headache. Seven mothers delivered their babies vaginally, eight required assistance with forceps and five needed a Caesarean section. PMID:1467109

  5. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death. PMID:26332046

  6. Successfully Treated Isolated Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HORIO, Yoshinobu; KATSUTA, Toshiro; SAMURA, Kazuhiro; WAKUTA, Naoki; FUKUDA, Kenji; HIGASHI, Toshio; INOUE, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of rupture of an isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysm, and consequently the optimal therapeutic strategy is debatable. An 84-year-old man presented with sudden onset of restlessness and disorientation. Neuroradiological imaging showed an intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with no visible intracranial vascular lesion. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a localized subarachnoid hematoma at Th10–11. Both contrast-enhanced spinal computed tomography and enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an area of enhancement within the hematoma. Superselective angiography of the left Th12 intercostal artery demonstrated a faintly enhanced spot in the venous phase. Thirteen days after the onset of symptoms, a small fusiform aneurysm situated on the radiculopial artery was resected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was eventually discharged in an ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this 84-year-old man is the oldest reported case of surgical management of a ruptured isolated PSA aneurysm. This case illustrates both the validity and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26522607

  7. Orbital Complications of Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Radovani, Pjerin; Vasili, Dritan; Xhelili, Mirela; Dervishi, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the modern antibiotherapies applied in the practice of otorhinolaryngology, the orbital complications of sinusitis are still considered a serious threat to essential functions of the eye, including loss of vision, and at worst, life threatening symptoms. Aims: The goal of this study is to consider and analyse patients who were treated for these complications in the last decade in our hospital, which is the only tertiary hospital in our country. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of cases. Methods: In our practice, cases treated in the hospital are rhinosinusitis cases where surgical intervention is necessary, or those with a suspicion of complications. Between the years 1999 and 2009 there were 177 cases, the clinical charts of which were reviewed. The cases that are omitted from this study are those involving soft tissues, bone, and intracranial complications. The diagnoses were determined based on anamnesis, anterior rhinoscopy, x-rays of the sinuses with the Water’s projection or where there was a suspicion of a complication, and CT scans with coronal and axial projections. In all cases, intensive treatment was initiated with a combination of cefalosporines, aminoglycosides and Proetz manoeuvre. When an improvement in the conditions did not occur within 24–48 hours, we intervened with a surgical procedure, preferably the Lynch-Patterson external frontoethmoidectomy. Results: In our study, we encountered 35 cases (19.8%) of orbital complications with an average age of 25 (range: 3–75); Palpebral inflammatory oedema (15), orbital cellulitis (10), subperiosteal abscess (6), orbital abscess (3), and cavernous sinus thrombosis (1 patient). The average time that patients remained in hospital was 4.6 days; for those with orbital complications this was 7 days. Conclusion: Orbital complications of sinusitis are considered to be severe pathologies. The appearance of oedema in the corner of the eye should be evaluated immediately and the means to exclude acute sinusitis should be taken under serious consideration. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are key to the reduction of these unwanted manifestations. PMID:25207092

  8. Orthopedic complications in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gehling, Daniel J; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with a number of lower extremity orthopedic conditions and complications including fractures, Charcot neuroarthropathy, plantar ulcers, and infection. These complications are of significant clinical concern in terms of morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. A review of each condition is discussed, with particular emphasis on the clinical importance, diagnostic considerations, and orthopedic treatment recommendations. The goal of the article is to provide a clinical picture of the challenges that orthopedic surgeons confront, and highlight the need for specific clinical guidelines in diabetic patients. PMID:26211990

  9. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    PubMed

    ucha?, M; Hor?k, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempask, S; Kotialov, T; Kova?, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal endoscopic surgery (FEES). In case of superior subperiosteal abscess, combined endonasal and external approach (external orbitotomy) was needed. Combined therapy facilitated quick improvement of local and systematic symptoms. Average time of hospitalisation was 7 days. Early diagnosis and agresive combined therapy prevent loss of vision and life threatening complications. PMID:25640234

  10. Fatal complications of tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, E A; Oliver, C; Carey, J P; Connolly, J E

    1976-03-01

    Thirty-six of 403 deaths after tracheotomy were direct complications of that procedure. Arterial hemorrhage caused three deaths, venous bleeding, seven. Airway obstruction resulted in six fatalities. Tracheoesophageal fistula caused five deaths. Eight deaths were due to infection and sepsis. Tension pneumothorax developed in one patient and the remaining six deaths were due to cardiopulmonary collapse. Many of the complications of tracheotomy can be avoided with accurate knowledge of anatomic variations, ideal operating conditions, proper technic, careful arterial and venous hemostasis, routine postoperative chest x-ray films, sterile suction technic, proper use of soft cuffed tracheotomy tubes, adequate humidification, and careful postoperative blood gas monitoring. PMID:769582

  11. Avoiding Complications in Gigantomastia.

    PubMed

    Kling, Russell E; Tobler, William D; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Rubin, J Peter

    2016-04-01

    Gigantomastia is a disabling condition for patients and presents unique challenges to plastic surgeons. Presentation can occur throughout different phases of life, and treatment often begins with nonoperative measures; however, the most effective way to relieve symptoms is surgical breast reduction. Because of the large amount of tissue removed, surgeons can encounter different intraoperative and postoperative complications. By understanding this disease process and these complications, surgeons can attempt to minimize their occurrences. The authors present an overview of the cause, preoperative evaluation, techniques, and outcomes. Additionally, they present outcomes data from their center on 40 patients. PMID:27012802

