Sample records for complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

  1. Prevention and treatment of medical and neurological complications in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G J E Rinkel; C J M Klijn

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage not only involves securing the aneurysm by endovascular coiling or surgical clipping but also prevention and treatment of the medical and neurological complications of the bleed. These acutely ill patients should be looked after in specialised centres by a multidisciplinary team that is available 24 h a day, 7 days a week. No

  2. Acute Headache at Emergency Department: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Complicated by Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yger, M.; Zavanone, C.; Abdennour, L.; Koubaa, W.; Clarençon, F.; Dupont, S.; Samson, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments. PMID:25755897

  3. Current diagnostic approaches to subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Marie U-King-Im; Brendan Koo; Rikin A. Trivedi; Nicholas J. Higgins; Keng Y. Tay; Justin J. Cross; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Prompt diagnosis with high-resolution CT and intensive critical care support remain key aspects of good patient management. Early identification and definitive treatment of underlying ruptured aneurysms is generally advocated to reduce the risk of re-bleeding, a complication with high mortality and morbidity. Although intra-arterial

  4. Thrombus formation in a dilated torcula following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Haynes, H R; Visca, A; Renowden, S; Malcolm, G

    2013-08-01

    A case of thrombus formation occurring within a dilation of the dural venous sinuses following aneurysmal sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is presented. Acute neurological deterioration accompanied propagation of the thrombus. The patient was anticoagulated on day 5 post-SAH with no haemorrhagic complications and made a full recovery. The optimum time to commence anticoagulation is not clear and is discussed. PMID:23451941

  5. Haemoglobin scavenging after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Durnford, A; Dunbar, J; Galea, J; Bulters, D; Nicoll, J A R; Boche, D; Galea, I

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and effective clearance of cell-free haemoglobin after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is important to prevent vasospasm and neurotoxicity and improve long-term outcome. Haemoglobin is avidly bound by haptoglobin, and the complex is cleared by CD163 expressed on the membrane surface of macrophages. We studied the kinetics of haemoglobin and haptoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid after SAH. We show that haemoglobin levels rise gradually after SAH. Haptoglobin levels rise acutely with aneurysmal rupture as a result of injection of blood into the subarachnoid space. Although levels decline as haemoglobin scavenging occurs, complete depletion of haptoglobin does not occur and levels start rising again, indicating saturation of CD163 sites available for haptoglobin-haemoglobin clearance. In a preliminary neuropathological study we demonstrate that meningeal CD163 expression is upregulated after SAH, in keeping with a proinflammatory state. However, loss of CD163 occurs in meningeal areas with overlying blood compared with areas without overlying blood. Becauses ADAM17 is the enzyme responsible for shedding membrane-bound CD163, its inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy after SAH. PMID:25366599

  6. The source of haemorrhage in traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brittany; Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage (TBSH) following trauma to the head, face or neck is well-established as a cause of death; however it remains a heavily disputed topic as the site of vascular injury is difficult to identify. Whilst many regions within the vasculature of the head and neck have been proposed as more susceptible to rupture, the vertebral artery remains the focal point of many investigations. We present a retrospective case review of TBSH in our forensic centre at Forensic and Scientific Services in Brisbane, Australia, from 2003 to 2011. Thirteen cases of TBSH were found, one case excluded due to vasculopathy. All decedents were male, the majority of which were involved in an altercation receiving blows to the head, face, or neck and were unconscious at the scene. All victims were under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or a combination thereof. External examination revealed injuries to the head, face, and neck in all cases. Various combinations of further examination techniques were used during the post-mortem examination including brain and/or cervical spine retention, CT imaging, and angiography. Vascular injury was identified in eight of the twelve cases, all of which occurred intracranially, with seven involving the vertebral artery. Histology was most reliable in identifying the rupture site and angiography failed to reveal a rupture site. The added benefits of histology over angiography are the ability to identify the microscopic architecture of the tear and to diagnose vasculopathy that may have rendered the individual more susceptible to TBSH. PMID:25572079

  7. Isolated spinal artery aneurysm: a rare culprit of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sung, T Ht; Leung, W Kw; Lai, B Mh; Khoo, J Ls

    2015-04-01

    Isolated spinal artery aneurysm is a rare lesion which could be accountable for spontaneous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the neck and back, with subsequent headache and confusion. Initial computed tomography aortogram revealed incidental finding of subtle acute spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A set of computed tomography scans of the brain showed further acute intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage with posterior predominance, small amount of intraventricular haemorrhage, and absence of intracranial vascular lesions. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thrombosed intradural spinal aneurysm with surrounding sentinel clot, which was trapped and excised during surgical exploration. High level of clinical alertness is required in order not to miss this rare but detrimental entity. Its relevant aetiopathological features and implications for clinical management are discussed. PMID:25904568

  8. Medical complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Katja E; Mayer, Stephan A

    2010-04-01

    The prevention and management of medical complications are important for improving outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fever, anemia requiring transfusion, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, pneumonia, hypertension, and neurogenic cardiopulmonary dysfunction occur frequently after SAH. There is increasing evidence that acute hypoxia and extremes of blood pressure can exacerbate brain injury during the acute phase of bleeding. There are promising strategies to minimize these complications. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the risks and benefits of these and other medical management strategies after SAH. PMID:20380973

  9. Sporadic Lateral Ventricular Hemangioblastoma presenting with Intraventricular and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Najar, Mahasen; Al-Hadidy, Azmy; Saleh, Alaa; Al-Tamimi, Ahmad; Al-Darawish, Asaad; Obeidat, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemangioblastoma (HB) is very rare; few cases of intraventricular HB have been reported in the literature, either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Furthermore, the incidence of ventricular haemorrhage from HB seems to be uncommon. We report a unique case of sporadic HB of the right lateral ventricle presenting with intratumoural and intraventricular haemorrhage in addition to multifocal intracranial superficial siderosis, indicating the presence of a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) as well. Such a combination has not been reported before. In the future, the detection of an intraventricular mass in association with ventricular haemorrhage, with or without SAH, should include HB as a differential diagnosis, particularly when the imaging appearances are not typical of the more common intraventricular tumours. PMID:24273675

  10. Can CT angiography rule out aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in CT scan-negative subarachnoid haemorrhage patients?

    PubMed

    Lim, Lee Kai; Dowling, Richard J; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Current management guidelines for CT scan-negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients recommend cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We aimed to investigate the utility of CT angiography (CTA) as a substitute for DSA in these patients. We included patients who presented with SAH confirmed by spectrophotometric xanthochromia analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) whereby the CT scan was negative. Electronic records were reviewed to collect data on non-contrast CT scan, CTA and DSA results. Patients without DSA or with other explanations for CSF xanthochromia were excluded. Sixty-three patients with CT scan-negative SAH were included. The diagnosis of SAH was confirmed by CSF analysis. All 63 patients underwent both DSA and CTA. Using DSA as the benchmark, CTA demonstrated a negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of 98%, 82%, 90% and 96%, respectively, for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. CTA correctly identified patients in whom there were no underlying aneurysms responsible for SAH, with one patient with suspected dissection referred for further evaluation using MRI and DSA. PMID:23954458

  11. Arteriojugular endothelin-1 gradients in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Menon, David K; Day, Diana; Kuc, Rhoda E; Downie, Andrew J; Chatfield, Doris A; Davenport, Anthony P

    2002-08-01

    Plasma endothelin (ET) is elevated in patients with vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). However, systemic levels provide no indication regarding local production in the brain, and late elevation may be a consequence rather than a cause of vasospasm. We measured arteriojugular (AJ) gradients of ET-1 in 17 patients over the first week after SAH, and related these to the subsequent development of vasospasm. Daily, paired arterial and jugular bulb blood samples were obtained up to seven days post SAH, and assayed for ET-1 using radioimmunoassay. Systemic levels and AJ gradients were compared in patients with and without vasospasm. Significant AJ gradients were observed for ET-1 (P<0.01). These differences remained significant in the subgroup of patients who developed vasospasm (0.12+/-0.05 pmol/l; P<0.05), in whom AJ gradients represented 25+/-7% of systemic levels (0.84+/-0.05 pmol/l). AJ gradients did not reach significance in patients who did not develop vasospasm (0.09+/-0.07 pmol/l; P=0.2). Systemic ET-1 levels and AJ gradients were unrelated to SAH grade, surgical or endovascular interventions, or extracranial complications. AJ gradients in the first week following SAH suggest early production of ET-1 in the cerebrovascular bed. However, early systemic ET-1 levels did not discriminate between patients with and without vasospasm. Larger AJ differences may predict vasospasm, but further work is needed to confirm this observation. AJ gradient measurement may provide a useful technique for investigating the role of other peptides in acute brain injury. PMID:12193132

  12. Simultaneous microsurgical and endovascular management of multiple cerebral aneurysms in acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian James Ling; Paul Steven D’Urso; Anoop Madan

    2006-01-01

    Most aneurysms can be effectively managed using endovascular coiling or microsurgical clipping, but in an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage where there are multiple aneurysms identified, a sequential multimodal approach may prove more beneficial. This report involves a 31-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of severe headache and photophobia. A computed tomography brain scan revealed a diffuse grade II subarachnoid haemorrhagic

  13. Bleeding in the subarachnoid space: a possible complication during laser therapy for equine progressive ethmoid haematoma.

    PubMed

    Vreman, S; Wiemer, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-10-01

    A 10-year-old KWPN (Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands) gelding was euthanized after developing severe neurological symptoms preceded by severe epistaxis during laser treatment for progressive ethmoid haematoma (PEH) in the right nasal cavity. Postmortem examination of the head revealed a large amount of clotted blood between the right ventral and dorsal conchae in the nasal cavity and acute haemorrhage in the right subarachnoid space. Histologically, there was moderate, acute polioencephalomalacia in the neuropil adjacent to the haemorrhage. The haemorrhages were most likely caused by the laser treatment and therefore should be considered a possible complication that could lead to severe peracute neurological symptoms. PMID:24199337

  14. The pathophysiology and treatment of delayed cerebral ischaemia following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Budohoski, Karol P; Guilfoyle, Mathew; Helmy, Adel; Huuskonen, Terhi; Czosnyka, Marek; Kirollos, Ramez; Menon, David K; Pickard, John D; Kirkpatrick, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral vasospasm has traditionally been regarded as an important cause of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) which occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and often leads to cerebral infarction and poor neurological outcome. However, data from recent studies argue against a pure focus on vasospasm as the cause of delayed ischaemic complications. Findings that marked reduction in the incidence of vasospasm does not translate to a reduction in DCI, or better outcomes has intensified research into other possible mechanisms which may promote ischaemic complications. Early brain injury and cell death, blood-brain barrier disruption and initiation of an inflammatory cascade, microvascular spasm, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarisations and failure of cerebral autoregulation, have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of DCI. This review summarises the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the development of DCI. Furthermore, it aims to describe and categorise the known pharmacological treatment options with respect to the presumed mechanism of action and its role in DCI. PMID:24847164

  15. Endovascular Management of Complete Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lenthall, R.K.; White, B.D.; Mcconachie, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection may involve the intradural segment of the VA and result in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). These lesions are frequently associated with recurrent SAH, and have a high mortality. Prior to the development of endovascular techniques the majority of these lesions were treated surgically. In cases where the dissection involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin surgery was associated with significant complications including recurrent SAH from retrograde VA flow into the dissected segment above the surgical clip. We describe two cases of complete VA dissection in which the entire intradural VA was sacrificed to prevent recurrent SAH. The first case tolerated planned left PICA occlusion without developing a significant neurological deficit. The second case had infarcted the right PICA territory at presentation. PMID:20670506

  16. Brain energy metabolism in the acute stage of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage: Local changes in cerebral glucose utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. d'Avella; R. Cicciarello; M. Zuccarello; F. Albiero; A. Romano; F. F. Angileri; F. M. Salpietro; F. Tomasello

    1996-01-01

    Summary An experimental model was used to investigate acute alterations of cerebral metabolic activity in rats subjected to subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Haemorrhages were produced in anaesthetized animals by injecting 0.3 ml of autologous, arterial nonheparinized blood into the cisterna magna. Control rats received subarachnoid injections of mock-cerebrospinal fluid to study the effect of sudden raised intracranial pressure, or underwent sham

  17. Findings of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial and the National Study of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in context.

    PubMed

    Reeves, B C; Langham, J; Lindsay, K W; Molyneux, A J; Browne, J P; Copley, L; Shaw, D; Gholkar, A; Kirkpatrick, P J

    2007-08-01

    Concern has been expressed about the applicability of the findings of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) with respect to the relative effects on outcome of coiling and clipping. It has been suggested that the findings of the National Study of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage may have greater relevance for neurosurgical practice. The objective of this paper was to interpret the findings of these two studies in the context of differences in their study populations, design, execution and analysis. Because of differences in design and analysis, the findings of the two studies are not directly comparable. The ISAT analysed all randomized patients by intention-to-treat, including some who did not undergo a repair, and obtained the primary outcome for 99% of participants. The National Study only analysed participants who underwent clipping or coiling, according to the method of repair, and obtained the primary outcome for 91% of participants. Time to repair was also considered differently in the two studies. The comparison between coiling and clipping was susceptible to confounding in the National Study, but not in the ISAT. The two study populations differed to some extent, but inspection of these differences does not support the view that coiling was applied inappropriately in the National Study. Therefore, there are many reasons why the two studies estimated different sizes of effect. The possibility that there were real, systematic differences in practice between the ISAT and the National Study cannot be ruled out, but such explanations must be seen in the context of other explanations relating to chance, differences in design or analysis, or confounding. PMID:17676447

  18. Delayed Positivization of Cerebral Angiography in Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome (RCVS) Presenting with Recurrent Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Quartuccio, Luca; Tuniz, Francesco; Petralia, Benedetto; Zanotti, Bruno; Skrap, Miran; De Vita, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Benign angiopathy of the central nervous system is a clinical syndrome with evidence of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction (RCVS). Haemorrhagic stroke, either subarachnoid or intracerebral is an unusual presentation of RCVS. We describe a case of RCVS presenting with a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), with rebleeding and onset of hydrocephalus during the first week, and, notably, delayed evidence of typical angiographic features after two negative prior exams. Normalization of the angiographic vasculitic-like lesions was documented at month +6. Repeated cerebral angiograms are mandatory to exclude this kind of disease, and the uncommon presentation of this case reinforces this concept. PMID:22870164

  19. Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, J. D.; Murray, G. D.; Illingworth, R.; Shaw, M. D.; Teasdale, G. M.; Foy, P. M.; Humphrey, P. R.; Lang, D. A.; Nelson, R.; Richards, P.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction of 15% a minimum of 540 patients was required. SETTING--Four regional neurosurgical units in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS--In all 554 patients were recruited between June 1985 and September 1987 out of a population of 1115 patients admitted with subarachnoid haemorrhage proved by the results of lumbar puncture or computed tomography, or both. The main exclusion criterion was admission to the neurosurgical units more than 96 hours after subarachnoid haemorrhage. There were four breaks of code and no exclusions after entry. One patient was withdrawn and in 130 treatment was discontinued early. All patients were followed up for three months and were included in the analysis, except the patient who had been withdrawn. INTERVENTIONS--Placebo or nimodipine 60 mg was given orally every four hours for 21 days to 276 and 278 patients, respectively. Treatment was started within 96 hours after subarachnoid haemorrhage. END POINTS--Incidence of cerebral infarction and ischaemic neurological deficits and outcome three months after entry. MEASUREMENTS--Demographic and clinical data, including age, sex, history of hypertension and subarachnoid haemorrhage, severity of haemorrhage according to an adaptation of the Glasgow coma scale, number and site of aneurysms on angiography, and initial findings on computed tomography were measured at entry. Deterioration, defined as development of a focal sign or fall of more than one point on the Glasgow coma scale for more than six hours, was investigated by using clinical criteria and by computed tomography, by lumbar puncture, or at necropsy when appropriate. All episodes of deterioration and all patients with a three month outcome other than a good recovery were assessed by a review committee. MAIN RESULTS--Demographic and clinical data at entry were similar in the two groups. In patients given nimodipine the incidence of cerebral infarction was 22% (61/278) compared with 33% (92/276) in those given placebo, a significant reduction of 34% (95% confidence interval 13 to 50%). Poor outcomes were also significantly reduced by 40% (95% confidence interval 20 to 55%) with nimodipine (20% (55/278) in patients given nimodipine v 33% (91/278) in those given placebo). CONCLUSIONS--Oral nimodipine 60 mg four hourly is well tolerated and reduces cerebral infarction snd improves outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:2496789

  20. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and cerebral vasculopathy in a child with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Inusa, Baba; Casale, Maddalena; Booth, Caroline; Lucas, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Stroke in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is either infarctive or haemorrhagic in nature. In childhood, over 75% of strokes in SCA are infarctive. We present an adolescent with SCA who developed hypertension at the age of 13, and was treated with lisinopril. Sixteen months later she was found in cardiorespiratory arrest and died on arrival in hospital. The last transcranial Doppler scan performed 6 months before her death and a brain MRI were reported normal. The autopsy discovered massive subarachnoid haemorrhage in association with vascular damage in the circle of Willis arteries. The case highlights a cause of haemorrhagic stroke, the first reported association between hypertension, SCA and a histopathologically proven cerebral vasculopathy. The difficulties in the management of haemorrhagic stroke and the poor outcome in SCA are discussed. PMID:25336550

  1. POS06 Subarachnoid haemorrhage: 13 years of litigation in the NHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Buchanan; A Sekhar; M Sittampalam; S Weatherby

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionSubarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) causes high mortality and morbidity. Learning lessons from litigation is a standard aspect of risk management in many industries. This study, therefore, examined data from the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) on SAH to determine its usefulness in informing clinical risk management.MethodsUnder the freedom of information act, the NHSLA database was interrogated for cases of SAH. Data were

  2. Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Pickard; G. D. Murray; R. Illingworth; M. D. Shaw; G. M. Teasdale; P. M. Foy; P. R. Humphrey; D. A. Lang; R. Nelson; P. Richards

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction

  3. Predictor's of Mortality in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Reebleding

    PubMed Central

    Rivero Rodríguez, Dannys; Scherle Matamoros, Claudio; Cúe, Leda Fernández; Miranda Hernández, Jose Luis; Pernas Sánchez, Yanelis; Pérez Nellar, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Methods. “Ameijeiras Brother's” and “Cmdt. Manuel Fajardo” Hospitals enrolled 64 patients (multicentre retrospective cohort) with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and rebleeding. The patients were admitted to the Stroke Unit (SU) between January 1, 2006, and December 1, 2013. Demographic, clinical, and radiological variables were examined in logistic regression to evaluate independent factors for increasing the risk of death. Results. Patients with systolic blood pressure >160?mmHg (P = 0.02), serum glucose >7?mmol/L (P = 0.02), aneurysm location in artery communicant anterior (P = 0.03), and black/mixed race (P = 0.008) were significant related to death in univariate analysis. Risk factors (HTA, smoke, alcohol consumption, and DM), complication, multiplex rebleeding and stage of WFNS, and Fisher's scale were not related to mortality. Patients with three or more complications had a higher mortality rate (P = 0.002). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that race (black/mixed, P = 0.00, OR 4.62, and 95% IC 1.40–16.26), systolic blood pressure (>160?mmHg, P = 0.05, OR 2.54, and 95% IC 1.01–3.13), and serum glucose (>7.0?mmol/L, P = 0.05, OR 1.82, and 95% IC 1.27–2.67) were independent risk factors for death. Conclusions. The black/mixed race, SBP, and serum glucose were independent predictors of mortality. Three or more complications were associated with increasing the probability to death. Further investigation is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:25722889

  4. To Look Beyond Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Messerer, Mahmoud; Oddo, Mauro; Daniel, Roy Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm has classically been considered the most important and treatable cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Secondary ischemia (or delayed ischemic neurological deficit, DIND) has been shown to be the leading determinant of poor clinical outcome in patients with aSAH surviving the early phase and cerebral vasospasm has been attributed to being primarily responsible. Recently, various clinical trials aimed at treating vasospasm have produced disappointing results. DIND seems to have a multifactorial etiology and vasospasm may simply represent one contributing factor and not the major determinant. Increasing evidence shows that a series of early secondary cerebral insults may occur following aneurysm rupture (the so-called early brain injury). This further aggravates the initial insult and actually determines the functional outcome. A better understanding of these mechanisms and their prevention in the very early phase is needed to improve the prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on this topic and so to illustrate how the presence of cerebral vasospasm may not necessarily be a prerequisite for DIND development. The various factors determining DIND that worsen functional outcome and prognosis are then discussed. PMID:24967389

  5. Acute Aneurismal Bilateral Subdural Haematoma without Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations. PMID:25045554

  6. Haemorrhagic complications of pancreatitis: presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849330

  7. Fatal retroperitoneal haemorrhage: an unusual complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Lau; Siang Hui Lai

    2001-01-01

    A 93-year-old lady with dementia, neurological dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia, died from massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage which developed as a rare and, it is believed, hitherto unreported, complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), which was performed for feeding purposes. It is postulated that the initial, unsuccessful attempt at needle puncture of the stomach, under endoscopic guidance, had resulted in iatrogenic perforation

  8. Subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Vindlacheruvu, Raghu R; Mendelow, A David

    2002-09-01

    Aneurysmal SAH is a devastating condition arising suddenly and usually without warning. The best outcomes may be facilitated by prompt recognition/suspicion and immediate referral to the neurosurgical unit. Many contentious issues surround this subject and the ISAT trial should resolve many of these. Modern developments alongside evidence-based practice should hopefully optimise results. PMID:12233173

  9. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bamford; P Sandercock; M Dennis; J Burn; C Warlow

    1990-01-01

    The age and sex specific incidence rates for cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage in a population of approximately 105,000 are presented. Over four years 675 patients with a first-ever stroke were registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The pathological diagnosis was confirmed by computerised tomography (CT) scan, necropsy or lumbar puncture (cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage only)

  10. Admission blood glucose levels and early change of neurological grade in poor-grade patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sato; M. Nakano; J. Asari; K. Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Background. The neurological grade of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) often changes soon after the patient is admitted to the\\u000a hospital. It is important to closely monitor for such changes within a short period of time after admission; however, there\\u000a are other problems that can occur during this time such as rebleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the

  11. Delayed effects of subarachnoid haemorrhage on cerebral metabolism and the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia in the primate.

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, D P; Pickard, J D; Graham, D I; Fitch, W

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described for the production of subarachnoid haemorrhage in baboons and their subsequent recovery for chronic study of cerebrovascular reactivity. The baboons make complete neurological recoveries but the response of their cerebral circulation to hypercapnia is impaired one week later. Baseline values of cerebral blood flow and of cerebral oxygen consumption are unaffected at this time. There is no evidence of hypoxic brain damage. PMID:117080

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Patients Causes Excessive Oxidative Metabolism Compared to Vascular Smooth Muscle Force Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Pyne; T. A. D. Cadoux-Hudson; J. F. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Summary  ?Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients can stimulate vascular smooth muscle to generate force\\u000a in vitro. CSF from SAH patients suffering from delayed ischaemic neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm can generate\\u000a near maximal force in vitro and previous experiments have ascribed this generation of force to be a calcium mediated event.\\u000a The intracellular calcium concentration has been

  13. Focal subarachnoid haemorrhage mimicking transient ischaemic attack - do we really need MRI in the acute stage?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute non-traumatic focal subarachnoid haemorrhage (fSAH) is a rare transient ischaemic attack (TIA)-mimic. MRI is considered to be indispensable by some authors in order to avoid misdiagnosis, and subsequent improper therapy. We therefore evaluated the role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis of fSAH patients by comparing our cases to those from the literature. Methods From 01/2010 to 12/2012 we retrospectively identified seven patients with transient neurological episodes due to fSAH, who had received unenhanced thin-sliced multiplanar CT and subsequent MRI within 3 days on a 1.5 T scanner. MRI protocol included at least fast-field-echo (FFE), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and time-of-flight (TOF) MRA sequences. By using MRI as gold-standard, we re-evaluated images and data from recent publications regarding the sensitivity to detect fSAH in unenhanced CT. Results fSAH was detected by CT and by FFE and FLAIR on MRI in all of our own cases. However, DWI and T2w-spin-echo sequences revealed fSAH in 3 of 7 and 4 of 6 cases respectively. Vascular imaging was negative in all cases. FFE-MRI revealed additional multiple microbleeds and superficial siderosis in 4 of 7 patients and 5 of 7 patients respectively. Including data from recently published literature CT scans delivered positive results for fSAH in 95 of 100 cases (95%), whereas MRI was positive for fSAH in 69 of 69 cases (100%). Conclusions Thin-sliced unenhanced CT is a valuable emergency diagnostic tool to rule out intracranial haemorrhage including fSAH in patients with acute transient neurological episodes if immediate MRI is not available. However, MRI work-up is crucial and mandatorily has to be completed within the next 24–72 hours. PMID:24720867

  14. Reduction of neutrophil activity decreases early microvascular injury after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) elicits rapid pathological changes in the structure and function of parenchymal vessels (? 100 ?m). The role of neutrophils in these changes has not been determined. This study investigates the role of neutrophils in early microvascular changes after SAH Method Rats were either untreated, treated with vinblastine or anti-polymorphonuclear (PMN) serum, which depletes neutrophils, or treated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), which limits neutrophil activity. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation. Neutrophil infiltration and the integrity of vascular endothelium and basement membrane were assessed immunohistochemically. Vascular collagenase activity was assessed by in situ zymography. Results Vinblastine and anti-PMN serum reduced post-SAH accumulation of neutrophils in cerebral vessels and in brain parenchyma. PDTC increased the neutrophil accumulation in cerebral vessels and decreased accumulation in brain parenchyma. In addition, each of the three agents decreased vascular collagenase activity and post-SAH loss of vascular endothelial and basement membrane immunostaining. Conclusions Our results implicate neutrophils in early microvascular injury after SAH and indicate that treatments which reduce neutrophil activity can be beneficial in limiting microvascular injury and increasing survival after SAH. PMID:21854561

  15. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: outcomes of early rehabilitation after surgical repair of ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Saciri, B; Kos, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to analyse functional and cognitive outcomes in patients receiving early rehabilitation treatment after surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Methods: The assessment protocol included all relevant clinical data, the Hunt-Hess scale, the functional independence measure (FIM), and the mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: Of 59 patients included in the study, 52.5% (31) were men and 47.5% (28) were women. The patients' average age was 52 years, and 57.6% were employed at the time of the aneurysm rupture. The mean duration of hospital stay was 25 days; 67.8% (40) of the patients were discharged home. At discharge, 72.7% of the patients were without any motor impairment, but 59.6% showed cognitive impairment. By the time of discharge, 43.4% (23) of the patients had attained independence in activites of daily living, 18.9% (10) needed intermittent supervision, and 37.7% (20) required constant supervision in the performance of these activities. Conclusions: The severity of cognitive impairment has predictive value for the functional status and the level of supervision required at discharge. PMID:11861690

  16. Leukocyte count and incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, in the majority of cases caused by a rupture of an arterial intracranial aneurysm. The effect of systemic low-grade inflammation on incidence of SAH is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte count, a marker of systemic inflammation, and incidence of SAH in a large cohort study. Methods Leukocyte count and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 19,794 individuals (17,083 men and 2,711 women, mean age 44 years) participating in a health screening program between 1974 and 1981. Incidence of SAH in relation to baseline leukocyte concentration was studied during a mean follow-up of 27 years in participants free from previous stroke. Results Ninety-five participants had a SAH, corresponding to an incidence of 22 per 100,000 in women and 17 per 100,000 in men. The hazard ratio for SAH per one standard deviation (2.01?×?109 cells/L) increase of leukocyte concentration was 1.26 (95% CI 1.05-1.53, p?=?0.014) after adjustment for several potential confounding factors including smoking. In sensitivity analysis, there was a significant association in smokers but not in non-smokers. Conclusions High leukocyte count at baseline was associated with increased incidence of SAH, although this relationship might be restricted to smokers. The results support the view that low-grade systemic inflammation could be involved in the pathogenesis of SAH, or constitute an early risk marker for the disease. PMID:24708536

  17. Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood. PMID:24699459

  18. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%). Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65), with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64). Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681 PMID:20920243

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  20. Elevated level of endothelin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid and lack of nitric oxide in basilar arterial plasma associated with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Neuschmelting; Serge Marbacher; Ali-Reza Fathi; Stephan M. Jakob; Javier Fandino

    2009-01-01

    Background  The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) as two important mediators in the development of cerebral vasospasm\\u000a (CVS) after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether local levels\\u000a of ET-1 and NO in cerebral arterial plasma and\\/or in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with the occurrence of CVS after\\u000a SAH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  CVS

  1. Cortical spreading ischaemia is a novel process involved in ischaemic damage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Major, Sebastian; Manning, Andrew; Woitzik, Johannes; Drenckhahn, Chistoph; Steinbrink, Jens; Tolias, Christos; Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.; Fabricius, Martin; Hartings, Jed A.; Vajkoczy, Peter; Lauritzen, Martin; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Bohner, Georg; Strong, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The term cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) describes a wave of mass neuronal depolarization associated with net influx of cations and water. Clusters of prolonged CSDs were measured time-locked to progressive ischaemic damage in human cortex. CSD induces tone alterations in resistance vessels, causing either transient hyperperfusion (physiological haemodynamic response) in healthy tissue; or hypoperfusion [inverse haemodynamic response = cortical spreading ischaemia (CSI)] in tissue at risk for progressive damage, which has so far only been shown experimentally. Here, we performed a prospective, multicentre study in 13 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, using novel subdural opto-electrode technology for simultaneous laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and direct current-electrocorticography, combined with measurements of tissue partial pressure of oxygen (ptiO2). Regional cerebral blood flow and electrocorticography were simultaneously recorded in 417 CSDs. Isolated CSDs occurred in 12 patients and were associated with either physiological, absent or inverse haemodynamic responses. Whereas the physiological haemodynamic response caused tissue hyperoxia, the inverse response led to tissue hypoxia. Clusters of prolonged CSDs were measured in five patients in close proximity to structural brain damage as assessed by neuroimaging. Clusters were associated with CSD-induced spreading hypoperfusions, which were significantly longer in duration (up to 144 min) than those of isolated CSDs. Thus, oxygen depletion caused by the inverse haemodynamic response may contribute to the establishment of clusters of prolonged CSDs and lesion progression. Combined electrocorticography and perfusion monitoring also revealed a characteristic vascular signature that might be used for non-invasive detection of CSD. Low-frequency vascular fluctuations (LF-VF) (f < 0.1 Hz), detectable by functional imaging methods, are determined by the brain's resting neuronal activity. CSD provides a depolarization block of the resting activity, recorded electrophysiologically as spreading depression of high-frequency-electrocorticography activity. Accordingly, we observed a spreading suppression of LF-VF, which accompanied spreading depression of high-frequency-electrocorticography activity, independently of whether CSD was associated with a physiological, absent or inverse haemodynamic response. Spreading suppressions of LF-VF thus allow the differentiation of progressive ischaemia and repair phases in a fashion similar to that shown previously for spreading depressions of high-frequency-electrocorticography activity. In conclusion, it is suggested that (i) CSI is a novel human disease mechanism associated with lesion development and a potential target for therapeutic intervention in stroke; and that (ii) prolonged spreading suppressions of LF-VF are a novel ‘functional marker’ for progressive ischaemia. PMID:19420089

  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  3. Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating cause of stroke, occurring in relatively young people. It has been suggested that some immune-mediated diseases may be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Methods We analysed a database of linked statistical records of hospital admissions and death certificates for the whole of England (1999–2011). Rate ratios for SAH were determined, comparing immune-mediated disease cohorts with comparison cohorts. Results There were significantly elevated risks of SAH after hospital admission for the following individual immune-mediated diseases: Addison’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Crohn’s disease, diabetes mellitus, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, myxoedema, pernicious anaemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Sjogren’s syndrome, SLE and thyrotoxicosis. Elevated risks that were greater than 2-fold were found for Addison’s disease (rate ratio (RR)?=?2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.97), idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (RR?=?2.42, 1.86-3.11), primary biliary cirrhosis (RR?=?2.21, 1.43-3.16) and SLE (RR?=?3.76, 3.08-4.55). Conclusions Our findings strongly support the suggestion that patients with some immune-mediated diseases have an increased risk of SAH. Further studies of the mechanisms behind this association are warranted. PMID:24229049

  4. Massive alveolar haemorrhage: a rare life threatening complication of Wegener’s granulomatosis—report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Massive diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is an unusual, frequently life threatening and still treatable complication of Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) associated with mortality in more than 66% of cases. DAH is a syndrome that can be a manifestation of variety of disorders. WG, a multisystem necrotising granulomatous vasculitis should always be considered as a possible etiological factor in these patients with or without involvement of other systems, as an early diagnosis and aggressive management with cytotoxic drugs offer best chances of survival in these patients. We report a rare case of 45-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis in accident and emergency department and subsequently diagnosed as WG, and discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature of this rare complication of WG. Approximately 41 cases have been reported so far of this rare complication. PMID:25525588

  5. Massive alveolar haemorrhage: a rare life threatening complication of Wegener's granulomatosis-report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Arora, Richa

    2014-12-01

    Massive diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is an unusual, frequently life threatening and still treatable complication of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) associated with mortality in more than 66% of cases. DAH is a syndrome that can be a manifestation of variety of disorders. WG, a multisystem necrotising granulomatous vasculitis should always be considered as a possible etiological factor in these patients with or without involvement of other systems, as an early diagnosis and aggressive management with cytotoxic drugs offer best chances of survival in these patients. We report a rare case of 45-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis in accident and emergency department and subsequently diagnosed as WG, and discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature of this rare complication of WG. Approximately 41 cases have been reported so far of this rare complication. PMID:25525588

  6. Effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage: statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, no effective treatment of vasospasm exists to date. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. In vitro models have shown a relaxing effect of prostacyclin after induced contraction in cerebral arteries, and a recent pilot trial showed a positive effect on cerebral vasospasm in a clinical setting. No randomized clinical trials have investigated the possible pharmacodynamic effects of prostacyclin on the human brain following SAH. Methods/Design This trial is a single centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double blinded, clinical pilot trial. A total of 90 patients with SAH will be randomized to one of three intervention arms: epoprostenol at 1 ng/kg/min, epoprostenol at 2 ng/kg/min, or placebo in addition to the standard treatment. Trial medication will start on Day 5 after SAH and continue to Day 10. The primary outcome measure is changes in cerebral blood flow measured by a computed tomography (CT) perfusion scan. The secondary outcomes are vasospasm measured by a CT angiography, regional blood flow, clinical symptoms of cerebral ischemia, and outcome at three months (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Discussion The primary outcome has been altered slightly since the publication of our study protocol. Global cerebral blood flow is now primary outcome, whereas regional blood flow is a secondary outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01447095. Registration date: 11 October 2011. PMID:24929796

  7. Posttraumatic intratumoural haemorrhage: an unusual presentation of spinal ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Calisaneller, Tarkan; Coven, Ilker; Altinors, Nur

    2007-01-01

    Ependymomas presenting with intratumoural and/or subarachnoid haemorrhages are seen rarely. These haemorrhages are mostly due to anticoagulation, epidural analgesia or pregnancy. A 62-year-old male farmer with cauda equina syndrome after a work-related trauma is presented. He was admitted to our hospital with paraparesis, faecal incontinance and sensory loss below the level of the lumbar-2 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine displayed an intradural mass lesion at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae. The lesion was excised totally via dorsal midline approach. Histopathologic examination revealed grade-3 ependymoma with intratumoural haemorrhage. The patient’s symptoms were relieved completely on postoperative day 7. The patient was given information about periodical examination for recurrence and discharged on the third postoperative week. Asymptomatic spinal lesions should be considered for operation whenever detected because of unpredicted complications. PMID:17235592

  8. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage: a fatal complication after alemtuzumab induction therapy in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tahir, W; Hakeem, A; Baker, R; Ahmad, N

    2015-01-01

    We report a fatal case of alemtuzumab-induced diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in an 18-year-old male with Alport syndrome. The patient developed acute onset shortness of breath, hemoptysis and fever after renal transplantation. Computed tomography findings were consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage was performed that showed no evidence of pathogenic bacteria or opportunistic infection. The patient was intubated and ventilated because of worsening respiratory function. The patient received plasma electrophoresis and was maintained on tacrolimus and steroids; however, unfortunately the patient died 31 days post-transplantation due to worsening respiratory function and declining graft function. Although the prevalence and the exact mechanism of this fatal complication remain unknown, an awareness of this complication is important to all clinicians using alemtuzumab. This is a second report of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage secondary to alemtuzumab induction in patients with Alport syndrome. PMID:25645795

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intranasal procedures.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, V P; Drapkin, A J; Hollin, S A; Malis, L I

    1977-08-01

    Two cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage complicating intranasal ethmoidectomy are presented. In both, the bleeding was initally considered coincidental to the rupture of a congenital aneurysm or an arteriovenous malformation. A direct relationship between the surgical procedure and the subarachnoid hemorrhage only became evident after extensive studies or after delayed development of CSF rhinorrhea, pneumocephalus and meningitis. PMID:888086

  10. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Warning Signs Stroke Statistics When a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, blood will fill the space surrounding the ...

  11. Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac manifestations are recognized complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy is one complication that is seen in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. It can present as transient diffuse left ventricular dysfunction or as transient regional wall motion abnormalities. It occurs more frequently with neurologically severe-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with increased morbidity and poor clinical outcomes. Managing this subset of patients is challenging. Early identification followed by a multidisciplinary team approach can potentially improve outcomes. PMID:25606704

  12. Omsk haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    R?žek, Daniel; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Karan, Lyudmila S; Tkachev, Sergey E

    2010-12-18

    Omsk haemorrhagic fever is an acute viral disease prevalent in some regions of western Siberia in Russia. The symptoms of this disease include fever, headache, nausea, severe muscle pain, cough, and moderately severe haemorrhagic manifestations. A third of patients develop pneumonia, nephrosis, meningitis, or a combination of these complications. The only treatments available are for control of symptoms. No specific vaccine has been developed, although the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis might provide a degree of protection against Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus. The virus is transmitted mainly by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, but people are mainly infected after contact with infected muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Muskrats are very sensitive to Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus. The introduction of this species to Siberia in the 1930s probably led to viral emergence in this area, which had previously seemed free from the disease. Omsk haemorrhagic fever is, therefore, an example of a human disease that emerged owing to human-mediated disturbance of an ecological niche. We review the biological properties of the virus, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Omsk haemorrhagic fever. PMID:20850178

  13. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain CT scan angiography (using contrast dye) Transcranial Doppler ultrasound -- to look at blood flow in the ... Other complications include: Complications of surgery Medication side effects Seizures Stroke

  14. Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Marburg haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet November 2012 Key facts The Marburg virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever in humans. Case fatality ... environmental controls. Table: Chronology of major Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever outbreaks. Year Country Virus subtype Cases Deaths Case ...

  15. Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  16. An unusual cause of acute internal haemorrhage: cystic artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Fung, A K Y; Vosough, A; Olson, S; Aly, E H; Binnie, N R

    2013-05-01

    Spontaneous cystic artery haemorrhage is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Here we describe a case report of this unusual cause of internal haemorrhage, and discuss the pathogenesis and management strategies. PMID:23728766

  17. Simultaneous supra and infratentorial hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozgur Ozdemir; Tarkan Calisaneller; Erkan Yildirim; Nur Altinors

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is a devastating illness with highmortality and morbidity. Multiple simultaneous intracerebral haemorrhages (MSIHs) in different arterial territories occur rarely. This multiplicity complicates management and increases the mortality rate. A 67-year-old right-handed man with a long history of hypertension was admitted to our hospital with acute loss of consciousness. After the diagnosis of MSIH he was medically treated

  18. Does Subarachnoid Blood Extravasation per se Induce Long-Term Neuropsychological and Cognitive Alterations?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Caruso; M. Caffo; F. Cacciola; M. Belvedere; A. Tisano; M. Raffaele; F. Tomasello

    1998-01-01

    Summary  ?Although recent advances in medical and management strategies have reduced the mortality and morbidity rates related to subarachnoid\\u000a haemorrhage (SAH), patients who survive a SAH may remain nevertheless affected by persistent cognitive and neuropsychological\\u000a disturbances. The presence of these deficits has been attributed to the neurotoxic effects of the widespread subarachnoid\\u000a blood. To assess the long-term neuropsychological and cognitive outcome

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of refractory haemorrhagic cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJ Hughes; AP Schwarer; IL Millar

    1998-01-01

    Haemorrhagic cystitis is a common and often debilitating complication of chemotherapy for which treatment is frequently unsatisfactory. With over 80 cases reported of radiation-induced cystitis treated successfully with hyperbaric oxygen, attention is now turning to the treatment of chemotherapeutic agent-induced cystitis. We report a case of haemorrhagic cystitis occurring after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. The

  20. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus diseases All information on Ebola virus disease Technical information, publications, situation assessments, feature ...

  1. Name: dhr. prof. dr. G.J.E. Rinkel Neurology, in particular haemorrhagic stroke

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    -mail address g.j.e.rinkel@umcutrecht.nl Research Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage and cardiologists. Another line within the research is genetics of intracranial aneurysms. Most of the research has and benefits of screening for intracranial aneurysms in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic

  2. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

  3. Hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Germanwala, Anand V; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Its incidence is approximately 20% to 30%, and its onset can be acute, within 48 hours after SAH, or rarely chronic, occurring in a delayed fashion weeks and even months after the hemorrhage. Early recognition of its signs and symptoms and accurate interpretation of computed tomography (CT) studies are important for the management of patients with SAH. Clinically, a poor neurologic grade has the highest correlation with an increased incidence of hydrocephalus. Radiographically, the bicaudate index on CT studies has emerged as the best marker of this condition. Although further studies are needed to understand the complex pathophysiology of this condition, hydrocephalus after SAH can be treated effectively using current technology. PMID:20380968

  4. Rapid thrombosis of middle cerebral artery aneurysm after subarachnoid haemmorhage.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Tarun; Srivastava, Trilochan; Mittal, R S; Tejwani, Shankar; Raghavendra, B S; Jain, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous thrombosis of intracranial aneurysm is a rare event but is frequent after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and in fusiform or giant saccular aneurysms. We report a case of a 20-year-old man presenting with SAH due to rupture of a giant aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery. Initial CT angiography (CTA) revealed partially thrombosed MCA aneurysm but digital subtraction angiography performed 3 days later revealed complete occlusion of the aneurysm. Rapid thrombosis of aneurysm within 3 days has not been reported in literature so far. PMID:23576642

  5. Rapid thrombosis of middle cerebral artery aneurysm after subarachnoid haemmorhage

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Tarun; Srivastava, Trilochan; Mittal, R S; Tejwani, Shankar; Raghavendra, B S; Jain, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous thrombosis of intracranial aneurysm is a rare event but is frequent after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and in fusiform or giant saccular aneurysms. We report a case of a 20-year-old man presenting with SAH due to rupture of a giant aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery. Initial CT angiography (CTA) revealed partially thrombosed MCA aneurysm but digital subtraction angiography performed 3?days later revealed complete occlusion of the aneurysm. Rapid thrombosis of aneurysm within 3?days has not been reported in literature so far. PMID:23576642

  6. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

  7. Intracranial Extension of Spinal Subarachnoid Hematoma Causing Severe Cerebral Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Byung Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) can extend into the intracranial subarachnoid space, but, severe cerebral vasospasm is rare complication of the extension of intracranial SAH from a spinal subarachnoid hematoma. A 67-year-old woman started anticoagulant therapy for unstable angina. The next day, she developed severe back pain and paraplegia. MRI showed intradural and extramedullar low signal intensity at the T2-3, consistent with intradural hematoma. High signal intensity was also noted in the spinal cord from C5 to T4. We removed subarachnoid hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The following day, the patient complained of severe headache. Brain CT revealed SAH around both parietal lobes. Three days later, her consciousness decreased and left hemiplegia also developed. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple cerebral infarctions, mainly in the right posterior cerebral artery territory, left parietal lobe and right watershed area. Conventional cerebral angiography confirmed diffuse severe vasospasm of the cerebral arteries. After intensive care for a month, the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation department. After 6 months, neurologic deterioration improved partially. We speculate that surgeons should anticipate possible delayed neurological complications due to cerebral vasospasm if intracranial SAH is detected after spinal subarachnoid hematoma. PMID:25628817

  8. Ketorolac tromethamine associated with diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage: high-resolution CT findings.

    PubMed

    Rubin, A Sperb; Hochhegger, B; Irion, K L; Marchiori, E; Binukrishnan, S Rajeswari; Moreira, J S; Zanetti, G

    2010-07-01

    Drug-induced lung diseases are a frequent cause of morbidity. Diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage is an uncommon complication of drug therapy, and is a potentially life-threatening situation. We report the high-resolution CT and clinical findings of a 32-year-old man with diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage induced by ketorolac tromethamine. PMID:20603403

  9. Viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

  10. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  11. Severe intracranial haemorrhage in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Francisco; Morais, Sofia; Sevivas, Teresa; Veiga, Ricardo; Salvado, Ramon; Taborda, Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is a rare (1/1000–5000 births) life-threatening disorder, caused by fetomaternal incompatibility for a fetal human platelet alloantigen inherited from the father, with production of maternal alloantibodies against fetal platelets, leading to severe thrombocytopenia and potential bleeding. Intracranial haemorrhage is the most feared complication. This report presents the case of a term newborn infant, born from caesarean section after a normal pregnancy, presenting signs of skin bleeding with different ages. Obstetric history included a previous spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis. Severe thrombocytopenia (4×109/l platelets) was found and brain ultrasound showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Human platelet antigen (HPA) phenotyping showed maternal negative HPA-1a and paternal positive HPA-1a platelets. Strongly positive anti-HPA-1a and weakly positive anti-human leukocyte antigen class I alloantibodies were found in the mother. Multiple platelet transfusions, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid were given but favourable response was accomplished only after a compatible platelet transfusion. Brain MRI showed multiple subacute and chronic haemorrhages. PMID:22679192

  12. Primary pontine haemorrhage revealed by pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography, and a report on surgically treated cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kowada; Z. Ito; Sh. Matsuoka; K. Yamaguchi

    1971-01-01

    Summary Pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography has been carried out in seven cases of primary pontine haemorrhage. An extensive mass lesion has been distinctly visualized in all cases during life without any severe complications.

  13. Neuroprotection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Kolls, Brad J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in aneurysm ablation and the initial management of patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed cerebral ischemia remains a significant source of morbidity. Traditionally, delayed cerebral ischemia was felt to be a result of vasospasm of the proximal intracranial vessels, and clinical trials have relied largely on radiographic evidence of vasospasm as a surrogate for functional outcome. However, a number of trials have demonstrated a dissociation between angiographic vasospasm and outcome, and more recent data suggests that other mechanisms of injury, such as microvascular dysfunction and complex neuronal-glial interactions may influence the development of delayed ischemic deficit following aSAH. Our evolving understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischemia may offer the opportunity to test new therapeutic strategies in this area and improve clinical trial design. PMID:20876512

  14. [Two cases of severe variceal haemorrhage from an ileal conduit.

    PubMed

    Lunden, Dagmar; Poulsen, Johan; Kloster, Brian O

    2014-09-22

    Variceal haemorrhage from an ileal conduit is a rare but well-known complication to portal hypertension. Many treatments are described and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is the treatment of choice if possible, because this addresses the underlying portal hypertension. We report two cases of haemorrhage from an ileal conduit, which illustrates that treatment must be individualized with attention to life expectancy, co-morbidities and degree of the portosystemic pressure gradient, but TIPS treatment has to be considered even if there is no history of liver disease. PMID:25294334

  15. [Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis. Criteria of letality (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P L; Lemoine, F; Regnier, B; Salvat, A; Lange, J; Julien, M; Germain, A

    1980-07-01

    A retrospective study of severity symptoms in a series of 102 patients operated upon for acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis showed that the risk of death was much significantly higher when shock (p less than 0,00001) and renal failure (p less than 0,0001) were present. The association, during the post-operative period, of shock and renal failure with one of the following symptoms: digestive haemorrhage, psychic disorders, pulmonary oedema, post-operative peritonitis and evisceration invariably proved fatal. It is suggested that controlled therapeutic trials should be carried out in patients presenting with these complications. PMID:6967596

  16. Haemorrhagic Enteropathies in Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. F. McAllum

    1982-01-01

    Sir, — I would like to draw your readers’ attention to the occurrence of post-stress haemorrhagic enteropathies in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Haemorrhagic enteropathy has been observed in approximately 75 percent of red deer necropsied at the Invermay Animal Health Laboratory and has also been seen in wapiti (Cervus canadensis). Deer dying with post-stress haemorrhagic enteropathy commonly have splash haemorrhages

  17. Radiation–Induced Haemorrhagic Cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy P. Crew; Catherine R. Jephcott; John M. Reynard

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: In this article we review the literature concerning the frequency and management of severe haemorrhagic radiation–induced cystitis.Methods: A Medline search was performed from 1966 to 1999 for articles in English. A total of 309 references were found. Abstracts and complete articles were reviewed.Results: Severe haemorrhagic cystitis following radiotherapy remains a relatively rare event. However, the fact that it is

  18. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Qian; Wu, Haijian; Krafft, Paul R.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH. PMID:25110700

  19. Rest tremor and extrapyramidal symptoms after midbrain haemorrhage: clinical and 18F-dopa PET evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Defer, G L; Remy, P; Malapert, D; Ricolfi, F; Samson, Y; Degos, J D

    1994-01-01

    A 25 year old man had an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of a right peduncular subthalamic arteriovenous malformation. Seven months later he developed a left rest tremor associated with mild bilateral extrapyramidal symptoms and responsive to levodopa treatment. Surface EMG recording showed synchronous activity of agonist and antagonist muscles in the left limbs. A PET 18F-dopa study showed a large decrease of the Ki value in the right striatum. One year after the stroke a persistent postural component developed in the tremor. Images PMID:8057126

  20. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  1. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  2. Pulmonary haemorrhage following renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, G. A.; Klapper, P.

    1995-01-01

    The case history is presented of a 32 year old black man who developed haemoptysis leading to pulmonary haemorrhage and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. He was found to have Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung with no evidence of skin or endobronchial lesions. PMID:7886663

  3. Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A World Health Organization page devoted to the control of dengue. Many excellent informative PDF files are available from this page dealing with vector control, as well as recognition of symptoms, and treatment of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Estimated numbers of at risk people are staggering. A powerful resource for teaching the importance of vector borne diseases.

  4. Haematological management of obstetric haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleftheria Lefkou; Beverley Hunt

    2008-01-01

    Obstetric haemorrhage (OH) remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, 140 000–160 000 women die annually. Uterine atony (70%), and retained and invasive placentae remain the commonest causes. Rarely OH is due to an inherited bleeding disorder. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are documented, not all cases are expected or avoidable. Haematological management includes regular monitoring

  5. Early Endovascular Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Matias-Guiu, Jordi A.; Serna-Candel, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Rebleeding is one of its major complications, which occurs mainly within the first 24 h and worsens the clinical outcome in a very dramatic way. It may be prevented by aneurysm treatment: surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. We review the evidence of and recent advances in endovascular treatment and timing of the intervention. Data supporting the benefit of early (<72 h) and ultra-early (<24 h) treatment is based on observational studies. An earlier approach may be relevant for the prevention of rebleeding and improvement of clinical outcome, but several disadvantages should be considered, such as an increased rate of periprocedural complications. Hence, a well-designed randomized controlled trial deems necessary to be able to define the optimal time of treatment. The possibility of treatment concomitant with the initial angiography should also be taken into account in this trial. This fact might represent a benefit favoring coiling over clipping in the prevention of rebleeding, and thus avoiding the inevitable delay necessary for the preparation for surgery. PMID:25187768

  6. Successfull Management of a Life Threatening Cerebellar Haemorrhage Following Spine Surgery - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Belaïd, Hayat; Aldea, Sorin

    2009-01-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhages are rare life-threatening complications following spine surgery that present challenges for their diagnostic and their therapeutic management. Their patho-physiology remains unclear. We report a case of a life-threatening cerebellar haemorrhage secondary to an occult dural tear following a planned L5-S1 laminectomy. The patient was treated with emergent external ventriculostomy following by a posterior fossa decompressive craniectomy. Cerebellar haemorrhages have to be suspected systematically when unexpected neurological signs occur after spine surgery since their rapid management lead to favourable outcomes. The present imaging findings allow us proposing that cerebellar haemorrhages result primarily from superior cerebellar venous stretching and tearing, and that cerebellar infarction and swelling occur secondarily. PMID:20404944

  7. Progressive post traumatic tearing of an arachnoid cyst membrane resulting in intracystic and subdural haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Heather M; Phal, Pramit M; King, James A J

    2015-05-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man with a middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst who presented post trauma with neurological symptoms. The initial CT scan of the brain did not detect acute changes in the arachnoid cyst but subsequent imaging revealed abnormalities which progressed over time. Arachnoid cysts are usually a benign and incidental finding. Rare complications such as intracystic haemorrhage and subdural haemorrhage can occur. It is important to be aware of these complications so that patients with arachnoid cysts are appropriately investigated when presenting with neurological symptoms. PMID:25769260

  8. Neuroradiological aspects of subdural haemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Datta, S; Stoodley, N; Jayawant, S; Renowden, S; Kemp, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To review the neuroimaging of a series of infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haemorrhage (SDH). Methods: Neuroradiological investigations of 74 children under 2 years of age, from South Wales and southwest England, in whom an SDH or subdural effusion had been diagnosed between 1992 and 2001, were reviewed. Two paediatric neuroradiologists blinded to the original radiological report reviewed all the relevant images. Results: Neuroradiological review of images identified radiological features which were highly suggestive of non-accidental head injury (NAHI). Interhemispheric haemorrhages and SDHs in multiple sites or of different densities were almost exclusively seen in NAHI. MRI was more sensitive in identifying SDHs of different signal characteristics, posterior and middle cranial fossa bleeds, and parenchymal changes in the brain. CT scans, if performed with suboptimal protocols, were likely to miss small subdural bleeds. Conclusions: Guidelines for neuroimaging in suspected NAHI are recommended. A radiologist with experience in NAHI should report or review these scans. The initial investigation should be CT, but MRI will also be necessary in most cases. Head CT should be an integral part of the skeletal survey in all infants less than 6 months of age referred for child protection investigation, and in children less than 2 years where child abuse is suspected and there are neurological signs, retinal haemorrhages, or fractures. PMID:16113131

  9. Management of variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S. G.; Westaby, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fig 2 gives an algorithm for the treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices. Initial resuscitation of the patient is of paramount importance, ideally followed by early interventional endoscopy. Recent advances in available endoscopic techniques enable the endoscopist to suit the therapeutic approach to the clinical situation. Injection sclerotherapy remains the initial treatment of choice in bleeding patients. Endoscopic banding ligation is an alternative, best used in patients who have spontaneously stopped bleeding or as a complementary treatment a few days after the initial session of injection sclerotherapy. The tissue adhesives and thrombin can be used to treat bleeding gastric varices. [table: see text] Should the endoscopic expertise not be available, drug treatment (with somatostatin or octreotide) or balloon tamponade are the treatments of choice. Transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic stent shunt is a new effective technique, not yet widely available, which has a documented complication rate that has yet to be fully defined. It is a good alternative to surgery as a "rescue" procedure for patients who continue to bleed despite two sessions of endoscopic intervention. PMID:8180541

  10. Reduction in periventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Szymonowicz, W; Yu, V Y; Walker, A; Wilson, F

    1986-01-01

    Our previous cerebral ultrasound study of antecedents of periventricular haemorrhage in infants weighing 1250 g or less at birth suggested that neonatal events that caused increased or fluctuating cerebral blood flow lead to periventricular haemorrhage. As the risk period for this type of haemorrhage was the first four days of life strict guidelines were introduced to avoid the previously identified neonatal risk factors. No attempt was made to modify obstetric practice. Over the next two years, although the obstetric risk profile, the frequency and severity of hyaline membrane disease, and the gestation, birth weight, and sex distributions of a similar cohort of infants did not change, the incidence of periventricular haemorrhage decreased significantly from 60% to 36%. Significant antecedents of haemorrhage similar to those found in the previous study included severe bruising, low arterial:fractional inspiratory oxygen ratio and low packed cell volume on admission, hyaline membrane disease, hypercarbia, and hypoxaemia. Assisted ventilation, pneumothorax, treatment with tubocurarine, and hypotension were no longer significant risk factors for periventricular haemorrhage. A multivariate discriminant analysis correctly predicted haemorrhage in 86% of the study group when bruising, hypercarbia, hypoxaemia, hyaline membrane disease, and low gestation were considered. These results suggest that changes in neonatal practices can reduce the incidence of periventricular haemorrhage and that drug studies indicating similar reduction in haemorrhage need to be evaluated carefully to ensure that placebo and treated groups are in fact comparable. PMID:3740905

  11. Neurologic Complications of Infective Endocarditis: Retrospective Review of 100 Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Hun Kim; Jaseong Koo; Byung-Woo Yoon; Eulji Hospital

    2001-01-01

    † Background : Neurological syndromes often complicate the management of infective endocarditis. Methods : We reviewed the neurological complications in 100 patients with infective endocarditis in a tertiary care hospital. Results : Neurological complications occurred in 25 patients (25%). Ischemic infarctions occurred in 15 patients, hemorrhagic infarctions in 5, intracerebral hemorrhages in 12, subarachnoid hemorrhages in 4, and subdural hemorrhages

  12. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze. PMID:25685569

  13. Anaesthesia in a patient with subarachanoidal haemorrhage and high oxygen affinity haemoglobinopathy (HB york): case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 90 haemoglobinopathies have been identified that result in abnormally high oxygen affinity. One of these is haemoglobinopathy York (HbY), first described in 1976. HbY causes an extreme leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve with the P50 value changing to 12.5 - 15.5 mmHg (normal value 26.7 mmHg), indicating that approximately half of the haemoglobin is not available as oxygen carrier. Patients with haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity could suffer from the risk developing ischaemic complications due to a lack of functional oxygen carriers. This is, to best of our knowledge, the first case report on a patient with HbY published in connection with anesthesia. Case Presentation A 42-year-old female with a severe headache and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 15 was admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit with a ruptured, right sided ICA aneurysm with consecutive subarachnoid haemorrhage [Fisher III, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) I)]. The medical history of the patient included an erythrocytosis (Hb 17.5?g/dl) on the base of a high-oxygen-affinity haemoglobinopathy, called Hb York (HbY). With no time available to take special preoperative precautions, rapid blood loss occurred during the first attempt to clip the aneurysm. General transfusion procedures, according to the guidelines based on haemoglobin and haematocrit values, could not be applied due to the uncertainty in the oxygen carrier reduction. To maintain tissue oxygen supply, clinical indicators of ischaemia were instead utilized to gauge the appropriate required blood products, crystalloids and colloids replacements. Despite this, the patient survived the neurosurgical intervention without any neurological deficit. Conclusions Family members of patients with HbY (and other haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity) should undergo clinical assessment, particularly if they are polycythaemic. If the diagnosis of HbY is confirmed, they should carry an "emergency anaesthesiology card" in order to avert perioperative risks arising from their "hidden" anemia. PMID:22870883

  14. Treatment and outcome of neonatal haemorrhagic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Brouwer

    2011-01-01

    Treatment and outcome of neonatal haemorrhagic brain injury In this thesis we have described the treatment and outcome of preterm infants with a severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) who subsequently developed post haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD). In addition we described the treatment and outcome of term infants who suffered from an intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). There are considerable differences in the diagnostic

  15. Intracerebral haemorrhage, anticoagulation and mechanical heart valves: what should I do next?

    PubMed

    Shah, R; Shah, D; Koganti, S; Davies, R

    2013-01-01

    Life-long oral anticoagulant therapy is recommended to all patients with mechanical heart valves to reduce the incidence of thromboembolic events. However, intracerebral haemorrhage is the fatal complication associated with anticoagulation, with an estimated 6-month mortality of 67%. (1) The incidence of cerebral bleeding while on anticoagulation is 0.3-0.7%/year, with as many as 85% of survivors left with permanent neurological deficits. (2) Difficulties in management arise when anticoagulation is temporarily discontinued as mechanical valves, particularly mitral, are exposed to significant thromboembolic and valve dysfunction risk. The decision on when to appropriately restart anticoagulation needs to be balanced with the risk of precipitating further cerebral haemorrhage. There are currently no guidelines on the optimal time to start anticoagulation. We describe a case of the management approach implemented in a patient with a mechanical valve presenting to the emergency department with an acute intracerebral haemorrhage. PMID:23814121

  16. A mycotic forearm pseudoaneurym as an unusual complication of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo M; Amaral, Carlos Oliveira; Valentim, Hugo Dias; Quintas, Anita; Ferreira, Maria Emília; Castro, João Albuquerque; Capitão, Luís Mota

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Mycotic pseudoaneurysms are an infrequent complication of infective endocarditis; most cases are secondary to arterial trauma. The commonest site involved are the intracranial arteries, followed by the abdominal aorta and then the peripheral vessels. Case presentation: We report a case of a 36-year-old man, admitted in our institution for a subarachnoid haemorrhage, who presented with fever of unknown origin during his stay in the neurocritical care unit and whom was diagnosed infective endocarditis due to Meticilin Sensible Staphylococcus Aureus. Almost two weeks after antibiotic therapy was instituted, he presented a large, growing, pulsatile mass of the left forearm. A giant pseudoaneurysm arising from the radial artery was detected with ultrasound and surgical intervention was carried out. A large laceration of the radial artery was detected and an interposition of a vein graft was performed. Discussion: Forearm mycotic pseudoaneurysms are rare. A high index of suspicion is needed and they should always be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of an extremity pain, swelling or motor-sensorial deficit after infective endocarditis. PMID:25177745

  17. Comparison of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Yang Chang; Chi-Man Kuok; Yung-Cheng Chen; Shan-Jin Ryu; Ya-Chung Tian; Yah-Huei Wu-Chou; Fang-Ji Tseng; Chih-Wei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are two subtypes of hemorrhagic stroke that may cause severe complications in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The differences in clinical features between SAH and ICH associated with ADPKD are not known. Methods: Among 647 ADPKD patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2007 in our hospital, 11 with ICH (1.7%) and

  18. Nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: diagnosis, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Anish; Schweizer, Tom A; Spears, Julian; Cusimano, Michael; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-12-01

    Patients with nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (NAPSAH) have no discernible source for the bleeding and generally are considered to have a benign condition. Correctly diagnosing these patients is essential because a missed aneurysm can have catastrophic consequences. Those presenting with NAPSAH have a low risk of complications and better outcome than patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, a limited body of literature suggests that not all of these patients are able to return to their premorbid functional status. Clinical screens of cognitive status, such as the mini-mental status examination, suggest good recovery of these patients, although these tests may lack sensitivity for identifying deficits in this patient population. More comprehensive neuropsychologic testing in some studies has identified deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains at long-term follow-up in patients with NAPSAH. Because these patients often do not lose consciousness (and thus do not have substantial transient global ischemia) and they do not undergo a procedure for aneurysm repair, the cognitive sequelae can be explained by the presence of blood in the subarachnoid space. NAPSAH presents an opportunity to understand the effects of subarachnoid blood in a clinical setting. PMID:25003696

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the African-American population: a cooperative study.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, G. C.; Welch, B.; Cole, A. N.; Mendoza, R.; Morgan, J.; Epps, J.; Bernard, E.; St Louis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical outcome of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage is complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia and contributing factors such as hypertension. To observe the impact of hypertension and delayed cerebral ischemia on the outcome of a predominantly African-American cohort following subarachnoid hemorrhage, both retrospective (n = 42) and prospective (n = 21) studies were conducted. In the total pool (n = 63), the mean age was 49.7 years (range: 17 to 80) with a preponderance of female patients (70%). Aneurysm formation was significant in the region of the posterior communicating artery. Of the patients reviewed, 73.8% had preexisting hypertension and 45.9% developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Approximately 89% of the patients who suffered from delayed cerebral ischemia had hypertension. Results failed to display any significant beneficial association between the use of the calcium channel blocker nimodipine and delayed cerebral ischemia. Use of the antifibrinolytic drug aminocaproic acid demonstrated a worse patient outcome. It is not recommended that aminocaproic acid be used in this population. Subsequently, due to the proportional occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia in hypertensive patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is suggested that prophylactic surgical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms be considered in hypertensive patients. Further study is needed to discern the association between hypertension, delayed cerebral ischemia, and stroke in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:9046763

  20. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years. PMID:25660265

  1. The durability of endovascular coiling versus neurosurgical clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms: 18 year follow-up of the UK cohort of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT)

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Andrew J; Birks, Jacqueline; Clarke, Alison; Sneade, Mary; Kerr, Richard S C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Previous analyses of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) cohort have reported on the risks of recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage and death or dependency for a minimum of 5 years and up to a maximum of 14 years after treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm with either neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling. At 1 year there was a 7% absolute and a 24% relative risk reduction of death and dependency in the coiling group compared with the clipping group, but the medium-term results showed the increased need for re-treatment of the target aneurysm in the patients given coiling. We report the long-term follow-up of patients in this UK cohort. Methods In ISAT, patients were randomly allocated to either neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling after a subarachnoid haemorrhage, assuming treatment equipoise, between Sept 12, 1994, and May 1, 2002. We followed up 1644 patients in 22 UK neurosurgical centres for death and clinical outcomes for 10·0–18·5 years. We assessed dependency as self-reported modified Rankin scale score obtained through yearly questionnaires. Data for recurrent aneurysms and rebleeding events were collected from questionnaires and from hospital and general practitioner records. The Office for National Statistics supplied data on deaths. This study is registered, number ISRCTN49866681. Findings At 10 years, 674 (83%) of 809 patients allocated endovascular coiling and 657 (79%) of 835 patients allocated neurosurgical clipping were alive (odds ratio [OR] 1·35, 95% CI 1·06–1·73). Of 1003 individuals who returned a questionnaire at 10 years, 435 (82%) patients treated with endovascular coiling and 370 (78%) patients treated with neurosurgical clipping were independent (modified Rankin scale score 0–2; OR 1·25; 95% CI 0·92–1·71). Patients in the endovascular treatment group were more likely to be alive and independent at 10 years than were patients in the neurosurgery group (OR 1·34, 95% CI 1·07–1·67). 33 patients had a recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage more than 1 year after their initial haemorrhage (17 from the target aneurysm). Interpretation Although rates of increased dependency alone did not differ between groups, the probability of death or dependency was significantly greater in the neurosurgical group than in the endovascular group. Rebleeding was more likely after endovascular coiling than after neurosurgical clipping, but the risk was small and the probability of disability-free survival was significantly greater in the endovascular group than in the neurosurgical group at 10 years. Funding UK Medical Research Council. PMID:25465111

  2. Vestibular neurectomy with simultaneous endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nebil Göksu; Yildirim A. Bayazit; Abdullah Abdulhalik; Yusuf K. Kemalo?lu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages of combined vestibular neurectomy (VN) and endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt (ELSS) surgeries in classic Menière's disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of the results of 116 patients with classic Menière's disease who were operated on via a posterior fossa approach. All patients underwent selective VN. In 86 of the patients, ELSS

  3. Subdural haemorrhages in infants: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, S; Rawlinson, A; Gibbon, F; Price, J; Schulte, J; Sharples, P; Sibert, J R; Kemp, A M

    1998-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence, clinical outcome, and associated factors of subdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age, and to determine how such cases were investigated and how many were due to child abuse. Design Population based case series. Setting South Wales and south west England. Subjects Children under 2 years of age who had a subdural haemorrhage. We excluded neonates who developed subdural haemorrhage during their stay on a neonatal unit and infants who developed a subdural haemorrhage after infection or neurosurgical intervention. Main outcome measures Incidence and clinical outcome of subdural haemorrhage in infants, the number of cases caused by child abuse, the investigations such children received, and associated risk factors. Results Thirty three children (23 boys and 10 girls) were identified with subdural haemorrhage. The incidence was 12.8/100?000 children/year (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 20.2). Twenty eight cases (85%) were under 1 year of age. The incidence of subdural haemorrhage in children under 1 year of age was 21.0/100?000 children/year and was therefore higher than in the older children. The clinical outcome was poor: nine infants died and 15 had profound disability. Only 22 infants had the basic investigations of a full blood count, coagulation screen, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal survey or bone scan, and ophthalmological examination. In retrospect, 27 cases (82%) were highly suggestive of abuse. Conclusion Subdural haemorrhage is common in infancy and carries a poor prognosis; three quarters of such infants die or have profound disability. Most cases are due to child abuse, but in a few the cause is unknown. Some children with subdural haemorrhage do not undergo appropriate investigations. We believe the clinical investigation of such children should include a full multidisciplinary social assessment, an ophthalmic examination, a skeletal survey supplemented with a bone scan or a skeletal survey repeated at around 10 days, a coagulation screen, and computed tomography or magentic resonance imaging. Previous physical abuse in an infant is a significant risk factor for subdural haemorrhage and must be taken seriously by child protection agencies. Key messagesSubdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age is a relatively common occurrence. The majority are due to child abuseThe mortality and morbidity of this condition are both high and seriousThe high probability of child abuse in cases is still not being recognised, and cases are not being investigated fullyThe clinical investigation of subdural haemorrhage must include a full series of basic investigationsPrevious child abuse in an infant is a strong risk factor for subdural haemorrhage, and social services must be aware of this in the future care plans for that child and family PMID:9836654

  4. Gastrointestinal complications of mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Slater, D N; Bleehen, S S; Beck, S

    1984-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an uncommon T-cell lymphoma which characteristically involves the skin. Two patients with MF are described who developed fatal complications secondary to involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. One developed malabsorption due to small intestinal involvement; the other had a massive haemorrhage from an ulcerated nodule of tumour in the stomach. The potential for extracutaneous spread is discussed, and it is emphasized that bowel infiltration should be considered in any patient with MF who develops gastrointestinal symptoms or complications. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:6737393

  5. Neuroprotection in a rabbit model of intraventricular haemorrhage by cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Csiszar, Anna; Hu, Furong; Dummula, Krishna; Pandey, Nishi Kant; Zia, Muhammad T.; Ferreri, Nicholas R.; Ungvari, Zoltan; LaGamma, Edmund F.

    2010-01-01

    Intraventricular haemorrhage is a major complication of prematurity that results in neurological dysfunctions, including cerebral palsy and cognitive deficits. No therapeutic options are currently available to limit the catastrophic brain damage initiated by the development of intraventricular haemorrhage. As intraventricular haemorrhage leads to an inflammatory response, we asked whether cyclooxygenase-2, its derivative prostaglandin E2, prostanoid receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in intraventricular haemorrhage; whether their suppression would confer neuroprotection; and determined how cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines were mechanistically-linked. To this end, we used our rabbit model of intraventricular haemorrhage where premature pups, delivered by Caesarian section, were treated with intraperitoneal glycerol at 2 h of age to induce haemorrhage. Intraventricular haemorrhage was diagnosed by head ultrasound at 6 h of age. The pups with intraventricular haemorrhage were treated with inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-?; and cell-infiltration, cell-death and gliosis were compared between treated-pups and vehicle-treated controls during the first 3 days of life. Neurobehavioural performance, myelination and gliosis were assessed in pups treated with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor compared to controls at Day 14. We found that both protein and messenger RNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, prostanoid receptor-1, tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? were consistently higher in the forebrain of pups with intraventricular haemorrhage relative to pups without intraventricular haemorrhage. However, cyclooxygenase-1 and prostanoid receptor 2–4 levels were comparable in pups with and without intraventricular haemorrhage. Cyclooxygenase-2, prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-? inhibition reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, apoptosis, neuronal degeneration and gliosis around the ventricles of pups with intraventricular haemorrhage. Importantly, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition alleviated neurological impairment, improved myelination and reduced gliosis at 2 weeks of age. Cyclooxygenase-2 or prostanoid receptor-1 inhibition reduced tumour necrosis factor-? level, but not interleukin-1?. Conversely, tumour necrosis factor-? antagonism did not affect cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Hence, prostanoid receptor-1 and tumour necrosis factor-? are downstream to cyclooxygenase-2 in the inflammatory cascade induced by intraventricular haemorrhage, and cyclooxygenase-2-inhibition or suppression of downstream molecules—prostanoid receptor-1 or tumour necrosis factor-?—might be a viable neuroprotective strategy for minimizing brain damage in premature infants with intraventricular haemorrhage. PMID:20488889

  6. Relation between portal pressure response to pharmacotherapy and risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Feu; J. C García-Pagán; J Bosch; A Luca; A Escorsell; J Rodés; J Terés

    1995-01-01

    SummaryIn patients with variceal bleeding as a complication of hepatic cirrhosis, propranolol therapy reduces the risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage. However, the relation between portal pressure response to pharmacological treatment and clinical events has not been well defined. This relation was prospectively investigated in 69 cirrhotic patients receiving continued propranolol therapy after an episode of variceal bleeding. Hepatic venous pressure

  7. Role of the massive transfusion protocol in the management of haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Waters, J H

    2014-12-01

    The concept of rapid delivery of multiple blood products to the bedside of a massively haemorrhaging patient seems to be a logical approach to the management of the massively bleeding patient. However, controversy exists in the use of fixed blood component ratios. Assessing the extent of the coagulopathy through point-of-care testing might provide patients with product administration as needed, and avoid excessive transfusion and its associated complications. PMID:25498580

  8. Massive Subaponeurotic Haemorrhage in Infants Born by Vacuum Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Ahuja; M. L. N. Willoughby; Margaret M. Kerr; J. H. Hutchison

    1969-01-01

    Nine out of 232 infants on whom the vacuum extractor was employed developed subaponeurotic haemorrhage and two of these infants died. In a further 78 infants born by vacuum extraction, all of whom received intramuscular vitamin K1, four sustained subaponeurotic haemorrhage and one died. This type of haemorrhage was not encountered in over 12,000 infants born by other methods. Its

  9. Should we use stents in subarachnoid hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Lopes, D; Mangubat, E; Keigher, K; Cogan, C

    2011-03-01

    Based on findings from the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms is associated with the lowest immediate morbidity and mortality rates compared to other treatment options.1, 2 Whenever anatomy permits, coiling is the preferred method for repair. Unfortunately, not all cerebral aneurysms are suitable for coiling, and the best treatment for aneurysms that cannot be coiled remains unclear. Adjunctive techniques such as surgical clipping, balloon remodeling,3 use of two microcatheters,4 and intracranial stents 5 can increase the likelihood of aneurysm thrombosis and parent vessel patency. The goal of this article is to describe our current practice using intracranial stents in appropriately selected patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as a result of aneurysm rupture. PMID:21464808

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Moss; S. L. Turner; R. C. Trout; P. J. White; P. J. Hudson; A. Desai; M. Armesto; N. L. Forrester; E. A. Gould

    2002-01-01

    Millions of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have died in Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand during the past 17 years following infection by Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). This highly contagious and deadly disease was first identified in China in 1984. Epidemics of RHDV then radiated across Europe until the virus apparently appeared in Britain in 1992.

  11. Haemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome presenting with myoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Teig, N; Nuesslein, T G

    1996-02-01

    An infant with haemorrhagic shock encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) who in addition presented with hyperpyrexia and myoglobinuria is reported. As rhabdomyolysis is a feature of heat stroke and malignant hyperthermia, the association of HSES with myoglobinuria supports the hypothesis that HSES may be a form of hypermetabolic state triggered by hyperthermia. PMID:8660084

  12. Perioperative critical care management for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442

  13. Good functional recovery following intervention for delayed suprachoroidal haemorrhage post bleb needling: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S Cannon; A Fiona Spencer; Michael Lavin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Bleb needling is a recognised procedure in the management of patients with failing trabeculectomies. Suprachoroidal haemorrhage\\u000a can occur as an unusual complication. We report a pseudophakic man who had early surgical intervention for this complication.\\u000a This intervention may have contributed to the good recovery of his visual acuity and the minimum changes to his visual fields.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case presentation  A 79-year-old pseudophakic

  14. Methemoglobin is an endogenous toll-like receptor 4 ligand-relevance to subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min Seong; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Kurland, David B; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Palmer, Andre F; Banerjee, Uddyalok; Iqbal, Sana; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a well-recognized consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and may be responsible for important complications of SAH. Signaling by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) in microglia plays a critical role in neuronal damage after SAH. Three molecules derived from erythrocyte breakdown have been postulated to be endogenous TLR4 ligands: methemoglobin (metHgb), heme and hemin. However, poor water solubility of heme and hemin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination have confounded our understanding of these molecules as endogenous TLR4 ligands. We used a 5-step process to obtain highly purified LPS-free metHgb, as confirmed by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Using this preparation, we show that metHgb is a TLR4 ligand at physiologically relevant concentrations. metHgb caused time- and dose-dependent secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), from microglial and macrophage cell lines, with secretion inhibited by siRNA directed against TLR4, by the TLR4-specific inhibitors, Rs-LPS and TAK-242, and by anti-CD14 antibodies. Injection of purified LPS-free metHgb into the rat subarachnoid space induced microglial activation and TNF? upregulation. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that, following SAH, metHgb in the subarachnoid space can promote widespread TLR4-mediated neuroinflammation. PMID:25751721

  15. Postoperative haemorrhage following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and photoselective vaporisation of the prostate (PVP)

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mark; Sriprasad, Seshadri; Subramonian, Kesavapillai; Thompson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intractable haemorrhage after endoscopic surgery, including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and photoselective vaporisation of the prostate (PVP), is uncommon but a significant and life-threatening problem. The knowledge and technical experience to deal with this complication may not be wide-spread among urologists and trainees. We describe our series of TURPs and PVPs and the incidence of postoperative bleeding requiring intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 437 TURPs and 590 PVPs over 3 years in our institution. We describe the conservative, endoscopic and open prostatic packing techniques used for patients who experienced postoperative bleeding. RESULTS Of 437 TURPs, 19 required endoscopic intervention for postoperative bleeding. Of 590 PVPs, two patients were successfully managed endoscopically for delayed haemorrhage at 7 and 13 days post-surgery, respectively. In one TURP and one PVP patient, endoscopic management was insufficient to control postoperative haemorrhage and open exploration and packing of the prostatic cavity was performed. CONCLUSIONS Significant bleeding after endoscopic prostatic surgery is still a potentially life-threatening complication. Prophylactic measures have been employed to reduce peri-operative bleeding but persistent bleeding post-endoscopic prostatic surgery should be treated promptly to prevent the risk of rapid deterioration. We demonstrated that the technique of open prostate packing may be life-saving. PMID:20522311

  16. Simultaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Carotid Cavernous Fistula after Rupture of a Paraclinoid Aneurysm during Balloon-Assisted Coil Embolization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantine C. Phatouros; V. Halbach; Adel M. Malek; Christopher F. Dowd; Randall T. Higashida

    Summary: We describe an iatrogenic perforation of a par- aclinoid aneurysm during balloon-assisted coil emboliza- tion that resulted in simultaneous subarachnoid contrast extravasation and a carotid cavernous fistula. The causa- tive factors specifically related to the balloon-assisted meth- od that led to aneurysm rupture are discussed as well as strategies for dealing with this complication. The neck remodeling or balloon-assisted

  17. Preventing Vasospasm Improves Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Rationale and Design of CONSCIOUS2 and CONSCIOUS3 Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Loch Macdonald; Randall T. Higashida; Emanuela Keller; Stephan A. Mayer; Andy Molyneux; Andreas Raabe; Peter Vajkoczy; Isabel Wanke; Aline Frey; Angelina Marr; Sébastien Roux; Neal F. Kassell

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a frequent but unpredictable complication associated\\u000a with poor outcome. Current vasospasm therapies are suboptimal; new therapies are needed. Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor\\u000a antagonist, has shown promise in phase 2 studies, and two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials (CONSCIOUS-2\\u000a and CONSCIOUS-3) are underway to further investigate its impact on vasospasm-related outcome after

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey P. Kanne; Lee B. Talner

    2004-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms occur in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) approximately five times more often than in the general population, and in the same patient group, subarachnoid hemorrhage from rupture of aneurysms occurs about a decade earlier than in the general population. We present a case of unsuspected ADPKD presenting as spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial

  19. Management of post-partum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, J; Stefanovic, V; Lassila, R

    2010-11-01

    Management of post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) involves the treatment of uterine atony, evacuation of retained placenta or placental fragments, surgery due to uterine or birth canal trauma, balloon tamponade, effective volume replacement and transfusion therapy, and occasionally, selective arterial embolization. This article aims at introducing pregnancy- and haemorrhage-induced changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis and their relevant compensatory mechanisms, volume replacement therapy, optimal transfusion of blood products, and coagulation factor concentrates, and briefly cell salvage, management of uterine atony, surgical interventions, and selective arterial embolization. Special attention, respective management, and follow-up are required in women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease, carriers of haemophilia A or B, and rare coagulation factor deficiencies. We also provide a proposal for practical instructions in the treatment of PPH. PMID:21069897

  20. Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  1. Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Causes Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenori Suzuki; Takumi Sozen; Yu Hasegawa; Wanqiu Chen; Kenji Kanamaru; Waro Taki; John H. Zhang

    \\u000a \\u000a Objects: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a well-known complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which potentially causes\\u000a a poor outcome. The aim of this study was to examine if NPE occurs in the endovascular perforation model of SAH in mice and if apoptosis contributes to NPE development after SAH in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Sham-operated or SAH mice were treated with an intraperitoneal

  3. Brain monitoring after subarachnoid hemorrhage: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Provencio, J Javier; Rasmussen, Peter A; Manno, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate despite advances in neurocritical care. Intraparenchymal monitors providing continuous bedside physiological data have been introduced into the care of the neurocritically ill and are the focus of clinical research. We review the available technology for bedside brain monitoring and the knowledge that has been gathered and its clinical utility by organizing it into 3 main areas: detecting vasospasm early, establishing end points to resuscitation in the management of cerebral vasospasm, and developing insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Finally, we discuss its implications for the field and future directions. PMID:21508881

  4. Liver biopsy complications monitored by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hederström, E; Forsberg, L; Florén, C H; Prytz, H

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) was performed in 96 patients (on 108 occasions) 2-4 h after diagnostic liver puncture with a modified Menghini needle. Serious complications (major haemorrhages: one intraparenchymal and one into the abdominal cavity) were seen in two patients, while seven presented with minor bleedings though without any registered clinical abnormality (slight pain in one). On 11 occasions (10 patients) slight to moderate pain was observed though in combination with a normal US. Findings on US and clinical observations showed poor correlation and the number of bleeding complications discovered by US examination seems to depend upon when the study is performed. US does not replace the clinical follow-up but may be helpful in the presence of adverse clinical reactions in order to establish the type of lesion: profuse parenchymal haemorrhage versus bleeding into the abdominal cavity. This information may be helpful in the choice between conservative and surgical therapy. PMID:2646368

  5. Description of the Vasospasm Phenomena following Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Oded; Bruk, Bela; Bakon, Mati; Hadani, Moshe; Harnof, Sagi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-NASAH) is characterized by a benign course compared with aneurysmal SAH. While vasospasm (VS) after aneurysmal SAH is considered responsible for serious complications, VS post-PM-NASAH is not well documented. Our purpose was to characterize the incidence and course of VS among 63 patients—one of the largest databases of PM-NASAH patients with documented blood flow velocities in the literature. Methods. Data from 63 patients that were admitted with PM-NASAH from 2000 to 2012 and underwent transcranial Doppler tests to assess cranial vessel flow velocity was analyzed. Results. On average, the maximal flow velocity was measured on the 7th day after hemorrhage. Higher risk for VS was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher Hunt and Hess scores, a lower risk for patients treated with statins (P < 0.05). Using velocity thresholds for diagnosis of VS, 49.2% showed evidence of VS. This is the first description of blood flow velocities in PM-NASAH. VS average onset was on the 4th day, average cessation on day 15 after hemorrhage. No patients showed clinical manifestation of VS. Conclusions. VS post-PM-NASAH is not as rare as previously believed. However, its lack of clinical significance raises questions regarding the need for diagnosis and may suggest a less intensive treatment protocol. PMID:24455690

  6. Inflammation, Vasospasm, and Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes, and there are few pharmacologic treatments available for treating this condition. Both animal and human studies provide evidence of inflammation being a driving force behind the pathology of SAH, leading to both direct brain injury and vasospasm, which in turn leads to ischemic brain injury. Several inflammatory mediators that are elevated after SAH have been studied in detail. While there is promising data indicating that blocking these factors might benefit patients after SAH, there has been little success in clinical trials. One of the key factors that complicates clinical trials of SAH is the variability of the initial injury and subsequent inflammatory response. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the variability of patients' post-SAH inflammatory response and that this confounds trials of anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, systemic inflammation from other conditions that affect patients with SAH could contribute to brain injury and vasospasm after SAH. Continuing work on biomarkers of inflammation after SAH may lead to development of patient-specific anti-inflammatory therapies to improve outcome after SAH. PMID:25105123

  7. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

  8. Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

  9. The complications of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Coptcoat, M J; Webb, D R; Kellett, M J; Fletcher, M S; McNicholas, T A; Dickinson, I K; Whitfield, H N; Wickham, J E

    1986-12-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy has been shown to be a safe and effective method of treating most upper urinary tract stones. Major complications, although few, include haemorrhage, septicaemia, "Steinstrasse" formation and cardiac arrhythmias. The experience from 600 consecutive cases is reviewed and methods of prevention are discussed. PMID:3801809

  10. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

  11. Diabetic retinopathy: different risk factors for exudates and haemorrhages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Dowd; J. Howard-Williams; V. Thursfield; A. J. Bron; T. D. R. Hockaday; J. I. Mann

    1986-01-01

    The retinae of 137 patients were examined ophthalmologically and for visual acuity at diagnosis of noninsulin dependent diabetes and again in 1982 and 1983, approximately 7 and 8 years later, when colour photographs were also taken. In 1983, 46% were without detectable retinopathy, 32% had haemorrhages (including microaneurysms) only, 4% exudates alone and 18% both lesions. Those with haemorrhages were

  12. Infective endocarditis--rare cause of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepti; Ramraj, Meena; Purohit, Vikas; Mittal, Lalchand

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral haemorrhage occurs rarely in infective endocarditis. Here, we present a case of young female with severe intracerebral haemorrhage. Later, she found to be a case of infective endocarditis with mitral valve prolapse and on investigation blood culture grew S. aureus. PMID:25327044

  13. Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers LUCILLE BLUMBERG | DELIA ENRIA | DANIEL G. BAUSCH

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    171 Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers LUCILLE BLUMBERG | DELIA ENRIA | DANIEL G. BAUSCH 16 Overview INTRODUCTION Viral haemorrhagic fever (HF) is a term first coined by Russian physicians in the 1940s to describe a syndrome comprised of fever, a constellation of initially nonspecific signs and symp- toms

  14. Principles of neuroanesthesia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Sandeep; Mahendru, Vidhi; Gupta, Vishnu; Choudhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with high mortality. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is important as early intervention can improve outcome. Increasing age, altered sensorium and poor Hunt and Hess grade are independent predictors of adverse outcome. Early operative interventions imposes an onus on anesthesiologists to provide brain relaxation. Coiling and clipping are the two treatment options with increasing trends toward coiling. Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade I or II with uneventful intraoperative course are extubated in operation theater, whereas, higher grades are kept electively ventilated. Postoperative management includes attention toward fluid status and early management of vasospasm. PMID:25190938

  15. Spontaneous Spinal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Spontaneous Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) is a rare entity to cause spinal cord or nerve root compression and is usually managed as surgical emergencies. We report a case of spontaneous SSH manifesting as severe lumbago, which demonstrated nearly complete clinical resolution with conservative treatment. A 58-year-old female patient developed a large SSH, which was not related to blood dyscrasia, anticoagulation, lumbar puncture, or trauma. Patient had severe lumbago but no neurologic deficits. Because of absence of neurologicl deficits, she was treated conservatively. Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) image showed complete resolution. Conservative treatment of SSH may be considered if the patient with spontaneous SSH has no neurologic deficits. PMID:19444355

  16. Cervical Subarachnoid Hematoma of Unknown Origin: Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Romano; M. Marsella; N. Swamy; G. de Courten-Myers; M. Zuccarello

    1999-01-01

    Summary  ?Objective and Importance. Spontaneous spinal subarachnoid hematoma is rare, having been reported in the English literature in only seven other cases.\\u000a We describe the first case of spontaneous subarachnoid hematoma located in the cervical spinal cord of a 43-year-old man.\\u000a The pathologic examination showed no apparent source of bleeding, but there was evidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.\\u000a \\u000a ?Clinical Presentation. The

  17. The neuropathology of infant subdural haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney; Mack, Julie

    2009-05-30

    Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) in the infant has a different pattern from that seen in the older child and adult. It is usually a widespread, bilateral, thin film, unlike the thick, space-occupying and often unilateral clot seen in older children and adults after trauma. Whether both arise by the same mechanism is unknown, but it seems unlikely. Most SDH is said to be due to trauma but in infants there are other, atraumatic causes. Birth is also important; recent MRI studies show an incidence of almost 50% in asymptomatic neonates. Traumatic SDH is said to result from rupture of bridging veins but new insights into the anatomy of infant dura suggest a dural origin for thin film subdural bleeding in young babies. Acute SDH usually rapidly resolves, but sometimes develops into a chronic fluid collection. Healing of SDH is by formation of a granulating membrane which may confer vulnerability to rebleeding, either spontaneously or after an otherwise innocuous event. SDH has a particular significance as one of the features of the triad (together with retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy) associated with non-accidental injury. As the possibility of non-accidental injury is often first raised by a radiologic report of subdural bleeding, it becomes critically important in the interpretation of the scan appearances to understand the unique physiology and anatomy of the infant dura. PMID:19303229

  18. Levels of immunoreactive cysteinyl-leukotrienes in CSF after subarachnoid haemorrhage correlate with blood flow-velocity in TCD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Winking; H. W. Müller; W. Deinsberger; A. Joedicke; D. K. Boeker

    1997-01-01

    Summary Lipid peroxidation and enhanced arachidonic acid metabolism is activated after blood-brain cell contact. Previous studies have indicated that cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) have the capacity to constrict arterial vessels in vivo and in vitro suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of cyst-LT in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in

  19. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Preparedness and Response Pregnant Women and Flu Pregnancy Complications On this Page Before Pregnancy During Pregnancy ... to decrease the risk of pregnancy complications. Before Pregnancy Make sure to talk to your doctor about ...