  12. Abnormal cerebral vasodilation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: use of serial 133Xe cerebral blood flow measurement plus acetazolamide to assess cerebral vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Tran Dinh, Y R; Lot, G; Benrabah, R; Baroudy, O; Cophignon, J; Seylaz, J

    1993-10-01

    A patient with cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was investigated by serial measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the xenon-133 emission tomography method. The CBF was measured before and after acetazolamide injection. On Day 2 after SAH, there was early local hyperperfusion in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, ipsilateral to the left posterior communicating artery aneurysm. The regional CBF of this arterial territory decreased slightly after acetazolamide injection, probably because of vasoplegia and the "steal" phenomenon, and thus surgery was delayed. A right hemiplegia with aphasia and disturbed consciousness occurred 4 days later (on Day 6 after SAH) due to arterial vasospasm, despite treatment with a calcium-channel blocker. The initial hyperemia of the left MCA territory was followed by ischemia. The vasodilation induced by acetazolamide administration was significantly subnormal until Day 13, at which time CBF and vasoreactivity amplitude returned to normal and the patient's clinical condition improved. Surgery on Day 14 and outcome were without complication. It is concluded that serial CBF measurements plus acetazolamide injection are useful for monitoring the development of cerebral vasospasm to determine the most appropriate time for aneurysm surgery. PMID:8410215

  13. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  14. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  15. Complications of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Complications of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) ... www.vaccineinformation.org). Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: ...

  16. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults with pertussis needed care in the hospital. Pneumonia (lung infection) was diagnosed in 1 out of 50 (2%) of those patients. The most common complications in another study were: Weight loss in 1 out of 3 (33%) adults Loss of bladder control in 1 out of 3 (28%) adults Passing ...

  17. Complications from radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dhermain, Frédéric; Barani, Igor J

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) of the brain is associated with significant stigma in the neuro-oncology community. This is primarily because of the potentially severe complications with which it may be associated. These complications, especially in subacute and latent settings, are often unpredictable, potentially progressive, and irreversible. The onset of complications may start from the first fraction of 2Gy, continuing over several months after end of RT with persistent drowsiness and apathy. It may also extend over many years with progressive onset of neurocognitive impairments such as memory decline, and diminished focus/attention. For long-term survivors, such as young patients irradiated for a favorable low-grade glioma, quality of life can be seriously impacted by RT. It is essential, as in the pediatric field, to propose patient-specific regimens from the very outset of therapy. The use of molecular biomarkers to better predict survival, control of comorbidities along with judicious use of medications such as steroids and antiepileptics, improved targeting with the help of modern imaging and RT techniques, modulation of the dose, and fractionation aimed at limiting integral dose to the healthy brain all have the potential to minimize treatment-related complications while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy for which RT is known. Sparing "radiosensitive" areas such as hippocampi could have a modest but measurable impact with regard to cognitive preservation, an effect that can possibly be enhanced when used in conjunction with memantine and/or donepezil. PMID:26948357

  18. Neurological Complications of Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Amy A.; Graus, Francesc; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the preferred treatment for an expanding range of neoplastic and nonmalignant conditions. Increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOTs) add an additional population of immunosuppressed patients with multiple potential neurological problems. While the spectrum of neurological complications varies with conditioning procedure and hematopoietic cell or solid organ source, major neurological complications occur with all transplantation procedures. This 2 part review emphasizes a practical consultative approach to central and peripheral nervous system problems related to HCT or SOT with clinical and neuroimaging examples from the authors’ institutional experience with the following conditions: the diversity of manifestations of common infections such as varicella zoster virus, Aspergillus, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), drug therapy-related complications, stroke mechanisms, the spectrum of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and neurologically important syndromes of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). These complications preferentially occur at specific intervals after HCT and SOT, and neurological consultants must recognize an extensive spectrum of syndromes in order to effect timely diagnosis and expedite appropriate treatment. PMID:23983885

  19. Neurologic complications of influenza.

    PubMed

    Shah, Snehal; Keil, Anthony; Gara, Kieren; Nagarajan, Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    We report on a child with mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with influenza infection and present a case series of neurological complications associated with influenza infections in children who presented to a tertiary children's hospital in Australia over a period of one year. PMID:24072018

  20. Treatment of complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT) of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide. PMID:22893810

  1. Epigenetics of diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Louisa M; Natarajan, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are complex diseases associated with multiple complications, and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in these pathologies. While numerous studies have provided a wealth of knowledge regarding the genetics of diabetes, the mechanistic pathways leading to diabetes and its complications remain only partly understood. Studying the role of epigenetics in diabetic complications can provide valuable new insights to clarify the interplay between genes and the environment. DNA methylation and histone modifications in nuclear chromatin can generate epigenetic information as another layer of gene transcriptional regulation sensitive to environmental signals. Recent evidence shows that key biochemical pathways and epigenetic chromatin histone methylation patterns are altered in target cells under diabetic conditions and might also be involved in the metabolic memory phenomenon noted in clinical trials and animal studies. New therapeutic targets and treatment options could be uncovered from an in-depth study of the epigenetic mechanisms that might perpetuate diabetic complications despite glycemic control. PMID:24077653