  20. Major complications after percutaneous nephrostomy—lessons from a department audit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Lewis; U Patel

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To audit the performance of our percutaneous nephrostomy service by comparing the major complication rate with the standards recommended by the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology and the American College of Radiology: major haemorrhage in METHODS: Major complications sustained between January 1997–December 2002 were identified. All cases had been carried out by the interventional radiology service of a

  1. Maternal Mortality Review: A Case of Pulmonary Haemorrhage Due to Ruptured Lung Haemangioma Secondary to Ghon's Focus Invasion.

    PubMed

    Paranthaman, V; Subashini, A

    2014-02-01

    Haemangioma can be present in the lung but rarely causes complications unless there is a bleed. Ghon's focus is a result of post primary tuberculosis. It is a caseating granuloma which invades the surrounding tissue. It is usually benign and may resolve spontaneously without causing complications or active tuberculosis. This case illustrates an unfortunate patient who had a pre-existing haemangioma in the lung which was in close proximity of a Ghon's focus that had invaded on to the haemangioma leading to haemorrhage causing death. This study seeks to highlight the importance of conducting a full post mortem in cases of maternal mortality. PMID:24814628

  2. Subarachnoid-pleural fistula—case report and review of literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Shannon; Brian Kendall; DGT Thomas; H Baker

    1982-01-01

    The investigation and surgical closure of a subarachnoid pleural fistula following direct trauma to the dorsal spinal theca and spinal cord are described and a review of the literature on spinal subarachnoid-pleural fistula is presented.

  3. The Relationship between Localized Subarachnoid Inflammation and Parenchymal Pathophysiology after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, James W.; Afshar, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid inflammation following spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to the formation of localized subarachnoid scarring and the development of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). While PTS is a devastating complication of SCI, its relative rarity (occurring symptomatically in about 5% of clinical cases), and lack of fundamental physiological insights, have led us to examine an animal model of traumatic SCI with induced arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that arachnoiditis associated with SCI would potentiate early parenchymal pathophysiology. To test this theory, we examined early spatial pathophysiology in four groups: (1) sham (non-injured controls), (2) arachnoiditis (intrathecal injection of kaolin), (3) SCI (35-g clip contusion/compression injury), and (4) PTS (intrathecal kaolin+SCI). Overall, there was greater parenchymal inflammation and scarring in the PTS group relative to the SCI group. This was demonstrated by significant increases in cytokine (IL-1? and IL-1?) and chemokine (MCP-1, GRO/KC, and MIP-1?) production, MPO activity, blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, and MMP-9 activity. However, parenchymal inflammatory mediator production (acute IL-1? and IL-1?, subacute chemokines), BSCB permeability, and fibrous scarring in the PTS group were larger than the sum of the SCI group and arachnoiditis group combined, suggesting that arachnoiditis does indeed potentiate parenchymal pathophysiology. Accordingly, these findings suggest that the development of arachnoiditis associated with SCI can lead to an exacerbation of the parenchymal injury, potentially impacting the outcome of this devastating condition. PMID:22655536

  4. Paradoxical association of moyamoya syndrome with large middle cerebral artery aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case report.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hidenori; Fujimura, Miki; Inoue, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2010-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fluctuating dysarthria during the past 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed old cerebral infarction of the left cerebral hemisphere with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the left sylvian fissure. Cerebral angiography showed a large saccular aneurysm, 14 mm in diameter, at the bifurcation of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in association with moyamoya vasculopathy with atherosclerosis, including steno-occlusive changes at the bilateral terminal internal carotid arteries and abnormal net-like vessels at the base of the brain. She underwent microsurgical neck clipping of the large aneurysm followed by superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis without complication. Intraoperative findings showed no evidence of aneurysm rupture, suggesting that the subarachnoid hemorrhage was due to the intrinsic pathology of moyamoya vasculopathy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged without neurological deficit. Association of moyamoya syndrome with large MCA aneurysm is extremely rare, and formation of large aneurysm at the vascular territory of an occluded vessel is apparently unique. PMID:21206184

  5. Vestibular neurectomy with simultaneous endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt.

    PubMed

    Göksu, Nebil; Bayazit, Yildirim A; Abdulhalik, Abdullah; Kemalo?lu, Yusuf K

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages of combined vestibular neurectomy (VN) and endolymphatic subarachnoid shunt (ELSS) surgeries in classic Menière's disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of the results of 116 patients with classic Menière's disease who were operated on via a posterior fossa approach. All patients underwent selective VN. In 86 of the patients, ELSS surgery was performed in conjunction with VN via the posterior fossa, which is called two-in-one surgery. Among the 86 patients who underwent two-in-one surgery, hearing preservation was achieved in 71 (82.5%), and the vertigo control rate was 96.5%. In patients who underwent VN without ELSS, hearing stabilization was achieved in 24 (80%), and the vertigo control rate was 96.7%. The hearing results and vertigo control rates were similar in the groups. Aural fullness subsided in 62 (72.1%) of the patients who underwent VN plus ELSS and in 14 (46.7%) who underwent VN alone. The recovery of fullness was significantly better with the combined VN and ELSS procedure ( P<0.05). In conclusion, although the two-in-one operation is a new procedure, its results for vertigo control and hearing stabilization are not different from that of VN alone. The only significant advantage of this technique was the achievement of a substantial improvement in the reduction of aural fullness. PMID:12107526

  6. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Following Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Geibprasert, S.; Krings, T.; Apitzsch, J.; Reinges, M.H.T.; Nolte, K.W.; Hans, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Isolated posterior spinal artery aneurysms are rare vascular lesions. We describe the case of a 43-year-old man presenting with spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage after a minor trauma who was found to have a dissecting aneurysm of a posterior spinal artery originating from the right T4 level. Endovascular treatment was not contemplated because of the small size of the feeding artery, whereas surgical resection was deemed more appropriate because of the posterolateral perimedullary location that was well appreciated on CT angiography. After surgical resection of the aneurysm the patient had a complete neurological recovery. In comparison to anterior spinal artery aneurysms whose pathogenesis is diverse, posterior spinal aneurysms are most often secondary to a dissection and represent false or spurious aneurysms. Although the definite diagnosis still requires spinal angiography, MRI and CT may better delineate the relationship of the aneurysm to the spinal cord in order to determine the best treatment method. Prompt treatment is recommended as they have high rebleeding and mortality rates. PMID:20642894

  7. Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus: cellular aspects

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; Leucocyte populations from rainbow trout subjected to experimental viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus is produced. This could also be related to the stress induced by the experimental infection process. rainbow / leucocyte / phagocytose INTRODUCTION Haematopoietic tissues are particularly sus- ceptible to fish

  8. Crimean Congo-Haemorrhagic Fever treated with oral ribavirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Khan; S. Rehman; S. P. Fisher-Hoch; S. Mirza; M. Khurshid; J. B. McCormick

    1995-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an often- lethal haemorrhagic fever caused by a tick-borne virus. There are no published data on ribavirin treatment of CCHF-infected patients, despite established in-vitro and in-vivo sensitivity. We report three health workers—two surgeons and a hospital worker—infected with CCHF virus in Pakistan who were treated with oral ribavirin 4 g\\/day for four days, then 2·4

  9. Treatment with Ginsenoside Rb1, A Component of Panax Ginseng , Provides Neuroprotection in Rats Subjected to Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingbo Li; Jiping Tang; Nikan H. Khatibi; Mei Zhu; Di Chen; Liu Tu; Li Chen; Shali Wang

    \\u000a \\u000a Objective: Recent trials have shown Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), an active component of a well known Chinese medicine Panax Ginseng, plays a significant role in improving the complications seen after an ischemic brain event. In the present study, we investigated\\u000a the use of GRb1 as a treatment modality to reduce brain edema, reduce arterial vasospasm, and improve neurobehavioral function\\u000a after subarachnoid

  10. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miguel A; Maud, Alberto; Rodriguez, Gustavo J

    2014-01-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome was first described by Call, Fleming, and colleagues. Clinically this entity presents acutely, with severe waxing and waning headaches (“thunderclap”), and occasional fluctuating neurological signs. Case presentation We present four subsequent cases of patients with severe thunderclap headache and brain tomography with evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The brain angiogram showed no aneurysm but intracranial vasculopathy consistent with multiple areas of stenosis and dilatation (angiographic beading) in different territories. Conclusion Neurologists should be aware of Call Fleming syndrome presenting with severe headache and associated convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage. After other diagnoses are excluded, patients can be reassured about favorable prognosis with symptomatic management. Abbreviations RCVS Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome CT Computed tomography SAH Subarachnoid hemorrhage MR Magnetic resonance CTA Computed tomography angiography MRA Magnetic resonance angiography PMID:25132905

  11. Cerebral vasospasm following traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aminmansour, Bahram; Ghorbani, Abbas; Sharifi, Davood; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cerebral vasospasm is a preventable cause of death and disability in patients who experience aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of cerebral vasospasm following traumatic SAH and its relationship with different brain injuries and severity of trauma. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2006 to March 2007 in department of Neurosurgery in Al-Zahra Hospital. Consecutive head-injured patients who had SAH on the basis of an admission CT scan were prospectively evaluated. The severity of the trauma was evaluated by determining Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography evaluations were performed at least 48 hours after admission and one week thereafter. Vasospasm in the MCA and ACA was defined by mean flow velocity (FV) of more than 120 cm/sec with a Lindegaard index (MVA/ICA FV ratio) higher than 3. Basilar artery vasospasm was defined by FV higher than 85 cm/sec. Results: Seventy seven patients with tSAH were enrolled from whom 13 were excluded. The remaining were 52 (81.2%) men and 12 (18.7%) women, with a mean age of 37.89 years. Trauma was severe in 11 (17.2%), moderate in 13 (20.3%), and mild in 40 (62.5%) patients. From all, 27 patients (42.1%) experienced at least one vasospasm during the study period and MCA vasospasm was the most common in the first and second weeks (55.5%). Conclusions: Traumatic SAH is associated with a high incidence of cerebral vasospasm with a higher probability in patients with severe TBI. PMID:21772907

  12. Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Frangiskakis, J. Michael; Hravnak, Marilyn; Crago, Elizabeth A.; Tanabe, Masaki; Kip, Kevin E.; Gorcsan, John; Horowitz, Michael B.; Kassam, Amin B.; London, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are attributable to myocardial injury, decreased ventricular function, and ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Our objective was to test the relationships between QTc prolongation, VA, and survival after SAH. Methods In 200 subjects with acute aneurysmal SAH, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, and telemetry were evaluated. Serum electrolytes and troponin were also evaluated. Results Initial QTc (mean 460 ± 45 ms) was prolonged (?470 ms) in 38% of subjects and decreased on follow-up (469 ± 49 initial vs. 435 ± 31 ms follow-up; N = 89; P < 0.0001). VA was present in 14% of subjects, 52% of subjects with VA had QTc ? 470 ms, and initial QTc trended toward longer duration in subjects with VA (474 ± 61 vs. 457 ± 42 ms; P = 0.084). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant predictors of VA after SAH were increasing age (OR 1.3/5 years; P = 0.025), increasing stroke severity (OR 1.8; P = 0.009), decreasing heart rate (OR 0.5/10 beats/min; P= 0.006), and the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist use at SAH onset (OR 0.10; P = 0.027). All-cause mortality was 19% (25/135) at 3 months and subjects with VA had significantly higher mortality than those without VA (37% vs. 16%; P = 0.027). Conclusions These data demonstrate that QTc prolongation and arrhythmias are frequently noted after SAH, but arrhythmias are often not associated with QTc prolongation. In addition, the presence of VA identified subjects at greater risk of mortality following their SAH. PMID:19184553

  13. Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

  14. An overview of new pharmacological treatments for cerebrovascular dysfunction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm and the resulting cerebral ischemia occurring after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still responsible for the considerable morbidity and mortality in patients affected by cerebral aneurysms. Mechanisms contributing to the development of vasospasm, abnormal reactivity of cerebral arteries and cerebral ischemia after SAH have been intensively investigated in recent years. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of vasospasm is related to a number of pathological processes, including endothelial damage, smooth muscle cell contraction resulting from spasmogenic substances generated during lyses of subarachnoid blood clots, changes in vascular responsiveness and inflammatory or immunological reactions of the vascular wall. A great deal of experimental and clinical research has been conducted in an effort to find ways to prevent these complications. However, to date, the main therapeutic interventions remain elusive and are limited to the manipulation of systemic blood pressure, alteration of blood volume or viscosity, and control of arterial dioxide tension. Even though no single pharmacological agent or treatment protocol has been identified which could prevent or reverse these deadly complications, a number of promising drugs have been investigated. Among these is the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), the main regulator of erythropoiesis. It has recently been found that EPO produces a neuroprotective action during experimental SAH when its recombinant form (rHuEPO) is systemically administered. This topic review collects the relevant literature on the main investigative therapies for cerebrovascular dysfunction after aneurysmal SAH. In addition, it points out rHuEPO, which may hold promise in future clinical trials to prevent the occurrence of vasospasm and cerebral ischemia after SAH. PMID:14739002

  15. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Pregnancy > You're pregnant: Now what? Pregnancy This information in Spanish ( en español ) Pregnancy complications Health problems before pregnancy Pregnancy related problems Infections during pregnancy When to call the doctor ...

  16. A murine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lung Lin; Tarkan Calisaneller; Naoya Ukita; Aaron S Dumont; Neal F Kassell; Kevin S Lee

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The availability of a mouse model of SAH that is simple, replicable and has low mortality would provide a powerful approach for understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to post-SAH pathologies. The present study characterizes a mouse model of experimental SAH, which produces consistent constriction of

  17. Signaling Pathways for Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gen Kusaka; Mami Ishikawa; Anil Nanda; D. Neil Granger; John H. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the signaling pathways that contribute to early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using a rat SAH model, the authors explored the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mitogen-activation protein kinase (MAPK) in early brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 172) weighing 300 to 350 g were used for the experimental SAH model,

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Cognitive Complaints after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. C. A. Passier; J. M. A. Visser-Meily; M. J. E. van Zandvoort; M. W. M. Post; G. J. E. Rinkel; C. van Heugten

    2010-01-01

    Background: To investigate the prevalence of cognitive complaints after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the relationships between cognitive complaints and cognitive impairments, disability and emotional problems. Methods: Cognitive complaints were assessed with the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional Consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) in 111 persons who visited our outpatient clinic 3 months after SAH. Associations between cognitive complaints and cognitive functioning,

  19. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic. Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 106.5-104.5 infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

  20. Massive obstetric haemorrhage following removal of a cervical suture.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Louise Ann; Sherliker, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of massive ante partum haemorrhage following removal of a cervical suture. This patient was admitted for routine removal of a McDonald's cervical suture at 37 weeks gestation. The suture was densely adherent and after removal she suffered a haemorrhage of 2500 ml from where the suture was removed which led to fetal distress and an emergency caesarean section. The cervix was sutured and a vaginal pack inserted. During the procedure she developed hypovolaemic shock requiring 7 units of blood, 4 units of fresh frozen plasma, 1 unit of platelets and 1 unit of cryoprecipitate. Ten days later she was readmitted with a postpartum haemorrhage of 1000 ml requiring further haemostatic sutures to the cervix. PMID:22696714

  1. Applicability and safety of recombinant activated factor VII to control non-haemophilic haemorrhage: investigational experience in 265 children.

    PubMed

    Herbertson, M; Kenet, G

    2008-07-01

    Experience of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) to control haemorrhage in non-haemophilic children is limited. The object of this study was to examine the applicability and safety of rFVIIa amongst a group of non-haemophilic paediatric subjects. Details of all non-haemophilic children < or =16 years receiving rFVIIa whose data were recorded in the investigational, internet-based registry, haemostasis.com were analysed. A total of 265 children (mean age 7.7 years) were treated with rFVIIa; the median dose administered was 78.4 microg kg(-1) body weight (range 9.0-393.4) and the median total dose received 100.0 microg kg(-1) body weight (range 10.9-1341.2). Therapeutic areas included surgery (34.5%), coagulopathy (including thrombocytopenia; 29.0%), spontaneous bleeding (17.2%), trauma (8.4%) and intracranial haemorrhage (4.5%). Two patients experienced thromboembolic events following administration of rFVIIa. Thirty-nine patients died on account of haemorrhage or complications relating to their underlying condition; neither the thromboembolic events nor the deaths were related to rFVIIa administration. Bleeding stopped in 118/237 (49.8%), markedly decreased in 54/237 (22.8%), decreased in 51/237 (21.5%), remained unchanged in 13/237 (5.5%) and increased in 1/237 (0.4%) patients. These results suggest that rFVIIa is safe and widely applicable in children to control non-haemophilic haemorrhage. PMID:18445016

  2. Selection of rainbow trout resistant to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and transmission

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    poorly as compared with the fins of susceptible fish. rainbow trout / selection / viral haemorrhagicSelection of rainbow trout resistant to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and transmission a programme of selection for resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout

  3. Introduction Complications

    E-print Network

    Rapidity Gaps Between Jets Matthew Beckingham DIS 2002, Cracow 30 April ­ 4 May 2002 Contents: . Introduction . Complications and Gap Definition . Models . Dijet Cross sections . Gap Fractions #12; Rapidity Gaps Between Jets, Matthew Beckingham Rapidity Gaps Between Jets Dh t g e e' x p x g w jet jet P

  4. Eighteen years of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in France

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Eighteen years of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in France P de Kinkelin M. This provided the impetus for immuno- prophylaxis development that resulted in 3 successive types of vaccines: inactivated, live attenuated and recombinant vaccines. When delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the 2

  5. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage secondary to propylthiouracil-induced vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Catarina; Costa, Teresa; Marques, Ana Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Propylthiouracil is a drug used to treat hyperthyroidism. It can cause several side effects including pulmonary disorders that, although rare, can be severe. The authors describe the case of a woman treated with propylthiouracil who developed diffuse alveolar haemorrhage with severe respiratory failure and anaemia, which improved with discontinuation of the antithyroid drug and on starting systemic corticosteroid therapy. PMID:25661751

  6. The cardiovascular effects of vasopressin after haemorrhage in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J T; Hreash, F; Laycock, J F; Walter, S J

    1986-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of an acute haemorrhage (2% of the body weight) were studied over a 60 min period in three groups of rats: (a) Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (b.d.i.) lacking circulating vasopressin, (b) control rats of the parent Long Evans (l.e.) strain, and (c) l.e. rats treated with an antagonist of the vascular action of vasopressin. Prior to the haemorrhage there were no significant differences between the three groups of rats with respect to mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume or total peripheral resistance. Following the haemorrhage cardiac output and stroke volume were severely reduced in all three groups of rats. Total peripheral resistance was relatively unaffected in antagonist-treated l.e. rats and b.d.i. rats, but rose substantially in response to the loss of blood in the control l.e. group. Both total peripheral resistance and mean arterial blood pressure were markedly greater in the untreated l.e. control rats than in the other two groups of animals during the first 20 min after haemorrhage. The mean heart rate measured in Brattleboro rats was elevated compared with that of control l.e. rats throughout the experiment and, in addition, significantly greater than that of antagonist-treated l.e. rats during the first 40 min after the haemorrhage. Survival rate for the b.d.i. rats following the 2% haemorrhage was lower than that for l.e. control rats and antagonist-treated l.e. rats. The results indicate that the recovery of the blood pressure following an acute arterial haemorrhage is significantly influenced by vasopressin, particularly during the first 20 min, and that the predominant effect of the hormone is to increase the total peripheral resistance. The higher mortality associated with volume depletion in the b.d.i. rats is unlikely to be directly related to the absence of the vascular action of vasopressin, since administration of the vasopressin antagonist to normal l.e. rats does not reduce their survival rate. PMID:3641910

  7. [Haemocholecyst: a rare complication of anticoagulant treatment].

    PubMed

    Mikou, M M; Mouaffak, Y; Benyacob, A; Mosaddek, A; Faroudy, M; Ababou, A; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

    2004-07-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old woman, taking antivitamin K for double mitro-aortic valvular replacement, having presented a clinical picture of acute cholecystitis with marked hypotension. The radiological and biologic exams showed a deep hypocoagulability, vesicular gallstones, a haemoperitoneum and retroperitoneal haematoma. After correction of biological anomalies, the patient was operated. The gallbladder was distended containing large clots and four stones without any evidence of perforation. One of the gallstones led to cystic duct obstruction. Haemocholecyst is a rare complication of anticoagulant therapy, which may occur in the setting of gallbladder stones. The usual complication was the vesicular perforation. In spite of its rarity, haemocholecyst should be suspected when an anticoagulant treated patient presents symptoms of acute cholecystis with or without haemorrhagic shock. PMID:15324963

  8. Use of oral tramadol to prevent perianesthetic shivering in patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate under subarachnoid blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Anurag; Dhawan, Ira; Mahendru, Vidhi; Katyal, Sunil; Singh, Avtar; Garg, Shuchita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Under regional anesthesia, geriatric patients are prone to shivering induced perioperative complications that Anesthesiologists should prevent rather than treat. Aim: We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of oral tramadol 50 mg to prevent the perioperative shivering after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery under subarachnoid blockade (SAB). Shivering is usually overlooked in patients undergoing urological surgery under spinal anesthesia and may result in morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increased financial burden. Use of prophylactic measures to reduce shivering in geriatric patients who undergo urological procedures could circumvent this. Oral formulation of tramadol is a universally available cost-effective drug with the minimal side-effects. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients and Methods: A total of 80 patients who were scheduled for TURP surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly selected. Group I and II (n = 40 each) received oral tramadol 50 mg and placebo tablet respectively. After achieving subarachnoid block, the shivering, body temperature (tympanic membrane, axillary and forehead), hemodynamic parameters and arterial saturation were recorded at regular intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test, analysis of variance test, Z-test and Fisher exact test were utilized while Statistical Product and Service Solutions, IBM, Chicago (SPSS statistics (version 16.0)), software was used for analysis. Results: Incidence of shivering was significantly less in patients who received tramadol (7.5% vs. 40%; P < 0.01). The use of tramadol was associated with clinically inconsequential side-effects. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of oral tramadol 50 mg is effective as a prophylactic agent to reduce the incidence, severity and duration of perioperative shivering in patients undergoing TURP surgery under SAB. PMID:24665233

  9. Risk Factors for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Indian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Koshy; H. V. Easwer; S. Premkumar; Jacob P. Alapatt; A. Marthanda Pillai; Suresh Nair; R. N. Bhattacharya; Moinak Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has a mortality rate as high as 50%. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms from various parts of India varies from 0.75 to 10.3%, with higher numbers of cases being diagnosed due to the increasing age of the population and improvements in imaging techniques. However, little is known about the attributable risk factors of aSAH in

  10. [Odontoid fracture: Long-term subarachnoid hemorrhage after anterior screw fixation. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Le Corre, M; Suleiman, N; Lonjon, N

    2012-12-01

    Odontoid fractures have been classified by Anderson and D'Alonzo into three main categories. The most unstable injuries, type II fractures involve the base of the odontoid peg at the junction with the C2 body. Due to the proximity of vital neural structures, fracture of the odontoid process may result in instability and fatal neurological damage. Treatment aims to re-establish stability of the atlanto-axial complex by restoring the odontoid process. This may be achieved by conservative or surgical treatment. Anterior screw fixation of the odontoid peg is an interresting alternative surgical option but this technique has a significant complication rate. However, vascular injury is very rare with three case reported in the literature: one case of an intracranial vertebral artery (VA) injury, one case of a cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) injury and one case of anterior pseudoaneurysm of the spinal artery branch. We report a new case of long term vascular injury after screw fixation revealed by a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss the incidence, the mechanisms of injury and the conditions necessary for the occurrence of this complication. PMID:22683208

  11. Transvenous embolization of a carotid cavernous fistula complicated by a hematoma at the tentorial edge.

    PubMed

    Baharvahdat, Humain; Shabestari, Mahmoud M; Zabihyan, Samira; Etemadresaei, Hamid; Blanc, Raphäel; Piotin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulae are generally treated by endovascular surgery primary transvenous embolization that is safe and effective. We describe here a case of a left indirect carotid cavernous fistula that presented with proptosis and eye redness. The patient underwent transvenous embolization of carotid cavernous sinus. The procedure was complicated by a haemorrhage from the cavernous sinus. The post procedural CT scan showed a haematoma at the tentorial edge. Precise diagnosis and prompt treatment could prevent severe complications. PMID:24976092

  12. Boxing sparring complicated by an acute subdural haematoma and brainstem haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hart, Michael G; Trivedi, Rikin A; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    A professional boxer developed an acute subdural haematoma after boxing sparring. Despite timely surgical decompression, he had a poor overall outcome predominantly from a delayed brainstem haematoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to elucidate the pathophysiology of the patients' injury and clinical condition. PMID:22380874

  13. Multiple non-branching dissecting aneurysms of the mid-basilar trunk presenting with sequential subarachnoid hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Defillo, Archie; Nussbaum, Eric S.; Zelensky, Andrea; Nussbaum, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We describe a rare case of a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ventral dissecting mid-basilar aneurysm that was treated surgically. One week after surgery, the patient experienced sudden deterioration due to a new SAH caused by the development of a new aneurysm of the basilar trunk distinct from the previously clipped aneurysm. Case Description: A 54-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a small, broad-based aneurysm arising from the ventral aspect of the mid-basilar artery. This complicated lesion was treated with a microsurgical clipping via a translabyrinthine pre-sigmoidal sub-temporal approach. One week postoperatively, the patient suffered a new SAH and was found to have developed a distinct basilar artery aneurysm. The patient was returned to the Operating Room for microsurgical clipping via the previous craniotomy. After surgery, the patient made a slow, but steady, recovery. She underwent repeated angiographic imaging, demonstrating a stable appearance. Two years post surgery, the patient had returned to work and had no obvious neurological deficit, with the exception of unilateral iatrogenic hearing loss. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of multiple aneurysms originating in relation to a mid-basilar dissection, resulting in multiple episodes of SAH. These are difficult and dangerous lesions that can be treated with open microsurgical reconstruction or possibly via an endovascular approach. The intricate location of the lesions poses a particular challenge to neurosurgeons attempting to directly treat mid-basilar lesions. PMID:22059122

  14. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-18

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  15. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  16. Remote intracerebral haemorrhage post intravenous thrombolysis: experience from an Australian stroke centre.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Churilov, Leonid; Teo, Sarah; Yan, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Remote intracerebral haemorrhage (rICH) is defined as intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) post thrombolysis in brain regions without visible ischaemic changes. There is uncertainty that clinical outcomes and risk factors for rICH are different to those for local ICH. We investigated the morbidity, mortality and factors associated with rICH. We hypothesised that a previous history of cerebral ischaemic events is associated with increased risk of rICH. We included consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients from 2003 to 2012 who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Clinical data included demographics, stroke classification, vascular risk factors and laboratory results. Clinical outcome was defined by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Baseline and follow-up CT scans were analysed for all ICH, and further dichotomised to rICH and local ICH. Clinical outcomes between rICH and local ICH were compared after adjustment for confounding factors. Four hundred and two patients were included in the study. The median age was 71 (interquartile range 60-79)years, and 54% were male. ICH (local ICH and rICH) was detected in 21.6% (87/402) of all patients post thrombolysis. The incidence of rICH was 2.2% (9/402). Most rICH were classified as haemorrhagic infarct category 2 (HI2) (p = 0.002). The proportion of patients with previous transient ischaemic attacks was significantly higher in the rICH group (33.33% versus 2.56%; odds ratio [OR] 18.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.06-114.38; p = 0.007). The proportion of mRS scores 0-2 at 3 months was significantly higher in the rICH group (50% versus 28%; adjusted OR 10.469, 95%CI 1.474-74.338; p = 0.019). The 3 month mortality rate was 22.2% (2/9) in the rICH group and 36% (27/75) in the local ICH group (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0-2.51, p = 0.703). rICH was an infrequent complication after intravenous thrombolysis in our series. The clinical outcome of rICH was significantly better than local ICH. Of note, previous episodes of transient ischaemic attack were significantly higher in the rICH group, suggesting previous ischaemic injury as an underlying mechanism. PMID:25304437

  17. Heme Oxygenase1 and Ferritin Are Increased in Cerebral Arteries After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeki Ono; Zhen-Du Zhang; Linda S. Marton; Baktiar Yamini; Emily Windmeyer; Lydia Johns; Andrew Kowalczuk; George Lin; R. Loch Macdonald

    2000-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a key factor in the production of cerebral vasospasm. Metabolism of hemoglobin involves breakdown of heme by heme oxygenase (HO) and sequestration of the released iron in ferritin. We determined whether subarachnoid hemorrhage induces these proteins in cerebral arteries and, if so, in which cells they are produced. Whether the changes correlated with vasospasm also was investigated. Subarachnoid

  18. Endometriosis: a rare and interesting cause of recurrent haemorrhagic ascites.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Jenine; Arambage, Kirana; Vimplis, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent haemorrhagic ascites as a cause of endometriosis is rare. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman presenting acutely with abdominal distension, ascites and an elevated CA-125 raising the suspicion of ovarian malignancy. Tissue biopsies retrieved during laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis associated with haemorrhagic ascites. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues were started to manage symptoms, with good effect. Subsequently, in vitro fertilisation resulted in a successful singleton pregnancy and by the second trimester, there was full resolution in symptoms. During the early puerperal period, the development of massive ascites recurred, requiring symptomatic relief through repeated ascitic drainage and GnRH analogues. Long-term follow-up is planned with the hope of continuing with medical management at least until the patient's family is complete when the surgical option of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without hysterectomy will be discussed. PMID:25355738

  19. Elevated urinary catecholamines and adrenal haemorrhage mimicking phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wordsworth, Simon; Thomas, Ben; Agarwal, Neera; Hoddell, Kate; Davies, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman was admitted with left-sided flank pain initially thought to be renal colic. However, a CT urogram was normal. During the course of the admission the pain persisted and she developed severe sustained hypertension. A repeat CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 5×3 cm left adrenal abnormality consistent with haemorrhage, not seen on the original scan. Further assessment revealed elevated urine catecholamines and a short synacthen test showed a suboptimal cortisol response. The diagnosis was initially considered as a phaeochromocytoma, she received phenoxybenzamine with good resolution of hypertension and was referred for surgical opinion. However, serial urinary catecholamine concentrations returned to within the normal range and the diagnosis was revised to adrenal infarction and haemorrhage due to antiphospholipid syndrome. This case illustrates the importance of recognising adrenal infarction as a potential cause of 'pseudophaeochromocytoma'. PMID:22802465

  20. A Case Report of Thunderclap Headache with Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage and Negative Angiography: A Review of Call-Fleming Syndrome and the use of Transcranial Dopplers in Predicting Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bittel, Brennen; Husmann, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present a case report in a patient with severe, recurrent, thunderclap with computed tomography (CT) evidence of subarachnoid blood and negative work-up for aneurysm. This case is an example of Call-Fleming syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage in which transcranial Doppler (TCD) was used for monitoring of cerebral vasoconstriction when angiography did not evidence vasoconstriction. We will review Call-Fleming syndrome and the utility of transcranial doppler imaging to assess cerebral vasoconstriction. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding diagnostics, treatment, and morbidity in Call-Fleming (reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome) as well as a review of the data using transcranial color-coded sonography and transcranial doppler imaging to assess vasospasm in these cases. Results: The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV), catheter angiography, lumbar puncture, and vasculitis work-up which were all negative. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T2 weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyper-intensities in the posterior frontal lobes as well as subarachnoid blood along bilateral occipital convexities. TCDs were obtained which showed elevated mean velocities. Conclusion: The use of bedside transcranial doppler imaging is a non-invasive means of assessing vasospasm in Call-Fleming syndrome; even in cases where angiography is negative. Determining the degree of vasospasm based on the data in subarachnoid hemorrhage, we are able to predict a patient’s risk of complications related to vasospasm including reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and ischemic events. PMID:22518264

  1. Cardiac Arrhythmias after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Risk Factors and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Frontera, Jennifer A.; Parra, Augusto; Shimbo, Daichi; Fernandez, Andres; Schmidt, J. Michael; Peter, Patricia; Claassen, Jan; Wartenberg, Katja E.; Rincon, Fred; Badjatia, Neeraj; Naidech, Andrew; Connolly, E. Sander; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Serious cardiac arrhythmias have been described in approximately 5% of patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to identify the frequency, risk factors and clinical impact of cardiac arrhythmia after SAH. Methods We prospectively studied 580 spontaneous SAH patients and identified risk factors and complications associated with the development of clinically significant arrhythmia. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the effect of arrhythmia on hospital complications and 3-month outcome, as measured by the modified Rankin Scale, after controlling for age, neurological grade, APACHE-2 physiologic subscore, brain herniation and aneurysm size. Results Arrhythmia occurred in 4.3% (n = 25) of patients. Atrial fibrillation and flutter were the most common arrhythmias, occurring in 76% (n = 19) of these patients. Admission predictors of cardiac arrhythmia included older age, history of arrhythmia and abnormal admission electrocardiogram (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for length of stay, hospital complications associated with arrhythmia included myocardial ischemia, hyperglycemia, and herniation (all p < 0.05). Arrhythmia was associated with an excess ICU stay of 5 days (p = 0.002). After adjusting for other predictors of outcome, arrhythmia was associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted OR 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9–34.0, p = 0.005), and death or severe disability (adjusted OR 6.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5–32.0, p = 0.014). Conclusions Clinically important arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation or flutter, occurred in 4% of SAH patients. Arrhythmias are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidity, prolonged hospital stay and poor outcome or death after SAH, after adjusting for other predictors of poor outcome. PMID:18525201

  2. Prevention of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: current controversies and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Johanne; Warburton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency and associated with significant morbidly and mortality. The risk of bleeding from peptic ulceration and oesophagogastric varices can be reduced by appropriate primary and secondary preventative strategies. Helicobacter pylori eradication and risk stratification with appropriate gastroprotection strategies when used with antiplatelet drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in preventing peptic ulcer bleeding, whilst endoscopic screening and either nonselective beta blockade or endoscopic variceal ligation are effective at reducing the risk of variceal haemorrhage. For secondary prevention of variceal haemorrhage, the combination of beta blockade and endoscopic variceal ligation is more effective. Recent data on the possible interactions of aspirin and NSAIDs, clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and the increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with all nonaspirin cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors have increased the complexity of choices for preventing peptic ulcer bleeding. Such choices should consider both the GI and cardiovascular risk profiles. In patients with a moderately increased risk of GI bleeding, a NSAID plus a PPI or a COX-2 selective agent alone appear equivalent but for those at highest risk of bleeding (especially those with previous ulcer or haemorrhage) the COX-2 inhibitor plus PPI combination is superior. However naproxen seems the safest NSAID for those at increased cardiovascular risk. Clopidogrel is associated with a significant risk of GI haemorrhage and the most recent data concerning the potential clinical interaction of clopidogrel and PPIs are reassuring. In clopidogrel-treated patients at highest risk of GI bleeding, some form of GI prevention is indicated. PMID:23997925

  3. Neurovascular phenotypes in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia patients according to age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Krings; A. Ozanne; S. M. Chng; H. Alvarez; G. Rodesch; P. L. Lasjaunias

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with varying penetrance and expressivity. Some of the most devastating consequences of this disease result from cerebral vascular malformations that manifest themselves in either arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), small nidus-type arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or micro-AVMs with a nidus less than 1 cm in size. The purpose of this study was to

  4. Impact of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome on Vasospasm, Cerebral Infarction, and Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Exploratory Analysis of CONSCIOUS1 Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan K. H. Tam; Don Ilodigwe; Jay Mocco; Stephan Mayer; Neal Kassell; Daniel Ruefenacht; Peter Schmiedek; Stephan Weidauer; Alberto Pasqualin; R. Loch Macdonald

    2010-01-01

    Background  Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) may develop after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We investigated\\u000a factors associated with SIRS after SAH, whether SIRS was associated with complications of SAH such as vasospasm, cerebral\\u000a infarction, and clinical outcome, and whether SIRS could contribute to a difference in outcome between patients treated by\\u000a endovascular coiling or neurosurgical clipping of the ruptured aneurysm.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This

  5. Catastrophic gastrointestinal complication of systemic immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lyn Alexandra; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Gaya, Daniel R

    2015-02-28

    We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25741165

  6. Catastrophic gastrointestinal complication of systemic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lyn Alexandra; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Gaya, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25741165

  7. Damage control resuscitation from major haemorrhage in polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Carlino, William

    2014-02-01

    Trauma is a global disease that affects patients across the socio-economic spectrum. Uncontrolled major haemorrhage occurs from both blunt and penetrating trauma which may lead to hypovolaemic shock and ultimately death. In polytrauma patients that require urgent resuscitation secondary to major haemorrhage, high volume fluid infusions followed by definitive surgical care have been superseded by damage control resuscitation. DCR is a systematic approach to major trauma that integrates the principles of haemostatic resuscitation, permissive hypotension and damage control surgery (DCS). The aim of DCR is to aggressively minimise hypovolaemic shock and limit the development of coagulopathy, hypothermia and acidosis known as the lethal triad. Besides increased volumes of scientific knowledge to underpin modern trauma resuscitation techniques upon, patient survival is also dependent upon effective teamwork and leadership. In conclusion, successful resuscitation from major haemorrhage depends upon a variety of factors distilled into a trauma team with effective leadership, excellent technical and non-technical team skills as well as the early initiation of DCR. PMID:23412314

  8. [A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Tsuda, T; Hondo, H; Matsumoto, K

    1985-09-01

    A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage is reported. The patient, a 33-year-old female, had suffered from left hearing disturbance and tinnitus for several years prior to admission. She had sudden onset of severe headache in the left posterior auricular region, nausea and vomiting while watching a play-going. Immediately she was brought to a neighboring hospital by ambulance. Lumbar puncture demonstrated xanthochromic cerebrospinal fluid with high opening pressure of 380 mmH2O or more and she was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As her level of consciousness was progressively lowered, she was transferred and admitted to our hospital. Findings of plain CT scan on admission suggested that she had a brainstem hemorrhage with acute obstructive hydrocephalus. After the immediate operation of ventricle drainage, she became alert. Two weeks after admission, contrast-enhanced CT scan, internal meatus tomography and vertebral angiography were performed because she complained of tinnitus and hearing loss of her left ear. A huge lt. C-P angle tumor was revealed and its total removal was carried out successfully after V-P shunt operation for her hydrocephalic condition. Histological examination showed a typical acoustic neurinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful only with a moderate facial paresis on her left side. Acute and severe subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa in cases of acoustic neurinoma has been reported very sporadically. However, CT examination revealed such a rare case of acoustic neurinoma and lead us to a successful surgical treatment for the patient. PMID:4069313

  9. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  10. Prospective, Randomized Trial of Higher Goal Hemoglobin after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Naidech; Ali Shaibani; Rajeev K. Garg; Isis M. Duran; Storm M. Liebling; Sarice L. Bassin; Bernard R. Bendok; Richard A. Bernstein; H. Hunt Batjer; Mark J. Alberts

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose  In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), higher hemoglobin (HGB) has been associated with better outcomes, but packed\\u000a red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions with worse outcomes. We performed a prospective pilot trial of goal HGB after SAH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-four patients with SAH and high risk for vasospasm were randomized to goal HGB concentration of at least 10 or 11.5 g\\/dl.\\u000a We

  11. Iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Xin, Xin; Loven, Tina; Restrepo, Guillermo; Chalif, David J; Setton, Avi

    2012-05-01

    The authors present the case of a patient who presented acutely with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and a contralateral iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). Diagnostic angiography was performed, revealing a right-sided middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm and a left-sided DAVF immediately adjacent to the entry of the ventriculostomy and bur hole site. A craniotomy was performed for clipping of the ruptured MCA aneurysm, and the patient subsequently underwent endovascular obliteration of the DAVF 3 days later. The authors present their treatment of an iatrogenic DAVF in a patient with an aneurysmal SAH, considerations in management options, and a literature review on the development of iatrogenic DAVFs. PMID:22537118

  12. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: pathobiology, current treatment and future directions.

    PubMed

    Serrone, Joseph C; Maekawa, Hidetsugu; Tjahjadi, Mardjono; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most devastating form of stroke. Many pathological mechanisms ensue after cerebral aneurysm rupture, including hydrocephalus, apoptosis of endothelial cells and neurons, cerebral edema, loss of blood-brain barrier, abnormal cerebral autoregulation, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarization and macrovascular vasospasm. Although studied extensively through experimental and clinical trials, current treatment guidelines to prevent delayed cerebral ischemia is limited to oral nimodipine, maintenance of euvolemia, induction of hypertension if ischemic signs occur and endovascular therapy for patients with continued ischemia after induced hypertension. Future investigations will involve agents targeting vasodilation, anticoagulation, inhibition of apoptosis pathways, free radical neutralization, suppression of cortical spreading depolarization and attenuation of inflammation. PMID:25719927

  13. Insights into the mechanism of haemorrhage caused by snake venom metalloproteinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aura S. Kamiguti; Charles R. M. Hay; R. David G. Theakston; Mirko Zuzel

    1996-01-01

    Local and systemic haemorrhage are common consequences of crotaline and viperine envenoming. Several studies carried out using purified toxins have indicated that local haemorrhage can be attributed to a distinct class of venom metalloproteinases. Analyses of their cDNAs predict multi-domain enzymes, with an N-terminal metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a Cys-rich C-terminus. Haemorrhagic metalloproteinases are responsible for degrading proteins

  14. High incidence of post-tonsillectomy secondary haemorrhage following coblation tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Praveen, C V; Parthiban, Subashini; Terry, R M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of haemorrhage following tonsillectomy, to explore the usefulness of antibiotic in preventing postoperative haemorrhage and to examine if the haemorrhage depended on the level of expertise of the surgeon. A retrospective review analysing tonsillectomy method, the rate secondary haemorrhage, the grade of operating surgeon. A ?(2) analysis was used to determine the statistical difference between the haemorrhage rates of different tonsillectomy methods. One thousand three hundred and thirty-six tonsillectomies were performed during this period by four different methods: 615 by cold steel dissection, 582 by Coblation, 32 by bipolar dissection and 107 by Helica thermal coagulation. 621 tonsillectomies were performed by Consultant grade and middle grades performed 693 operations. 124 patients (9.3 %) were readmitted with haemorrhage. The secondary haemorrhage requiring surgery for controlling bleeding for cold steel dissection method was 1.5 % compared to 6.7 % for coblation method (P < 0.01 %), 6.3 % for bipolar dissection and 1.9 % for Helica thermal coagulation method. Overall consultants had a post tonsillectomy haemorrhage rate of 5.5 % and middle grades had a rate of 3.7 %. 86.5 % of the patients were already on routine prophylactic oral antibiotics at the time of presentation with haemorrhage needing surgical arrest and 13.5 % were not on antibiotics (P < 0.05 %). There was statistically significant difference in secondary haemorrhage rate between coblation and cold steel dissection methods. Coblation tonsillectomies had an increased need for operative intervention to control secondary haemorrhage. Routine use of antibiotic and expertise of operating surgeon had no bearing on secondary haemorrhage rate. PMID:24381914

  15. Correlation of Transcranial Color Doppler to N20 Somatosensory Evoked Potential Detects Ischemic Penumbra in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Piero; Zanatta, Paolo; Morghen, Ilaria; Bosco, Enrico; Forini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normal subjects present interhemispheric symmetry of middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity and N20 cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) can modify this pattern, since high regional brain vascular resistances increase blood flow velocity, and impaired regional brain perfusion reduces N20 amplitude. The aim of the study is to investigate the variability of MCA resistances and N20 amplitude between hemispheres in SAH. Methods: Measurements of MCA blood flow velocity (vMCA) by transcranial color-Doppler and median nerve SSEP were bilaterally performed in sixteen patients. MCA vascular changes on the compromised hemisphere were calculated as a ratio of the reciprocal of mean flow velocity (1/vMCA) to contralateral value and correlated to the simultaneous variations of interhemispheric ratio of N20 amplitude, within each subject. Data were analysed with respect to neuroimaging of MCA supplied areas. Results: Both interhemispheric ratios of 1/vMCA and N20 amplitude were detected >0.65 (p <0,01) in patients without neuroimages of injury. Both ratios became <0.65 (p <0.01) when patients showed unilateral images of ischemic penumbra and returned >0.65 if penumbra disappeared. The two ratios no longer correlated after structural lesion developed, as N20 detected in the damaged side remained pathological (ratio <0.65), whereas 1/vMCA reverted to symmetric interhemispheric state (ratio >0.65), suggesting a luxury perfusion. Conclusion: Variations of interhemispheric ratios of MCA resistance and cortical N20 amplitude correlate closely in SAH and allow identification of the reversible ischemic penumbra threshold, when both ratios become <0.65. The correlation is lost when structural damage develops. PMID:21660110

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improved the Ultrastructural Morphology of Cerebral Tissues after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Mir-Esmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Anvari, Morteza; Hekmati-moghadam, Seyed Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes widespread disruption in the cerebral architecture.The process of SAH is complicated and many people lose their lives or become disabled after injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as good candidate for repair of cerebral damage. The aim was to assess the ultrastructural changes in the rat cerebral tissue after intravenous transplantation of MSCs. Female Wistar rats (8 per group) weighing 275~300 g were assigned to control (SAH+PBS) and experimental groups (SAH+MSCs).The samples from middle cerebral arterial wall and parietal cerebral tissue were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocol. Fine architectures of the vessel wall, including the contraction of the inner layer, smooth muscle layer,as well as neural cells were observed after SAH. Cerebral arterial wall and cortex, including neuronal and glial cells were injured post SAH. But, administration of MSCs improved the structural integrity of cerebral tissues. Changes were much more balanced with their relative improvement in some areas. The role of MSCs for repairing the injured cerebral tissues post experimental SAH was approved by electron microscopy. PMID:24737942

  17. Hydrocephalus Onset after Microsurgical or Endovascular Treatment for Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Retrospective Italian Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Michelangelo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Mazzucco, Grazia Marina; Bono, Paolo Sebastiano; Ghetti, Giovanni; Zambon, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Its incidence and risk factors have been described while the hydrocephalus onset in terms of days after treatment (microsurgical or endovascular) has not been yet analyzed. Materials and Methods 45 patients, treated for aSAH in 4 Italian Neurosurgical Departments, were retrospectively analyzed. It was calculated the time that elapses between treatment and hydrocephalus onset in 36 patients. Results Of the 45 shunted patients, 15 (33.3%) were included in the microsurgical group (group A) and 30 (66.6%) were in the endovascular one (group B). There was no difference of the hydrocephalus onset between the two groups (24,1 days, group A vs. 27,7 days, group B). The presence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) caused a delay in the hydrocephalus onset after endovascular treatment in terms of 11,5 days compared to microsurgical group as well the absence of vasospasm determined a delay of 13,7 days (not statistically significant). Conclusion No difference in terms of hydrocephalus onset after microsurgical or endovascular treatment has been demonstrated. Only the presence of ICH or the absence of vasospasm can cause a slight delay in the time of hydrocephalus onset in the endovascular series (not statistically significant). Long-term follow-up studies involving higher numbers of subjects are needed to better demonstrate this issue. PMID:24809036

  18. Titanium aneurysm clips: Part III--Clinical application in 16 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M T; Heiserman, J E; Prendergast, V C; Zabramski, J M; Spetzler, R F

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the first clinical use of newly developed titanium clips in the treatment of 16 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were no immediate or delayed complications related to the titanium clips. Thirteen patients had good outcomes, and one patient had moderate disabilities (mean follow-up, 5.4 mo). Two patients with Hunt and Hess Grade IV hemorrhages died postoperatively. The average cross-sectional areas of clip artifact on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies was 0.96, 1.36, and 1.05 cm2 on T1-, T2-, and intermediate-weighted images, respectively. In comparison, a matched control group with cobalt alloy clips had average cross-sectional areas of 3.13, 3.70, and 2.81 cm2 on T1-, T2-, and intermediate-weighted images, respectively. The average artifact volumes on gradient echo magnetic resonance images for titanium and cobalt alloy clips were 1.8 and 10.1 cm3, respectively. In addition, the gap on magnetic resonance imaging angiograms from clip artifacts was 0.9 cm with titanium and 2.6 cm with cobalt alloy clips. In conclusion, titanium aneurysm clips seem to be safe and effective and seem to reduce clip artifacts on magnetic resonance imaging threefold, compared with commercially available cobalt alloy clips. Because of this important advantage over conventional clips, titanium clips should be considered for routine use in aneurysm surgery. PMID:8727149

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Gonorrhea Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... the United States. Can gonorrhea cause complications during pregnancy and for your baby? Yes. Gonorrhea can lead ...

  20. Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

  1. Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Keyrouz, Salah G; Diringer, Michael N

    2007-01-01

    Vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Radiographic vasospasm usually develops between 5 and 15 days after the initial hemorrhage, and is associated with clinically apparent delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DID) in one-third of patients. The pathophysiology of this reversible vasculopathy is not fully understood but appears to involve structural changes and biochemical alterations at the levels of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Blood in the subarachnoid space is believed to trigger these changes. In addition, cerebral perfusion may be concurrently impaired by hypovolemia and impaired cerebral autoregulatory function. The combined effects of these processes can lead to reduction in cerebral blood flow so severe as to cause ischemia leading to infarction. Diagnosis is made by some combination of clinical, cerebral angiographic, and transcranial doppler ultrasonographic factors. Nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is so far the only available therapy with proven benefit for reducing the impact of DID. Aggressive therapy combining hemodynamic augmentation, transluminal balloon angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator drugs is, to varying degrees, usually implemented. A panoply of drugs, with different mechanisms of action, has been studied in SAH related vasospasm. Currently, the most promising are magnesium sulfate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors and endothelin-1 antagonists. This paper reviews established and emerging therapies for vasospasm. PMID:17705883

  2. Resuscitation and critical care of poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Komotar, Ricardo J; Schmidt, J Michael; Starke, Robert M; Claassen, Jan; Wartenberg, Katja E; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Connolly, E Sander; Mayer, Stephan A

    2009-03-01

    As outcomes have improved for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, most mortality and morbidity that occur today are the result of severe diffuse brain injury in poor-grade patients. The premise of this review is that aggressive emergency cardiopulmonary and neurological resuscitation, coupled with early aneurysm repair and advanced multimodality monitoring in a specialized neurocritical care unit, offers the best approach for achieving further improvements in subarachnoid hemorrhage outcomes. Emergency care should focus on control of elevated intracranial pressure, optimization of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, and medical and surgical therapy to prevent rebleeding. In the postoperative period, advanced monitoring techniques such as continuous electroencephalography, brain tissue oxygen monitoring, and microdialysis can detect harmful secondary insults, and may eventually be used as end points for goal-directed therapy, with the aim of creating an optimal physiological environment for the comatose injured brain. As part of this paradigm shift, it is essential that aggressive surgical and medical support be linked to compassionate end-of-life care. As neurosurgeons become confident that comfort care can be implemented in a straightforward fashion after a failed trial of early maximal intervention, the usual justification for withholding treatment (survival with neurological devastation) becomes less relevant, and lives may be saved as more patients recover beyond expectations. PMID:19240601

  3. Differentiation between traumatic tap and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Alyahya, Bader; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; Émond, Marcel; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Hohl, Corinne; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary A; Pauls, Merril; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the findings in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute headache that could distinguish subarachnoid hemorrhage from the effects of a traumatic lumbar puncture. Design A substudy of a prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting 12 Canadian academic emergency departments, from November 2000 to December 2009. Participants Alert patients aged over 15 with an acute non-traumatic headache who underwent lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main outcome measure Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring intervention or resulting in death. Results Of the 1739 patients enrolled, 641 (36.9%) had abnormal results on cerebrospinal fluid analysis with >1×106/L red blood cells in the final tube of cerebrospinal fluid and/or xanthochromia in one or more tubes. There were 15 (0.9%) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage based on abnormal results of a lumbar puncture. The presence of fewer than 2000×106/L red blood cells in addition to no xanthochromia excluded the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval 74.7% to 100%) and specificity of 91.2% (88.6% to 93.3%). Conclusion No xanthochromia and red blood cell count <2000×106/L reasonably excludes the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most patients with acute headache who meet this cut off will need no further investigations and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can be excluded as a cause of their headache. PMID:25694274

  4. Expression of synaptosomal-associated protein-25 in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Hu, Tong; Li, Qi; Li, Jianke; Jia, Yang; Wang, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein-25 is an important factor for synaptic functions and cognition. In this study, subarachnoid hemorrhage models with spatial learning disorder were established through a blood injection into the chiasmatic cistern. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis results showed that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum significantly lower at days 1 and 3 following subarachnoid morrhage. Our findings indicate that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression was down-regulated in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25206580

  5. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Presenting as A Rupture and Extensive Retroperitoneal Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Sunil Vitthalrao; Desai, Sushama; Halder, Sandeepan; Jagtap, Swati S.; Badwe, Anuya Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an extremely rare tumour. We are reporting a 45-year-male patient who had a history of sudden severe worsening epigastric pain and fullness in abdomen, with giddiness. The radiological investigations showed a large right suprarenal mass with extensive destruction and retroperitoneal haemorrhage, with extra capsular, periportal and liver metastases. Exploratory laparotomy was done for excisions of mass and surrounding tissue. On histopathological examination, diagnosis was given as Adreno Cortical Carcinoma with capsular, vascular, and soft tissue nodular involvement. PMID:24783099

  6. Haemorrhagic syndrome of cattle associated with the feeding of sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum) hay containing dicoumarol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DG Pritchard; LM Markson; PJ Brush; JA Sawtell; PA Bloxham

    1983-01-01

    An outbreak of a haemorrhagic diathesis in cattle fed home produced hay is described. A similar syndrome was reproduced experimentally in calves by feeding them the hay. The experimental disease was characterised by increased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times while the leucocyte and erythrocyte counts remained normal until the terminal haemorrhage. The calves ate well and grew well until the

  7. Management in intractable obstetric haemorrhage: an audit study on 61 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Lédée; Yves Ville; Dominique Musset; Frédéric Mercier; René Frydman; Hervé Fernandez

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To refine the indications of bilateral hypogastric artery ligation (BHAL) and angiographic selective embolisation (ASE) in intractable obstetric haemorrhage. Design: an audit study. Setting: Tertiary care university hospital. Population and methods: Retrospective analysis of 61 cases of obstetric intractable post partum haemorrhage (PPH) initially managed either by hysterectomy or a conservative approach in a tertiary referral centre between 1983

  8. Pregnancy Complications/Health Problems Complication Explanation

    E-print Network

    Stromswold, Karin

    1 Pregnancy Complications/Health Problems Complication Explanation Preterm Labor Labor that starts and uterine tenderness. Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy induced high blood sugar. Diabetes that begins in pregnancy and goes away after delivery. Preeclampsia (hypertension) Pregnancy induced high blood pressure

  9. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication after haemodialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, S; Nursal, T Zafer; Yildirim, T; Tarim, A; Caliskan, K

    2005-04-01

    Haemodialysis patients carry a high risk of pseudoaneurysm due to inadvertent puncture of the brachial artery during venous cannulation for haemodialysis. Signs and symptoms are pulsatile mass and a systolic murmur. Complications are rupture, infection, haemorrhage, distal arterial insufficiency, venous thrombosis and neuropathy. Early diagnosis is essential to plan adequate treatment. Doppler US and angiography usually confirm the lesion accurately. Ultrasound guided compression, percutaneous injection of thrombin, endovascular covered stent exclusion, aneurysmectomy and surgical repair are different treatment options. We report clinical and radiological findings and treatment strategies in four dialysed patients who developed brachial artery pseudoaneurysms. PMID:15906913

  10. [Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea as a presenting sign in a dog with primary hypoadrenocorticism].

    PubMed

    Busch, K; Wehner, A; Dorsch, R; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old male castrated mixed breed dog was presented because of acute haemorrhagic vomiting and watery haemorrhagic diarrhoea. According to clinical signs, nonspecific clinicopathological abnormalities, normal electrolytes and a rapid improvement with fluid therapy, haemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) was suspected. One month later the dog was represented with weakness and electrolyte changes characteristic for typical hypoadrenocorticism (hyperkalaemia and hyponatraemia) were found. The tentative diagnosis was confirmed using an ACTH stimulation test. This case report highlights that dogs with hypoadrenocorticism may be presented with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Electrolyte changes characteristic for hypoadrenocorticism may not be present in case of gastrointestinal potassium loss because of vomiting and diarrhoea. To rule out hypoadrenocorticism, a basal cortisol measurement should be performed in every dog with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea of unknown cause. PMID:25323215

  11. Transcranial Doppler sonography within 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Romner, B; Ljunggren, B; Brandt, L; Säveland, H

    1989-05-01

    Twenty-one patients were subjected to repeated assessment of cerebral blood flow velocities by means of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCDS) during the first 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In 19 patients the study was performed following the first SAH, and in two after early rebleeds. Flow velocities did not indicate an early phase of arterial narrowing in any case. Following the first TCDS assessment, flows were evaluated repeatedly in the 19 survivors. Increased flow velocities suggesting arterial narrowing or vasospasm occurred only after a delay of at least 4 days. The results of this study favor the restoration of normal velocity patterns in surviving patients and do not indicate that an acute phase of vasospasm exists either immediately after or in the first 12 hours after SAH. PMID:2651585

  12. Demonstration of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from the Anterior Choroidal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ki-Bum; Choi, H. Alex; Kim, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH. PMID:25628818

  13. Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Calvin Hoi Kwan; Lu, Yeow Yuen; Wong, George Kwok Chu

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is different from traumatic brain injury. Currently, there is a paucity of consensus on the management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss in this paper the role of hyperosmolar agents, hypothermia, barbiturates, and decompressive craniectomy in managing raised intracranial pressure refractory to first-line treatment, in which preliminary data supported the use of hypertonic saline and secondary decompressive craniectomy. Future clinical trials should be carried out to delineate better their roles in management of raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. PMID:23874101

  14. Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

  15. Addition of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine clonidine mixture effect on quality of subarachnoid block and postoperative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Nazareth, Marilyn; Ghoshal, Pabitra; Namshikar, Viraj; Gaude, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Context: This study was undertaken in 100 patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgeries. Aim: The objective of this study was to study the effect of addition of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine clonidine mixture on the quality of subarachnoid block and compare it with intrathecal bupivacaine clonidine mixture without fentanyl. Settings and Design: In this prospective and double blind randomized controlled study, one hundred patients, between 20-40 years of age, of either sex, weighing between 40-65 Kg, measuring more than 150 cm in height, of ASA Grade I and II who were undergoing orthopaedic lower limb surgeries were selected in order to study the quality of subarachnoid block and post-operative analgesia produced by a combination of bupivacaine clonidine and fentanyl in comparison with bupivacaine clonidine. Materials and Methods: The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 50 each: Group BC: 2.4 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12 mg) + 0.2 ml (30 ?g) clonidine + 0.4 ml of 0.9% NaCl. Group BCF: 2.4 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12 mg) + 0.2 ml (30 ?g) clonidine + 0.4 ml (20 ?g) of fentanyl. The total volume of solution in both the groups was 3.0 ml. The quality of subarachnoid block and post-operative analgesia were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: The data thus obtained was statistically analysed using the following tests: Unpaired student's t-test. Average % change in data over baseline values to detect trends. A ‘P’ value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in duration of sensory and motor blockade in group BCF compared to BC. The duration of analgesia as assessed by, either VAS score of >5 or demand of additional analgesia was > 524.6 ± 32.21 mins in group BC and > 774.4 ± 59.59 mins in group BCF. This prolongation of duration of analgesia in group BCF compared to group BC has statistical significance. Blood pressure and heart rate changes were not significantly different among groups, whereas sedation and pruritus were significantly more frequent in Group BCF. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that addition of 20 ?g fentanyl to intrathecal 30 ?g clonidine and 12 mg bupivacaine enhanced the duration of post-operative analgesia with moderately increased sedation and was not associated with hemodynamic instability or other complications.

  16. A novel dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) analysis using artificial neural network (ANN).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fatimah; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Guan, Chan Chong; Sulaiman, Saadiah

    2005-09-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile viral disease frequently presented with headache, bone or joint and muscular pains, and rash. A significant percentage of DF patients develop a more severe form of disease, known as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF is the complication of DF. The main pathophysiology of DHF is the development of plasma leakage from the capillary, resulting in haemoconcentration, ascites, and pleural effusion that may lead to shock following defervescence of fever. Therefore, accurate prediction of the day of defervescence of fever is critical for clinician to decide on patient management strategy. To date, no known literature describes of any attempt to predict the day of defervescence of fever in DF patients. This paper describes a non-invasive prediction system for predicting the day of defervescence of fever in dengue patients using artificial neural network. The developed system bases its prediction solely on the clinical symptoms and signs and uses the multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNN). The results show that the proposed system is able to predict the day of defervescence in dengue patients with 90% prediction accuracy. PMID:15925426

  17. A clinical characteristic analysis of pregnancy-associated intracranial haemorrhage in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhu-Wei; Lin, Li; Gao, Wan-Li; Feng, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) occurring during pregnancy and the puerperium is an infrequent but severe complication with a high mortality and poor prognosis. Until recently, previous studies have mainly focused on the effect of different treatments on prognosis. However, few studies have provided solid evidence to clarify the key predisposing factors affecting the prognosis of ICH. In the present study, based on a unique sample with a high ICH incidence and mortality rate, we described the main clinical characteristics of ICH patients and found that the prognosis of patients who underwent surgical intervention was not better than that of patients who received other treatment modalities. However, pre-eclampsia patients had higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates than other aetiology groups. Furthermore, univariate regression analysis identified onset to diagnosis time (O-D time) and pre-eclampsia as the only factors showing independent correlation with poor maternal outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, mRS ? 3), and only O-D time was identified as a predictor of maternal mortality. These results revealed that the aetiology of ICH and O-D time might be crucial predisposing factors to prognosis, especially for patients with pre-eclampsia. The study highlighted a novel direction to effectively improve the prognosis of pregnancy-associated ICH. PMID:25819941

  18. Surgical management of haemorrhaging renal angiomyolipoma in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Preece, P.; Mees, B.; Norris, B.; Christie, M.; Wagner, T.; Dundee, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign mesenchymal tumour of the kidney with a tendency of aneurysm formation at risk of rupturing. Due to increased maternal circulation and hormonal influences, rupture risk is greater in pregnancy, often leading to a vascular emergency and premature delivery or termination. Presentation of case A 24-weeks pregnant woman (45 years old, G6P1) presented with haematuria and flank pain. CT showed AML with acute haemorrhage. The patient became haemodynamically unstable and underwent urgent embolisation and follow-on total radical nephrectomy with the foetus being left in-utero. This involved a multidisciplinary team (urologist, vascular surgeon, interventional radiologist and obstetrician). The procedure was uncomplicated and the pregnancy went to term with a healthy girl delivered at 38 weeks. Discussion The incidence of AML is 0.13% in the general population. 21 reports of haemorrhaging AML in pregnancy have been published in the last 35 years. Mean gestational age was 29.6 weeks. Eight were treated conservatively to term, one underwent exploratory laparotomy with evacuation of haematoma only, five were embolised, and seven were managed with nephrectomy. Of the nephrectomy subgroup, one was preceded by vaginal delivery and five underwent concurrent caesarean section (one with pre-op embolisation). There were two associated foetal deaths. Conclusion This case demonstrates that with a multidisciplinary approach, it is possible to successfully leave a foetus undelivered whilst performing a radical nephrectomy for a large bleeding AML in a woman carrying a late second trimester pregnancy. PMID:25598402

  19. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage due to 5-nitroimidazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Meral; Elbek, Osman; Bayram, Nazan; Ekiz, Sule; Bakir, Kemal; Dikensoy, Oner

    2009-05-01

    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is indicated by the presence of red blood cells, fibrin and haemosiderin deposits in the lung parenchyma. We present a case of DAH in a 25-year-old male following 5-nitroimidazole treatment. The first episode of haemoptysis occurred following metronidazole treatment 10 months previously. The second episode of haemoptysis occurred following ornidazole treatment 10 days before admission. During his first admission, the patients haemoglobin concentration decreased to 40 g/L. The CXR was normal, whereas high resolution CT of the lungs revealed a diffuse acinonodular pattern. Serological tests for connective tissue diseases were negative. The haemorrhagic appearance of the BAL fluid obtained during fibreoptic bronchoscopy was consistent with DAH. Microbiological analysis of the BAL fluid showed no evidence for bacterial or mycobacterial infection. Haemosiderin laden macrophages were detected in BAL fluid and lung biopsy specimens. DAH due to use of 5-nitroimidazole was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's previous history and complete recovery following treatment with corticosteroid. This is the first reported case of DAH due to use of 5-nitroimidazole. Physicians should be aware of this side-effect when prescribing this group of drugs to patients. PMID:19645871

  20. Acute Microvascular Changes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Michael K.; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage and transient global cerebral ischemia result in similar pathophysiological changes in the cerebral microcirculation. These changes include microvascular constriction, increased leukocyte-endothelial interactions, blood brain barrier disruption, and microthrombus formation. This paper will look at various animal and preclinical studies that investigate these various microvascular changes, perhaps providing insight in how these microvessels can be a therapeutic target in both subarachnoid hemorrhage and transient global cerebral ischemia. PMID:23589781

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Syphilis Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... syphilis each year. Can syphilis cause problems during pregnancy and for your baby? Yes. You can pass ...

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Chlamydia Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... younger than 25. Can chlamydia cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If you get it before or during ...

  3. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > HELLP syndrome Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... to get pregnant again. Are gallstones common during pregnancy? Not common, but they do happen. Elevated hormones ...

  4. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on the Na+, K(+)-ATPase and membrane fluidity of cerebrocortical membranes after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yufu, K; Itoh, T; Edamatsu, R; Mori, A; Hirakawa, M

    1993-09-01

    It is reported that CNS hemorrhage causes membrane dysfunction and may exacerbate this damage as a result of secondary ischemia or hypoxia. Since hyperbaric oxygenation improves oxygen metabolism, it may reduce this membrane damage. The present study was conducted to reveal whether hyperbaric oxygenation influences membrane alteration after hemorrhage. Thirty minutes after subarachnoid hemorrhage induction, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygenation 2 ATA for 1 hour. Rats were decapitated 2 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage induction. Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity measurement and spin-label studies were performed on crude synaptosomal membranes. Subarachnoid hemorrhage decreased Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity. Spin label studies showed that hydrophobic portions of near the membrane surface became more rigid and the mobility of the membrane protein labeled sulfhydryl groups decreased after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hyperbaric oxygenation significantly ameliorated most of the subarachnoid hemorrhage induced alterations. We conclude that hyperbaric oxygenation may be a beneficial treatment for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:8232720

  5. CSF 20-HETE is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Elizabeth A.; Thampatty, Bhavani P.; Sherwood, Paula R.; Kuo, Chie-Wen J.; Bender, Catherine; Balzer, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Michael; Poloyac, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) that is manifested by changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanied by neurological decline and results in long-term functional and neuropsychological (NP) impairment. Preclinical evidence has demonstrated that the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), affects cerebral microvascular tone and CBF after aSAH. The purpose of this study was to determine if CSF 20-HETE levels were associated with DCI and long term NP outcomes in aSAH patients. Methods CSF samples collected twice daily through 14 days after hemorrhage on 108 acute, adult aSAH patients. Samples were analyzed for 20-HETE via HPLC MSQ single quadrupole mass spectrometry. DCI was defined as the presence of impaired CBF (angiographic vasospasm, elevated transcranial Dopplers, abnormal CT or MR perfusion scans) accompanied by neurological deterioration. Outcomes including death and neuropsychological testing were completed at 3 months after hemorrhage. Results and Conclusions Detectible 20-HETE levels were observed in 31% of patient samples and were associated with severity of hemorrhage (Hunt&Hess p=0.04; Fisher p=0.05). Detection of 20-HETE was not associated with angiographic vasospasm (p=0.34), however, detectible 20-HETE was significantly associated with DCI (p=0.016). Our data also suggests that detectable 20-HETE was associated with decreased performance in 5 NP domains. These results provide the first clinical evidence that CSF 20-HETE concentrations are associated with DCI and poor outcomes and provide impetus for future studies to elucidate the clinical utility of inhibiting 20-HETE formation as a novel therapeutic intervention in patients with aSAH. PMID:21617146

  6. Subarachnoid block with low dose of bupivacaine and sufentanil in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanatkar, Mehdi; Farhanchi, Afshin; Manouchehrian, Nahid; Najafi, Atabak; Haddadi, Shahriyar; Rahmati, Javad; Ghazizadeh, Shahrokh; Rahmani, Hojjat; Zebardast, Jayran

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subarachnoid block with local anesthetics and opioids enable efficacious spinal anesthesia because of their synergistic effect and permit the use of low-dose local anesthetics, which results in a stable hemodynamic state. The purpose of this study was to describe the cardiovascular effects of spinal anesthesia with low-dose bupivacaine and sufentanil on patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 18 patients who had known coronary artery disease were enrolled. Our subjects underwent spinal block for lower limb surgery with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and 5 µg sufentanil. Complications related to anesthesia such as hypotension, bradycardia, vasopressor need, and blood or volume use were recorded. RESULTS The average mean arterial pressure decreased 15% in the first 15 min of spinal block in our cases. No patients presented with hypotension and the subjects were without complaints during the spinal anesthesia. All patients remained alert, and no ST segment changes were observed intraoperatively and until 6 h after the operation. Baseline ejection fraction (EF) 40% or less was observed in 10 patients and these subjects were compared with other patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate decreased during the first 15 min in response to spinal anesthesia in both groups of patients, but decreased more significantly in patients with EF > 40%. CONCLUSION We recommend spinal block with low-dose bupivacaine and sufentanil in patients with coronary artery disease and especially in patients with low EF. PMID:25161677

  7. Early events triggering delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries, including endothelin B (ETB) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT1B) receptors, has been suggested to contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia, a feared complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This receptor upregulation has been shown to be mediated by intracellular signalling via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) - extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. However, it is not known what event(s) that trigger MEK-ERK1/2 activation and vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation after SAH. We hypothesise that the drop in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and wall tension experienced by cerebral arteries in acute SAH is a key triggering event. We here investigate the importance of the duration of this acute CBF drop in a rat SAH model in which a fixed amount of blood is injected into the prechiasmatic cistern either at a high rate resulting in a short acute CBF drop or at a slower rate resulting in a prolonged acute CBF drop. Results We demonstrate that the duration of the acute CBF drop is determining for a) degree of early ERK1/2 activation in cerebral arteries, b) delayed upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries and c) delayed CBF reduction, neurological deficits and mortality. Moreover, treatment with an inhibitor of MEK-ERK1/2 signalling during an early time window from 6 to 24 h after SAH was sufficient to completely prevent delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and improve neurological outcome several days after the SAH. Conclusions Our findings suggest a series of events where 1) the acute CBF drop triggers early MEK-ERK1/2 activation, which 2) triggers the transcriptional upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries during the following days, where 3) the resulting enhanced cerebrovascular contractility contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:23496889

  8. Hemiballism with leg predominance caused by contralateral subthalamic haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kazuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Hemiballism is a rare movement disorder characterised by high-amplitude movements of the limbs on one side of the body. Stroke of the contralateral basal ganglia, especially the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the most common aetiology of acute development of hemiballism. Recently, the pathophysiology of hemiballism has been associated with abnormal firing patterns in the globus pallidus interna, with intermittent firing bursts followed by pauses, during which movements occur. An 87-year-old woman presented with a 5-day history of hemiballism predominantly in her leg. On the basis of her brain MRI findings, she was diagnosed as having vascular hemiballism caused by haemorrhage in the contralateral STN. Treatment with risperidone led to the clinical resolution of her condition. We discuss the distribution of the patient's ballistic movements on the basis of the somatotopic organisation of the STN. PMID:25858962

  9. Haemorrhage, hyponatraemia and more than just a hack.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mitsu; Kandil, Hala

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old previously healthy solicitor presented with a 9-day history of cough productive of yellow sputum with a prodrome of sore throat and myalgia. The cough was paroxysmal in nature and severe enough to cause extensive bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhages and cough syncopes multiple times a day, with one bout of associated haematemesis on the day of admission. He was isolated, treated for a presumed atypical chest infection with tazocin and clarithromycin, and monitored carefully until the hyponatraemia on presentation was resolved. Atypical screen and blood cultures were sent off, though unexciting at first, eventually confirmed the unlikely; Bordetella pertussis, much to the surprise of many who had Legionella as the top differential. PMID:24943139

  10. Haemorrhage after home birth: audit of decision making and referral.

    PubMed

    Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-11-01

    In the Netherlands, 20 per cent of women give birth at home. In 0.7 per cent, referral to secondary care because of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is indicated. Midwives are regularly trained in managing obstetric emergencies. A postgraduate training programme developed for Dutch community-based midwives called 'CAVE' (pre-hospital obstetric emergency course) focuses on the identification and management of obstetric emergencies, including timely and adequate referral to hospital. This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of PPH reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of which seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor and major substandard care. PMID:24371910

  11. Acute Haemorrhagic Oedema of Infancy (AHOI): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Manjit; Dhariwal, Daljit K

    2015-03-01

    Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy (AHOI) is a benign variant of leukocytoclastic vasculitis which occurs in children up to 2 years of age. It is considered by some to be a variant of Henoch-Schönlein purpura with its hallmark of prominent facial swelling, purpuric rash without visceral involvement, in an otherwise well child. This condition is well recognised in the paediatric and dermatology literature but despite its impressive facial features, often mimicking more serious pathology like orbital cellulitis, to our knowledge AHOI has not been published in the Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery literature. We present a case of AHOI to raise awareness of this condition in maxillofacial surgery to avoid it being mis- or over-diagnosed. PMID:25838694

  12. Theoretical calculation of optimal depth in the percutaneous native kidney biopsy to drastically reduce bleeding complications and sample inadequacy for histopathological diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Pasquariello; Maurizio Innocenti; Valentina Batini; Giovanna Pasquariello; Sara Beati; Stefano Rindi; Sabrina Paoletti; Vincenzo Panichi

    Background. In recent years percutaneous native kidney biopsy (PNKB) has become of very common use and safe enough for the patient if performed by skilled physicians; nevertheless, haemorrhagic compli- cations or inadequate tissue sample for the diagnosis may occur. We report here the type and the adequacy rate of specimens for diagnosis and complication rate associated with PNKB performed in

  13. Everyday Memory in Microsurgically Treated Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Koso, Maida; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Sose-Selimotic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Background Memory declines measured by traditional tests in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well documented. Classic examinations of memory problems sometimes do not significantly correlate with memory functions in everyday life. The objective of the study was to assess the specific type of everyday memory loss in patients after microsurgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm causing SAH. Methods The prospective controlled, randomized study was conducted using the specific tests for everyday memory measure with high ecological validity. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon (KD). Preoperatively, patients were in a good grade (Hunt-Hess I or II), with no neurological deficit and no hydrocephalus postoperatively. Patients were tested at two phases: 15 and 45 days after microsurgery with the Rivermead behavioral memory test (RBMT) and the cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ). Results We compared the results of the tests administered in subjects that underwent microdiscectomy surgery for SAH to a control group that underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation (DH). Conclusion Neuropsychological assessment of operated patients who sustained SAH showed a decline, compared to the DH group, in everyday memory function. Also, we found failures in perception and motor function in operated SAH patients with a trend of cognitive recovery as time progresses. PMID:25699118

  14. Migrating lumbar intrathecal catheter fragment associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hnenny, Luke; Sabry, Hatem A; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Liu, Jesse J; Roundy, Neil E; Dogan, Aclan

    2015-01-01

    Intrathecal catheter placement into the lumbar cistern has varied indications, including drug delivery and CSF diversion. These Silastic catheters are elastic and durable; however, catheter-associated malfunctions are well reported in the literature. Fractured catheters are managed with some variability, but entirely intradural retained fragments are often managed conservatively with observation. The authors describe a case of a 70-year-old man with an implanted intrathecal morphine pump for failed back surgery syndrome who presented to an outside hospital with a history of headache, neck pain, nausea, and photophobia of 3 days' duration. He also described mild weakness and intermittent numbness of both legs. Unenhanced head CT demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A right C-5 hemilaminectomy was performed. This case is unique in that there was no indication that the lumbar intrathecal catheter had fractured prior to the patient's presentation with SAH. This case demonstrates that intrathecal catheter fragments are mobile and can precipitate intracranial morbidity. Extrication of known fragments is safe and should be attempted to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity. PMID:25360531

  15. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC) preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC) was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25133183

  16. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Sukhotinsky, Inna; Ayata, Cenk; Wellman, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders. PMID:23577279

  17. Early Brain Injury, an Evolving Frontier in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Yan, Junhao; Rolland, William B.; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Caner, Basak; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), predominantly caused by a ruptured aneurysm, is a devastating neurological disease that has a morbidity and mortality rate higher than 50%. Most of the traditional in vivo research has focused on the pathophysiological or morphological changes of large-arteries after intracisternal blood injection. This was due to a widely held assumption that delayed vasospasm following SAH was the major cause of delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. However, the results of the CONSCIOUS-1 trial implicated some other pathophysiological factors, independent of angiographic vasospasm, in contributing to the poor clinical outcome. The term early brain injury (EBI) has been coined and describes the immediate injury to the brain after SAH, before onset of delayed vasospasm. During the EBI period, a ruptured aneurysm brings on many physiological derangements such as increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and global cerebral ischemia. These events initiate secondary injuries such as blood-brain barrier disruption, inflammation, and oxidative cascades that all ultimately lead to cell death. Given the fact that the reversal of vasospasm does not appear to improve patient outcome, it could be argued that the treatment of EBI may successfully attenuate some of the devastating secondary injuries and improve the outcome of patients with SAH. In this review, we provide an overview of the major advances in EBI after SAH research. PMID:23894255

  18. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  19. [The mechanism of cardiorespiratory arrest due to subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Y; Kamada, K; Sasaoka, Y; Nishimura, A; Sakitani, H

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the clinical course of patients with sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have seen fifteen patients of SAH that presented initially as CRA. All of them were diagnosed as SAH by CT scan. The patients were divided into two groups; one group (early DOA group) included 11 patients, who had been recognized as CRA within 60 minutes from the onset of SAH, the other group (late DOA group) consisted of 4 patients, who developed CRA more than 60 minutes after the initial onset. The major mechanism leading to delayed CRA in the late DOA group appeared to have been from brain stem herniation, but another mechanism appeared to be involved in sudden CRA in the early DOA group. Sixty percent of our patients with CRA due to SAH had a low serum potassium concentration, though hypokalemia was observed in only 4 out of 100 patients with CRA due to diseases other than SAH. These facts suggest that sympathetic hyperstimulation might result not only from stress but also from a disorder of the central autonomic nervous system. We speculate that the mechanism leading to early CRA after SAH appears to result from a disorder of the central autonomic nerve system. PMID:7637838

  20. Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yan; Chen, Chunhua; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hu, Qin; Zhi, Xinggang; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hydrogen gas has been demonstrated to neutralize free radicals and reduce oxidative stress recently. Our objective was to determine the therapeutic effect of H2 inhalation and its antioxidative activity on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Design Controlled in vivo laboratory study. Setting Animal research laboratory. Subjects One hundred thirty-seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 280–350 g. Interventions Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced by endovascular perforation method in rats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage rats were treated with 2.9% hydrogen gas inhaled for 2 hrs after perforation. At 24 and 72 hrs, mortality, body weight, neurologic deficits, and brain water content were assessed. Blood–brain barrier permeability and apoptosis were also measured at 24 hrs. To investigate the antioxidative activity of hydrogen gas, the expression of malondialdehyde, nitrotyrosine, and 8-hydroxyguanosine, which are oxidative markers of lipid, protein, and DNA damage, respectively, were measured at 24 hrs. Measurements and Main Results Hydrogen gas significantly alleviated brain edema and blood–brain barrier disruption, reduced apoptosis, and improved neurologic function at 24 hrs but not 72 hrs after subarachnoid hemorrhage. These effects were associated with the amelioration of oxidative injury of lipid, protein, and DNA. Conclusions Hydrogen gas could exert its neuroprotective effect against early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage by its antioxidative activity. PMID:22336722

  1. Return to theatre in secondary post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage: a comparison of coblation and dissection techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Amir; Antonio Belloso; Stephen J. Broomfield; Pradeep Morar

    The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of return to theatre (RTT) for post-operative haemorrhage following coblation\\u000a and dissection tonsillectomy and to investigate those that required RTT more than 10 days post-surgery. Retrospective review\\u000a of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhages requiring RTT from April 2005 to March 2009 was conducted. Of 2,541 tonsillectomies performed,\\u000a 81% were by coblation and 19% by

  2. Elevation of intracranial pressure following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Jalan; Kostas Dabos; Doris N. Redhead; Alistair Lee; Peter C. Hayes

    1997-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and cerebral oedema in patients with chronic liver disease is rare and is more typical of acute liver failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt is being increasingly used in the management of uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. In our institution, a total of 160 patients has undergone transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage; 56 of

  3. Paediatric pulmonary haemorrhage: Independent lung ventilation as effective strategy in management

    PubMed Central

    Murkute, Amol; Angadi, Ullas; Jain, Pawan; Sharique, Tanzila; Hegde, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary haemorrhage is an uncommon symptom in paediatrics with the etiology varying among the series by age, location, and the diagnostic tests employed. Once airway protection and volume resuscitation are ensured, localization of the anatomic site of bleeding, isolation of the involved airway, control of haemorrhage and treatment of the underlying cause of becomes essential. In localized persistent bleeding, airway control may be achieved by lung isolation with double lumen endotracheal tube and synchronous independent lung ventilation PMID:25316981

  4. Preserved arterial flow secures hepatic oxygenation during haemorrhage in the pig

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Allan; Skak, Claus; Kristensen, Michael; Ott, Peter; Kirkegaard, Preben; Secher, Niels H

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the extent of liver perfusion and its oxygenation during progressive haemorrhage. We examined hepatic arterial flow and hepatic oxygenation following the reduced portal flow during haemorrhage in 18 pigs. The hepatic surface oxygenation was assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy and the hepatic metabolism of oxygen, lactate and catecholamines determined the adequacy of the hepatic flow. Stepwise haemorrhage until circulatory collapse resulted in proportional reductions in cardiac output and in arterial, central venous and pulmonary wedge pressures. While heart rate increased, pulmonary arterial pressure remained stable. In addition, renal blood flow decreased, renal vascular resistance increased and there was elevated noradrenaline spill-over. Further, renal surface oxygenation was lowered from the onset of haemorrhage. Similarly, the portal blood flow was reduced in response to haemorrhage, and, as for the renal flow, the reduced splanchnic blood flow was associated with an elevated noradrenaline spill-over. In contrast, hepatic arterial blood flow was only slightly reduced by haemorrhage, and surface oxygenation did not change. The hepatic oxygen uptake was maintained until the blood loss represented more than 30 % of the estimated blood volume. At 30 % reduced blood volume, hepatic catecholamine uptake was reduced, and the lactate uptake approached zero. Subsequent reduction of cardiac output and portal blood flow elicited a selective dilatation of the hepatic arterial vascular bed. Due to this dilatation liver blood flow and hepatic cell oxygenation and metabolism were preserved prior to circulatory collapse. PMID:10087351

  5. Historical overview and review of current day treatment in the management of acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rajoriya, Neil; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2014-01-01

    Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past. PMID:24914369

  6. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage from cerebral artery aneurysm within the context of a fall: external or internal etiology?].