  2. [Esophageal stenting complications].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, A N; Radchenko, Iu A; Nefedova, G A; Abakumov, M M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze esophageal stenting complications in case of cancer and benign diseases. It was investigated complications in 8 patients in terms from 7 days to 1 year after intervention. In 4 patients esophageal stenting was performed for constrictive esophageal cancer and compression with pulmonary cancer metastases into mediastinal lymphatic nodes. 2 patients had esophageal stenting for post-tracheostomy tracheo-esophageal fistula, 1 patient - for spontaneous esophageal rupture, 1 patient - for post-burn scar narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach. Severe patients' condition with tumor was determined by intensive esophageal bleeding in 2 cases, bilateral abscessed aspiration pneumonia, tumor bleeding, blood aspiration (1 case), posterior mediastinitis (1 case). Severe patients' condition with benign disease was associated with decompensated esophageal narrowing about proximal part of stent (1 case), increase of tracheo-esophageal fistula size complicated by aspiration pneumonia (1 case), stent migration into stomach with recurrence of esophago-mediastino-pleural fistula and pleural empyema (1 case), decompensated narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach (1 case). Patients with cancer died. And patients with benign diseases underwent multi-stage surgical treatment and recovered. Stenting is palliative method for patients with esophageal cancer. Patients after stenting should be under outpatient observation for early diagnosis of possible complications. Esophageal stenting in patients with benign diseases should be performed only by life-saving indications, in case of inability of other treatment and for the minimum necessary period. PMID:25589315

  3. Complications of collagen fillers.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Patricia; Goldberg, David J

    2014-12-01

    As the skin ages, a deficiency in collagen occurs, thus injectable collagen products have become a sensible and popular option for dermal filling and volume enhancement. Several types of collagen have been developed over the years, including animal sources such as bovine and porcine collagen, as well as human-based sources derived from pieces of the patient's own skin, cadaver skin, and later cultured from human dermal fibroblasts. While collagen overall has a relatively safe, side effect profile, there are several complications, both early and late onset, that practitioners and patients should be aware of. Early complications, occurring within days of the procedure, can be divided into non-hypersensitivity and hypersensitivity reactions. The non-hypersensitive reactions include injection site reactions, discoloration, maldistribution, infection, skin necrosis, and the very rare but dreaded risk of vision loss, whereas the hypersensitivity reactions present usually as delayed type IV reactions, but can also rarely present as an immediate type I reaction. Late complications, occurring within weeks to even years after injection, include granuloma formation, foreign body reactions, and infection secondary to atypical mycobacteria or biofilms. This review will give a detailed overview of the complications secondary to cutaneous collagen injections. PMID:25536127

  4. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  5. Multidisciplinary consensus document on the management of massive haemorrhage (HEMOMAS document).

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Acosta, F J; Escolar, G; Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Guasch, E; Marco, P; Paniagua, P; Páramo, J A; Quintana, M; Torrabadella, P

    2015-11-01

    Massive haemorrhage is common and often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We perform a systematic review of the literature, with extraction of the recommendations from the existing evidences because of the need for its improvement and the management standardization. From the results we found, we wrote a multidisciplinary consensus document. We begin with the agreement in the definitions of massive haemorrhage and massive transfusion, and we do structured recommendations on their general management (clinical assessment of bleeding, hypothermia management, fluid therapy, hypotensive resuscitation and damage control surgery), blood volume monitoring, blood products transfusion (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets and their best transfusion ratio), and administration of hemostatic components (prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, factor VIIa, antifibrinolytic agents). PMID:26233588

  6. Antibody prevalence against haemorrhagic fever viruses in randomized representative Central African populations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J P; Josse, R; Johnson, E D; Merlin, M; Georges, A J; Abandja, J; Danyod, M; Delaporte, E; Dupont, A; Ghogomu, A

    1989-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1987, 5,070 randomly selected persons living in 6 central African countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon) were checked for serological evidence of haemorrhagic fever. Rural and urban areas were studied, including ecoclimatic zones ranging from dry savana to tropical rain forest. Virus-reactive antibodies were found with all antigens tested, and the global prevalence of positive sera was distributed as follows: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, 0.22%; Rift Valley fever virus, 0.18%; Ebola virus, 12.40%; Marburg virus, 0.39%; Lassa virus, 0.06%; and Hantaan virus, 6.15%. A significant variation in antibody prevalence was observed within the study regions. Association between the viruses was not observed. PMID:2505350

  7. Spinal Intradural Schwannoma with Acute Intratumoural Haemorrhage: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Kongwad, Lakshman I.; Valiathan, Manna G.

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas account for around half of all intradural spinal tumours, with chronic progressive symptoms as the most common presenting features. Intratumoural haemorrhage as a presenting feature of spinal schwannoma is very rare and only 11 cases have been reported till date. Authors here report a previously asymptomatic 40-year-old male who presented with acute onset paraplegia 12 hours after a minor trauma. MR imaging revealed a C7-D3 intradural-extramedullary lesion with features of acute blood and showing no enhancement. Emergency laminectomy and complete removal of the mass was performed and histopathology revealed features of schwannoma with haemorrhage. Patient had modest improvement of his neurological deficits at a follow-up of 6 months. Pertinent literature is reviewed in brief. PMID:26894121

  8. Skin rash, headache and abnormal behaviour: unusual presentation of intracranial haemorrhage in dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Mejally, Mousa Ali Al; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Maimani, Wail Al; Hanif, Sadia; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Siddiqi, Ahmad; Akhtar, Mubeena; Bafaraj, Mazen G; Fareed, Khurram

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. The dengue virus is a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are four serotypes (DEN 1–4) classified according to biological and immunological criteria. Patients may be asymptomatic or their condition may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide and 2.5 billion people are at risk. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. We present an interesting case of dengue fever with headache, skin rash and abnormal behaviour who had a massive intracranial haemorrhage with fatal outcome. PMID:22242067

  9. Protein S Deficiency and an Adult Case with Moyamoya Syndrome that Presented with Primary Intraventricular Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Çevik, Betül; Acu, Berat; Aksoy, Dürdane; Kurt, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Moyamoya syndrome associated with protein S deficiency is rarely encountered and is usually reported in paediatric cases with cerebral ischaemia. Case Report: A 32-year-old woman had symptoms of sudden-onset severe headache, projectile vomiting, impaired consciousness, and slight neck stiffness. The computed tomography scan of her brain showed primary intraventricular haemorrhage, and the subsequent four vessel cerebral angiographies revealed stage 3 to 4 Moyamoya disease according to Suzuki and Takaku’s angiographic classification. The coagulation profile showed the presence of protein S deficiency. The patient was treated with external ventricular drainage and conservative management until blood clot resolution. The patient was discharged with normal neurological examination findings after her initial impaired consciousness and orientation defect gradually recovered. Conclusion: This case report would alert physicians to the possible coexistence of Moyamoya syndrome and protein S deficiency, even in adult cases presenting with primary intraventricular haemorrhage. PMID:25207193

  10. Deaths associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever: the first in Australia in over a century.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J H

    2005-07-01

    A dengue fever epidemic was recognised in the Torres Strait Islands of Queensland in late 2003. Two fatal cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred in early 2004. This severe manifestation is more common when a patient is infected a second time, with a different virus serotype to the first infection. These are the first fatalities related to dengue fever in Australia in over a century. PMID:15992338

  11. Relationship of pulmonary arterial pressure to pulmonary haemorrhage in exercising horses.

    PubMed

    Langsetmo, I; Meyer, M R; Erickson, H H

    2000-09-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is characterised by blood in the airways after strenuous exercise and results from stress failure of the pulmonary capillaries. The purpose of this experiment was to establish a threshold value of transmural pulmonary arterial pressure at which haemorrhage occurs in the exercising horse. Five geldings, age 4-14 years, were run in random order once every 2 weeks at 1 of 4 speeds (9, 11, 13, 15 m/s); one day with no run was used as a control. Heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and oesophageal pressure were recorded for the duration of the run. Transmural pulmonary arterial pressure was estimated by electronic subtraction of the oesophageal pressure from the intravascular pulmonary arterial pressure. Within 1 h of the run, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the red and white blood cells in the fluid were quantified. Red cell counts in the lavage fluid from horses running at 9, 11 and 13 m/s were not significantly different from the control value, but after runs at 15 m/s, red cell counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher. White cell counts were not different from control values at any speed. Analysis of red cell count vs. transmural pulmonary arterial pressure indicated that haemorrhage occurs at approximately 95 mmHg. Red cell lysis in the lavage fluid was also apparent at transmural pulmonary arterial pressures above 90 mmHg. We conclude that, in the exercising horse, a pulmonary arterial pressure threshold exists above which haemorrhage occurs, and that pressure is often exceeded during high speed sprint exercise. PMID:11037258

  12. Pulmonary haemorrhage due to an aortopulmonary collateral artery after arterial switch.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Ai; Ota, Noritaka; Sakamoto, Kisaburo

    2016-03-01

    A neonate with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum presented without pulmonary over-circulation, and subsequently developed pulmonary haemorrhage after corrective surgery. Postoperative CT revealed an aortopulmonary collateral artery arising from the descending aorta, and we performed successful embolisation on postoperative day 9. Aggressive imaging modalities such as angiography and/or CT imaging with contrast can detect unexpected extra-pulmonary blood supply and guide further management. PMID:26144860

  13. Genetic background and risk of postpartum haemorrhage: results from an Italian cohort of 3219 women.

    PubMed

    Biguzzi, E; Franchi, F; Acaia, B; Ossola, W; Nava, U; Paraboschi, E M; Asselta, R; Peyvandi, F

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality, particularly in the developing countries, and of severe maternal morbidity worldwide. To investigate the impact of genetic influences on postpartum haemorrhage, in association with maternal and intrapartum risk factors, using a candidate gene approach. All women (n = 6694) who underwent a vaginal delivery at the Obstetric Unit of a large University hospital in Milan (Italy) between July 2007 and September 2009 were enrolled. The first consecutive 3219 women entered the genetic study. Postpartum haemorrhage was defined as ≥500 mL blood loss. Eight functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes were chosen because of their potential role in predisposing to or protecting from haemorrhagic conditions: tissue factor (F3), factor V (F5), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), platelet glycoprotein Ia/IIa (ITGA2), prothrombin (F2), platelet glycoproteins Ibα (GP1BA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). After correction for the already known PPH risk factors, only the promoter polymorphism of the tissue factor gene (F3 -603A>G) showed a significant association with PPH, the G allele exerting a protective effect (P = 0.00053; OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90). The protective effect against PPH of the TF -603A>G polymorphism is biologically plausible since the G allele is associated with an increased protein expression and Tissue Factor is strongly represented in the placenta at term, particularly in decidual cells of maternal origin. PMID:25333208

  14. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish inflammatory damage from the host immune response in the central nervous system. PMID:26506532

  15. Update on the Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II): statistical analysis plan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies had suggested that the outcome for patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and no intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) might be improved with early evacuation of the haematoma. The Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) set out to establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients with spontaneous lobar ICH would improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It is an international, multi-centre, prospective randomised parallel group trial of early surgery in patients with spontaneous lobar ICH. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire. Results Recruitment to the study began on 27 November 2006 and closed on 15 August 2012 by which time 601 patients had been recruited. The protocol was published in Trials (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/124/). This update presents the analysis plan for the study without reference to the unblinded data. The trial data will not be unblinded until after follow-up is completed in early 2013. The main trial results will be presented in spring 2013 with the aim to publish in a peer-reviewed journal at the same time. Conclusion The data from the trial will provide evidence on the benefits and risks of early surgery in patients with lobar ICH. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:23171588