    PubMed

    Moskopp, D; Wassmann, H

    1996-08-01

    A neurosurgical expertise had to be performed to answer the following question: Was a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a cerebral aneurysm the cause or the result of the fall of a 60 year old man? And with which degree of certainty can this question be answered? It is argued that any statements in this respect cannot but have the degree of a "possibility" (i.e. nearly 30% of the truth). From a medlineR-research data to estimate the prevalence of cerebral aneurysms (1% of all inhabitants) and the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (10/100,000/yr.) became available (assuming a mean life expectancy of 75 years). It is argued that presumably every fourth cerebral aneurysm does not rupture during lifetime. Insofar there is a "scientifically based possibility" that the case under discussion suffered from a subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from a fall from height as an outer cause of a significant deterioration of a hitherto silent inborn disease. PMID:8966851

  7. Intradural spinal cord tumor presenting as a subarachnoid hemorrhage: magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chalif, D J; Black, K; Rosenstein, D

    1990-10-01

    Negative findings on four-vessel angiography after a subarachnoid hemorrhage are seen in 5 to 30% of patients. A previously silent lesion in the spinal canal may be responsible for the ictus in a small percentage of this group. The etiological factors include tumors and arteriovenous malformations; however, investigations of such lesions have been limited to patients with signs and symptoms of spinal cord or nerve root pathological processes. This report describes the management of a 56-year-old woman with clinical findings typical of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and negative findings on cerebral angiography, in whom magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement revealed an intradural extramedullary cervical schwannoma. For this reason, cervicothoracic magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement should be considered as an adjunctive scanning examination in all patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and negative findings on angiography. PMID:2234370

  8. Hyponatremia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Implications and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, PP; Menon, R Girish; Srivastava, Adesh; Sarma, P Sankara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Clinically significant hyponatremia (Serum Sodium <131 mEq/L) which needs treatment, has been redefined recently and there is a paucity of outcome studies based on this. This study aims to identify the mean Serum Sodium (S.Na+) level and its duration among inpatients with SAH and to identify the relationship between hyponatremia and the outcome status of patients undergoing surgery for SAH. Materials and Methods: This outcome study is undertaken in the department of neurosurgery, The Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala. Medical records of all patients with SAH from 1st January to 31st July 2010 were reviewed. Preoperative status was assessed using World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grading system. Discharge status was calculated using the Glasgow outcome score scale. Results: Fifty nine patients were included in the study and 53 (89.8%) of them have undergone surgical treatment. Hyponatremia was observed in 22 of 59 patients (37%). The mean Sodium level of hyponatremic patients was 126.97 mEq/L for a median duration of two days. Glasgow outcome score was good in 89.8% of patients. We lost two patients, one of whom had hyponatremia and vasospasm. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with SAH. Anticipate hyponatremia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, timely detect and appropriately treat it to improve outcome. It is more common in patients who are more than 50 years old and whose aneurysm is in the anterior communicating artery. Our comprehensive monitoring ensured early detection and efficient surgical and nursing management reduced morbidity and mortality. PMID:23546343

  9. Disproportionate subarachnoid space hydrocephalus—outcome and perivascular space

    PubMed Central

    Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Budka, Herbert; Watanabe, Yuko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Shiino, Akihiko; Ogita, Mihoko; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Jungwirth, Susanne; Krampla, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify the prevalence of MRI features of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus in possible idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (DESH-iNPH) and to describe the clinico-radiological features and outcomes of a community-based investigation (The Vienna Trans-Danube Aging study). Methods Of the 697 inhabitants (all 75 years old), 503 completed extensive neurological examinations at baseline and were followed up every 30 months thereafter with MRIs, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Section (UPDRSM). The DESH-iNPH participant data were compared with the data from participants with Evans index ratios >0.3 (ex vacuo hydrocephalus), cerebral small-vessel diseases, and normal MRIs. The widening of perivascular space was also evaluated by MRI in these groups. Results Eight participants with DESH-iNPH (1.6%) and 76 with ex vacuo hydrocephalus (16.1%) at baseline were identified. The mean MMSE in DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs was 26.4, 27.9, and 28.3, respectively, and the mean UPDRSM was 9.75, 2.96, and 1.87, respectively. After a 90-month follow-up, the mortality rates for DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs were 25.0%, 21.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. The perivascular-space widening scores were significantly smaller in the DESH-iNPH cases, particularly at the centrum semiovale, compared to cerebral small-vessel disease and ex vacuo hydrocephalus cases. Interpretation The prevalence of DESH-iNPH was 1.6% for participants aged 75 years and revealed significantly lower MMSE and higher UPDRSM scores compared to the ex vacuo hydrocephalus and controls. Moreover, it is suggested that perivascular-space narrowing is a morphological and pathophysiological marker of DESH-iNPH. PMID:25356428

  10. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE: MULTIMODAL DETECTION AND OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Perotte, Adler; Albers, David; Kleinberg, Samantha; Schmidt, J. Michael; Tu, Bin; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lantigua, Hector; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hripcsak, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed intracortical EEG and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury. Results Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (P=0.001), blood pressure (P<0.001), and respiratory rate (P<0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (P=0.03) and intracranial pressure (P =0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (P=0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs. 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively). Interpretation We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in regional cerebral blood flow. These real-world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. PMID:23813945

  11. DX-9065a, an orally active factor Xa inhibitor, does not facilitate haemorrhage induced by tail transection or gastric ulcer at the effective doses in rat thrombosis model.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, K; Morishima, Y; Shibutani, T; Terada, Y; Hara, T; Shinohara, Y; Aoyagi, K; Kunitada, S; Kondo, T

    1999-05-01

    DX-9065a is an antithrombin III (AT III)-independent and selective inhibitor of activated blood coagulation factor X (FXa). We evaluated the effects of DX-9065a and warfarin on bleeding time and blood loss in rat tail transection model and on blood loss in hydrochloride (HCl)-induced rat gastrointestinal haemorrhage model. The blood loss was determined by measuring the haemoglobin content in saline immersed with transected tail or hematin chloride content in the gaster after HCl administration. DX-9065a or warfarin was administered orally at 1 h or 15-21 h before the haemorrhagic stimuli, respectively. The dose required for 50% inhibition of thrombus formation (ID50) was 21 mg/kg for DX-9065a and 0.75 mg/kg for warfarin in a copper wire-inserted arteriovenous (AV) shunt model. In contrast to DX-9065a (10 or 30 mg/kg), warfarin (0.75 mg/kg) significantly prolonged the bleeding time. In rat tail transection model, the blood loss for the control group was 102+/-41 microl at 20 min after the transection. While warfarin (0.75 mg/kg) facilitated the blood loss about 5 times as much as the control, DX-9065a (10 or 30 mg/kg) did not. In rat gastrointestinal model, the blood loss for the control group was 15.9+/-5.6 microl at 15 min after HCl administration. In contrast to DX-9065a (10 or 30 mg/kg), warfarin (0.75 mg/kg) increased the blood loss about twice as much as the control. Thus, compared with warfarin, DX-9065a only increased bleeding time or blood loss to a minor extent in the doses tested. These observations suggest that direct inhibition of FXa could be preferable to warfarin in the suppression of thrombosis without haemorrhagic complications. PMID:10365760

  12. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-11-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus-host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  13. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  14. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  15. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  16. Survival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Henning, J.; Meers, J.; Davies, P. R.; Morris, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the persistence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in the environment. Virus was impregnated onto two carrier materials (cotton tape and bovine liver) and exposed to environmental conditions on pasture during autumn in New Zealand. Samples were collected after 1, 10, 44 and 91 days and the viability of the virus was determined by oral inoculation of susceptible 11- to 14-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Evidence of RHDV infection was based on clinical and pathological signs and/or seroconversion to RHDV. Virus impregnated on cotton tape was viable at 10 days of exposure but not at 44 days, while in bovine liver it was still viable at 91 days. The results of this study suggest that RHDV in animal tissues such as rabbit carcasses can survive for at least 3 months in the field, while virus exposed directly to environmental conditions, such as dried excreted virus, is viable for a period of less than 1 month. Survival of RHDV in the tissues of dead animals could, therefore, provide a persistent reservoir of virus, which could initiate new outbreaks of disease after extended delays. PMID:16050519

  17. Evidence for insect transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K. A.; Merchant, J. C.; Hardy, J.; Cooke, B. D.; Robinson, A.; Westbury, H. A.

    2002-01-01

    The spread of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus from quarantine on Wardang Island to mainland Australia in 1995 suggested that insects could be potential vectors. Field observations and laboratory experiments were conducted to address aspects of this hypothesis. Firstly, the variation in insect populations on the island during the field trials was examined. There was approximately a 1,000-fold increase in the number of bushflies, Musca vetustissima, shortly before the spread of the virus. Secondly, M. vetustissima were tested in the laboratory as potential vectors of RHD virus, and it was demonstrated that disease could be transmitted between rabbits by flies. Finally, 13 of 16 insect samples, collected from Wardang Island and from several sites on the mainland following the spread of virus off the island, were positive for the presence of RHD virus by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Only one sample contained sufficient infectious virus to kill a susceptible rabbit. These data, combined with previously published information on fly biology, suggested that flies, particularly bushflies, may be involved in the transmission of RHD virus. Other possible routes of spread were not assessed in this study. PMID:12558351

  18. Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, J. A.; Garner, M. G.; Catton, M. G.; Thomas, S.; Westbury, H. A.; Cannon, R. M.; Collins, B. J.; Tribe, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits (VHD), a potential biological control for wild rabbits in Australia and New Zealand, escaped from quarantined field trials on Wardang Island and spread to the mainland of Australia in October 1995. This study looked for any evidence of infection or illness in people occupationally exposed to the virus. Two hundred and sixty-nine people were interviewed and 259 blood samples were collected. Exposures to VHD-infected rabbits ranged from nil to very high. No VHD antibodies were detected in any of the 259 sera when tested by VHD competitive enzyme immunoassay, which had been validated with 1013 VHDV-specific antibody negative sera. A questionnaire designed to elicit symptoms of disease in a range of organ systems found no significant differences between illness in those exposed and those not exposed to VHD, nor could an association be found between exposure and subsequent episodes of illness. The findings are consistent with the view that exposure to VHD is not associated with infection or disease in humans. PMID:9825794

  19. Evolution of the fish rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ahrens, Peter; Forsberg, Roald; Lorenzen, Niels

    2004-05-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) caused by the rhabdovirus VHSV is economically the most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. Until 1989, this virus was mainly isolated from freshwater salmonids but in the last decade, it has also been isolated from an increasing number of free-living marine fish species. To study the genetic evolution of VHSV, the entire G gene from 74 isolates was analysed. VHSV from wild marine species caught in the Baltic Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, North Sea, and English Channel and European freshwater isolates, appeared to share a recent common ancestor. Based on the estimated nucleotide substitution rate, the ancestor of the European fresh water isolates was dated some 50 years ago. This finding fits with the initial reports in the 1950s on clinical observations of VHS in Danish freshwater rainbow trout farms. The study also indicates that European marine VHSV and the North American marine line separated approx. 500 years ago. The codon substitution rate among the freshwater VHSV isolates was found to be 2.5 times faster than among marine isolates. The data support the hypothesis of the marine environment being the original reservoir of VHSV and that the change in host range (to include rainbow trout) may have occurred several times. Virus from the marine environment will therefore continue to represent a threat to the trout aquaculture industry. PMID:15105533

  20. Haemostatic monitoring during postpartum haemorrhage and implications for management

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, C.; Collis, R. E.; Collins, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. PPH has numerous causative factors, which makes its occurrence and severity difficult to predict. Underlying haemostatic imbalances such as consumptive and dilutional coagulopathies may develop during PPH, and can exacerbate bleeding and lead to progression to severe PPH. Monitoring coagulation status in patients with PPH may be crucial for effective haemostatic management, goal-directed therapy, and improved outcomes. However, current PPH management guidelines do not account for the altered baseline coagulation status observed in pregnant patients, and the appropriate transfusion triggers to use in PPH are unknown, due to a lack of high-quality studies specific to this area. In this review, we consider the evidence for the use of standard laboratory-based coagulation tests and point-of-care viscoelastic coagulation monitoring in PPH. Many laboratory-based tests are unsuitable for emergency use due to their long turnaround times, so have limited value for the management of PPH. Emerging evidence suggests that viscoelastic monitoring, using thrombelastography- or thromboelastometry-based tests, may be useful for rapid assessment and for guiding haemostatic therapy during PPH. However, further studies are needed to define the ranges of reference values that should be considered ‘normal’ in this setting. Improving awareness of the correct application and interpretation of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring techniques may be critical in realizing their emergency diagnostic potential. PMID:23075633

  1. National mutation study among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Tørring, P M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B; Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical diagnosis of HHT is based on the Curaçao criteria. About 85% of HHT patients carry mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes. Here, we report on the genetic heterogeneity in the Danish national HHT population and address the prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Probands of 107 apparently unrelated families received genetic testing, including sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of ENG, ACVRL1 and SMAD4. These 107 families included 320 patients confirmed to have HHT either clinically or genetically. In 89% of the probands (n=95), a mutation was identified. We detected 64 unique mutations of which 27 (41%) were novel. Large deletions were identified in ENG and ACVRL1. The prevalence of PAVM was 52.3% in patients with an ENG mutation and 12.9% in the ACVRL1 mutation carriers. We diagnosed 80% of the patients clinically, fulfilling the Curaçao criteria, and those remaining were diagnosed by genetic testing. It is discussed when to assign pathogenicity to missense and splice site mutations. The adding of an extra criterion to the Curaçao criteria is suggested. PMID:24001356

  2. Recommendations for the management of intracranial haemorrhage - part I: spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. The European Stroke Initiative Writing Committee and the Writing Committee for the EUSI Executive Committee.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Thorsten; Kaste, Markku; Katse, Markku; Forsting, Michael; Mendelow, David; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Szikora, Istvan; Juvela, Seppo; Marchel, Andrzej; Chapot, René; Cognard, Christophe; Unterberg, Andreas; Hacke, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This article represents the recommendations for the management of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage of the European Stroke Initiative (EUSI). These recommendations are endorsed by the 3 European societies which are represented in the EUSI: the European Stroke Council, the European Neurological Society and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. PMID:16926557

  3. Comparison effect of intravenous tranexamic acid and misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sahhaf, Farnaz; Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Velayati, Atefeh; Khandanloo, Roya; Saleh, Parviz; Piri, Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the third-most common cause of maternal death in the United States and it is still the first prevalent cause of maternal death in developing countries. Active prevention of haemorrhage with an uterotonic or other new drugs leads to a decrease in postpartum vaginal haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to compare anti-haemorrhagic effect of Tranexamic acid (TXA) and Misoprostol for PPH. Patients and Methods: In a double-blinded randomised control clinical trial, 200 women were included after Caesarean or natural vaginal delivery with abnormal PPH. They were divided into two equal intervention and control groups. Effect of intravenous TXA and Misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage was examined. Results: The mean age of patients was 26.7 ± 6.5 years which ranged from 14 to 43 years. The sonographic gestational age in the group treated with TXA was 37.7 ± 3.4 weeks and it was 37.4 ± 3.3 weeks for the other group (P = 0.44). The haemorrhage in the TXA and Misoprostol groups was 1.2 ± 0.33 litres and 1.18 ± 0.47 litres, respectively (P = 0.79). The haemoglobin levels after 6-12 hours of labour, in TXA group was more than that of the Misoprostol group, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.22 and P = 0.21, respectively). Conclusion: Regarding to the superior results in Misoprostol group in one hand and lack of significant differences between two groups in haemorrhage during labour, post-partum haemoglobin level and discharge haemoglobin level, we can state that Misoprostol has no specific preferences to TXA, but more studies with greater population are needed. PMID:25114373

  4. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466?686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandéz-Dia?, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366?350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53?292), fathers with separate partners (n=47?054), sister pairs (n=97?228), brother pairs (n=91?168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177?944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total variation in liability is attributable to factors that are not shared in families. PMID:25121825

  5. Orbital cerebrospinal fluid accumulation after complicated pterional-orbitozygomatic craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Michael K; Piluek, Wachirapon Jordan; Ruggiero, Jason P; McDermott, Michael W; McCulley, Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    We describe 2 patients who developed postoperative orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection after orbitozygomatic pterional craniotomy. An 18-year-old woman underwent exploratory pterional-orbitozygomatic craniotomy. Five days postoperatively, after removal of a lumbar drain, proptosis and a compressive optic neuropathy developed. Computed tomography demonstrated a CSF collection contiguous with the craniotomy site. Resolution followed percutaneous aspiration and replacement of the lumbar drain. A 57-year-old woman underwent a pterional-orbitozygomatic craniotomy for removal of a left anterior clinoid meningioma, complicated by a large left hemorrhagic stroke requiring decompressive hemicraniectomy. Extracranial CSF collections accumulated in both the orbit and subgaleal spaces. Resolution followed placement of an external ventricular drain. Based on these cases, the mechanism seems to be the combination of iatrogenic formation of a communication with the subarachnoid space and elevated intracranial pressure. Resolution was achieved by normalizing intracranial pressure. PMID:24699141

  6. A modified double injection model of cisterna magna for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical complication, characterized by constriction of cerebral arteries leading to varying degrees of cerebral ischemia. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have been performed in the last decades; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH still remains unclear. Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. PMID:23194464

  7. On the role of vasopressin and angiotensin in the development of irreversible haemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Errington, M. L.; e Silva, M. Rocha

    1974-01-01

    1. Long-lasting haemorrhagic hypotension (4·5 hr at 35 mmHg) leading to irreversible haemorrhagic shock, has been studied in normal dogs, in dogs treated with a bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide (BPP9a), which blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, and in dogs with experimental chronic diabetes insipidus (DI dogs). BPP9a was given by I.V. injection before the start of bleeding (BPP pre-treated group), 45 min after blood pressure had reached 35 mmHg (BPP early treated group) or 2 hr after blood pressure had reached 35 mmHg (BPP late-treated group). After retransfusion of blood all dogs were allowed to recover and observed for a further period of 3 days. 2. Untreated control dogs developed haemorrhagic shock with tachycardia, low cardiac output, low total peripheral conductance and low stroke volume. All died within 24 hr of retransfusion, with pathological lesions typical of irreversible haemorrhagic shock. 3. BPP pre-treated dogs developed haemorrhagic shock with bradycardia (during early shock), high cardiac output, high peripheral vascular conductance and high stroke volume when compared with the untreated controls. All pre-treated animals survived the 3 day observation period. They were then killed and on post-mortem showed no signs of irreversible haemorrhagic shock. 4. BPP early-treated animals behaved like controls before BPP, but like pre-treated animals after the drug. Only one out of eight died within the 3 day observation period. 5. BPP late-treated dogs behaved like controls before BPP. They responded to the drug with a rise in cardiac output, peripheral vascular conductance and stroke volume, and with a fall in heart rate. These responses were, however, short-lived. Four out of these eight animals died within the 3 day observation period, with lesions of irreversible haemorrhagic shock. 6. DI dogs developed haemorrhagic shock with tachycardia (like controls), but with high cardiac output and peripheral vascular conductance (like BPP pre-treated dogs). The stroke volume of DI dogs was intermediate between those of controls and pre-treated groups. All six dogs survived the 3 day observation period. 7. BPP9a had no measurable effect on the course of endotoxic shock. 8. It is suggested that the normally severe vasoconstriction of the mesenteric vascular bed, which is thought to be responsible for irreversible haemorrhagic shock, is absent or attenuated in the absence of vasopressin or angiotensin. The consequences of this on the development of irreversibility are discussed. PMID:4373570

  8. Timing of operation for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a common and dangerous disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt & Hess Grades 4–5) are unconscious on admission. Because of the high mortality and disability rate associated with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is often treated conservatively. Timing of surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still controversial, therefore this study aims to identify the optimal time to operate on patients admitted in poor clinical condition. Methods/design Ninety-nine patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into three treatment groups. The early surgery group received operation within 3 days after onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (day of SAH?=?day 1); the intermediate surgery group received operation from days 4 to 7, and surgery was performed on the late surgery group after day 7. Follow-up was performed 1, 3, and 6 months after aneurysm clipping. Primary indicators of outcome included the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale, while secondary indicators of outcome were assessed using the Barthel Index and mortality. Discussion This is the first prospective, single-center, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial to elucidate optimal timing for surgery in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The results of this study will be used to direct decisions of surgical intervention in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage, thus improving clinical outcomes for patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-12002917 PMID:23957458

  9. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Results: Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. Conclusions: BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non-invasive technique for detecting intracranial aneurysms. It is also suitable for patients who have been referred to emergency services. Therefore, it can be used in emergency conditions and as a first-line diagnostic method in patients with non-traumatic SAH. PMID:25035697

  10. Haemorrhagic syndrome of cattle associated with the feeding of sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum) hay containing dicoumarol.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D G; Markson, L M; Brush, P J; Sawtell, J A; Bloxham, P A

    1983-07-23

    An outbreak of a haemorrhagic diathesis in cattle fed home produced hay is described. A similar syndrome was reproduced experimentally in calves by feeding them the hay. The experimental disease was characterised by increased prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times while the leucocyte and erythrocyte counts remained normal until the terminal haemorrhage. The calves ate well and grew well until the rapid onset of progressive weakness, stiff gait, mucosal pallor, tachycardia, tachypnoea and haematomata ending in sudden death. The absence of blood coagulation was seen at necropsy while petechial, ecchymotic and free haemorrhages were found in most organs. Particularly striking were massive ecchymotic haemorrhages on the peritoneal surface of the rumen, a bloody, gelatinous mass enveloping each kidney and extensive bruising, haemorrhage and haematomata in the subcutis of the limbs. In a second feeding trial the effects of various preparations of vitamin K1 and vitamin K3 were investigated. Oral administration of large quantities of vitamin K1 reduced the elevated prothrombin time; vitamin K3 acted less consistently. Analysis of the hay for trichothecene mycotoxins was negative but floral analysis revealed that sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) comprised about 80 per cent of the hay. Dicoumarol was detected in the hay and in the serum and ruminal contents of the experimental calves. The diagnosis, treatment, control and importance of this syndrome in the United Kingdom are discussed. PMID:6194608

  11. Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles: two year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    McNinch, A W; Tripp, J H

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles, study risk factors, and examine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis. DESIGN--Prospective survey of all possible cases of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn as reported by consultant paediatricians using the monthly notification cards of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and a follow up questionnaire for each case to validate the diagnosis and accrue further data. SETTING--Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Ireland (Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic) during December 1987 to March 1990. PATIENTS--27 infants classified as having confirmed (n = 25) or probable (n = 2) haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. RESULTS--24 of the 27 infants were solely breast fed. 10 suffered intracranial haemorrhage; two of these died and there was clinical concern about the remainder. 20 infants had received no vitamin K prophylaxis, and seven had received oral prophylaxis. Relative risk ratios for these groups compared with babies who had received intramuscular vitamin K were 81:1 and 13:1 respectively. Six infants had hepatitis (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency in four), unsuspected until presentation with haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, of whom four had received oral prophylaxis. One other baby had prolonged jaundice. One mother had taken phenytoin during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS--All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis. Intramuscular vitamin K is more effective than oral prophylactic regimens currently used in the British Isles. PMID:1747578

  12. Predictors of excellent functional outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pegoli, Marianna; Mandrekar, Jay; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    OBJECT Case fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have decreased over time, and many patients treated with modern paradigms return to a normal life. However, there is little information on predictors of excellent functional outcome after aSAH. In this study, the authors investigated predictors of excellent outcome in a modern consecutive series of patients with aSAH. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of patients with aSAH admitted between 2001 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was excellent functional outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 or 1 at last follow-up within 1 year of aSAH. RESULTS Three hundred seventy-three patients were identified with posthospital follow-up. Excellent outcome was noted in 236 patients (63.3%), including an mRS score of 0 in 122 (32.7%) and an mRS score of 1 in 114 (30.6%). On univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with an excellent outcome: indicators of less severe bleeding, such as better World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade at any of the times of assessment, better modified Fisher grade, and absence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and symptomatic hydrocephalus; aneurysm treatment with coil embolization; absence of symptomatic vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and radiological infarction; absence of in-hospital seizures; lack of need for CSF diversion; fewer hours with fever; less severe anemia; and absence of transfusion. On multivariable analysis, the 4 variables that were most strongly associated with excellent outcome were presence of good clinical grade after neurological resuscitation, absence of ICH on initial CT scan, blood transfusion during the hospitalization, and radiological infarctions on final brain imaging. CONCLUSIONS Excellent outcomes (mRS score 0-1) can be achieved in the majority of patients with aSAH. The likelihood of excellent outcome is predicted by good clinical condition after resuscitation, absence of ICH on presentation, no evidence of infarction on brain imaging, and absence of blood transfusion during hospitalization. PMID:25495745

  13. Changes in the metabolism of sphingolipids after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Testai, Fernando D; Xu, Hao-Liang; Kilkus, John; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Gorshkova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Pelligrino, Dale A; Dawson, Glyn

    2015-05-01

    We previously described how ceramide (Cer), a mediator of cell death, increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study investigates the alterations of biochemical pathways involved in Cer homeostasis in SAH. Cer, dihydroceramide (DHC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and the activities of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), sphingomyelinase synthase (SMS), S1P-lyase, and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were determined in the CSF of SAH subjects and in brain homogenate of SAH rats. Compared with controls (n?=?8), SAH patients (n?=?26) had higher ASMase activity (10.0?±?3.5 IF/µl· min vs. 15.0?±?4.6 IF/µl • min; P?=?0.009) and elevated levels of Cer (11.4?±?8.8 pmol/ml vs. 33.3?±?48.3 pmol/ml; P?=?0.001) and DHC (1.3?±?1.1 pmol/ml vs. 3.8?±?3.4 pmol/ml; P?=?0.001) in the CSF. The activities of GCS, NSMase, and SMS in the CSF were undetectable. Brain homogenates from SAH animals had increased ASMase activity (control: 9.7?±?1.2 IF/µg • min; SAH: 16.8?±?1.6 IF/µg • min; P?

  14. Effects of Induced Hypertension on Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Velocities in Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Manno; D. R. Gress; L. H. Schwamm; M. N. Diringer; C. S. Ogilvy

    Background and Purpose—Transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) is used after subarachnoid hemorrhage to detect cerebral vasospasm and is often treated with induced hypertension. Cerebral autoregulation, however, may be disturbed in this population, raising the possibility that TCD velocities may be elevated by induced hypertension. To study this possibility, we performed continuous TCD monitoring of the middle cerebral artery during the induction

  15. Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Cerebral Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Clinical and TCD Correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil E. Sviri; Moshe Feinsod; Jean F. Soustiel

    Background and Purpose—Hyponatremia has been shown in association with cerebral vasospasm (CVS) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the past few years there has been increasing evidence that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is responsible for natriuresis after SAH. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between BNP plasma concentrations and CVS after aneurysmal SAH. Methods—BNP plasma

  16. Transcranial doppler monitoring and clinical decision-making after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. McGirt; Robert P. Blessing; Larry B. Goldstein

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the impact of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) vasospasm monitoring on clinical decision-making following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The records of 50 randomly selected patients undergoing serial TCD monitoring following SAH were reviewed. Dates and results of TCDs and cerebral angiograms, the use of hypertensive hemodilution (HH) therapy, and the development of new neurological deficits were recorded.

  17. Nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunggun; Britton, George L; Peng, Tao; Holland, Christy K; McPherson, David D; Huang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage causes severe ischemic neurologic deficits leading to permanent neurologic dysfunction or death. Reduced intravascular and perivascular nitric oxide (NO) availability is a primary pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we evaluated NO-loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) for ultrasound-facilitated NO delivery to produce vasodilation for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We investigated the vasodilative effects of NO released from NO-ELIP both ex vivo and in vivo. Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared, and NO was encapsulated. The encapsulation and release of NO from NO-ELIP were determined by the syringe/vacuum method and ultrasound imaging. The ex vivo vasodilative effect of NO-ELIP was investigated using rabbit carotid arteries. Arterial vasodilation was clearly observed with NO-ELIP exposed to Doppler ultrasound whereas there was little vasodilative effect without exposure to Doppler ultrasound in the presence of red blood cells. Penetration of NO into the arterial wall was determined by fluorescent microscopy. The vasodilative effects of intravenously administered NO-ELIP in vivo were determined in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage model. NO-ELIP with ultrasound activation over the carotid artery demonstrated effective arterial vasodilation in vivo resulting in improved neurologic function. This novel methodology for ultrasound-controlled delivery of NO has the potential for therapeutic treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. This ultrasound-controlled release strategy provides a new avenue for targeted bioactive gas and therapeutic delivery for improved stroke treatment. PMID:24379666

  18. Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Associated with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage after Rupture of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Hara; Kazuo Mukuno; Hironori Ohtaka; Kimiya Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    Two clinical cases in which ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) occurred after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are reported. Hemorrhage in the proximity of the optic chiasm was confirmed in 2 cases following rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Optic disk atrophy with excavation and permanent visual field defect (altitudinal superior hemianopia) occurred in both cases. ION seems to occur in association

  19. Monoclonal antibody against E selectin attenuates subarachnoid hemorrhage–induced cerebral vasospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lung Lin; Aaron S. Dumont; Tarkan Calisaneller; Aij-Lie Kwan; Shen-Long Hwong; Kevin S. Lee

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundIncreasing evidence indicates that inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the role of adhesion molecules in SAH-induced vasospasm is less clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of a highly specific antibody, monoclonal anti–E-selectin antibody, on cerebral vasospasm in a new murine SAH model.

  20. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Following Catastrophic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Pathophysiologic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aradhana M. Venkatesan; Dimitri Karmpaliotis; Eric S. Silverman

    2001-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is an increase in interstitial and alveolar lung fluid that occurs as a direct consequence of acute or subacute central nervous system (CNS) injury. In this review we describe a patient who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure as a result of NPE following catastrophic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient displayed many of the characteristic symptoms, signs, and

  1. Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  2. Progressive manifestations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong

    2014-11-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  3. CT evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a practical review for the radiologist interpreting emergency room studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Provenzale; Lotfi Hacein-Bey

    2009-01-01

    Radiologists working in an emergency radiology setting frequently interpret computed tomography (CT) studies of patients with\\u000a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This article reviews the sensitivity of CT for detection of SAH, some major patterns\\u000a of SAH related to a ruptured aneurysm, and the differential diagnosis of SAH not due to aneurysmal rupture.

  4. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  5. Complications of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Answers Disease Description Physical Findings and Complications Case Reporting Exposure and Response Prevention and Control in Healthcare Settings Background Acceptable Presumptive Evidence of ...

  6. [Complications in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Krska, Z; Pesková, M; Sváb, J; Výborný, J

    1998-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is discussed from the point of view her complications. The survey of local, organ and system complication is demonstrated, and the Atlanta classification is recalled. The complications are demonstrated at the mild acute pancreatitis and also at the severe acute pancreatitis. The complications are demonstrated on the own group of patients (period 1995-1997). Severe respiratory failure came later, but the letality was high. The renale or hepatorenale failure came formerly and equally as DIC were combined with practically absolutely letality. PMID:10084859

  7. Bleeding complications in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidence, mechanisms, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Robin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has established itself firmly as the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of gallstone disease, but it can, at times, be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Existing literature has focused almost exclusively on the biliary complications of this procedure, but other complications such as significant haemorrhage can also be encountered, with an immediate mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Publications in English language literature that have reported the complication of bleeding during or after the performance of LC were identified and accessed. The results thus obtained were tabulated and analyzed to get a true picture of this complication, its mechanism and preventive measures. RESULTS: Bleeding has been reported to occur with an incidence of up to nearly 10% in various series, and can occur at any time during LC (during trocar insertion, dissection technique or slippage of clips/ ligatures) or in the postoperative period. It can range from minor haematomas to life-threatening injuries to major intra-abdominal vessels (such as aorta, vena cava and iliacs). CONCLUSION: Good surgical technique, awareness and early recognition and management of such cases are keys to success when dealing with this problem. PMID:20877476

  8. Dose response study of subarachnoid diamorphine for analgesia after elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R W; Kinsella, S M; Smith, A; Thomas, T A

    1999-10-01

    Subarachnoid diamorphine provides excellent analgesia after elective caesarean section but the optimum dose is still uncertain. We therefore investigated the effects of three regimens of subarachnoid diamorphine. Forty parturients were assigned to one of four groups. A control group received no diamorphine in their subarachnoid bupivacaine and three study groups received 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg or 0.3 mg diamorphine added to 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in a semi-blind randomised design study. All women received a 100 mg diclofenac suppository at the end of the caesarean section and were provided with morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. The patients were assessed for pain, morphine usage and side-effects at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the subarachnoid injection. Postoperative visual analogue scores for pain and PCA morphine consumption were significantly lower, and mean time to first use of morphine was significantly longer in the 0.3 mg diamorphine group. The mean (SD) dose of PCA morphine used over 24 h was 39.4 (14.7), 25.6 (16.5), 21.6 (15.9) and 3.1 (3.6) mg, and mean time to first use of morphine was 1.6 (0.5), 3.0 (1.4), 3.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (9.4) h, in the 0, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg groups respectively. Side-effects of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were dependent on the dose of spinal diamorphine but did not require treatment in any patients. We conclude that 0.3 mg subarachnoid diamorphine provides significantly better postoperative pain relief than the smaller doses with an acceptable increase in side-effects. PMID:15321116

  9. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following pontine haemorrhage: hypertensive crisis or cavernous haemangioma bleeding?

    PubMed

    Krings, T; Foltys, H; Meister, I G; Reul, J

    2003-06-01

    The clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) features of hypertrophic olivary degeneration are described, along with a rare but treatable cause of this entity-pontine cavernous haemangioma. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration occurs after focal lesions to the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway, typically following a pontine haemorrhage involving the ipsilateral central tegmental tract, the contralateral superior cerebellar peduncle, or the dentate nucleus. Clinically, there is palatal myoclonus and an uncontrollable tremor, presumably caused by loss of inhibitory control. On MR imaging, hypertrophic olivary degeneration is characterised by a non-enhancing T1 isointense, T2 hyperintense enlargement confined to the olivary nucleus. Typically, haemorrhages following a hypertensive crisis are responsible for hypertrophic olivary degeneration. However, in the three reported cases, imaging findings within the former bleeding cavity suggested a cavernous haemangioma as the source of the haemorrhage. PMID:12754356

  10. Mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fevers of South and South-East Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Scott B.

    1966-01-01

    During the past decade outbreaks of a severe haemorrhagic disease caused by dengue viruses of multiple types have been reported in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Viet-Nam and eastern India. In many of these outbreaks chikungunya virus, a group A arbovirus, was simultaneously the cause of similar but probably milder disease. Both these viruses appear to be able to be able to produce classical dengue fever in some individuals and disease with haemorrhagic manifestations in others. Because of the growing public health importance and the progressive spread of this disease a unified review of its clinical and epidemiological features has been needed. This paper presents the history and salient clinical features of mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fever and summarizes recent epidemiological studies and current diagnostic and control methods. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:5297536

  11. Complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Iason; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Ozsoy, Mehmet; Vasilas, Marinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2014-09-14

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is generally considered a safe technique offering the highest stone-free rates after the first treatment as compared to the other minimal invasive lithotripsy techniques. Still, serious complications although rare should be expected following this percutaneous procedure. In this work, the most common and important complications associated with PCNL are being reviewed focusing on the perioperative risk factors, current management, and preventing measures that need to be taken to reduce their incidence. In addition, complication reporting is being criticized given the absence of a universal consensus on PCNL complications description. Complications such as perioperative bleeding, urine leak from nephrocutaneous fistula, pelvicalyceal system injury, and pain are individually graded as complications by various authors and are responsible for a significant variation in the reported overall PCNL complication rate, rendering comparison of morbidity between studies almost impossible. Due to the latter, a universally accepted grading system specialized for the assessment of PCNL-related complications and standardized for each variation of PCNL technique is deemed necessary. PMID:25218854

  12. [Complications in pediatric anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Becke, K

    2014-07-01

    As in adult anesthesia, morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced in pediatric anesthesia in recent decades. This fact cannot conceal the fact that the incidence of anesthetic complications in children is still much more common than in adults and sometimes with a severe outcome. Newborns and infants in particular but also children with emergency interventions and severe comorbidities are at increased risk of potential complications. Typical complications in pediatric anesthesia are respiratory problems, medication errors, difficulties with the intravenous puncture and pulmonal aspiration. In the postoperative setting, nausea and vomiting, pain, and emergence delirium can be mentioned as typical complications. In addition to the systematic prevention of complications in pediatric anesthesia, it is important to quickly recognize disturbances of homeostasis and treat them promptly and appropriately. In addition to the expertise of the performing anesthesia team, the institutional structure in particular can improve quality and safety in pediatric anesthesia. PMID:25004872

  13. The role of the adrenal medulla in cardiovascular responses to hypertonic saline in haemorrhaged conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Elgjo, G I; Eide, I; Knardahl, S

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the adrenal medulla plays a role in mediating haemodynamic effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) resuscitation during haemorrhagic hypotension in conscious rats. Wistar-Kyoto rats were either adrenomedullectomized (ADMX, n = 11) or sham-operated (SHAM, n = 10) and implanted with intravascular catheters. Pre-haemorrhage resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was lower in the ADMX than in the SHAM group. Haemorrhage was performed by withdrawal of blood through the venous catheter, and a MAP of 50 mmHg was maintained for 1 h by further withdrawal when necessary. Both groups responded to haemorrhage with marked bradycardia. Plasma adrenaline (A) rose 10-fold in response to hypotension in the SHAM group, while remaining at pre-haemorrhage levels in the ADMX group, indicating successful adrenal demedullation. Infusion of 2.0 ml kg-1 HTS (NaCl 8.0 mg ml-1 i.v.) produced an immediate increase in MAP and heart rate (HR) in both groups, to pre-haemorrhage values or higher. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) increased in both groups after HTS, while the high levels of A in the SHAM group slowly returned toward baseline. Plasma glucose and rate of haemodilution was higher in the SHAM group during and after hypotension. The maintenance of MAP above 60 mmHg was less effective in the SHAM group during the first 2 h after HTS, but after 24 h, prehaemorrhage MAP was established in both groups. In conclusion, the adrenal medulla does not play a major role in the response to HTS resuscitation. PMID:7976416

  14. [Massive haemorrhage after bivalirudin anticoagulation in two heart transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Tauron, M; Paniagua, P; Muñoz-Guijosa, C; Mirabet, S; Padró, J M

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombopenia is a common autoimmune complication. It is a prothrombotic state due to the formation of antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes. In this situation drugs other than heparin must be used for anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation (bypass) surgery. Two cases of heart transplantation are presented in whom bivalirudin was used as an anticoagulant during the cardiopulmonary bypass. Severe bleeding complications were observed in both patients. The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombopenia needs to be improved, as well as the development of protocols for using new drugs other than heparin. For this reason, we have reviewed current protocols and alternative therapies to heparin. PMID:22784649

  15. Determinants of early case-fatality among stroke patients in Maputo, Mozambique and impact of in-hospital complications.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Joana; Damasceno, Albertino; Carrilho, Carla; Lobo, Vitória; Lopes, Hélder; Madede, Tavares; Pravinrai, Pius; Silva-Matos, Carla; Diogo, Domingos; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

    2013-10-01

    The burden of stroke is increasing in developing countries that struggle to manage it efficiently. We identified determinants of early case-fatality among stroke patients in Maputo, Mozambique, to assess the impact of in-hospital complications. Patients admitted to any hospital in Maputo with a new stroke event were prospectively registered (n = 651) according to the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach, in 2005-2006. We assessed the determinants of in-hospital and 28-day fatality, independently of age, gender and education, and computed population attributable fractions. In-hospital mortality was higher among patients with Glasgow score at admission ? 6 (more than fivefold) or needing cardiopulmonary resuscitation during hospitalization (approximately 2.5-fold). Pneumonia and deep vein thrombosis/other cardiovascular complications during hospitalization were responsible for 19.6% (95% confidence interval, 5.3 to 31.7) of ischaemic stroke and 15.9% (95% confidence interval, 5.8 to 24.9) of haemorrhagic stroke deaths until the 28th day. Ischaemic stroke patients with systolic blood pressure 160-200 mmHg had lower in-hospital mortality (relative risk = 0.32, 95% confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.78), and, for those with haemorrhagic events (haemorrhagic stroke), 28-day mortality was higher when systolic blood pressure was over 200 mmHg (hazard ratio = 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 11.51), compared with systolic blood pressure 121-140 mmHg. Regarding diastolic blood pressure, the risk was lowest at 121-150 mmHg for ischaemic stroke and at 61-90 mmHg for haemorrhagic stroke. Early case-fatality was mostly influenced by stroke severity and in-hospital complications. The allocation of resources to the latter may have a large impact on the reduction of the burden of stroke in this setting. PMID:23331721

  16. Scientific foundation and possible implications for practice of the Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site andSystemic Implementation of AngioX (MATRIX) trial.

    PubMed

    Valgimigli, Marco; Calabrò, Paolo; Cortese, Bernardo; Frigoli, Enrico; Garducci, Stefano; Rubartelli, Paolo; Andò, Giuseppe; Santarelli, Andrea; Galli, Mario; Garbo, Roberto; Repetto, Alessandra; Ierna, Salvatore; Briguori, Carlo; Limbruno, Ugo; Violini, Roberto; Gagnor, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Early invasive management and the use of combined antithrombotic therapies have decreased the risk of recurrent ischaemia in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but have also increased the bleeding risk. Transradial intervention (TRI) and bivalirudin infusion compared to transfemoral intervention (TFI) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) decrease bleeding complications in patients with ACS. To what extent, a bleeding preventive strategy incorporating at least one of these two treatment options translates into improved outcomes is a matter of debate. The Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of AngioX study is a large-scale, multicenter, prospective, open-label trial, conducted at approximately 100 sites in Europe aiming to primarily assess whether TRI and bivalirudin infusion, as compared to TFI and UFH plus provisional GPI, decrease the 30-day incidence of death, myocardial infarction or stroke across the whole spectrum of ACS patients. PMID:24395497

  17. Complications following hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Russell, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    As the number of liver resections in the United States has increased, operations are more commonly performed on older patients with multiple comorbidities. The advent of effective chemotherapy and techniques such as portal vein embolization, have compounded the number of increasingly complex resections taking up to 75% of healthy livers. Four potentially devastating complications of liver resection include postoperative hemorrhage, venous thromboembolism, bile leak, and post-hepatectomy liver failure. The risk factors and management of these complications are herein explored, stressing the importance of identifying preoperative factors that can decrease the risk for these potentially fatal complications. PMID:25444470

  18. Specific cancer rates may differ in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, affects ~1 in 5,000, and causes multi-systemic vascular lesions and life-limiting complications. Life expectancy is surprisingly good, particularly for patients over 60ys. We hypothesised that individuals with HHT may be protected against life-limiting cancers. Methods To compare specific cancer rates in HHT patients and controls, we developed a questionnaire capturing data on multiple relatives per respondent, powered to detect differences in the four most common solid non skin cancers (breast, colorectal, lung and prostate), each associated with significant mortality. Blinded to cancer responses, reports of HHT-specific features allowed assignment of participants and relatives as HHT-subjects, unknowns, or controls. Logistic and quadratic regressions were used to compare rates of specific cancer types between HHT subjects and controls. Results 1,307 participants completed the questionnaire including 1,007 HHT-subjects and 142 controls. The rigorous HHT diagnostic algorithm meant that 158 (12%) completed datasets were not assignable either to HHT or control status. For cancers predominantly recognised as primary cancers, the rates in the controls generally matched age-standardised rates for the general population. HHT subjects recruited through the survey had similar demographics to controls, although the HHT group reported a significantly greater smoking habit. Combining data of participants and uniquely-reported relatives resulted in an HHT-arm of 2,161 (58% female), and control-arm of 2,817 (52% female), with median ages of 66ys [IQR 53–77] and 77ys [IQR 65–82] respectively. In both crude and age-adjusted regression, lung cancers were significantly less frequent in the HHT arm than controls (age-adjusted odds ratio 0.48 [0.30, 0.70], p?=?0.0012). Breast cancer prevalence was higher in HHT than controls (age-adjusted OR 1.52 [1.07, 2.14], p?=?0.018). Overall, prostate and colorectal cancer rates were equivalent, but the pattern of colorectal cancer was modified, with a higher prevalence in younger HHT patients than controls. Conclusions These preliminary survey data suggest clinically significant differences in the rates of lung, breast and colorectal cancer in HHT patients compared to controls. For rare diseases in which longitudinal studies take decades to recruit equivalent datasets, this type of methodology provides a good first-step method for data collection. PMID:24354965

  19. Syringomyelia Associated with Spinal Arachnoiditis Treated by Partial Arachnoid Dissection and Syrinx-Far Distal Subarachnoid Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

  20. Syringomyelia associated with spinal arachnoiditis treated by partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

  1. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Kid-friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  2. Complications of Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Krill, Aaron J.; Palmer, Lane S.; Palmer, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, circumcision is a commonly performed procedure. It is a relatively safe procedure with a low overall complication rate. Most complications are minor and can be managed easily. Though uncommon, complications of circumcision do represent a significant percentage of cases seen by pediatric urologists. Often they require surgical correction that results in a significant cost to the health care system. Severe complications are quite rare, but death has been reported as a result in some cases. A thorough and complete preoperative evaluation, focusing on bleeding history and birth history, is imperative. Proper selection of patients based on age and anatomic considerations as well as proper sterile surgical technique are critical to prevent future circumcision-related adverse events. PMID:22235177

  3. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is chronic (of long duration) LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS PERFORATION (RUPTURE) OF THE BOWEL Intestinal perforation occurs ... CANCER About 5% to 8% of people with ulcerative colitis will develop colorectal cancer within 20 years after ...

  4. [Complicated mesenteric ischaemia].

    PubMed

    Volák, S; Orhalmi, J; Dušek, T; Ferko, A

    2014-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischaemia is a serious condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis is one of the most frequent etiologic factors. This case report presents a patient suffering from acute mesenteric ischaemia complicated by acute lower limb ischaemia and post-ischaemic stenosis of the ileum. Such a patient requires a multidisciplinary, comprehensive, and, in some cases, phased approach to solve complications brought about especially by generalized atherosclerosis. PMID:25472564

  5. Pulmonary Complications of Cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajan Kochar; Moises I. Nevah Rubin; Michael B. Fallon

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease comprise two distinct clinical entities: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS—microvascular\\u000a dilatation and angiogenesis) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH—vasoconstriction and remodeling in resistance vessels).\\u000a These complications occur in similar pathophysiologic environments and may share pathogenic mechanisms. HPS is found in 15%\\u000a to 30% of patients with cirrhosis and its presence increases mortality and the risks of liver transplantation,

  6. On complicity theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. David Kline

    2006-01-01

    The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie\\u000a and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm\\u000a and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper\\u000a examines the Complicity Theory.

  7. Compression optochiasmatique par un clip refoulé par une hydrocéphalie chronique après traitement chirurgical d’un anévrisme rompu de l’artère communicante antérieure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Zaïri; L. Thines; P. Bourgeois; M. Ayachi; J.-P. Lejeune

    Chronic hydrocephalus is a classic and recognized complication that affects 6 to 37% of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The diagnosis is often mentioned due to the delayed onset of gait disturbance and slower psychomotor performance. The CT-scan confirms the diagnosis by showing an enlargement of the ventricles. In case of symptomatic hydrocephalus, a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is often required. The

  8. On complicity theory.

    PubMed

    Kline, A David

    2006-04-01

    The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper examines the Complicity Theory. The supposed anomalies rest on misunderstandings of the received view or misreadings of model cases of whistleblowing, for example, the Challenger disaster and the Ford Pinto. Nevertheless, the Complicity Theory is important for as in science the contrast with alternative competing accounts often helps us better understand the received view. Several aspects of the received view are reviewed and strengthened through comparison with Complicity Theory, including why whistleblowing needs moral justification. Complicity Theory is also critiqued. The fundamental failure of Complicity Theory is its failure to explain why government and the public encourage and protect whistleblowers despite the possibility of considerable harm to the relevant company in reputation, lost jobs, and lost shareholder value. PMID:16609713

  9. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies. PMID:23528336

  10. Unusual delayed presentation of head trauma complicating outcome of facial nerve decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Thakur, J S; Shekar, Vidya; Saluja, Manika; Mohindroo, N K

    2013-01-01

    Late presentation of head trauma is rare. A young boy presented with a traumatic facial paralysis after head trauma. A CT scan of the head showed temporal bone fracture without intracranial insult. Facial nerve decompression was performed and paralysis started improving. However, he presented with vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss after 2 months. Clinical examination also showed cerebellar sign. We suspected iatrogenic injury to the cochlea; however, brain MRI showed haemorrhage in the area of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient was managed conservatively and the vertigo improved. This case stresses on unusual late presentation of head trauma and cerebellar artery injury that complicated the outcome of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:23964046

  11. Biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin: the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mário Sérgio R; Naves de Souza, Dayane L; Guimarães, Denise O; Lopes, Daiana S; Mamede, Carla C N; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie C; Achê, David C; Rodrigues, Renata S; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Borges, Márcia H; de Oliveira, Fábio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2015-03-01

    We present the biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin, the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This protein was purified after three chromatographic steps on cation exchange CM-Sepharose fast flow, size-exclusion column Sephacryl S-300 and anion exchange Capto Q. Bothropoidin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and comprised a single chain of 49,558 Da according to MALDI TOF analysis. The protein presented an isoelectric point of 3.76, and the sequence of six fragments obtained by MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed a significant score when compared with other PIII Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Bothropoidin showed proteolytic activity on azocasein, A?-chain of fibrinogen, fibrin, collagen and fibronectin. The enzyme was stable at pH 6-9 and at lower temperatures when assayed on azocasein. Moreover, its activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1.10-phenanthroline and ?-mercaptoethanol. Bothropoidin induced haemorrhage [minimum haemorrhagic dose (MHD) = 0.75 µg], inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP, and interfered with viability and cell adhesion when incubated with endothelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Bothropoidin is a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase that can play an important role in the toxicity of B. pauloensis envenomation and might be used as a tool for studying the effects of SVMPs on haemostatic disorders and tumour metastasis. PMID:25261583

  12. Pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography of operated primary pontine haemorrhage with long survival: report of two cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kowada; K. Yamaguchi; Z. Ito; S. Matsuoka

    1972-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative pneumoencephalo-roulette tomography has been carried out in two cases of primary pontine haemorrhage with long survival. A pontine or cerebellar atrophy was revealed in case 1, in whom an intrapontine haematoma was removed. A markedly hollowed pons on the affected side has been demonstrated nearly five months after ventriculoatrial shunting in case 2.

  13. The free nucleocapsids of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus contain two antigenically related nucleoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Basurco; F. Sanz; M. A. Marcotegui; J. M. Coll

    1991-01-01

    Summary A protein of 34kDa (Nx) was induced in vitro by the infection of fish cell cultures with the rhabdovirus agent of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) of the trout. This protein only appeared as a major component in concentrated or intracellular labeled VHS virus but not in purified VHS or in the related infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus. That Nx protein

  14. Risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage with calcium antagonists in hypertensive persons over 67 years old

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pahor; P Carbonin; J. M Guralnik; R. J Havlik; C. D Furberg

    1996-01-01

    SummaryBackground Calcium antagonists are used frequently in management of hypertension. In addition to their cardiovascular effects, these drugs inhibit platelet aggregation. Therefore we examined whether the use of calcium antagonists was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage (GIH).Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from 1985 through 1992 on 1636 hypertensive persons aged ?68 years living in three

  15. Mountain sickness, retinal haemorrhages, and acclimatisation on Mount Everest in 1975

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Clarke; J Duff

    1976-01-01

    During the 1975 British Everest Expedition, which made the first ascent of the south-west face, observations were made in relation to mountain sickness and the appearance of retinal changes. Two Sherpas with cerebral oedema and one Briton with pulmonary oedema were treated. Retinal haemorrhages occurred in four out of six Britons who were newcomers to altitudes over 6000 m (19

  16. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. PMID:25380792

  17. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  18. Long-time octreotide in an adolescent with severe haemorrhagic gastrointestinal vascular malformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Friedrich Classen; Dieter Haffner; Christina Hauenstein; Ricarda Wolf; Ulrike Kyank

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are a rare cause of acute or chronic blood loss. Usually they are treated by endoscopic obliteration or surgical resection. When such a therapy is inapplicable, pharmacotherapy may be required. At the age of 15 years, our female patient suffered from transfusion dependent recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to multiple gastrointestinal vascular malformations. Gastroscopy, coloscopy and capsule endoscopy

  19. A pharmacokinetic model for factor VIII dosing during active haemorrhage in patients with haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Ho, A M; Dion, P; Karmakar, M K; Cheng, G; Derrick, J L; Chung, D C; Tay, B A

    2001-08-01

    A theoretical one-compartment pharmacokinetic model is described, the aim of which is to guide factor VIII replacement therapy in patients with haemophilia A suffering from significant and ongoing haemorrhage. Based on our calculations, plasma factor VIII concentrations can decrease at a rapid rate even with non-severe blood loss. PMID:11493246

  20. Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nylund; H. Plarre; K. Hodneland; M. Devold; V. Aspehaug; M. Aarseth; C. Koren; K. Watanabe

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed

  1. Arrest of Liver Haemorrhage Secondary to Percutaneous Liver Biopsy of a Haemangioma with Fibrin Glue

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Elijah

    2002-01-01

    Background Haemorrhage resulting from blunt and penetrating injury to the liver remains a difficult therapeutic problem, often resulting in massive intraperitoneal blood loss. Perihepatic liver packing and inflow occlusive techniques in combination with finger fracture exploration of injuries to allow vessel ligation are the mainstays if treatment with normal liver parenchyma. More recently fibrin glue haemostatic agents have been used to arrest traumatic haemorrhage from the liver. We report a case of the use of fibrin glue to arrest the bleeding caused by the percutaneous biopsy of a liver haemangioma. Case Outline A 42 year-old woman underwent percutaneous diagnostic biopsy of a liver lesion and subsequently experienced shock secondary to massive bleeding from the biopsy site. At laparotomy there was massive bleeding from the puncture site of the liver lesion. Control of haemorrhage was obtained by injecting fibrin glue down the biopsy site tract. This manoeuvre resulted in complete arrest of haemorrhage with no adverse effect. Discussion The use of fibrin glue as a haemostatic agent in trauma is an important adjunct to perihepatic liver packing and finger fracture exploration of injuries. It may have exceptional utility in patients with penetrating trauma to the liver by direct intraparenchymal injection. This case illustrates that fibrin glue can be used to arrest bleeding from vascular tumours such as haemangiomas. It may help to minimise bleeding for all percutaneous liver biopsies. PMID:18332950

  2. Stigmata of recent haemorrhage in diagnosis and prognosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D N Foster; K J A Miloszewski; M S Losowsky

    1978-01-01

    In 277 consecutive episodes of suspected upper gastrointestinal bleeding, lesions bearing stigmata of recent haemorrhage (stigmata) were found by endoscopy in 110 (47%) out of 233 patients who were judged to have bled; 78 (33%) had lesions without stigmata, and in 45 (19%) no lesion was seen. Results in 176 entirely unselected admissions for upper gastrointestinal bleeding were similar.Forty-eight chronic

  3. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage during sexual activity after sildenafil intake: an accidental association?

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Elisa; Lodise, Maria; Valerio, Luca; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2011-12-01

    We report and describe an autopsy case of a man dead for rupture of cerebral artery aneurysm with subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage after sexual intercourse. Toxicologic analysis demonstrated that he had consumed sildenafil (Viagra). Although subarachnoid hemorrhage has been reported to be associated with sexual intercourse, it is not among the known adverse effects of sildenafil. However, sildenafil has been found to interact with vascular physiology via multiple mechanisms and in most of the vascular districts of the human body. This case provides an example of a very rare association between this drug and a fatal pathologic event and deserves to be added to the existing clinical knowledge about sildenafil and the pathophysiology of the events involved. This knowledge may be helpful in orienting further investigation into the mechanisms of action of sildenafil and their clinical implications. PMID:21860321

  5. Cerebral convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage: various causes and role of diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Mangla, Rajiv; Drumsta, Douglas; Alamst, Jeevak; Mangla, Manisha; Potchen, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made it relatively easy to diagnose cortical convexity subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH); however, the evaluation of these hemorrhages should not be limited to size and location. It is imperative that possible underlying etiologies be identified so that clinicians may properly treat and prevent this potentially catastrophic event. The goal of this article is to review etiologies of cortical convexity subarachnoid hemorrhages, from common causes such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy to less common causes such as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and moyamoya. The specific imaging findings of each etiology that may be responsible for these hemorrhages are described in this article so that the radiologist may properly aid in the diagnosis of the underlying cause. PMID:25001597

  6. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4?days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6?months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25833904

  7. Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage suspected to have been caused by contrecoup cerebellar contusions: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takako; Tsuboi, Kento; Nomura, Masakatsu; Iwata, Misa; Abe, Shuntaro; Tamura, Akiyoshi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Nishio, Hajime; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Traumatic cerebellar hemorrhagic contusions are infrequent, and the pathogenic mechanism involves a coup injury that is associated with motor vehicle accidents in most cases. Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is commonly reported after blunt trauma to the neck or unrestricted movement of the head, and the source of the hemorrhage is most frequently identified in the vertebrobasilar arteries. A 55-year-old woman who was addicted to alcohol was found dead in her bed. She had a bruise on the left side of her posterior parietal region, and autopsy revealed massive subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain; the hematoma was strongly attached to the right lower surface of the cerebellar hemisphere. No ruptured cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations or vertebrobasilar artery leakage were detected. Hemorrhagic cerebellar contusions were regarded as the source of the TBSAH. This is the first report of TBSAH suspected to have been caused by contrecoup cerebellar contusions. PMID:24411402

  8. HIV and the Risk of Direct Obstetric Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Clara; Ronsmans, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age in parts of sub-Saharan Africa are faced both with high levels of HIV and the threat of dying from the direct complications of pregnancy. Clinicians practicing in such settings have reported a high incidence of direct obstetric complications among HIV-infected women, but the evidence supporting this is unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether HIV-infected women are at increased risk of direct obstetric complications. Methods and findings Studies comparing the frequency of obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, dystocia and intrauterine infections in HIV-infected and uninfected women were identified. Summary estimates of the odds ratio (OR) for the association between HIV and each obstetric complication were calculated through meta-analyses. In total, 44 studies were included providing 66 data sets; 17 on haemorrhage, 19 on hypertensive disorders, five on dystocia and 25 on intrauterine infections. Meta-analysis of the OR from studies including vaginal deliveries indicated that HIV-infected women had over three times the risk of a puerperal sepsis compared with HIV-uninfected women [pooled OR: 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00–5.85]; this figure increased to nearly six amongst studies only including women who delivered by caesarean (pooled OR: 5.81, 95% CI: 2.42–13.97). For other obstetric complications the evidence was weak and inconsistent. Conclusions The higher risk of intrauterine infections in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women may require targeted strategies involving the prophylactic use of antibiotics during labour. However, as the huge excess of pregnancy-related mortality in HIV-infected women is unlikely to be due to a higher risk of direct obstetric complications, reducing this mortality will require non obstetric interventions involving access to ART in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:24124458

  9. Pharmacological treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Castanares-Zapatero; Philippe Hantson

    2011-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage after the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm is the cause of 6% to 8% of all cerebrovascular accidents\\u000a involving 10 of 100,000 people each year. Despite effective treatment of the aneurysm, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is\\u000a observed in 30% of patients, with a peak on the tenth day, resulting in significant infirmity and mortality. Cerebral vasospasm\\u000a occurs in

  10. Hyperbaric Oxygen Suppresses NADPH Oxidase in a Rat Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Ostrowski; Jiping Tang; John H. Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose—One of the major contributors to brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is oxidative stress, and 1 of the major enzymatic sources of superoxide anion production in the brain is NADPH oxidase. Therefore, we studied whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) suppresses neuronal NADPH oxidase in a rat model of SAH. Methods—Eighty-three Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to sham, SAH,

  11. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen-induced neuroprotection in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P Ostrowski; Austin R T Colohan; John H Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Acute cerebral ischemia occurs after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) because of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on physiological and clinical outcomes after SAH, as well as the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and its target genes, such as BNIP3 and VEGF was evaluated. Eighty-five male SD rats (300 to 350

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen for Cerebral Vasospasm and Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Ostrowski; John H. Zhang

    The impact of acute brain injury and delayed neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are major determinants\\u000a of outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) had been used to treat patients with SAH,\\u000a the supporting evidence and underlying mechanisms have not been systematically reviewed. In the present paper, the overview\\u000a of studies of HBO for cerebral vasospasm

  13. Alpha Lipoic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Preserves Blood Brain Permeability in Rats with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet ErsahinHale; Hale Z. Toklu; ?ule Çetinel; Meral Yüksel; Can Erzik; M. Zafer Berkman; Berrak Ç. Ye?en; Göksel ?ener

    2010-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA; 100 mg\\/kg, po), a dithiol antioxidant, on experimentally induced subarachnoid\\u000a hemorrhage (SAH) was assessed in Wistar albino rats. Neurological examination scores recorded at the 48th h of SAH induction\\u000a were increased in SAH groups, which were accompanied with significant increases in the formation of reactive oxygen species,\\u000a DNA fragmentation ratios, malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase

  14. Serum magnesium levels as related to symptomatic vasospasm and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic P. Collignon; Jonathan A. Friedman; David G. Piepgras; Mark A. Pichelmann; Jon I. McIver; L. Gerard Toussaint III; Robyn L. McClelland

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that magnesium may be neuroprotective in the setting of cerebral ischemia, and therapeutic magnesium\\u000a infusion has been proposed for prophylaxis and treatment of delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) resulting from vasospasm\\u000a in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We studied the association between serum magnesium levels, the\\u000a development of DIND, and the outcomes of patients with

  15. Mechanisms underlying increased vascular smooth muscle contractility in the rabbit basilar artery following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Kameda, Katsuharu; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular contractility plays an important role in the development of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Here, we summarize our current knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms that contribute to increased smooth muscle contractility of rabbit basilar artery following SAH. Our studies demonstrated that upregulation of receptor expression, impairment of feedback regulation of receptor activity, and enhancement of myofilament Ca²? sensitization might lead to increased smooth muscle contractility following SAH. PMID:25366606

  16. Anticoagulation for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Osama Hegazi; Sherif Ahmed; Mohamed Gaber Sakr; Omar Ahmed Hassanien

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To report the success of anticoagulation (AC) treatment in a case of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in view of the limited evidence seen in the literature supporting such a treatment option. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 38-year-old lady with CVT and SAH presented 12 h after the onset of symptoms. AC with low-molecular-weight heparin was

  17. Massive Pleural Effusion as the Presenting Feature of a Subarachnoid-Pleural Fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan D’Souza; Amita Doshi; Shekhar Bhojraj; Prashant Shetty; Zarir Udwadia

    2002-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a large symptomatic transudative pleural effusion 4 months after spinal surgery for kyphoscoliosis. Computed tomography myelography confirmed a subarachnoid-pleural fistula (SPF) with a pseudo-meningocele communicating with the left pleural space. A review of the literature indicates this to be a rare finding. The possibility of SPF should be entertained in patients who present with a

  18. Possible Role for Vascular Cell Proliferation in Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecil O. Borel; Andy McKee; Augusto Parra; Michael M. Haglund; Amy Solan; Vikas Prabhakar; Huaxin Sheng; David S. Warner; Laura Niklason

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—During vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), cerebral blood vessels show structural changes consistent with the actions of vascular mitogens. We measured platelet-derived vascular growth factors (PDGFs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients after SAH and tested the effect of these factors on cerebral arteries in vivo and in vitro. Methods—CSF was sampled from 14 patients after SAH,

  19. Angiographically Occult Vascular Malformation of the Cauda Equina Presenting Massive Spinal Subdural and Subarachnoid Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a non traumatic spinal subdural hematoma or subarachnoid hematoma manifesting as lumbago, leg pain and bladder dysfunction that showed angiographically occult vascular malformation (AOVM). Although the spinal angiogram did not reveal any vascular abnormality, the follow-up magnetic resonance image showed AOVM. Complete surgical removal was performed due to the aggravated bladder dysfunction. This case highlights the need to consider bleeding due to spinal AOVM, even when angiography is negative. PMID:21887399

  20. Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by neurosurgeons in Colombia: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Gutiérrez Paternina, Juan J.; Buendía de Ávila, María E.; Preciado Mesa, Edgar I.; Barrios, Rubén Sabogal; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M.; Jaramillo, Keith Suárez

    2011-01-01

    Background: Trends in management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms among neurosurgeons is very variable and had not been previously described in any Latin American country. This study was conducted to determine the preferences of Colombian neurosurgeons in pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: A survey-based descriptive study was performed in a sample of members from the Colombian Association of Neurosurgery. Questions about pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysm were carried out. We calculated the mean and the standard deviation of the results obtained from the continuous variables. The results of the categorical variables are presented as percentages. Results: The preference of medication with poor clinical evidence, such as magnesium sulfate, aspirin, statins, and anti-fibrinolytics was lower than 10%. The use of intravenous nimodipine and systemic glucocorticoids was as high as 31%. The availability of endovascular therapy was 69%. The indication for treatment of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms that required intervention was less than 13.8%. In patients with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms, coiling was the preferred method for exclusion. Conclusions: Reported compliance of evidence-based clinical guidelines was similar to that described in developed countries, and even better. However, there is little agreement in treating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. For other issues, the conducts reported by Colombian neurosurgeons are in accordance with the current guidelines. PMID:22059120

  1. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. PMID:24314847

  2. Endovascular treatment of vasospasm related to acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Scheglov, Dmitry V; Polischuk, Mykola E; Scheglov, Viktor I; Mamonova, Maryna Y; Monsein, Lee H

    2015-01-01

    In the first 2 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm, 30-35 % of surviving patients treated with conservative nonoperative therapy experience rebleeding. This is fatal in 60-90 % of cases and leads to significant disability in 17-20 % of cases. A major factor for this poor outcome is thought to be the vasospasm that occurs in up to 38.7 % by the third day, 46.3 % by the ninth day, and eventually in up to 70 % of patients. Endovascular treatment of aneurysms associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage has the potential to decrease the occurrence of rebleeding and therefore decrease the high mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Treatment of vasospasm, if it does occur, has the potential to further improve patient outcomes. We describe the outcomes of 174 of our patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm who were treated with endovascular techniques. Overall, the majority of our patients experienced a good or excellent outcome. PMID:25366628

  3. Intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with early hydrocephalus, symptomatic vasospasm, and poor outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas J; Stetler, William R; Davis, Matthew C; Giles, David A; Khan, Adam; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Xi, Guohua; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2015-03-01

    Objective?We hypothesized that the subset of patients with early hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may represent a subset of patients with a more vehement inflammatory reaction to blood products in the subarachnoid space. We thus examined risk factors for early hydrocephalus and examined the relationship between early hydrocephalus and symptomatic vasospasm as well as clinical outcome. Methods?We retrospectively analyzed all patients presenting to our institution with subarachnoid hemorrhage over a 7-year period. We examined for risk factors, including early hydrocephalus, for poor clinical outcome and symptomatic vasospasm. Results?We found intraventricular hemorrhage to be strongly associated with the development of early hydrocephalus. In univariate analysis, early hydrocephalus was strongly associated with both poor functional outcome and symptomatic vasospasm. In multivariate analysis, intraventricular hemorrhage and tobacco use were associated with symptomatic vasospasm; intraventricular hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and symptomatic vasospasm were associated with poor functional outcome. Conclusions?We found that intraventricular hemorrhage was strongly associated with early hydrocephalus. Further exploration of the mechanistic explanation is needed, but we suggest this may be from a combination of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid pathways by blood products and inflammation in the choroid plexus resulting in increased cerebrospinal fluid production. Further, we suggest that both early hydrocephalus and cerebral vasospasm may be parts of the overall inflammatory cascade that occurs with intraventricular hemorrhage and ultimately results in a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:25545809

  4. Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

  5. Optimal hemoglobin concentration in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage after surgical treatment to prevent symptomatic cerebral vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiujun; Tan, Guanping; Xing, Wenli; He, Zhaohui

    2015-03-25

    Medical complications occur frequently after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), such as cerebral vasospasm (CVS), anemia, etc. The relationship between hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the occurrence of CVS after aSAH remains largely elusive. A total of 218 patients with postoperative aSAH were recruited. Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS) was initially diagnosed on the basis of their clinical signs and symptoms, and confirmed by imaging tests. The patients were then divided into four groups on the basis of the postoperative mean Hgb concentration (<11, 11-12, 12-13, and >13?g/dl). The possible influential factors that were statistically significant in the initial univariate analysis were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that Hunt and Hess neurological grade on admission, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, CT Fisher grade, and postoperative mean Hgb were associated significantly with SCVS in aSAH patients after surgical treatment (P<0.05). Subsequent multivariable analysis showed that postoperative mean Hgb remained significant after adjustment for Hunt and Hess neurological grade on admission and CT fisher grade. The incidence of SCVS in the group with an Hgb concentration 11-12?g/dl was found to be the lowest among all groups [odds ratio (OR), 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-7.58, P=0.005; OR, 3.63, 95% CI, 1.41-9.34, P=0.007; OR, 5.34, 95% CI, 1.85-15.43, P=0.002]. Postoperative Hgb concentration is an independent risk factor for SCVS in aSAH patients following surgery, and maintaining the concentration at 11-12?g/dl may reduce the incidence of SCVS. PMID:25714422

  6. Protective effect of stellate ganglion block on delayed cerebral vasospasm in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Na; Wu, Yun; Chen, Bai-Zhao; Han, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Mai-Tao

    2014-10-17

    Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is a blockade of sympathetic ganglia innervating the head and neck, and is known to function through vasodilation of the target region. However, the effectiveness of SGB in relieving cerebral vasospasm (CVS) through dilation of intracerebral vessels has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of SGB in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) complicated by delayed CVS, and explore the underlying mechanisms. The SAH model was established by double injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna. We simulated SGB by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST), and measured changes in the diameter, perimeter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery (BA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) to evaluate its vasodilatory effect. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we determined the expression level of vasoactive molecules endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the plasma, and apoptotic modulators Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus. We found a significant increase in the diameter, perimeter and cross-sectional area of the BA and right MCA in SAH rats subjected to TCST. Application of SGB significantly reduced the expression of ET-1 while increasing that of CGRP in SAH rats. We also found a significant increase in the expression of Bcl-2 and decrease in the expression of Bax in the hippocampus of SAH rats subjected to TCST, when compared to untreated SAH rats. The mechanism of action of SGB is likely mediated through alterations in the ratio of ET-1 and CGRP, and Bax and Bcl-2. These results suggest that SGB can alleviate the severity of delayed CVS by inducing dilation of intracerebral blood vessels, and promoting anti-apoptotic signaling. Our findings provide evidence supporting the use of SGB as an effective and well-tolerated approach to the treatment of CVS in various clinical settings. PMID:25128600

  7. Neurological complications of porphyria.

    PubMed

    Solinas, C; Vajda, F J E

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and describe the importance of neurological complications in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of porphyria. Clinical details are presented for a cohort of 14 patients who presented with one of four categories of symptoms: seizures, polyneuropathy, transient sensory-motor symptoms and cognitive or behavioural abnormalities. Ascertainment of porphyria was often incidental and in many patients neurological complications preceded the definitive biochemical diagnosis. Porphyria is a group of diseases whose clinical picture is often complex and heterogeneous, but neurological complications are not uncommon. When indicated, differential diagnosis of neurological signs and symptoms should include porphyria, as the incidence of the disease is probably underestimated. Part of the clinical picture can be transient and it is often initially disregarded. A family history and recurrence of otherwise unexplained neurological symptoms should alert the clinician to a possible diagnosis of porphyria for patients with neurological presentations. PMID:18187328

  8. Osteoarticular complications of brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Colmenero, J D; Reguera, J M; Fernández-Nebro, A; Cabrera-Franquelo, F

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty three patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis between January 1984 and December 1987 were studied prospectively. Sixty five patients (25%) developed osteoarticular complications. These patients had a more prolonged course than those with no complications. Spondylitis in 38 (58%) and sacroiliitis in 29 (45%) were the most prevalent. There were no significant laboratory, serological, or bacteriological differences between patients with and without osteoarticular complications. At diagnosis 47 patients (72%) showed radiographic abnormalities, commonly in axial sites but rarely in peripheral sites. Radionuclide bone scan was positive with no radiographic abnormalities in 17 (26%) of cases. Fifty seven patients received medical treatment alone, 51 (89%) being cured with a single course of treatment. Treatment failed or there was a relapse in six patients (11%), of whom five had spondylitis. Eight of the 65 patients (12%), all of whom had spondylitis and paravertebral or epidural abscesses, also required surgical treatment. Images PMID:1994863

  9. Complications of laparoscopic pyeloplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens J. Rassweiler; Dogu Teber; Thomas Frede

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  With the development of new video-endoscopic techniques like endopyelotomy, laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy the treatment\\u000a of UPJO has become less invasive. The complications and learning curve of laparoscopic pyeloplasty are presented together\\u000a with recommendations for adequate management.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Based on the personal experience with 189 cases of retroperitoneoscopic pyeloplasty, a literature review (PubMed) was performed\\u000a focussing on complication and success

  10. Complicated necrotizing otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Mariam T; Daruwalla, Vistasp J; Spirer, David; Micco, Alan G; Nemeth, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing (malignant) otitis externa (NOE) is a rare and invasive infection originating in the external acoustic meatus seen most commonly in diabetes and other immunocompromised states. After a protracted course, disease can smolder and extend into the mastoid, skull base, dural sinuses, and intracranially. We present a case of NOE complicated by mastoiditis, dural sinus thrombosis, and Bezold's abscess in an uncontrolled diabetic presenting with a prolonged course of facial nerve palsy. We stress the importance of maintaining a high index of clinical suspicion for NOE in diabetic patients and offering timely, aggressive treatment to mitigate its complications. PMID:23927998

  11. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Šucha?, M; Hor?ák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kova?, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal endoscopic surgery (FEES). In case of superior subperiosteal abscess, combined endonasal and external approach (external orbitotomy) was needed. Combined therapy facilitated quick improvement of local and systematic symptoms. Average time of hospitalisation was 7 days. Early diagnosis and agresive combined therapy prevent loss of vision and life threatening complications. PMID:25640234

  12. Treatment of complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotou?ová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT) of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide. PMID:22893810

  13. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  14. Complications of cyclosporin therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry D. Kahan; Stuart M. Flechner; Marc I. Lorber; Chris Jensen; Debbie Golden; Charles T. Van Buren

    1986-01-01

    Cyclosporin (CsA) therapy has improved the outcome of allotransplants. Because of a relatively selective action on T lymphocytes, CsA therapy causes fewer immunosuppressive complications of infection or malignancy compared to previous chemical agents, which were relatively nonspecific in their spectrum of action on lymphoid versus nonlymphoid cells. Gastrointestinal complaints after oral administration and vasomotor reactions after intravenous administration represent pharmacologic

  15. Pregnancy Complications in PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Homburg

    A higher prevalence of several complications of pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), compared with healthy\\u000a mothers with no PCOS, has been described. These include an increased prevalence of spontaneous miscarriage, gestational diabetes,\\u000a pre-eclamptic toxaemia and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) babies.

  16. Symptomatic Nephrolithiasis Complicating Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Objective: To review our experiences with diagnosis and management of symptomatic nephrolithiasis complicating pregnancy and to ascertain the efficacy of renal sonography for initial diagnosis compared with plain x-rays or singleshot intravenous pyelography. Methods: Perinatal outcomes were evaluated for all pregnant women admitted to Parkland Hospital for nephrolithiasis

  17. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information and resources can be found at www.AIDS.gov See a ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  18. Predictors of complicated grief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mardi Horowitz; Constance Milbrath; George A. Bonanno; Nigel Field; Charles Stinson; Are Holen

    1998-01-01

    This study examined whether process variables predict an outcome of complicated grief. A turbulent and prolonged grief was predicted to occur after the death of a spouse in subjects who had self-blame, used the deceased for an extension of self, had ambivalence toward the deceased, or overcontrolled emotional responses. Ninety subjects were examined at 6, 14, and 25 months after

  19. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia associated with intra-tumour haemorrhage in cavernous sinus after cardiac myxoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H C; Yen, H C; Hsu, J C; Lin, C L

    2009-02-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life-threatening disorder that is associated with heparin exposure. The incidence of HIT in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is relatively rare. We present a case of intratumor haemorrhage in the cavernous sinus 1 week after cardiac surgery. The pathogenesis may be venous thrombosis and haemorrhagic infarct caused by HIT following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. This is a rare case and has not been reported previously. PMID:19234918

  20. Decorin and Colchicine as Potential Treatments for Post-Haemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation in a Neonatal Rat Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Hoque; Marianne Thoresen; Kristian Aquilina; Sarah Hogan; Andrew Whitelaw

    2011-01-01

    Background: Post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) after intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) remains a significant problem in preterm infants. Due to serious disadvantages of ventriculoperitoneal shunt dependence, there is an urgent need for non-surgical interventions. Considerable experimental and clinical evidence implicates transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) in the pathogenesis of PHVD. Colchicine and decorin are both compounds with anti-TGF? properties. The former downregulates

  1. Multiple small-intestine intussusceptions: a complication of purpura haemorrhagica in a horse.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, C L L

    2011-06-01

    A Belgian draft horse stallion presented with classical signs of purpura haemorrhagica: oedema of the distal limbs, ventral abdomen and head, ecchymotic haemorrhage of mucous membranes, epistaxis, fever, lethargy, reluctance to move, and anorexia. Serum chemistry revealed a highly elevated gamma-globulin fraction. Streptococcal lymphadenitis (strangles) had been present on a neighbouring farm in the past few months. After an initial positive response to therapy with benzylpenicillin, flunixin and dexamethasone, the horse's condition deteriorated suddenly on day 4 of hospitalization, with signs of severe endotoxaemia and small-intestine obstruction. The horse was euthanized because of its poor prognosis and because of economic considerations. On necropsy, large serosal haemorrhages in the small and large intestine and multiple jejunojejunal intussusceptions were found. Intussusception is a well-known complication in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura, a human autoimmune disease resembling purpura haemorrhagica in horses. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report to describe intussusception as a complication of purpura haemorrhagica in a horse. PMID:21699093

  2. Haemorrhage after home birth: audit of decision making and referral. Part 2: Results and discussion.

    PubMed

    Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-12-01

    This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of whom seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor or major status. Major SSC was identified in two out of seven cases. We conclude that communication between different healthcare providers should be optimised and a proactive attitude taken to select women who plan to give birth at home, taking into account the possibility of timely referral in case of PPH or retained placenta. National multidisciplinary guidelines on managing obstetric haemorrhage in home birth are urgently needed. PMID:24386705

  3. Christmas disease: diagnosis and management of a haemorrhagic diathesis following dentofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Tamagond, Sridevi B; Hugar, Santosh I; Patil, Anil; Huddar, SandhyaRani

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhagic diathesis has been of much concern to health professionals including dentists. It is not infrequent that a dentist becomes the first person to diagnose a bleeding disorder while performing dental treatment. Haemophilia is an X linked disorder with a frequency of about 1:10,000 births. Haemophilia B is much less common than haemophilia A, and affects only 1:300,000 males born alive. The clinical features of haemophilia B are very similar to those of haemophilia A with a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time. This case report describes the dental management of a patient with an uncommon haematological disorder, namely, factor IX deficiency, which remained undiagnosed until the patient had to undergo dentofacial trauma with unexpected severe haemorrhage. Preventive dentistry remains vital to young haemophiliacs. Surgical dental procedures may be performed for haemophiliacs but they must be judiciously coordinated by dental and medical health professionals. PMID:25568261

  4. Drug complications in outpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejal K. Gandhi; Helen R. Burstin; E. Francis Cook; Ann L. Puopolo; Jennifer S. Haas; Troyen A. Brennan; David W. Bates

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Outpatient drug complications have not been well studied. We sought to assess the incidence and characteristics of outpatient\\u000a drug complications, identify their clinical and nonclinical correlates, and evaluate their impact on patient satisfaction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Retrospective chart reviews and patient surveys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Eleven Boston-area ambulatory clinics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: We randomly selected 2,248 outpatients, 20 to 75 years old.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN

  5. Bereavement and Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Glickman, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bereavement is a common experience in adults age 60 and older. Loss of a loved one usually leads to acute grief characterized by yearning and longing, decreased interest in ongoing activities, and frequent thoughts of the deceased. For most, acute grief naturally evolves into a state of integrated grief, where the bereaved is able to reengage with everyday activities and find interest or pleasure. About 7% of bereaved older adults, however, will develop the mental health condition of Complicated Grief (CG). In CG, the movement from acute to integrated grief is derailed, and grief symptoms remain severe and impairing. This article reviews recent publications on the diagnosis of CG, risk factors for the condition, and evidenced-based treatments for CG. Greater attention to complicated grief detection and treatment in older adults is needed. PMID:24068457

  6. Neuromuscular complications in HIV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susama Verma; Elena Micsa; Lydia Estanislao; David Simpson

    2004-01-01

    HIV affects many organs of the body, including the nervous system. As a result, a series of neurologic complications have\\u000a created challenges for scientists and clinicians alike. Among these, HIV-associated neuropathy and myopathy may occur at all\\u000a stages of the disease process. Of the neuropathies, distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is the most common form. The pathogenesis\\u000a of primary HIV neuropathy is

  7. Complications of Robotic Prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akshay Bhandari; Mani Menon

    \\u000a Robotic prostatectomy has now become the most common surgical procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer in the United\\u000a States. In 2008, over 70,000 robotic prostatectomies were performed worldwide (Intuitive Surgical). While there are no randomized\\u000a trials that compare outcomes of open and laparoscopic prostatectomy, it is commonly assumed that minimally invasive surgery\\u000a is associated with less morbidity and complications

  8. Unilateral spatial neglect due to a haemorrhagic contusion in the right frontal lobe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichiro Maeshima; Tomoaki Terada; Kunio Nakai; Hiroki Nishibayashi; Fuminori Ozaki; Toru Itakura; Norihiko Komai

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of unilateral spatial neglect associated with an isolated right frontal lobe lesion. Case 1 was a 59-year-old, right-handed man, who developed a left hemiplegia, disorientation, and frontal lobe neglect associated with a haemorrhagic contusion following a head injury. Case 2 was a 55-year-old, right-handed man, who also developed disorientation and frontal lobe neglect secondary to a

  9. Idiopathic Systemic Amyloidosis Primarily Affecting the Lungs with Fatal Pulmonary Haemorrhage due to Vascular Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Sterlacci; Lothar Veits; Patrizia Moser; Hans-Jörg Steiner; Sighard Rüscher; Herbert Jamnig; Gregor Mikuz

    2009-01-01

    A patient who presented with dyspnea and suspected interstitial pulmonary fibrosis suffered a fatal pulmonary haemorrhage\\u000a with no feasible cause for bleeding. Autopsy revealed abundant amyloid deposits in both lungs with a diffuse alveolar septal\\u000a distribution pattern. Amyloid was also found in the cardiac interstitium and in many vessel walls. Considering the affected\\u000a organs and the histological characteristics, the deposits

  10. Elevated local skin temperature impairs cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to a simulated haemorrhagic challenge while heat stressed.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J; Lucas, R A I; Crandall, C G

    2013-02-01

    During a simulated haemorrhagic challenge, syncopal symptoms develop sooner when individuals are hyperthermic relative to normothermic. This is due, in part, to a large displacement of blood to the cutaneous circulation during hyperthermia, coupled with inadequate cutaneous vasoconstriction during the hypotensive challenge. The influence of local skin temperature on these cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses is unclear. This project tested the hypothesis that local skin temperature modulates cutaneous vasoconstriction during simulated haemorrhage in hyperthermic humans. Eight healthy participants (four men and four women; 32 ± 7 years old; 75.2 ± 10.8 kg) underwent lower-body negative pressure to presyncope while heat stressed via a water-perfused suit sufficiently to increase core temperature by 1.2 ± 0.2 °C. At forearm skin sites distal to the water-perfused suit, local skin temperature was either 35.2 ± 0.6 (mild heating) or 38.2 ± 0.2 °C (moderate heating) throughout heat stress and lower-body negative pressure, and remained at these temperatures until presyncope. The reduction in cutaneous vascular conductance during the final 90 s of lower-body negative pressure, relative to heat-stress baseline, was greatest at the mildly heated site (-10 ± 15% reduction) relative to the moderately heated site (-2 ± 12%; P = 0.05 for the magnitude of the reduction in cutaneous vascular conductance between sites), because vasoconstriction at the moderately heated site was either absent or negligible. In hyperthermic individuals, the extent of cutaneous vasoconstriction during a simulated haemorrhage can be modulated by local skin temperature. In situations where skin temperature is at least 38 °C, as is the case in soldiers operating in warm climatic conditions, a haemorrhagic insult is unlikely to be accompanied by cutaneous vasoconstriction. PMID:22903981

  11. Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Children During the 2000 Outbreak in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Uddin Ahmed; Chowdhury B Mahmood; Jhulan Das Sharma; Syed Mesbahul Hoque; Rebecca Zaman; M Shameem Hasan

    An outbreak of dengue\\/dengue haemorrhagic fever occurred during 2000 in Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 72 children admitted to the Paediatrics ward of the Chittagong Medical College Hospital were evaluated. Sixty-four (89.0%) children came from the Chittagong metropolitan area and the rest 8 (11.0%) from the rural area. The clinical diagnosis of dengue fever (DF) was made in 26 children

  12. A retrospective analysis of low dose, intranasal injected bevacizumab (Avastin) in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rohrmeier; H. G. Sachs; T. S. Kuehnel

    The constantly recurring epistaxis means a great reduction of quality of life for patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia\\u000a (HHT). As yet, an ideal treatment has not been found. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been described as a possible\\u000a new therapy. In particular, the success of submucosal doses <100 mg has not been analysed before. We injected bevacizumab\\u000a (Avastin) submucosally in

  13. Massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage, successfully treated with corticosteroids, as main symptom of Schönlein-Henoch purpura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Álvarez-Caro; J. A. Concha-Torre; I. García-Hernández; S. Menéndez-Cuervo; M. los Arcos-Solas; J. Santos-Juanes; E. Ramos-Polo

    2009-01-01

    Schönlein-Henoch purpura is a small vessel disease that affects mainly skin and kidney, although several gastrointestinal\\u000a symptoms may occur including abdominal pain, intussusception, perforation or bleeding. Massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage\\u000a is rare and even more as the main symptom of the disease. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Schönlein-Henoch purpura\\u000a who developed a massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding

  14. Camino® intracranial pressure monitor: prospective study of accuracy and complications

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Manas, R.; Santamarta, D.; de Campos, J. M; Ferrer, E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The fibreoptic device is a type of intracranial pressure monitor which seems to offer certain advantages over conventional monitoring systems. This study was undertaken to analyse the accuracy, drift characteristics, and complications of the Camino® fibreoptic device.?METHODS—One hundred and eight Camino® intracranial pressure (ICP) devices, in their three modalities, were implanted during 1997.The most frequent indication for monitoring was severe head injury due to road traffic accidents.?RESULTS—Sixty eight probe tips were cultured; 13.2% of the cases had a positive culture without clinical signs of infection, and 2.9% had a positive culture with clinical signs of ventriculitis. The most common isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis. All patients were under cephalosporin prophylaxis during monitoring. Haemorrhage rate in patients without coagulation disorders was 2.1% and 15.3% in patients with coagulation abnormalities. Drift characteristics were studied in 56 cases; there was no drifting from the values expected according to the manufacturer's specifications in 34 probes. There was no relation between direction of the drift and duration of placement, nor between drift and time.?CONCLUSIONS—Although the complication and drift rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, there was no correlation between the direction of the drift and long term monitoring despite the fact that some published papers refer to overestimation of values with time with this type of device.?? PMID:10864608

  15. Pulmonary artery haemorrhage in newborn calves following bluetongue virus serotype 8 experimental infections of pregnant heifers.