  16. Tumour necrosis factor-? as a target of melanocortins in haemorrhagic shock, in the anaesthetized rat

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Domenica; Cainazzo, Maria-Michela; Squadrito, Francesco; Guarini, Salvatore; Bertolini, Alfio; Bazzani, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is involved (mostly through the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the pathogenesis of circulatory shock. On the other hand, melanocortin peptides are potent and effective in reversing haemorrhagic shock, both in animals (rat, dog) and in humans. This prompted us to study the influence of the melanocortin peptide ACTH-(124) on the blood levels of TNF-? in haemorrhage-shocked rats and on the in vitro production of TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Plasma levels of TNF-? were undetectable before starting bleeding and greatly increased 20?min after bleeding termination in saline-treated rats. In rats treated with ACTH-(124) the almost complete restoration of cardiovascular function was associated with markedly reduced levels of TNF-? 20?min after bleeding termination. On the other hand, ACTH-(124) did not influence TNF-? plasma levels in sham-operated, unbled rats. In vitro, ACTH-(124) (25100?nM) dose-dependently reduced the LPS-stimulated production of TNF-? by peritoneal macrophages harvested from untreated, unbled rats. These results indicate that inhibition of TNF-? overproduction may be an important component of the mechanism of action of melanocortins in reversing haemorrhagic shock. PMID:9756372

  17. Contribution of neovascularization and intraplaque haemorrhage to atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, D A; Orekhov, A N; Bobryshev, Y V

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a continuous pathological process that starts early in life and progresses frequently to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke and atherothrombosis. The vulnerable lesion has several structural and functional hallmarks that distinguish it from the stable plaque. The unstable plaque has large necrotic core (over 40% plaque volume) composed of cholesterol crystals, cholesterol esters, oxidized lipids, fibrin, erythrocytes and their remnants (haeme, iron, haemoglobin), and dying macrophages. The fibrous cap is thin, depleted of smooth muscle cells and collagen, and is infiltrated with proinflammatory cells. In unstable lesion, formation of neomicrovessels is increased. These neovessels have weak integrity and leak thereby leading to recurrent haemorrhages. Haemorrhages deliver erythrocytes to the necrotic core where they degrade promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammatory cells mostly presented by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells extravagate from bleeding neovessels and infiltrate adventitia where they support chronic inflammation. Plaque destabilization is an evolutionary process that could start at early atherosclerotic stages and whose progression is influenced by many factors including neovascularization, intraplaque haemorrhages, formation of cholesterol crystals, inflammation, oxidative stress and intraplaque protease activity. PMID:25515699

  18. Effects of haemorrhage on the distribution of the peripheral blood flow in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, J. P.; Korner, P. I.; White, S. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. The effects of bleeding unanaesthetized rabbits by 26% of their blood volume on the blood flow in the portal, renal, muscle and skin beds were investigated in normal animals, in animals without functioning autonomic effectors, and in animals with section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves. 2. In animals without functioning autonomic effectors there was progressive vasodilatation during the 4 hr following haemorrhage, which differed markedly in the different regional beds studied. The dilatation was greatest in the portal bed, followed by kidney and skin, but there was no significant change in the vascular resistance in muscle. 3. In normal animals with intact reflexes the vascular resistance either increases or remains at control values, suggesting that reflex constrictor effects oppose locally acting dilator mechanisms. During the 4 hr following haemorrhage reflex vasoconstrictor effects were greatest in kidney, followed by muscle, portal bed and skin. 4. In animals with section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves reflex constrictor effects were absent in the portal, muscle and skin beds, but significant vasoconstriction was still evident in the renal bed, though of smaller magnitude than in normal animals. The results suggest that the arterial baroreceptors are a major source of reflex activity following haemorrhage, but that other reflexogenic zones contribute to the renal effects in normal animals. PMID:6050170

  19. [Complications of Gaucher's disease].

    PubMed

    Modrego Pardo, P J; Garzarán, G; González, N; Baiges, J J; Gazulla, J

    1992-10-01

    We discuss two cases of Gaucher's disease of the adult with neurological complications. First of the patients came to Hospital due to sudden pain in dorso-lumbar region and motor weakness of lower extremities. In the neurological exploration there were no concluding objective deficit signs except an unstable deambulation. After several hours of rest, symptoms disappeared progressively. In the radiology of the raquis a crushed in the last three dorsal vertebral was seen; this finding together with the clinic the patient showed, suggested a mild and transitory medullar compression. Second patient suffered an intraparenchymatous brain hemorrhage on the course of a platelet depletion and with other mild coagulation disorders. This type of complication have never been described in Gaucher's disease. PMID:1470721

  20. Bereavement and Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Glickman, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bereavement is a common experience in adults age 60 and older. Loss of a loved one usually leads to acute grief characterized by yearning and longing, decreased interest in ongoing activities, and frequent thoughts of the deceased. For most, acute grief naturally evolves into a state of integrated grief, where the bereaved is able to reengage with everyday activities and find interest or pleasure. About 7% of bereaved older adults, however, will develop the mental health condition of Complicated Grief (CG). In CG, the movement from acute to integrated grief is derailed, and grief symptoms remain severe and impairing. This article reviews recent publications on the diagnosis of CG, risk factors for the condition, and evidenced-based treatments for CG. Greater attention to complicated grief detection and treatment in older adults is needed. PMID:24068457

  1. Influence of early antioxidant supplements on clinical evolution and organ function in critically ill cardiac surgery, major trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Mette M; Soguel, Ludivine; Shenkin, Alan; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Pinget, Christophe; Baines, Malcolm; Chioléro, René L