    PubMed

    Martinelle, Ludovic; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Sarradin, Pierre; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Thys, Christine; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-12-27

    The emergence of bluetongue disease (BT) among livestock in Europe in 2006 raised many questions including the occurrence and epidemiological significance of foetal infections in cattle. To clarify these aspects, vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant heifers were sequentially infected twice in an isolation facility (biosafety level 3) with a northern European outbreak strain of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). The study was terminated 2 months after calving with necropsy of the dams and their offspring. The cattle were monitored throughout the study by clinical scoring and for the presence of circulating neutralising antibodies, and after calving for the presence of infectious virus and viral RNA in blood and milk. Four calves, one born from a vaccinated dam and three from non-vaccinated ones, that were infected at 120 days of gestation had obvious haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery at necropsy. Although haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery is highly characteristic of BT, viral RNA was not detected in any of these calves. Furthermore, although none of the calves born from heifers infected prior to mid-gestation had teratogenic BTV typical brain lesions, some had lesions at birth suggestive of in utero BTV infection. Despite the lack of viral RNA detection, the presence of haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery deserves to be reported as a new observation in the context of the multiple investigations having as main subject the BTV placental crossing in cattle. PMID:24035481

  16. Duodenal Wedge Resection for Large Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Presenting with Life-Threatening Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alexander; Jeffery, John; Dias, Laura; Nazir, Sarfraz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are an uncommon malignancy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We present a case of life-threatening haemorrhage caused by a large ulcerating duodenal GIST arising from the third part of the duodenum managed by a limited duodenal wedge resection. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old patient presented with acute life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. After oesophagogastroduodenoscopy failed to demonstrate the source of bleeding, a 5?cm ulcerating exophytic mass originating from the third part of the duodenum was identified at laparotomy. A successful limited wedge resection of the tumour mass was performed. Histopathology subsequently confirmed a duodenal GIST. The patient remained well at 12-month followup with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic spread. Conclusion. Duodenal GISTs can present with life-threatening upper GI haemorrhage. In the context of acute haemorrhage, even relatively large duodenal GISTs can be treated by limited wedge resection. This is a preferable alternative to duodenopancreatectomy with lower morbidity and mortality but comparable oncological outcome. PMID:23634309

  17. New Prognostic Score for the Prediction of 30-Day Outcome in Spontaneous Supratentorial Cerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Szepesi, Rita; Széll, Ibolya Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kardos, László; Nagy, Katalin; Lánczi, Levente István; Berényi, Ervin; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate predictors of outcome in primary supratentorial cerebral haemorrhage. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a prognostic model to predict 30-day fatality. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a database of 156 patients with spontaneous supratentorial haemorrhage to explore the relationship between clinical and CT characteristics and fatal outcome within 30 days using multiple logistic regression analysis. The analyzed factors included volumetric data assessed by neuropathological and CT volumetry. A second CT scan in survivors or neuropathological ABC/2 volumetry in nonsurvivors was used along with the baseline CT to assess the growth index of haematoma. Results. Systolic blood pressure, serum potassium and glucose levels, platelet count, absolute and relative haematoma volumes, and presence and size of intraventricular haemorrhage statistically significantly predicted the fatal outcome within 30 days. Based on our results we formulated a six-factor scoring algorithm named SUSPEKT to predict outcome. Conclusions. After validation the SUSPEKT score may be applicable in general clinical practice for early patient selection to optimize individual management or for assessment of eligibility for treatment trials. PMID:25648158

  18. New prognostic score for the prediction of 30-day outcome in spontaneous supratentorial cerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Szepesi, Rita; Széll, Ibolya Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kardos, László; Nagy, Katalin; Lánczi, Levente István; Berényi, Ervin; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate predictors of outcome in primary supratentorial cerebral haemorrhage. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a prognostic model to predict 30-day fatality. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a database of 156 patients with spontaneous supratentorial haemorrhage to explore the relationship between clinical and CT characteristics and fatal outcome within 30 days using multiple logistic regression analysis. The analyzed factors included volumetric data assessed by neuropathological and CT volumetry. A second CT scan in survivors or neuropathological ABC/2 volumetry in nonsurvivors was used along with the baseline CT to assess the growth index of haematoma. Results. Systolic blood pressure, serum potassium and glucose levels, platelet count, absolute and relative haematoma volumes, and presence and size of intraventricular haemorrhage statistically significantly predicted the fatal outcome within 30 days. Based on our results we formulated a six-factor scoring algorithm named SUSPEKT to predict outcome. Conclusions. After validation the SUSPEKT score may be applicable in general clinical practice for early patient selection to optimize individual management or for assessment of eligibility for treatment trials. PMID:25648158

  19. N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Is Very Effective for Massive Haemorrhage during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Suguru; Izuchi, Shinichirou; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Yoshimathu, Misako; Takizawa, Kenji; Nakajima, Yasuo; Tanaka, Mamoru; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Suzuki, Nao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The liquid embolic agent n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a tissue adhesive used as an immediate and permanent embolic agent when mixed with oil-based contrast medium. In this study, the preservation of fertility with TAE using NBCA for massive haemorrhage during pregnancy or the peripartum period and the utility of this therapy were investigated. Methods Cases from January 2005 to October 2010 in which TAE was performed for massive haemorrhage in pregnant women, particularly during the peripartum period, were investigated. Results TAE was performed in 27 pregnant women. The embolic agent used was GS only in five cases, NBCA only in 19 cases, and additional embolization with NBCA when the effect with GS was insufficient in three cases, one each of abruptio placentae, cervical pregnancy, and uterine atony.A comparison of mean blood loss when each embolic agent was used for haemostasis showed a significant difference between cases in which GS only was used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a comparison of mean transfusion volume, a significant difference was seen between cases in which both GS and NBCA were used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a postoperative follow-up survey, menses resumed in eight patients, including four patients who later became pregnant and three who delivered. Conclusions TAE with NBCA, which has an embolic effect unrelated to clotting dysfunction for massive haemorrhage during the peripartum period, is a minimally invasive and very effective treatment method for patients with severe DIC. PMID:24223099

  20. Extra-cerebral severe infections associated with haemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease): five cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Musso, Maria; Capone, Alessandro; Chinello, Pierangelo; Di Bella, Stefano; Galati, Vincenzo; Noto, Pasquale; Taglietti, Fabrizio; Topino, Simone; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders and is characterized by genetically determined abnormalities of vascular structure. People affected by HHT are predisposed to severe infections such as cerebral abscesses, typical of patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and extra-cerebral infections such as bacteraemia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, hepatic abscesses, skin infections and infective endocarditis. We present a retrospective series of severe bacterial extra-cerebral infections in five patients affected by HHT, admitted to our Institute from January 2007 to June 2013. We also reviewed the literature of the last five years concerning infectious complications in people affected by HHT. Our study shows that HHT patients with infectious complications exclusively localized in extra-cerebral sites are usually fragile, old and affected by comorbidities. Moreover, we recognized a trend of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) severe infection recurrence in such patients, both in our series and in the literature. In our opinion these results suggest the need to evaluate the possible benefits of SA nasal colonization screening and decolonization in such patients. PMID:24651092

  1. Systemic glucose variability predicts cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral glucose metabolism and energy production are affected by serum glucose levels. Systemic glucose variability has been shown to be associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to assess whether glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 28 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring, were studied. Metabolic distress was defined as lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) >40. The relationship between daily glucose variability, the development of cerebral metabolic distress and hospital outcome was analyzed using a multivariable general linear model with a logistic link function for dichotomized outcomes. Results Daily serum glucose variability was expressed as the standard deviation (SD) of all serum glucose measurements. General linear models were used to relate this predictor variable to cerebral metabolic distress and mortality at hospital discharge. A total of 3,139 neuromonitoring hours and 181 days were analyzed. After adjustment for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and brain glucose, SD was independently associated with higher risk of cerebral metabolic distress (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.5 (1.1 to 2.1), P?=?0.02). Increased variability was also independently associated with in hospital mortality after adjusting for age, Hunt Hess, daily GCS and symptomatic vasospasm (P?=?0.03). Conclusions Increased systemic glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased hospital mortality. Therapeutic approaches that reduce glucose variability may impact on brain metabolism and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24887049

  2. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial – ISAT Part II: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) demonstrated improved one-year clinical outcomes for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling compared to surgical clipping. Patients included in ISAT were mostly good grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with small anterior circulation aneurysms. The purported superiority of coiling is commonly extrapolated to patients not studied in the original trial or to those treated using new devices not available at the time. Conversely, many patients are treated by clipping despite ISAT, because they are thought either to be better candidates for surgery, or to offer more durable protection from aneurysm recurrences. These practices have never been formally validated. Thus, for many ruptured aneurysm patients the question of which treatment modality leads to a superior clinical outcome remains unclear. Methods/trial design ISAT II is a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized trial comparing clinical outcomes for non-ISAT patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage allocated to coiling or clipping. Inclusion criteria are broad. The primary end-point is the incidence of poor clinical outcome (defined as mRS >2) at one year, just as in ISAT. Secondary end-points include measures of treatment safety for a number of pre-specified subgroups, with efficacy end-points including the presence of a major recurrence at one year; 1,896 patients (862 each arm plus 10% losses) are required to demonstrate a significant difference between coiling and clipping, hypothesizing 23% and 30% poor clinical outcome rates, for coiling and clipping, respectively. The trial should involve at least 50 international centers, and will take approximately 12 years to complete. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Trial registration ISAT II is registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01668563. PMID:23714335

  3. Ocular Ultrasound as an Easy Applicable Tool for Detection of Terson's Syndrome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Knospe, Volker; Richard, Gisbert; Vettorazzi, Eik; Wagenfeld, Lars; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan; Skevas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular hemorrhage in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is known as Terson's syndrome and is an underestimated but common pathology. We therefore designed a prospective single-blinded study to evaluate the validity of ocular ultrasound compared to the gold standard indirect funduscopy in the diagnosis of Terson's syndrome. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients (104 eyes in total) suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in this study. Two investigators independently performed a single-blinded ocular ultrasound using a standard intensive care ultrasound system to detect an intraocular hemorrhage. Indirect funduscopy following iatrogenic mydriasis served as the gold standard for confirmation or exclusion of an intraocular hemorrhage. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the method as well as the learning curve of ocular ultrasound. Results Indirect funduscopy detected Terson's syndrome in 11 of 52 (21.2%) respectively in 21 of 104 (20.2%) eyes in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sensitivity and specificity increased with the number of ocular ultrasound examinations for both investigators, reaching 81.8% and 100% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were different for both investigators (63.6% vs. 100% positive and 100% vs. 95.7% negative) but were both correlated to the amount of intraocular hemorrhage. A low Glasgow Coma scale (p?=?0.015) and high Hunt & Hess grade (p?=?0.003) was associated with a higher rate of Terson's syndrome. Conclusions Ocular ultrasound using standard ultrasound equipment has been confirmed as a reliable, easy-to-handle bedside screening tool for detecting Terson's syndrome. Nevertheless funduscopy remains the gold standard to detect Terson's syndrome. PMID:25502695

  4. The Contribution of Chemoreceptor-Network Injury to the Development of Respiratory Arrest Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Eroglu, Atilla; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Al?c?, Hac? Ahmet; Aydin, Nazan; Altas, Sare; Unal, Bunyami

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory arrest following brainstem herniation has been attributed to injuries resulting from compression of the respiratory centers. While it is widely perceived that the chemoreceptor network, consisting of the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body (GPN-CB), is essential for the modulation of respiration, its contribution to the development of respiratory arrest has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether injury to the GPN-CB occurs in animals with respiratory arrest caused by experimentally-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Eighteen hybrid rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (n=4) were used to determine the normal structure of the GPN-CB. The remaining rabbits (n=14) received an autologous blood injection into the cisterna magna to produce a subarachnoid hemorrhage, after which they were observed for 20 days. The number of axons and the neuron density in the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body, respectively, were counted by stereological methods. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results. Results: Six of 14 rabbits died within the first week, likely due to brain swelling and crushing injuries that were observed in the brain stem and related structures. In control rabbits, the average neuronal density of the carotid body was 4250 ±1250/mm3, while the axonal density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 18000±5100 mm2. Conversely, in the dead rabbits, the degenerated neuron density of the carotid body was 2100±500/mm3, while the degenerated axon density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 8500±2550 mm2. In addition, histopathological lesions were more severe in the dead rabbits in terms of their glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body. Conclusion: There is an important relationship between neurodegeneration in the GPN-CB and mortality rates following experimentally-induced hemorrhage. This relationship suggests that injury to the GPN-CB network disrupts the breathing reflex and results in respiratory arrest following a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). PMID:25610122

  5. Primo vascular system in the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord of a pig.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sang-Ho; Cha, Richard; Lee, MinSun; Kim, Sungchul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2012-10-01

    The primo vascular system was recently observed in the central nervous systems of rabbits and rats, but no investigations in large animals have been reported. In the present work we found a putative primo vascular system in the spinal cord of a pig. We obtained spines from four healthy pigs and fixed them with paraformaldehyde. The primo vessels were expected to lie in the subarachnoid space between the pia mater and the arachnoid mater. The composite of three membranes (the pia, the arachnoid, and the dura maters) wrapping the spinal cord was peeled off, isolated from the spine, and put on a slide glass. This composite was stained with 4',6'-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and phalloidin to show the nuclei and the f-actin, respectively, in the cells of the primo vessels. We observed eleven pieces of the putative primo vessels in the subarachnoid space of the spines at the thoracic spinal nerve area. They had the typical rod-shaped nuclei distributed in a broken line, and f-actin signals around nuclei. The lengths of the nuclei were 12-15 ?m, and the thicknesses of the primo vessels were 8?20 ?m, which were consistent with other primo vessels that had been observed in the various organs of rabbits, rats, and mice. In addition, we observed branching of the primo vessels, which is again an expected result from previous works. In conclusion, a primo vessel was observed in the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord of a pig. This was the first observation of a primo vessel in a large animal, and the staining method used to observe the primo vessel in a fixed sample was newly developed in this work. PMID:23040103

  6. Incidence of and Factors Associated with Manipulation of Nimodipine Dosage in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Meghan; Gorman, Sean K; Doucette, Steve; Green, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a significant cause of death and disability. Nimodipine 60 mg administered enterally every 4 h improves neurologic outcomes in these patients. However, hypotension is an adverse effect of nimodipine and is believed to prompt clinicians to prescribe an unproven, nonstandard nimodipine dosing regimen. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the prescribing incidence of a nonstandard nimodipine dosing regimen (30 mg every 2 h) after initial prescription of the standard dose (60 mg every 4 h). The secondary objective was to determine factors associated with this dosage change. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated participants receiving nimodipine for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage at a tertiary care teaching hospital between October 2005 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with dosage manipulation. Results: A total of 166 eligible patients were identified. For all of these patients, nimodipine 60 mg every 4 h was prescribed initially. Subsequently, 81 (49%) of the patients were switched to nimodipine 30 mg every 2 h, whereas 85 (51%) continued on the original dosage (nimodipine 60 mg every 4 h) for the duration of their treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that occurrence of vasospasm (odds ratio [OR] 5.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08–13.47; p < 0.001) and exposure to vasopressor therapy (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.27–8.50; p = 0.014) were associated with increased odds of receiving the nonstandard nimodipine regimen. Conclusions: Half of patients for whom nimodipine was prescribed for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were exposed to an unproven regimen. Vasospasm and exposure to vasopressor therapy were associated with higher odds of receiving the nonstandard regimen. Further research is needed to evaluate whether nimodipine 30 mg every 2 h is efficacious and safe for patients in this population. PMID:25364018

  7. Prolongation of subarachnoid block by intravenous dexmedetomidine for sub umbilical surgical procedures: A prospective control study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Gupta, Prashant K.; Pandey, M. N.; Agarwal, Salony; Arora, Ankush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intravenous dexmedetomidine is used as adjuvant during general anesthesia due to its sedative and analgesic effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine on sensory and motor block characteristics, hemodynamic parameters and sedation during subarachnoid block. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo control study, 60 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II were randomized into two groups by computer generated table. Patients of Group D administered intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.5 ?g/kg and patients of Group C received similar volume of normal saline, administered after 20 min of subarachnoid block with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. The cephalic level of sensory block, total duration of sensory analgesia and motor block were recorded. Sedation scores using Ramsey Sedation Score (RSS) and hemodynamic changes were also assessed. Results: Demographic profile, duration of surgery and cephalic level of sensory block were comparable. The time for two segments regression was 142.35 ± 30.7 min in Group D, longer than Group C (98.54 ± 23.2 min). Duration of sensory blockade was 259.7 ± 46.8 min in the Group D versus 216.4 ± 31.4 min in Group C (P < 0.001). The mean duration of motor blockade showed no statistically significant difference between groups. There was clinically significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure in patients of Group D. The RSS was higher (arousable sedation) in patients of Group D. No respiratory depression was observed. Conclusion: Intravenous dexmedetomidine in dosage of 0.5 ?g/kg, administered after 20 min of subarachnoid block prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade with arousable sedation.

  8. [Delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prevention, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Wartenberg, K E

    2012-12-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the second most important impacting factor for functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following the initial severity of the bleeding. In contrast to the initial SAH severity the presence and consequences of DCI can be managed with prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. The previous notion of treatment of angiographically observed vasospasm has not been shown to be successful.This article covers prevention, monitoring and therapeutic concepts for patients with SAH with emphasis on the efficacy for DCI and current and ongoing research projects. PMID:23180054

  9. Predictors of 1-year outcome after coiling for poor-grade subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana R. Pereira; Paola Sanchez-Peña; Alessandra Biondi; Nader Sourour; Anne L. Boch; Chantal Colonne; Lise Lejean; Lamine Abdennour; Louis Puybasset

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To describe features in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage\\u000a (SAH) and to identify predictors of 12-month outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a controlled observational study of 51 consecutive patients treated with endovascular coiling within 96 h of\\u000a rupture for poor-grade aneurysmal SAH (20 men and 31 women, age 54 ± 12 years). We recorded co-morbidities; initial severity;\\u000a aneurysm

  10. Biportal neuroendoscopic microsurgical approaches to the subarachnoid cisterns. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Fries, G; Reisch, R

    1996-12-01

    A preclinical cadaver study was performed to develop the technique of biportal neuroendoscopic dissection in the subarachnoid space of the basal cisterns and to test the feasibility, utility, and safety of this new technique. In 23 fresh post-mortem adult human cadavers and 2 formalin-fixed adult human head specimen a total of 33 biportal endomicrosurgical dissections into and within the basal cisterns were carried out. Following suction of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space 0 degree-, 30 degrees-, and 70 degrees-lens-scopes (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with outer diameters of 4.2 mm and trochars with outer diameters of 5 to 6.5 mm were introduced into the surgical field. 6 different endoscopic routes to the basal cisterns and a total of 10 different combinations of these approaches for biportal endoneurosurgery could be described, but it was found that not all of them were useful and safe. The transventricular approach to the prepontine cisterns through the foramen of Monro and the floor of the third ventricle, biportally combined with a subfrontal or a subtemporal approach, turned out to be not safe enough as it was accompanied by traumatization of the fornix at the interventricular foramen and of the hypothalamus at the level of the tuber cinereum due to relaxation and caudal shift of the brain following suction of cerebrospinal fluid to clear the basal cisterns for the subfrontal or subtemporal approaches. Useful and safe endomicrosurgical approaches to the basal cisterns were: 1st subfrontal, either epidural or intradural, 2nd subtemporal, either anterior or posterior, and 3rd frontal interhemispheric. Various biportal combinations of these approaches are estimated to be feasible, useful, and safe enough to be performed during microsurgical procedures in the operating room. The biportal endomicrosurgical strategy allows for effective and safe dissections within the subarachnoid spaces of the basal cisterns. The tip of the microinstruments as well as the neighboring anatomical structures can be nicely controlled at angles of about 60 degrees to 180 degrees depending on the viewing angles of the scopes used and depending on the individual shape of the head. A variety of microsurgical instruments has been tested. A number of these will have to be redesigned for this new technique. Regions suitable for biportal neuroendoscopic subarachnoid preparations are the olfactory groove, the prechiasmatic cistern, the region of the optic chiasm, the entire suprasellar area, parts of the parasellar area, the pre- and perimesencephalic cisterns, and the prepontine cistern. PMID:9007826

  11. Fungal pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Davies, S F; Sarosi, G A

    1996-12-01

    With AIDS has come a new level of T-cell immunosuppression, beyond that previously seen. The impact of the HIV pandemic on the field of fungal infections includes a major increase in the number of serious fungal infections, an increase in the severity of those infections, and even some entirely new manifestations of fungal illness. In this article fungal pulmonary complications of AIDS are discussed. T-cell opportunists including Cryptococcus neoformans and the endemic mycoses are the most important pathogens. Phagocyte opportunists, including Aspergillus species and agents of mucormycosis, are less important. PMID:9016374

  12. Complications in periocular rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Mack, William P

    2010-08-01

    Thorough preoperative evaluation with meticulous surgical planning to achieve facial aesthetic balance between the forehead, eyelids, and midface is imperative to avoid or decrease potential functional and/or cosmetic complications in cosmetic periocular surgery. Before performing surgery, the physician should be aware of the patient's history of dry eyes, previous facial trauma, previous injection of Botox Cosmetic, history of previous laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, and past facial surgery. A full evaluation should be performed on the upper eyelid/brow region to assess for the presence of brow ptosis, brow/eyelid asymmetry, dermatochalasis/pseudodermatochalasis, eyelid ptosis, and deep superior sulcus. On the lower eyelid/cheek examination, special attention should be directed to the diagnosis of underlying negative vector, dry eyes, prominent eyes, lower lid retraction, ectropion, lateral canthal dystopia, lower eyelid laxity, scleral show, and lagophthalmos, with a rejuvenation goal that focuses on obtaining a youthful fullness through repositioning and reinforcing efforts to avoid the negative effects of hollowness. Intraoperative and postoperative medical and surgical management of cosmetic periocular surgery complications focus on decreasing the risk of postoperative ptosis, lagophthalmos, lid retraction, and lid asymmetry, with special attention to limiting the risk of visual loss secondary to orbital hemorrhage. PMID:20659676

  13. [An autopsy case of subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage and necrotizing angitis associated with methamphetamine abuse].

    PubMed

    Shibata, S; Mori, K; Sekine, I; Suyama, H

    1988-11-01

    We report an autopsy case of methamphetamine-related intracranial hemorrhage and vasculitis. The possible relationship between drug usage and the occurrence of intracranial bleeding and cerebral vasculitis in such patients is discussed. A 22-year-old woman died after an intravenous injection of unknown dose of methamphetamine. A computed tomography head scan demonstrated massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and hematoma in corpus callosum. Cerebral angiography revealed nonfilling of bilateral intracranial carotid arteries and extravasation of contrast medium from right pericallosal artery which was visualized retrogradely via vertebral artery. Postmortem studies showed cerebral edema, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, and intracranial vasculitis in the absence of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation or chronic hypertension. Histological findings of necrosis of blood vessel walls with destruction of the elastica and smooth muscle layer, and without leukocytotic infiltration of the blood vessel walls were observed in order of anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, vertebral, posterior cerebral and basilar arteries. These angiographic and histological evidence suggests that such hemorrhage results from the development of fibrinonecrosis in the large intracerebral vessels, in addition to a sudden rise in blood pressure. PMID:3219243

  14. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured vertebrobasilar aneurysm associated with giant cell arteritis in a child.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Robert F; Zydowicz, Sara; Salamat, M Shahriar

    2011-09-01

    A 3 ½-year-old previously healthy female experienced an episode of sudden unresponsiveness witnessed by her mother. Upon arrival to the local hospital, imaging studies of the still unresponsive child revealed severe bilateral "flash" pulmonary edema and diffuse anoxic brain injury. Aggressive resuscitative efforts were unsuccessful, and she was pronounced dead. External examination at autopsy was essentially unremarkable. Internal examination of the head revealed diffuse basilar subarachnoid blood originating from a collapsed, 2 cm irregular aneurysm arising from the junction of the vertebral and basilar arteries. Additionally, multiple calcified subpleural, parenchymal, and hilar nodal pulmonary granulomas were identified. The remaining internal examination, including that of the aorta and its major branches, was unremarkable. Histologic examination of the aneurysm revealed alternating mural attenuation and thickening, the latter resulting from prominent intimal proliferation with active fibroplasia. Most notably, numerous isolated and clustered multinucleated giant cells were seen, most prominently in areas of more intense inflammation. Specific immunolabeling and silver staining of the pulmonary granulomas revealed evidence of histoplasmosis, but both were negative for fungal elements in the aneurysm, as was ultrastructural examination. The cause of death is fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a vertebrobasilar artery aneurysm caused by isolated intracranial giant cell arteritis. PMID:20177371

  15. Septic arthritis: A unique complication of nasal septal abscess.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Ekbom, Dale C

    2015-03-01

    Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the mucoperichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future. PMID:25738728

  16. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  17. [Diabetic macrovascular complications].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2015-03-01

    Reactive derivatives from non-enzymatic glucose-protein condensation reactions, as well as lipids and nucleic acids exposed to reducing sugars, form a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts called "advanced glycation end products(AGEs)". The formation and accumulation of AGEs have been known to progress at an accelerated rate under diabetes. There is accumulating evidence that AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) interaction elicits oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions, thereby being involved in vascular complications in diabetes. We, along with others, have recently found that pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF), a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties both in cell culture and animal models. In this review, we discuss the role of AGE-RAGE axis in diabetic macroangiopathy and its therapeutic intervention by PEDF. PMID:25812377

  18. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This review provides an overview of five main ocular complications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathy and papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surface diseases. PMID:25685281

  19. Use of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study the Effect of Cortical Magnesium and Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heping Yang; Xiangqi Tang; Lihua Tan; Liuwang Zeng; Zhiping Hu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Flow metabolism coupling ensures adequate cerebral oxygenation. When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs, the flow metabolism coupling lost its balance and results in cerebral ischemia and infarction second to cortical magnesium and energy metabolism alternation. During chronic vasospasm, change in cortical energy metabolism is coupled with change in cerebral blood flow after SAH. Methods: What kind of noninvasive technique can

  20. Effects of oxyhemoglobin in vitro in cerebral arteries from normal animals and animals subject to subarachnoid hemorrhage or indomethacin treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves-Roger Tran Dinh; Sabine Roche; Merieme Debdi; Jacques Seylaz; Richard Sercombe

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes functionally relevant perturbations of cyclooxygenase activity in cerebral arteries. Four groups of rabbits were formed: (I) controls; (II) sham injected animals (2 ml physiological solution in the cisterna magna); (III) SAH group (2 ml blood in cisterna magna); (IV) indomethacin group (4 mg\\/kg i.v. 30 min before sacrifice).

  1. Dietary Intake of Key Nutrients and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Australasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivy Shiue; Hisatomi Arima; Graeme J. Hankey; Craig S. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Background: A healthy, balanced diet can prevent stroke, but little is known about dietary risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We aimed to determine the relationship between common dietary habits and risk of SAH. Methods: In a population-based, case-control study of SAH undertaken across 4 Australasian cities, a standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on the frequency of consumption

  2. Partial Recovery of Audiological, Vestibular, and Radiological Findings following Spontaneous Intralabyrinthine Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Thomas; Hegemann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis, work-up, and treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and sudden vestibular loss vary widely between units. With the increasing access to both magnetic resonance imaging and objective vestibular testing, our understanding of the various aetiologies at hand is increasing. Despite this, the therapeutic options are limited and without a particularly strong evidence base. We present a rare, yet increasingly diagnosed, case of intralabyrinthine haemorrhage (ILH) together with radiological, audiological, and vestibular test results. Of note, this occurred spontaneously and has shown partial recovery in all the mentioned modalities. PMID:24455375

  3. Late intracranial haemorrhage and subsequent carotid-cavernous sinus fistula after fracture of the facial bones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Ming; Cheng, Chi-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an arteriovenous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is usually caused by a traumatic tear or a ruptured aneurysm of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We describe a rare case of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and carotid-cavernous sinus fistula that presented 3 weeks after fracture of the facial bones. The patient developed orbital apex syndrome including ptosis of upper eyelid, pulsatile exophthalmos, chemosis, loss of ocular motility, monocular blindness on the right, and numbness of the right infraorbital region. After transcatheter intra-arterial embolisation, the ptosis and chemosis improved. PMID:23958350

  4. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO/International Study Team.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire.In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases.Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis.Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed.Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. PMID:307455

  5. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Barroso, David E; Silva, Luciete A

    2007-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River. PMID:18327474

  6. White-line disease and haemorrhages in hooves of Finnish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Minna; Dohoo, Ian R; Soveri, Timo

    2010-04-01

    The Finnish Healthy Hooves Project was set up to determine the frequency of, and risk factors for, various hoof lesions in Finnish dairy herds. Data were collected in 2003 and 2004. A large data set of >74,000 cow-level observations recorded by hoof-trimmers were merged with production data from the Finnish Agricultural Data Processing Centre Ltd. Ultimately, data from a single lactation from each of 16,727 cows in 703 herds were used for analyses of white-line disease (WLD) and haemorrhages-lesions. Three-level hierarchical logistic models with hoof-trimmer and farms (within hoof-trimmer) as random-effects were fit to datasets of tie-stall (TS) and loose-housing (LH) herds separately. Cows examined once had a WLD risk of 4.8% in TS herds and 17% in LH herds. As the number of examinations increased, the odds of a WLD diagnosis increased substantially; (2 and 3+ examinations had odds ratios (ORs) of 2.57 and 3.40 in TS herds and 2.32 and 4.67 in LH herds, respectively, compared to 1 examination). Parity had an interaction with breed in all models in TS and in the LH haemorrhages model, but not in WLD LH models. In TS herds, older Holstein cows had a very high risk of WLD compared to young Ayrshire cows (OR=7.92). Also in LH herds both breed and parity had association with WLD (Holstein cows were 1.57 times more likely than Ayrshire cows and cows in parity >or=4 were more likely (OR=2.89) than parity 1 to get WLD). In TS herds, other hoof lesions - such as haemorrhages (OR=1.65), heel-horn erosions (OR=1.77), and corkscrew claw (OR=1.82) - increased the risk of WLD. In LH herds, corkscrew claw (OR=1.59) and heel-horn erosion (OR=0.72) had a significant association with WLD. In TS herds, use of mats (compared to hard flooring) significantly reduced the risk of WLD and haemorrhages (OR=0.57 and OR=0.80, respectively). No significant associations of the 305-day milk production on the risk of either disease were observed in either TS or LH herds (305-day milk yield from each cows' previous lactation were used for calculations, with herd average yield and the individual cow's deviation from the herd average being used as predictors). PMID:20116112

  7. Bilateral macular haemorrhages secondary to hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia, treated with Nd:YAG laser posterior hyaloidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Akshatha; Mariatos, George; Thakur, Shakti

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anaemia in which pancytopenia and bone marrow failure appears 2–3 months after an acute attack of hepatitis. Although bilateral vision loss may rarely be the initial presentation of aplastic anaemia, no such report is known in HAAA. Here the authors report such a case presenting with large premacular subhyaloid haemorrhages secondary to severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Anaemic hypoxic damage to the vessel wall together with increased cardiac output and low platelet counts are interacting causal factors in the development of bleeding. Though these haemorrhages are benign and usually improve spontaneously, the presence of blood may cause permanent macular changes before it resolves. Posterior hyaloidotomy enabled rapid resolution of premacular subhyaloid haemorrhage thereby restoring vision and preventing need for vitreo-retinal surgery. These patients should be advised to refrain from valsalva manoeuvres, ocular rubbing and vigorous exercise to prevent ocular morbidity. PMID:22674943

  8. Duration of passive and active phases of the second stage of labour and risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage in low-risk nulliparous women

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Duration of passive and active phases of the second stage of labour and risk of severe of labour and postpartum haemorrhage Key words: passive second stage; active second stage; nullipara: To assess the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) according to the duration of the passive

  9. Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Houdart, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Moret, Jacques [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France)], E-mail: jmoret@fo-rothschild.fr

    2007-02-15

    We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

  10. COMPLICATIONS OF TATTOOING

    PubMed Central

    Lubeck, Glenn; Epstein, Ervin

    1952-01-01

    Pathologic consequence of tattooing is relatively rare, but in light of the great number of persons in military service, where tattooing seems to be popular, consideration of the complications seems worth while. Four unusual cases of patients with cutaneous lesions in tattoos are reported. One patient had Boeck's sarcoid, in which the cutaneous eruption was limited solely to the tattooed areas on the body and involved all the various colors of the tattoo. The cutaneous eruption was only a single manifestation of generalized sarcoidosis. Another patient had secondary syphilis with the cutaneous lesions involving multi-colored tattoos, including the red areas. These tattoos were applied in Hawaii, and presumably the red dye was not the usual cinnabar (mercuric sulfide). As a general rule, the cutaneous lesions of secondary syphilis do not involve the red areas because of the treponomicidal action of mercuric sulfide. In the third case the characteristic eruption of discoid lupus erythematosus was present. It began over the red areas of a tattoo on the patient's forearm. It has been stated that mercuric sulfide is a photo-sensitizing agent, and it is believed that this explains the localization of the eruption in this case. The fourth patient had eruption, caused by mercury sensitivity, in an area of tattoo. The eruption was noted soon after the tattooing was done, and it persisted for seven years. PMID:14905289

  11. Hematologic Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induces a number of physiologic changes that affect the hematologic indices, either directly or indirectly. Recognizing and treating hematologic disorders that occur during pregnancy is difficult owing to the paucity of evidence available to guide consultants. This paper specifically reviews the diagnosis and management of benign hematologic disorders occurring during pregnancy. Anemia secondary to iron deficiency is the most frequent hematologic complication and is easily treated with oral iron formulations,; however care must be taken not to miss other causes of anemia, such as sickle cell disease. Thrombocytopenia is also a common reason for consulting the hematologist and distinguishing gestational thrombocytopenia from immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is essential since the treatment differs widely. Occasionally the management of mother and infant involves the expeditious recognition of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), a condition that is responsible for severe life-threatening bleeding of the newborn. Additionally, inherited and acquired bleeding disorders affect pregnant women disproportionately and often require careful monitoring of coagulation parameters in order to prevent bleeding in the puerperium. Finally, venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is still largely responsible for mortality during pregnancy and the diagnosis, treatment options and guidelines for prevention of VTE during pregnancy are explored. PMID:23953339

  12. The prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: what do we know, and where do we go to next?

    PubMed

    Weeks, A

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a major cause of maternal deaths worldwide, and is estimated to cause the death of a woman every 10 minutes. This review presents the latest clinical advice, including new evidence on controlled cord traction, misoprostol, and oxytocin. The controversy around the diagnosis of PPH, the limitations of universal prophylaxis, and novel ways to provide obstetric first aid are also presented. It ends with a call to develop high-quality front-line obstetric services that can deal rapidly with unexpected haemorrhages as well as minimising blood loss at critical times: major abruption, placenta praevia, and caesarean for prolonged labour. PMID:25289730

  13. Neurosurgical complications after intranasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Toselli, R M; dePapp, A; Harbaugh, R E; Saunders, R L

    1991-01-01

    Intranasal ethmoidectomy is a common otolaryngological procedure. Despite the potential for serious intracranial complications, there is a paucity of reports describing the neurosurgical complications of the procedure. Two patients with intracranial complications of intranasal ethmoidectomy, and the relevant medical literature, are reviewed. The anatomy of the ethmoid air cells and their relation to the intracranial cavity are described. The importance of definitive, emergent repair with attention to the potential for vascular injury is discussed. PMID:1865214

  14. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... left with physical limitations or problems with their thinking. In those cases, long periods of rehabilitation are ... one dedicated to the care of patients with critical brain disease. Patients with SAH may need a ...

  15. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p < 0.05). The neurological deficits of SAH rats treated with melatonin were less than those without melatonin treatment (p < 0.05). We concluded that SRA was a precise and in vivo tool to observe and evaluate CV of SAH rats; intraperitoneally administration of melatonin could mitigate CV after experimental SAH.

  16. Early brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Where are we at present?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Dash, Hari Hara; Cappellani, Ronald B.; Daya, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    The current era has adopted many new innovations in nearly every aspect of management of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, the neurological outcome has still not changed significantly. These major therapeutic advances mainly addressed the two most important sequels of the SAH-vasospasm and re-bleed. Thus, there is a possibility of some different pathophysiological mechanism that would be responsible for causing poor outcome in these patients. In this article, we have tried to compile the current role of this different yet potentially treatable pathophysiological mechanism in post-SAH patients. The main pathophysiological mechanism for the development of early brain injury (EBI) is the apoptotic pathways. The macro-mechanism includes increased intracranial pressure, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and finally global ischemia. Most of the treatment strategies are still in the experimental phase. Although the role of EBI following SAH is now well established, the treatment modalities for human patients are yet to be testified. PMID:23956721

  17. Penetration of subarachnoid contrast medium into rabbit spinal cord. Comparison between metrizamide and iohexol

    SciTech Connect

    Holtas, S.; Morris, T.W.; Ekholm, S.E.; Isaac, L.; Fonte, D.

    1986-02-01

    The penetration into rabbit spinal cord of two nonionic contrast media, iohexol and metrizamide, and a reference tracer, technetium DTPA, were compared. The spinal subarachnoid space was perfused for 4 hours with a CSF solution to which technetium DTPA and either iohexol or metrizamide had been added. The contrast media and technetium DTPA concentrations reached a plateau level in CSF outflow within 80 minutes. The contrast media concentrations in CSF were higher than the technetium DTPA (P less than .001). In the cord tissue, technetium DTPA reached higher concentrations than the contrast media (P less than .001), and iohexol reached higher concentrations relative to technetium DTPA than metrizamide (P less than .001). The mean contrast media distribution volumes in the thoracic cord were 13% (iohexol) and 12% (metrizamide). The smaller distribution volume observed for metrizamide could be related to the larger effective size of associated metrizamide molecules or an interference with diffusion perhaps related to binding to glucose carriers.