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress is involved in the development of secondary tissue damage and organ failure. Micronutrients contributing to the antioxidant (AOX) defense exhibit low plasma levels during critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early AOX micronutrients on clinical outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with conditions characterized by oxidative stress. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial in patients admitted to a university hospital ICU with organ failure after complicated cardiac surgery, major trauma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stratification by diagnosis was performed before randomization. The intervention was intravenous supplements for 5 days (selenium 270 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin C 1.1 g, and vitamin B1 100 mg) with a double-loading dose on days 1 and 2 or placebo. Results Two hundred patients were included (102 AOX and 98 placebo). While age and gender did not differ, brain injury was more severe in the AOX trauma group (P = 0.019). Organ function endpoints did not differ: incidence of acute kidney failure and sequential organ failure assessment score decrease were similar (-3.2 ± 3.2 versus -4.2 ± 2.3 over the course of 5 days). Plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc, and glutathione peroxidase, low on admission, increased significantly to within normal values in the AOX group. C-reactive protein decreased faster in the AOX group (P = 0.039). Infectious complications did not differ. Length of hospital stay did not differ (16.5 versus 20 days), being shorter only in surviving AOX trauma patients (-10 days; P = 0.045). Conclusion The AOX intervention did not reduce early organ dysfunction but significantly reduced the inflammatory response in cardiac surgery and trauma patients, which may prove beneficial in conditions with an intense inflammation. Trials Registration Clinical Trials.gov RCT Register: NCT00515736. PMID:18687132

  2. Complications of antiobesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Wilson, Samuel E

    2007-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment for patients who suffer from morbid obesity, the incidence of which is increasing in North America. Laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement are the two commonly performed bariatric procedures. This article discusses the indications for bariatric surgery and the early and late complications associated with these two procedures. Laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy are also briefly discussed. PMID:17339851

  3. Risk Factors for Intracranial Haemorrhage in Accidents Associated with the Shower or Bathtub

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Thomas C.; Kreher, Jannes; Ricklin, Meret E.; Haider, Dominik G.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been little research on bathroom accidents. It is unknown whether the shower or bathtub are connected with special dangers in different age groups or whether there are specific risk factors for adverse outcomes. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included all direct admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 1 January 2000 to 28 February 2014 after accidents associated with the bathtub or shower. Time, age, location, mechanism and diagnosis were assessed and special risk factors were examined. Patient groups with and without intracranial bleeding were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test.The association of risk factors with intracranial bleeding was investigated using univariate analysis with Fisher's exact test or logistic regression. The effects of different variables on cerebral bleeding were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Two hundred and eighty (280) patients with accidents associated with the bathtub or shower were included in our study. Two hundred and thirty-five (235) patients suffered direct trauma by hitting an object (83.9%) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) was detected in 28 patients (10%). Eight (8) of the 27 patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (GCS 13–15), (29.6%) exhibited intracranial haemorrhage. All patients with intracranial haemorrhage were older than 48 years and needed in-hospital treatment. Patients with intracranial haemorrhage were significantly older and had higher haemoglobin levels than the control group with TBI but without intracranial bleeding (p<0.05 for both).In univariate analysis, we found that intracranial haemorrhage in patients with TBI was associated with direct trauma in general and with age (both p<0.05), but not with the mechanism of the fall, its location (shower or bathtub) or the gender of the patient. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only age as a risk factor for cerebral bleeding (p<0.05; OR 1.09 (CI 1.01;1.171)) Conclusion In patients with ED admissions associated with the bathtub or shower direct trauma and age are risk factors for intracranial haemorrhage. Additional effort in prevention should be considered, especially in the elderly. PMID:26513749

  4. Complications of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Settipane, R A

    1999-01-01

    With unfortunate high frequency, clinicians consider allergic rhinitis to be more of a nuisance than an illness. When in fact, allergic rhinitis is not only a very common disease process, affecting up to a cumulative frequency of 42% of the U.S. population by age 40, but can lead to significant short-term and long-term medical complications. Poorly controlled symptoms of allergic rhinitis may contribute to sleep loss, secondary daytime fatigue, learning impairment, decreased overall cognitive functioning, decreased long-term productivity and decreased quality of life. Additionally, poorly controlled allergic rhinitis may also contribute to the development of other related disease processes including acute and chronic sinusitis, recurrence of nasal polyps, otitis media/otitis media with effusion, hearing impairment, abnormal craniofacial development, sleep apnea and related complications, aggravation of underlying asthma, and increased propensity to develop asthma. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with sedating antihistamine therapy may result in negative neuropsychiatric effects that contribute to some of these complications. Sedating antihistamines may also be dangerous to use in certain other settings such as driving or operating potentially dangerous machinery. In contrast nonsedating antihistamines have been demonstrated to result in improved performance in allergic rhinitis. PMID:10476318

  5. Pleuropulmonary complications of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Michael D.

    1968-01-01

    Pancreatitis, in common with many other upper abdominal diseases, often leads to pleuropulmonary complications. Radiological evidence of pleuropulmonary abnormality was found in 55% of 58 cases examined retrospectively. The majority of such abnormalities are not specific for pancreatitis; but a particular category of pleural effusions, rich in pancreatic enzymes, is a notable exception. A patient with this type of effusion, complicated by a spontaneous bronchopleural fistula and then by an empyema, is reported. The literature relating to pancreatic enzyme-rich pleural effusions (pathognomonic of pancreatitis) is reviewed. Of several possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, transdiaphragmatic lymphatic transfer of pancreatic enzymes, intrapleural rupture of mediastinal extensions of pseudocysts, and diaphragmatic perforation are the most important. The measurement of pleural fluid amylase, at present little employed in this country, has considerable diagnostic value. Enzyme-rich effusions are more commonly left-sided, are often blood-stained, are frequently associated with pancreatic pseudocysts, and—if long standing—may be complicated by a bronchopleural fistula. Images PMID:4872925

  6. Obstetric Complications and Management in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Rai, Rakhi; Yanamandra, Uday; Chaudhary, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Jain, Vanita; Prasad, G R V; Kalra, Jasvinder; Varma, Subhash C

    2016-03-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is amongst the most common haematological malignancies encountered in adults. The younger age of onset and increased incidence of CML in Indians leads to higher chances of encountering it in pregnancy. Pregnancy in CML is a complex situation as first line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), is fraught with multiple fetal safety issues. The fetal aspects have been elucidated in literature, but there is scarcity of information on the obstetric outcome per se in presence of CML, excluding the influence of TKI. Obstetric outcomes of 5 pregnancies in four patients with CML are being reported. Literature on interplay of CML and bleeding or thrombotic manifestations is reviewed. The major complications encountered were antepartum (APH) and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), preterm labour, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine fetal death. Patients in the reproductive age group with diagnosis of CML should be carefully counseled regarding the effect of disease and TKI on the maternal-fetal health. Bleeding complications, particularly APH and PPH may be encountered in CML patients. Close coordination of the obstetrician, haematologist, and neonatologist is required in managing these cases successfully. The need for absolute contraception till the remission of disease needs to be emphasized for further pregnancies. PMID:26855508

  7. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... and requires the expertise of specialized doctors and nurses working in teams. Patients with this condi- tion need the close attention given in the intensive care unit, ideally one dedicated to the care of patients ...

  8. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... In more serious cases, the bleeding may cause brain damage with paralysis or coma. In the most severe cases, the bleeding leads to death. What Happens to the Brain When an Aneurysm Bleeds? In most cases, after ...

  9. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2016 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  10. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2015-07-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:25006042

  11. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350–450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  12. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p < 0.05). The neurological deficits of SAH rats treated with melatonin were less than those without melatonin treatment (p < 0.05). We concluded that SRA was a precise and in vivo tool to observe and evaluate CV of SAH rats; intraperitoneally administration of melatonin could mitigate CV after experimental SAH.

  13. Endovascular perforation subarachnoid hemorrhage fails to cause Morris water maze deficits in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Eric; Holtzman, Jacob C; Friess, Stuart; Hartman, Richard E; Brody, David L; Han, Byung H; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is the primary driver of poor long-term outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) survivors; modeling such deficits preclinically is thus key for mechanistic and translational investigation. Although rat SAH causes long-term deficits in learning and memory, it remains unknown whether similar deficits are seen in the mouse, a species particularly amenable to powerful, targeted genetic manipulation. We thus subjected mice to endovascular perforation SAH and assessed long-term cognitive outcome via the Morris water maze (MWM), the most commonly used metric for rodent neurocognition. No significant differences in MWM performance (by either of two protocols) were seen in SAH versus sham mice. Moreover, SAH caused negligible hippocampal CA1 injury. These results undercut the potential of commonly used methods (of SAH induction and assessment of long-term neurocognitive outcome) for use in targeted molecular studies of SAH-induced cognitive deficits in the mouse. PMID:24938403

  14. Protocol Based Real-Time Continuous Electroencephalography for Detecting Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Bang, Jae Seung; Chung, Jin-Heon

    2016-01-01

    A continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) can be helpful in detecting vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We describe a patient with an aneurysmal SAH whose symptomatic vasospasm was detected promptly by using a real-time cEEG. Patient was immediately treated by intraarterial vasodilator therapy. A 50-year-old woman without any significant medical history presented with a severe bifrontal headache due to acute SAH with a ruptured aneurysm on the anterior communicating artery (Fisher grade 3). On bleed day 6, she developed a sudden onset of global aphasia and left hemiparesis preceded by cEEG changes consistent with vasospasm. A stat chemical dilator therapy was performed and she recovered without significant neurological deficits. A real-time and protocol-based cEEG can be utilized in order to avoid any delay in detection of vasospasm in aneurysmal SAH and thereby improve clinical outcomes. PMID:26962422

  15. Causal Structure of Brain Physiology after Brain Injury from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Rahman, Shah Atiqur; Huang, Yuxiao; Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, J. Michael; Albers, David; Falo, Cristina Maria; Park, Soojin; Agarwal, Sachin; Connolly, E. Sander; Kleinberg, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High frequency physiologic data are routinely generated for intensive care patients. While massive amounts of data make it difficult for clinicians to extract meaningful signals, these data could provide insight into the state of critically ill patients and guide interventions. We develop uniquely customized computational methods to uncover the causal structure within systemic and brain physiologic measures recorded in a neurological intensive care unit after subarachnoid hemorrhage. While the data have many missing values, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and are composed from a heterogeneous patient population, our advanced imputation and causal inference techniques enable physiologic models to be learned for individuals. Our analyses confirm that complex physiologic relationships including demand and supply of oxygen underlie brain oxygen measurements and that mechanisms for brain swelling early after injury may differ from those that develop in a delayed fashion. These inference methods will enable wider use of ICU data to understand patient physiology. PMID:27123582

  16. Carotid rete mirabile associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm: A case report and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Júnior, Fernando Mendes Paschoal; Piske, Ronie Leo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare physiological vascular network in humans that is most often found in Eastern populations. This paper describes a CRM associated with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and discusses the details of the patient’s treatment. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our service with clinical signs and symptoms of a spontaneous aSAH. Computed tomography revealed a diffuse and extensive SAH (Fisher group IV), while an angiogram showed an abnormal collateral network in the right carotid system and a hypoplastic aspect to the internal carotid artery (ICA) on the same side. In addition, a saccular aneurysm with a diameter of 9.5 mm was present in the ophthalmic segment of the left ICA. This case is extremely uncommon. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patient by clipping the aneurysmal lesion. No procedure was performed for the CRM. PMID:25934776

  17. Concurrence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Suzuki, Takeya; Wakako, Akira; Sadato, Akiyo; Hirose, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    We report a rare case of concurrent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute aortic dissection (AAD). A 38-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of severe headache, and brain computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of SAH. Thoracic to neck computed tomography angiography (CTA), performed in addition to brain CTA, suggested a tear in the aortic arch, and subsequent CT aortography established the diagnosis of Stanford type A AAD. The AAD in our patient, who reported no episodes of chest or back pain, was detected incidentally by thoracic to neck CTA. The imaging study has rarely been indicated for SAH except that it provides additional anatomical information in patients for whom extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery or endovascular treatment is considered. Nevertheless, our experience may highlight additional diagnostic value of thoracic to neck CTA in SAH patients. PMID:27083068

  18. Protective effects of perfluorooctyl-bromide nanoparticles on early brain injuries following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Xu, Rui; Xie, Fei; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Meng-Fei; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the protective effects of perfluorooctyl-bromide (PFOB) nanoparticles on early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a total of 120 rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: Sham operation group (n = 40), SAH group (n = 40), and SAH + PFOB group (n = 40). Endovascular perforation was performed to induce subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain water content was measured 24 h after surgery. Meanwhile, morphological changes in the rat hippocampal CA1 region were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. The rate of neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampal CA1 region was determined using TUNEL assay. Protein and mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured using western blot and RT-PCR assays 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. Compared to the SAH group, the SAH + PFOB group had significantly lower brain water content (P<0.01), with alleviated morphological abnormalities in HE-stained neurons and significantly decreased neurons with karyopyknosis and hyperchromatism in the hippocampal CA1 region. Electron microscopy revealed reduction of neuronal apoptosis, alleviation of glial cell swelling, and mitigation of perivascular edema in the hippocampal region. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of apoptosis-related factors Caspase-3 and Bax was significantly reduced, while that of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 was significantly increased. TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis was significantly reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region (P<0.01). RT-PCR and Western-blot data indicated that expressions of Caspase-3 and Bax were both significantly reduced, while bcl-2 expression was increased significantly at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after SAH (P<0.01). Together, our data support that PFOB nanoparticles with high oxygen content could counteract ischemia and hypoxia, block neuronal apoptotic pathways, reduce neuronal apoptosis, and therefore, achieve neuroprotective effects in EBI following SAH. PMID:26396671

  19. Sensitivity of a Clinical Decision Rule and Early Computed Tomography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Dustin G.; Kene, Mamata V.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Vinson, David R.; Ballard, Dustin W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Application of a clinical decision rule for subarachnoid hemorrhage, in combination with cranial computed tomography (CT) performed within six hours of ictus (early cranial CT), may be able to reasonably exclude a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This study’s objective was to examine the sensitivity of both early cranial CT and a previously validated clinical decision rule among emergency department (ED) patients with aSAH and a normal mental status. Methods Patients were evaluated in the 21 EDs of an integrated health delivery system between January 2007 and June 2013. We identified by chart review a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with aSAH in the setting of a normal mental status and performance of early cranial CT. Variables comprising the SAH clinical decision rule (age ≥40, presence of neck pain or stiffness, headache onset with exertion, loss of consciousness at headache onset) were abstracted from the chart and assessed for inter-rater reliability. Results One hundred fifty-five patients with aSAH met study inclusion criteria. The sensitivity of early cranial CT was 95.5% (95% CI [90.9–98.2]). The sensitivity of the SAH clinical decision rule was also 95.5% (95% CI [90.9–98.2]). Since all false negative cases for each diagnostic modality were mutually independent, the combined use of both early cranial CT and the clinical decision rule improved sensitivity to 100% (95% CI [97.6–100.0]). Conclusion Neither early cranial CT nor the SAH clinical decision rule demonstrated ideal sensitivity for aSAH in this retrospective cohort. However, the combination of both strategies might optimize sensitivity for this life-threatening disease. PMID:26587089

  20. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage: who remains for surgical treatment in the post-ISAT era?

    PubMed Central

    Czapiga, Bogdan; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although there have been a number of studies on changes and trends in the management of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) since publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), no data exist on what category of patients still remains for surgical treatment. Our goal was to investigate the changes that occurred in the characteristics of a population of aSAH patients treated surgically in the post-ISAT period in a single neurosurgical center, with limited availability of endovascular service. Material and methods The study included 402 aSAH patients treated surgically in our unit between January 2004 and December 2011. Each year, data regarding number of admissions, age, aneurysm location and size, clinical and radiological presentation, outcome and mortality rates were collected and analyzed. Results The annual number of admissions more than halved in the study period (from 69 in 2004 to 32 in 2011). There were no linear trends regarding patients’ mean age, clinical presentation and outcomes, but the number of patients in Fisher grade 4 increased and mortality slightly decreased. An unexpected, statistically significant increase occurred in the incidence of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (from 36.2% to 50%) and medium size aneurysms (from 34.7% to 56.2%) treated surgically, with a corresponding decrease in the incidence of middle cerebral artery aneurysms (from 40.5% to 34.3%) and large aneurysms (from 21.7% to 12.5%). Conclusions Unexpected trends in characteristics of aSAH patients treated surgically could be related to treatment decision modality. Trend patterns could be properly expressed in the constant availability of endovascular services. PMID:26170846