  18. Hyperglycemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a potentially modifiable risk factor for poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, Nyika D; Biessels, Geert Jan; DeVries, J Hans; Luitse, Merel J A; Vermeulen, Marinus; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vandertop, W Peter; Roos, Yvo B

    2010-01-01

    Hyperglycemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs frequently and is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor clinical outcome. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms that cause hyperglycemia after aSAH, and we discuss how hyperglycemia may contribute to poor clinical outcome in these patients. As hyperglycemia is potentially modifiable with intensive insulin therapy (IIT), we systematically reviewed the literature on IIT in aSAH patients. In these patients, IIT seems to be difficult to achieve in terms of lowering blood glucose levels substantially without an increased risk of (serious) hypoglycemia. Therefore, before initiating a large-scale randomized trial to investigate the clinical benefit of IIT, phase II studies, possibly with the help of cerebral blood glucose monitoring by microdialysis, will first have to improve this therapy in terms of both safety and adequacy. PMID:20628402

  19. Brainstem subarachnoid respiratory epithelial cysts: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schelper, R L; Kagan-Hallet, K S; Huntington, H W

    1986-04-01

    Two cystic lesions that were lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet cells are described. Both lesions were found in the subarachnoid space between the vertebrobasilar arterial system and the brainstem. One cyst was an incidental finding in a patient who died of orbital phycomycosis. The cyst was filled with clear mucinous material. The second cyst presented as a mass adjacent to the brainstem in a woman who had progressive brainstem dysfunction. This lesion showed transition from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells to papillary stratified squamous epithelium, histologic features essentially identical to those of squamous papillomas of the nasal cavity. This lesion was filled with squamous debris. The proposed origin of these lesions is discussed. PMID:3957340

  20. Motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ondo, William G

    2011-01-01

    Management of motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) can be challenging. The main complications are inadequate dopaminergic tone ("off" time and dose failures) and excess dopaminergic tone (dyskinesia). These motor complications increase as PD progresses. Changing the dose and timing of L-dopa is the main strategy for both scenarios. Reducing "off" time can also be achieved by the addition of adjunctive therapies (dopamine agonists, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors). Dyskinesia can improve with amantadine and possibly several other medications. Surgical interventions such as lesioning and deep brain stimulation are considered when pharmacological strategies for motor complications are not satisfactory. PMID:22035028

  1. Pulmonary Complications of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215

  2. Significantly Reducing Post-Tonsillectomy Haemorrhage Requiring Surgery by Suturing the Faucial Pillars: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Senska, Götz; Schröder, Hilal; Pütter, Carolin; Dost, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Background The tonsillectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Given the comparatively frequent postsurgical bleeding associated with this procedure, particular attention has been paid to reduction of the postoperative bleeding rate. In 2006, we introduced routine suturing of the faucial pillars at our clinic to reduce postoperative haemorrhage. Methods Two groups from the years 2003–2005 (n?=?1000) and 2007–2009 (n?=?1000) have been compared. We included all patients who had an elective tonsillectomy due to a benign, non-acute inflammatory tonsil illness. In the years 2007–2009, we additionally sutured the faucial pillars after completing haemostasis. For primary haemostasis we used suture ligation and bipolar diathermy. Results The rate of bleeding requiring second surgery for haemostasis was 3.6% in 2003–2005 but only 2.0% in 2007–2009 (absolute risk reduction 1.6% (95% CI 0.22%–2.45%, p?=?0.04)). The median surgery time—including adenoidectomy and paracentesis surgery—increased from 25 to 31 minutes (p<0.01). Conclusions We have been able to substantiate that suturing of the faucial pillars nearly halves the rate of postoperative haemorrhage. Surgery takes 8 minutes longer on average. Bleeding occurs later, mostly after 24 h. The limitations of this study relate to its retrospective character and all the potential biases related to observational studies. PMID:23118902

  3. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever replication interplays with regulation mechanisms of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Helen; Tan, Yee-Joo; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fevers is associated with alteration of vascular barrier function and haemorrhage. To date, the specific mechanism behind this is unknown. Programmed cell death and regulation of apoptosis in response to viral infection is an important factor for host or virus survival but this has not been well-studied in the case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). In this study, we demonstrated that CCHFV infection suppresses cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), triggered by staurosporine early post-infection. We also demonstrated that CCHFV infection suppresses activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Most interestingly, we found that CCHFV N can suppress induction of apoptosis by Bax and inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the inner membrane of mitochondria to cytosol. However, CCHFV infection induces activation of Bid late post-infection, suggesting activation of extrinsic apoptotic signalling. Consistently, supernatant from cells stimulated late post-infection was found to induce PARP cleavage, most probably through the TNF-? death receptor pathway. In summary, we found that CCHFV has strategies to interplay with apoptosis pathways and thereby regulate caspase cascades. We suggest that CCHFV suppresses caspase activation at early stages of the CCHFV replication cycle, which perhaps benefits the establishment of infection. Furthermore, we suggest that the host cellular response at late stages post-infection induces host cellular pro-apoptotic molecules through the death receptor pathway. PMID:25481756

  4. New hope: community-based misoprostol use to prevent postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Rowen, Tami; Potts, Malcolm

    2013-07-01

    The wide gap in maternal mortality ratios worldwide indicates major inequities in the levels of risk women face during pregnancy. Two priority strategies have emerged among safe motherhood advocates: increasing the quality of emergency obstetric care facilities and deploying skilled birth attendants. The training of traditional birth attendants, a strategy employed in the 1970s and 1980s, is no longer considered a best practice. However, inadequate access to emergency obstetric care and skilled birth attendants means women living in remote areas continue to die in large numbers from preventable maternal causes. This paper outlines an intervention to address the leading direct cause of maternal mortality, postpartum haemorrhage. The potential for saving maternal lives might increase if community-based birth attendants, women themselves, or other community members could be trained to use misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. The growing body of evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for this indication raises the question: if achievement of the fifth Millennium Development Goal is truly a priority, why can policy makers and women's health advocates not see that misoprostol distribution at the community level might have life-saving benefits that outweigh risks? PMID:22879523

  5. Blood, sweat and tears: androgenic-anabolic steroid misuse and recurrent primary post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fox, Richard; Varadharajan, Kiran; Patel, Bhavesh; Beegun, Issa

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old male body builder and androgenic-anabolic steroid and insulin abuser was admitted for day case elective tonsillectomy (bipolar). He returned with primary post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage 18 h after the operation and required bipolar cautery to the multiple small bleeding points in the right and left tonsillar fossa. Thorough coagulation screen was normal. Recurrent primary haemorrhage occurred 3 h post-operatively requiring immediate surgical intervention, removal of the inferior poles, precautionary throat packs, intubation and observation on the intensive treatment unit (ITU). Re-examination in theatre revealed a bleeding left superior pole that was under-run to achieve haemostasis and the patient returned to ITU. Hypertensive episodes were noted in the emergency department and intraoperatively including one recording >200 mm Hg. Haemostasis was eventually achieved once the blood pressure was adequately controlled. A slow wean of steroids was also instigated and the patient was managed on a surgical ward for 2 weeks post-tonsillectomy. PMID:25398921

  6. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  7. Nitric oxide decreases intestinal haemorrhagic lesions in rat anaphylaxis independently of mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, J. Carvalho; Moreno, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the intestinal lesions of passive anaphylaxis, since this experimental model resembles necrotizing enterocolitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized with IgE anti-dinitrophenol monoclonal antibody. Extravasation of protein-rich plasma and haemorrhagia were measured in the small intestine. Plasma histamine was measured to assess mast cell activation. The effect of exogenous NO on the lesions was assessed by using two structurally unrelated NO-donors: sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-Nacetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). An increased basal production of NO was observed in cells taken after anaphylaxis, associated with a reduced response to platelet-activating factor, interleukin 1beta, and IgE/DNP-bovine serum albumin complexes. The response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was enhanced 24 h after challenge, but at earlier times was not significantly different from that observed in controls. Treatment with either sodium nitroprusside or SNAP produced a significant reduction of the haemorrhagic lesions, which are a hallmark of rat anaphylaxis. The extravasation of protein-rich plasma was not influenced by NO-donors. The increase of plasma histamine elicited by the anaphylactic challenge was not influenced by SNAP treatment. NO-donors protect intestinal haemorrhagic lesions of rat anaphylaxis by a mechanism apparently independent of mast cell histamine release. PMID:18472830

  8. Clinical and imaging predictors of intracerebral haemorrhage in stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator

    PubMed Central

    Derex, L; Hermier, M; Adeleine, P; Pialat, J; Wiart, M; Berthezene, Y; Philippeau, F; Honnorat, J; Froment, J; Trouillas, P; Nighoghossian, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical, biological, and pretreatment imaging variables for predictors of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) related intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in stroke patients. Methods: 48 consecutive patients with hemispheric stroke were given intravenous tPA within seven hours of symptom onset, after computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Baseline diffusion weighted (DWI) and perfusion weighted (PWI) imaging volumes, time to peak, mean transit time, regional cerebral blood flow index, and regional cerebral blood volume were evaluated. The distribution of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values was determined within each DWI lesion. Results: The symptomatic ICH rate was 8.3% (four of 48); the rate for any ICH was 43.8% (21 of 48). Univariate analysis showed that age, weight, history of hyperlipidaemia, baseline NIHSS score, glucose level, red blood cell count, and lacunar state on MRI were associated with ICH. However, mean 24 hour systolic blood pressure and a hyperdense artery sign on pretreatment CT were the only independent predictors of ICH. Patients with a hyperdense artery sign had larger pretreatment PWI and DWI lesion volumes and a higher NIHSS score. Analysis of the distribution of ADC values within DWI lesions showed that a greater percentage of pixels had lower ADCs (<400x10–6 mm2/s) in patients who experienced ICH than in those who did not. Conclusion: Key clinical and biological variables, pretreatment CT signs, and MRI indices are associated with tPA related intracerebral haemorrhage. PMID:15607998

  9. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  10. Comparative Efficacy of Two Different Dosages of Intrathecal Magnesium Sulphate Supplementation in Subarachnoid Block

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Binesh; Gupta, Aanchal; Grewal, Anju; Sood, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spinal anaesthesia is the primary anaesthetic technique for many types of surgeries. Adjuncts to the local anaesthetics (LA) used in spinal anaesthesia can exhibit undesirable side-effects like respiratory depression, urinary retention, pruritis, haemodynamic instability and nausea and vomiting, limiting their use. Magnesium when used in therapeutic doses avoids all of these side-effects. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized double blind study on 90 patients, 30 in each group, scheduled for orthopaedic lower limb surgery under subarachnoid block. Group I: received bupivacaine (0.5%), 12.5 mg + 0.5 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline, Group II received bupivacaine (0.5%), 12.5 mg + 0.2 ml (50 mg) of preservative free 25 % magnesium sulphate + 0.3 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline Group III: received bupivacaine (0.5%) 12.5 mg + 0.3 ml (75 mg) of 25 % magnesium sulphate + 0.2 ml of preservative free 0.9% normal saline for subarachnoid block. The onset and duration of sensory block, the highest dermatomal level of sensory block, motor block, time to complete motor block recovery and duration of spinal anaesthesia were recorded. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA was applied to determine the significance of difference between different groups. If p-value was significant then Turkey’s Post Hoc Multicomparison test was applied. Values of p<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The time of maximum sensory block, time of onset of motor block, duration of sensory block, duration of motor block and time of analgesia request were prolonged in patients given magnesium 50mg and 75mg along with local anaesthetic intrathecally. Conclusion: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, magnesium when administered intrathecally along with local anaesthetics prolongs the duration of spinal analgesia without adverse effects. PMID:25120997

  11. The Association between Meteorological Parameters and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Nationwide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pui Man Rosalind; Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar; Du, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that regional weather patterns impact the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms, but the findings in the literature have been inconsistent. Furthermore, no nationwide analysis to date has examined the association between meteorological factors and the post-procedural outcomes of patients after the treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to use a nationwide sample to analyze the association between specific meteorological parameters—temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and humidity—and hospital admission rate for and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2001–2010): Those with an ICD-9 diagnosis code for subarachnoid hemorrhage and a procedural code for aneurysm repair were included. Climate data were obtained from the State of the Climate Report 2010 released by the National Climatic Data Center. Multivariate regression models were constructed to analyze the association between average state monthly temperature, precipitation, and percent possible sunlight, as well as relative morning humidity and both monthly hospital admission rate, adjusted for annual state population in millions, and in-hospital mortality. 16,970 admissions were included from 723 hospitals across 41 states. Decreased daily sunlight and lower relative humidity were associated with an increased rate of admission for ruptured cerebral aneurysms (p<0.001), but had no association with differential inpatient mortality. No significant changes in these observed associations were seen when multivariate analyses were constructed. This is the first nationwide study to suggest that decreased sunlight and lower relative humidity are associated with admission for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. While it has been postulated that external atmospheric factors may cause hormonal and homeostatic changes that impact the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms, additional research is needed to confirm and further understand these relationships. PMID:25393630

  12. External validation of the Ottawa subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical decision rule in patients with acute headache.

    PubMed

    Bellolio, M Fernanda; Hess, Erik P; Gilani, Waqas I; VanDyck, Tyler J; Ostby, Stuart A; Schwarz, Jessica A; Lohse, Christine M; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2015-02-01

    We aim to externally validate the Ottawa subarachnoid hemorrhage (OSAH) clinical decision rule. This rule identifies patients with acute nontraumatic headache who require further investigation. We conducted a medical record review of all patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with headache from January 2011 to November 2013. Per the OSAH rule, patients with any of the following predictors require further investigation: age 40 years or older, neck pain, stiffness or limited flexion, loss of consciousness, onset during exertion, or thunderclap. The rule was applied following the OSAH rule criteria. Patients were followed up for repeat visits within 7 days of initial presentation. Data were electronically harvested from the electronic medical record and manually abstracted from individual patient charts using a standardized data abstraction form. Calibration between trained reviewers was performed periodically. A total of 5034 ED visits with acute headache were reviewed for eligibility. There were 1521 visits that met exclusion criteria, and 3059 had headache of gradual onset or time to maximal intensity greater than or equal to 1 hour. The rule was applied to 454 patients (9.0%). There were 9 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), yielding an incidence of 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-3.9%) in the eligible cohort. The sensitivity for SAH was 100% (95% CI, 62.9%-100%); specificity, 7.6% (95% CI, 5.4%-10.6%); positive predictive value, 2.1% (95% CI 1.0%-4.2%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI, 87.4%-100%). The OSAH rule was 100% sensitive for SAH in the eligible cohort. However, its low specificity and applicability to only a minority of ED patients with headache (9%) reduce its potential impact on practice. PMID:25511365

  13. Insurance Status Is Associated with Treatment Allocation and Outcomes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Charles; Dortch, John; Ozrazgat Baslanti, Tezcan; Layon, Daniel R.; Roche, Alina; Rioux, Alison; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Fahy, Brenda; Bihorac, Azra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes. Design We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population. Patients We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008. Measurements Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes. Main Results Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment. Conclusions Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study. PMID:25141303

  14. Statin-Induced T-Lymphocyte Modulation and Neuroprotection Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, Robert E.; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Sugawara, Takashi; Ma, Qingy; Jafarian, Nazanin; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Statins influence immune system activities through mechanisms independent of their lipid-lowering properties. T cells can be subdivided based on cytokine secretion patterns into two subsets: T-helper cells type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2). Independent laboratory studies have shown statins to be potent inducers of a Th2 switch in immune cell response and be neuroprotective in several models of central nervous system (CNS) disease. This study was the first to evaluate the immune modulating effects of statins in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Simvastatin was administered to rats intraperitoneally in two dosages (1 and 20 mg/kg) 30 min after the induction of SAH using endovascular perforation. Neurological scores were assessed 24 h later. Animals were then sacrificed, and samples of cortex and brain stem were tested for expression of the T-regulatory cell cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) ?1, as well as interleukin (IL) 1?, a proinflammatory cytokine associated with Th1 immune responses. The presence of TGF-?1 secreting T cells was evaluated with the use of brain slices. Results SAH significantly impaired neurological function in all SAH groups (treated and untreated) versus sham. Animals treated with high-dose simvastatin had less neurological impairment than both untreated and low-dose groups. Cortical and brain-stem levels of TGF-?1 were significantly elevated following SAH in the high-dose group. IL-1?was significantly elevated following the induction of SAH but was inhibited by high-dose simvastatin. Double-labeled fluorescent immunohistochemical data demonstrated the presence of lymphocytes in the subarachnoid and perivascular spaces following SAH. Expression of TGF-?1 by lymphocytes was markedly increased following treatment with high-dose simvastatin. Conclusion The present study elucidated the potential role of a Th2 immune switch in statin provided neuroprotection following SAH. PMID:22890678

  15. Preemptive analgesia of oral clonidine during subarachnoid block for laparoscopic gynecological procedures: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Singh, Ivesh; Singh, V. P.; Gupta, Prashant K.; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preemptive analgesia is known modality to control the peri-operative pain. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oral clonidine on subarachnoid block characteristics, hemodynamic changes, sedation and respiratory efficiency in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological procedures. Patients and Methods: A total of 64 adult consenting females of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II were randomized double blindly into two groups of 32 patients each. Patients in the clonidine group received oral clonidine (100 ?g) and patients of the control group received placebo capsule, 90 min before subarachnoid block with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (3.5 ml). The onset of sensory and motor block, maximum cephalic sensory level and regression times of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. Intra-operative hemodynamic changes, respiratory efficiency, shoulder pain and sedation score were recorded. The other side-effects, if any were noted and managed. Results: The onset of sensory blockade was earlier in patients of clonidine group with prolonged duration of analgesia (216.4 ± 23.3 min vs. 165.8 ± 37.2 min, P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed on motor blockade between groups. The hemodynamic parameters and respiratory efficiency were maintained within physiological limits in patients of clonidine group and no patient experienced shoulder pain. The Ramsey sedation score was 2.96 ± 0.75. In the control group, 17 patients experienced shoulder pain, which was effectively managed with small doses of ketamine and 15 patients required midazolam for anxiety. Conclusion: Premedication with oral clonidine (100 ?g) has enhanced the onset and prolonged the duration of spinal analgesia, provided sedation with no respiratory depression. The hemodynamic parameters remained stabilized during the pneumoperitoneum.

  16. Ventriculolumber perfusion of 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)- methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea hydrochloride for subarachnoid dissemination of gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukitaka Ushio; Masato Kochi; Isao Kitamura; Jun-ichi Kuratsu

    1998-01-01

    The toxicity and therapeutic effect of the ventriculolumber perfussion of 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-1-1(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) against subarachnoid dissemination of gliomas were studied. Twenty-one patients (6 patients with anaplastic glioma, 7 with glioblastoma and 8 with medulloblastoma or PNET) received ventriculolumber perfusion of ACNU when they were diagnosed as having subarachnoid dissemination. The course of perfusion and cumulative dose of ACNU was 10

  17. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2013-11-01

    Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed. Scientific problems with the animal models include the use of crude, uncontrolled and non-standardised methods for traumatisation, an inability to model all key trauma mechanisms, and complex modulating effects of general anaesthesia on target organ physiology. Such effects depend on the anaesthetic and influence the cardiovascular system, respiration, breathing, cerebral haemodynamics, neuroprotection, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Some anaesthetics also bind to the NMDA brain receptor with possible differential consequences in control and anaesthetised animals. There is also some evidence for gender-specific effects. Despite the fact that these issues are widely known, there is little published information on their potential, at best, to complicate data interpretation and, at worst, to invalidate animal models. There is also a paucity of detail on the anaesthesiology used in studies, and this can hinder correct data evaluation. Welfare issues relate mainly to the possibility of acute pain as a side-effect of traumatisation in recovered animals. Moreover, there is the increased potential for animals to suffer when anaesthesia is temporary, and the procedures invasive. These dilemmas can be addressed, however, as a diverse range of replacement approaches exist, including computer and mathematical dynamic modelling of the human body, cadavers, interactive human patient simulators for training, in vitro techniques involving organotypic cultures of target organs, and epidemiological and clinical studies. While the first four of these have long proven useful for developing protective measures and predicting the consequences of trauma, and although many phenomena and their sequelae arising from different forms of trauma in vivo can be induced and reproduced in vitro, non-animal approaches require further development, and their validation and use need to be coordinated and harmonised. Recommendations to these ends are proposed, and the scientific and welfare problems associated with animal models are addressed, with the future focus being on the use of batteries of complementary replacement methods deployed in integrated strategies, and on greater transparency and scientific cooperation. PMID:24329746

  18. Initial presentation of a giant gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the stomach with recurrent spontaneous intra-peritoneal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Vinagreiro, Margarida; Valverde, Jorge N.; Guerreiro, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are a rare group of tumours of the digestive tract. In the majority of cases, at the time of the diagnosis, tumours are usually small and patients are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms. The occurrence of digestive haemorrhage is relatively common; however, the manifestation with a spontaneous hemoperitoneum is extremely rare, specially if chronic and non-emergent. Case report We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse, presenting with abdominal distension due to ascites and a constitutional syndrome. He was found to have a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the stomach associated with a chronic hemoperitoneum, due to recurrent spontaneous haemorrhage. In an elective setting, the lesion was resected completely without rupturing the tumour pseudo-capsule and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course. The tumour was classified as a moderate-risk lesion for aggressive biological behaviour, and imatinib mesylate was initiated as an adjuvant to treatment. No evidence of disease recurrence after one year was noted. Discussion and conclusion GISTs are uncommon and rarely present with spontaneous intra-peritoneal haemorrhage, which may be life threatening. In our understanding, this is the first reported case of the reviewed literature presenting with a chronic hemoperitoneum, due to recurrent brisk episodes of tumour haemorrhage. Tumour rupture and large tumour size are two poor independent prognostic tumour factors for recurrence. Despite this, the patient remains free of disease after surgery and instituted adjuvant imatinib mesylate. PMID:25697542

  19. A comparison of different cloned genome segments of Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus as serogroup-specific probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Nel; H. Huismans

    1990-01-01

    Summary The eight largest double-stranded (ds) RNA genome segments of Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 2 (Alberta strain) have been cloned. Of these, segments 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are represented by clones that correspond in size to those predicted for full-length clones. The different clones were used as nucleic acid probes to study the nucleic acid homology

  20. Herpes simplex 1 encephalitis presenting as a brain haemorrhage with normal cerebrospinal fluid analysis: a case report

    E-print Network

    Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Lever, Andrew M L

    2008-12-17

    of arteriovenous mal- formations, we believe that the haemorrhage was a direct result of the HSVE. The radiographic appearances were also not suggestive of a cavernoma or an arteriovenous malformation. The validity of the positive HSV PCR in the CSF has been...

  1. Presence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus antigen in rabbit tissues as revealed by a monoclonal antibody dependent capture ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Collins; J. R. White; C. Lenghaus; C. J. Morrissy; H. A. Westbury

    1996-01-01

    The production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to a common antigenic region on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has enabled the development of a capture ELISA for virus detection. The assay was shown to detect reliably the presence of viral antigen in crude homogenates of a range of rabbit tissues and has provided the first evidence for the presence of RHDV

  2. A case of acute upper and lower airway obstruction due to retropharyngeal haemorrhage secondary to acquired haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Harper, M; Obolensky, L; Roberts, P; Mercer, M

    2007-06-01

    We report the first known case of acute upper and lower airway obstruction due to retropharyngeal haemorrhage secondary to acquired haemophilia A. The patient required tracheal intubation and ventilation followed by surgical tracheostomy, prior to transfer to the intensive care unit for management of her coagulopathy with recombinant clotting factor products under the care of the haematologists. PMID:17506746

  3. Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunting for control of acute and recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K J Simpson; N Chalmers; D N Redhead; N D Finlayson; I A Bouchier; P C Hayes

    1993-01-01

    The insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) was evaluated in 22 patients with recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension (bleeding from oesophageal varices 10, gastric varices six, portal hypertensive gastropathy six). TIPSS was successfully performed electively in 15 patients and as an emergency in three patients. Twelve patients have had no further admissions with bleeding

  4. Involvement of the histaminergic system in cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine-induced reversal of critical haemorrhagic hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Jochem, J; Savci, V; Filiz, N; Rybus-Kalinowska, B; Fogel, W A; Yalcin, M

    2010-02-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) is an endogenously synthesized mononucleotide which exerts a variety of physiological effects by altering central cholinergic transmission. Administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intravenously, it reverses haemorrhagic hypotension in rats, apparently by the activation of central cholinergic receptors. The study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the central histaminergic system in CDP-choline-mediated reversal of haemorrhagic hypotension. Experiments were carried out in male ketamine/xylazine-anaesthetised Wistar rats subjected to haemorrhagic hypotension of 20-26 mmHg. CDP-choline (2 micromol; i.c.v.) administered at 5 min of critical hypotension produced a long-lasting pressor effect with increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal, hindquarters and mesenteric blood flows, resulting in a 100% survival at 2 h. The action was accompanied by approximately a 26% increase in extracellular histamine concentration at the posterior hypothalamus, as measured by microdialysis. Cardiovascular effects mediated by CDP-choline were almost completely blocked by pretreatment with H(1) receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol; i.c.v.), but not with H(2) receptor blocker ranitidine (25 nmol; icv) or H(3)/H(4) receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, the present results show that he central histaminergic system, through the activation of H(1) histaminergic receptors, is involved in CDP-choline-induced resuscitating effect in haemorrhage-shocked rats. PMID:20228413

  5. Association of APOE Polymorphism with the Change of Brain Function in the Early Stage of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Lin; Wei Dan; Li Jiang; Xiao-hong Yin; Hai-tao Wu; Xiao-chuan Sun

    \\u000a Recent studies have indicated that early brain injury may be responsible for the detrimental effects seen in patients after\\u000a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated the relationship between apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphism\\u000a and the change of brain function in the early stage of aneurysmal SAH. A total of 79 patients admitted within 5 days after\\u000a aneurysmal SAH

  6. Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  7. Intracranial fat migration: A newly described complication of autologous fat repair of a cerebrospinal fluid leak following supracerebellar infratentorial approach

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Cassie A.; Aujla, Parvir; Moreno, Mario; Veeravagu, Anand; Li, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial fat migration following autologous fat graft and placement of a lumbar drain for cerebrospinal fluid leak after pineal cyst resection surgery has not been previously reported. Case presentation The authors present a case of a 39-year-old male with a history of headaches who presented for removal of a pineal cyst from the pineal region. He subsequently experienced cerebrospinal fluid leak and postoperative Escherichia coli (E. Coli) wound infection, and meningitis, which were treated initially with wound washout and antibiotics in addition to bone removal and primary repair with primary suture-closure of the durotomy. A lumbar drain was left in place. The cerebrospinal fluid leak returned two weeks following removal of the lumbar drain; therefore, autologous fat graft repair and lumbar drain placement were performed. Three days later, the patient began experiencing right homonymous hemianopia and was found via computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to have autologous fat in the infra? and supratentorial space, including intraparenchymal and subarachnoid spread. Symptoms began to resolve with supportive care over 48?hours and had almost fully resolved within one week. Discussion This is the first known report of a patient with an autologous fat graft entering the subarachnoid space, intraparenchymal space, and ventricles following fat graft and lumbar drainage. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of monitoring for complications of lumbar drain placement. PMID:25557086

  8. Management and complications of stomas.

    PubMed

    Bafford, Andrea C; Irani, Jennifer L

    2013-02-01

    Stomas are created for a wide range of indications such as temporary protection of a high-risk anastomosis, diversion of sepsis, or permanent relief of obstructed defecation or incontinence. Yet this seemingly benign procedure is associated with an overall complication rate of up to 70%. Therefore, surgeons caring for patients with gastrointestinal diseases must be proficient not only with stoma creation but also with managing postoperative stoma-related complications. This article reviews the common complications associated with ostomy creation and strategies for their management. PMID:23177069

  9. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of an Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coexisting with a Prolactinoma under Cabergoline Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Ohta, Kohei; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25?mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed. PMID:25083394

  10. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of an Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coexisting with a Prolactinoma under Cabergoline Treatment.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Ohta, Kohei; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25?mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed. PMID:25083394

  11. A limited outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Etoumbi, Republic of Congo, 2005.

    PubMed

    Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Kone, Mamadou Lamine; Yada, Adamou; Leroy, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Ebolavirus has caused highly lethal outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever in the Congo basin. The 2005 outbreak in the Republic of Congo occurred in the Etoumbi district of Cuvette Ouest Department between April and May. The two index cases were infected while poaching. The sanitary response consisted of active surveillance and contact tracing, public awareness campaigns and community mobilization, case management and safe burial practices, and laboratory confirmation. Twelve cases and ten deaths were reported (lethality 83%). A transmission tree was constructed from a sample collected by a medical team. This outbreak was remarkable by its short duration and limited size. Increased awareness among these previously affected populations and the rapid response of the healthcare system probably contributed to its extinction. PMID:21605882

  12. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection. PMID:24490832

  13. Profound bilateral visual loss after hysterectomy indicated for severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ostri, Christoffer; Zibrandtsen, Nathalie; Larsen, Michael; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with bilateral posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in the previously unreported setting of hysterectomy indicated for severe postpartum haemorrhage. The diagnosis was based on clinical and paraclinical examinations, including MRI of the head, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) testing. During 1 year of follow-up, repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans demonstrated optic disc atrophy, which was interpreted as a sign of direct retrograde ganglion cell degeneration after ischaemic damage to the retrolaminar part of the optic nerves. The diagnosis of perioperative posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy is mostly a clinical diagnosis. However, MRI plays a major role in excluding other causes of visual loss, and VEP, ERG and OCT are valuable supplemental diagnostic tools. PMID:24395872

  14. Expression, purification and crystallization of the Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Barr, J. N.; Edwards, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. This paper describes the expression, purification and crystallization of full-length CCHFV nucleocapsid (N) protein and the collection of a 2.1?Å resolution X-ray diffraction data set using synchrotron radiation. Crystals of the CCHFV N protein belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 150.38, b = 72.06, c = 101.23?Å, ? = 110.70° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Circular-dichroism analysis provided insight into the secondary structure, whilst gel-filtration analysis revealed possible oligomeric states of the N protein. Structural determination is ongoing. PMID:22691790

  15. Body weight, body image and primary postpartum haemorrhage: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gollop, N D; Childs, C A; Coupe, B; MacFarlane, S; Burrell, J; Kumar, B

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity during pregnancy is rising. Elevated BMI is a significant risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Addressing the issues surrounding obesity in pregnancy presents many biological, social and psychological challenges. BMI is an easily measured and modifiable anthropometrical risk factor and should be recorded in all pregnancies. BMI should be proactively managed prior to and during pregnancy. All women should be educated as to the risks of an elevated BMI during pregnancy and those at risk should have access to specialist medical and surgical support if required. Our aim was to investigate the associations between elevated BMI and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes including PPH, and to explore the psychological challenges of having an elevated BMI during pregnancy. PMID:24694033

  16. Extensive pulmonary embolism after severe postpartum haemorrhage: management with an inferior vena cava filter.

    PubMed

    Bilger, A; Pottecher, J; Greget, M; Boudier, E; Diemunsch, P

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with an inferior vena cava thrombosis and extensive pulmonary embolism six days after a severe postpartum haemorrhage. She had undergone caesarean section with bleeding managed by massive transfusion, hysterectomy, and two attempts at uterine artery embolization. Systemic thrombolysis and catheter-directed thrombolysis in intensive care were abandoned due to recent and incomplete uterine artery embolization. A temporary inferior vena cava filter was chosen because of significant risk of massive pulmonary embolism. This was a controversial decision because guidelines from different professional groups offer conflicting recommendations. The therapeutic options for the management of massive postpartum pulmonary embolism when thrombolysis is contraindicated are discussed. PMID:25223642

  17. Long-time octreotide in an adolescent with severe haemorrhagic gastrointestinal vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Carl Friedrich; Haffner, Dieter; Hauenstein, Christina; Wolf, Ricarda; Kyank, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are a rare cause of acute or chronic blood loss. Usually they are treated by endoscopic obliteration or surgical resection. When such a therapy is inapplicable, pharmacotherapy may be required. At the age of 15 years, our female patient suffered from transfusion dependent recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to multiple gastrointestinal vascular malformations. Gastroscopy, coloscopy and capsule endoscopy revealed numerous foci making both endoscopic obliteration and complete surgical resection impossible. Neither regular transfusions nor substitution with coagulation factors were helpful. However, subcutaneous octreotide resulted in immediate stop of bleeding. Initial treatment by daily subcutaneous injections was followed by monthly depot application. Over 3 years only 2 transfusions had to be given. The patient required thyroxin substitution, otherwise, no side effects occurred and the girl had a good quality of life. The authors conclude that octreotide is safe and effective in gastrointestinal angiodysplasias inaccessible to endoscopy or surgery. PMID:22688939

  18. Dot enzyme immunoassay: an alternative diagnostic aid for dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Cardosa, M. J.; Tio, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    A dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to dengue virus was tested for use as a tool in the presumptive diagnosis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Paired sera from the following groups of patients were tested using the DEIA and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test: those with primary dengue fever; those experiencing a second dengue infection; and febrile patients who did not have dengue. The data obtained show that the DEIA can be effectively used at a serum dilution of 1:1000 to confirm presumptive recent dengue in patients with a second dengue infection. However, demonstration of seroconversion proved necessary for patients with primary dengue. At a serum dilution of 1:1000 the DEIA has a specificity of 97.3%. The role of this simple and rapid test in improving the effectivity of programmes for the control of dengue virus infection is discussed. PMID:1786623

  19. Report of nine cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Mirjalili, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries around the world. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick and by direct contact with blood or tissue from infected humans and livestock. In the following, we report nine cases of CCHF disease. This paper reported nine human CCHF cases, two in Tabas and Bandar Abbas and seven in Yazd. They were 21-, 33-, 28-, 29-, 61, 34, 35, 36 and 52 year-old men. The first, second and third patients were butchers and other patients were farmers. CCHF should be investigated in the patients with fever, bleeding and low platelet counts.

  20. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Zwingelstein, Françoise; Cavadini, Patrizia; Martinelli, Nicola; Lombardi, Guerino; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Decors, Anouk; Boucher, Samuel; Le Normand, Bernadette; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Since summer 2010, numerous cases of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) have been reported in north-western France both in rabbitries, affecting RHD-vaccinated rabbits, and in wild populations. We demonstrate that the aetiological agent was a lagovirus phylogenetically distinct from other lagoviruses and which presents a unique antigenic profile. Experimental results show that the disease differs from RHD in terms of disease duration, mortality rates, higher occurrence of subacute/chronic forms and that partial cross-protection occurs between RHDV and the new RHDV variant, designated RHDV2. These data support the hypothesis that RHDV2 is a new member of the Lagovirus genus. A molecular epidemiology study detected RHDV2 in France a few months before the first recorded cases and revealed that one year after its discovery it had spread throughout the country and had almost replaced RHDV strains. RHDV2 was detected in continental Italy in June 2011, then four months later in Sardinia. PMID:24011218

  1. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since summer 2010, numerous cases of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) have been reported in north-western France both in rabbitries, affecting RHD-vaccinated rabbits, and in wild populations. We demonstrate that the aetiological agent was a lagovirus phylogenetically distinct from other lagoviruses and which presents a unique antigenic profile. Experimental results show that the disease differs from RHD in terms of disease duration, mortality rates, higher occurrence of subacute/chronic forms and that partial cross-protection occurs between RHDV and the new RHDV variant, designated RHDV2. These data support the hypothesis that RHDV2 is a new member of the Lagovirus genus. A molecular epidemiology study detected RHDV2 in France a few months before the first recorded cases and revealed that one year after its discovery it had spread throughout the country and had almost replaced RHDV strains. RHDV2 was detected in continental Italy in June 2011, then four months later in Sardinia. PMID:24011218

  2. Cross-sectional imaging of iatrogenic complications after extracorporeal and endourological treatment of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Tonolini, Massimo; Villa, Federica; Ippolito, Sonia; Pagani, Alessandra; Bianco, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy (URS) currently represent the mainstay treatment options for the vast majority of patients with urolithiasis, with limited contraindications and high success rates. However, minimally invasive extracorporeal and endourological treatments are associated with a non-negligible morbidity including occasional life-threatening occurrences. These complications represent a source of concern for urologists since they may result in prolonged hospitalisation, need for surgical, endoscopic or interventional treatment, long-term renal impairment, and sometimes even medical malpractice claims. Due to the increasing prevalence of urolithiasis and the large number of therapeutic procedures performed, in hospitals with active urologic practices radiologists are increasingly requested to investigate suspected post-procedural complications following ESWL, PCNL or ureteroscopic stone removal. Based upon our experience, this pictorial essay provides an overview of current extracorporeal and endourological treatment modalities for urolithiasis, including indications and possible complications according to the most recent guidelines from the European Association of Urology (EAU). Afterwards, we review the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging appearances of common and unusual complications with case examples, including steinstrasse, subcapsular, perirenal and suburothelial haemorrhages, severe urinary tract infections (such as pyeloureteritis, pyelonephritis, renal abscesses and pyonephrosis), ureteral injuries and delayed strictures. Teaching points • Extracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolitotomy and ureteroscopy allow treating urolithiasis. • Minimally invasive extracorporeal and endourological treatment have non-negligible morbidity. • Multidetector CT allows confident assessment of stone-free status and postprocedural complications. • Main complications include steinstrasse, bleeding, severe infections, ureteral injuries and strictures. • Imaging triage allows the choice among conservative, surgical, endoscopic or interventive treatment. PMID:25256564

  3. The acute management of haemorrhage, surgery and overdose in patients receiving dabigatran

    PubMed Central

    Alikhan, Raza; Rayment, Rachel; Keeling, David; Baglin, Trevor; Benson, Gary; Green, Laura; Marshall, Scott; Patel, Raj; Pavord, Sue; Rose, Peter; Tait, Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) licensed for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and likely to be soon approved in Europe for treatment of venous thrombosis. Predictable pharmacokinetics and a reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhage do not negate the potential risk of haemorrhage. Unlike warfarin, there is no reversal agent and measurement of the anticoagulant effect is not ‘routine’. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio response to dabigatran is inconsistent and should not be measured when assessing a patient who is bleeding or needs emergency surgery. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) provides a qualitative measurement of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran. Knowledge of the time of last dose is important for interpretation of the APTT. Commercially available DTI assays provide a quantitative measurement of active dabigatran concentration in the plasma. If a patient receiving dabigatran presents with bleeding: omit/delay next dose of dabigatran; measure APTT and thrombin time (consider DTI assay if available); administer activated charcoal, with sorbitol, if within 2?h of dabigatran ingestion; give tranexamic acid (1?g intravenously if significant bleeding); maintain renal perfusion and urine output to aid dabigatran excretion. Dabigatran exhibits low protein binding and may be removed by dialysis. Supportive care should form the mainstay of treatment. If bleeding is life/limb threatening, consider an additional haemostatic agent. There is currently no evidence to support the choice of one haemostatic agent (FEIBA, recombinant factor VIIa, prothrombin complex concentrates) over another. Choice will depend on access to and experience with available haemostatic agent(s). PMID:23435652

  4. Effects of ubiquinol with fluid resuscitation following haemorrhagic shock on rat lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Paul; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda R; Diaz, Francisco J; Clancy, Richard L; Pierce, Janet D

    2014-07-01

    Haemorrhagic shock (HS) and fluid resuscitation can lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to ischaemia-reperfusion injury and organ damage. Ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that decreases ROS. This study examined the effects of ubiquinol administered with fluid resuscitation following controlled HS. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treatment [ubiquinol, 1 mg (100 g body weight)(-1)] or control groups. Rats were subjected to 60 min of HS by removing 40% of the total blood volume to a mean arterial pressure ?45-55 mmHg. The animals were resuscitated with blood and lactated Ringer solution, with or without ubiquinol, and monitored for 120 min. At the end of the experiments, the rats were killed and the lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys harvested. Leucocytes were analysed for mitochondrial superoxide at baseline, end of shock and 120 min following fluid resuscitation using MitoSOX Red. Diaphragms were examined for hydrogen peroxide using dihydrofluorescein diacetate and confocal microscopy. The apoptosis in lungs, diaphragm, heart and kidneys was measured using fluorescence microscopy with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Leucocyte mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly lower in rats that received ubiquinol than in the control animals. Production of hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the organs of rats treated with ubiquinol. These findings suggest that ubiquinol, administered with fluid resuscitation after HS, attenuates ROS production and apoptosis. Thus, ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant that may be used as a potential treatment to reduce organ injury following haemorrhagic events. PMID:24860150

  5. Microvascular oxygen pressure in the pig intestine during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Sinaasappel, M; van Iterson, M; Ince, C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between microvascular and venous oxygen pressures during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in the pig intestine. To this end microvascular PO2 (?PO2) was measured by quenching of Pd-porphyrin phosphorescence by oxygen and validated for the intestines. In addition, mesenteric venous blood gasses, blood flow, ilial CO2 production and global haemodynamics were also measured.In one group (n= 11), moderate shock was induced by withdrawal of 40% of the circulating blood volume. Seven of these animals were resuscitated with a crystalloid solution and four with the withdrawn blood. In a second group of three animals, a more severe shock was induced by withdrawal of 50% of the circulating blood volume; these animals were not resuscitated.Baseline mesenteric venous PO2 and ?PO2 values were similar (60 ± 9 and 60 ± 11 mmHg, respectively). During moderate shock, ?PO2 dropped significantly below mesenteric venous PO2 (26 ± 10 versus 35 ± 8 mmHg). After resuscitation with crystalloid solution, ?PO2 and mesenteric venous PO2 rose to 44 ± 9 and 44 ± 6 mmHg, respectively. In the group that received the withdrawn blood, values were 41 ± 9 and 53 ± 12 mmHg, respectively. Severe shock resulted in a drop in the mesenteric venous PO2 (n= 3) to a value similar to that seen in the moderate shock group, but the gut ?PO2 dropped to a much lower value than that of the moderate shock group (15 ± 5 versus 26 ± 10 mmHg).The results indicate that the oxygenation of the microcirculation of the gut can become lower than the venous PO2 under conditions of haemorrhagic shock. PMID:9831730

  6. Nucleocapsid gene sequence of a North American isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Bremont, M; Winton, J

    1992-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is the most important viral disease of trout in Europe. The causative agent, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a member of the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, was formerly believed to be confined to portions of the European continent; however in 1988, VHSV was isolated from adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon returning to two hatcheries in the northwestern part of the State of Washington, U.S.A. Initial fears were that the virus had been imported into North America, perhaps by aquaculture activities. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) gene of one of the North American (Makah) isolates of VHSV were determined and compared with published sequences of a European reference strain of VHSV (07-71) and the Round Butte strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), another salmonid fish rhabdovirus that is enzootic in western North America. The N gene of the Makah isolate of VHSV shared a similarity of 88.433% at the nucleotide level and 94.802% at the amino acid level with the N gene of the European strain of VHSV, and 62.121% amino acid similarity with the N protein of IHNV. Like the European reference isolate, the North American isolate of VHSV showed three domains in the N protein, the central one being the most conserved and the likely site of interaction with genomic RNA. This was also the region of highest similarity with the amino acid sequence of IHNV. The sequence data suggested that the Makah and 07-71 isolates were of independent origin. PMID:1634868

  7. Complications of radial head prostheses.

    PubMed

    Delclaux, Stéphanie; Lebon, Julie; Faraud, Amélie; Toulemonde, Julien; Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Coulet, Bertrand; Mansat, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Radial head prostheses are indicated for treatment of complex radial head fractures not amenable for fixation. After the initial experience with silastic implants, metallic or pyrocarbon arthroplasty have been used for 20 years. Little is known about complications related to these implants. Main complications are related to loosening whether they are cemented or not cemented. Hypotheses have been proposed like inadequate stem design, insufficient cement technique, stress shielding, and foreign body reactions secondary to polyethylene wear. Pain and stiffness are other common complications often related to oversized radial head component or overstuffing of the joint with excessive lengthening of the radius. Instability can be another complication in the context of more complex trauma with lateral collateral ligament complex lesion and coronoid fracture. Fixation of the coronoid fracture, reinsertion of the lateral collateral ligament complex, and the use of monobloc radial head prosthesis are recommended to stabilize the joint. Finally, osteoarthritis is common with follow-up. PMID:25655903

  8. [Postoperative complications in plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Vogt, P M

    2009-09-01

    Plastic surgery covers a broad spectrum of diseases and conditions in the areas of reconstructive surgery, hand, burn and aesthetic surgery. Besides acquired defects or malformations an increasing number of patients are being treated for surgical or multimodal complications. In a considerable number of patients plastic and reconstructive surgery remains the only therapeutic alternative after other therapy has failed. Therefore complication management in plastic surgery is of utmost importance for a successful outcome. In addition patient expectations in the results of plastic surgery as a discipline of invention and problem solving are steadily increasing. This challenge is reflected in clinical patient management by intensive research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Patients in plastic surgery are recruited from all age groups of either gender, involving traumatic and oncologic as well as congenital and aesthetic disorders. The demographics of aging, multimorbidity and obesity pose new challenges to plastic surgery. Although age over 70 years is not an independent risk factor per se for complications in plastic surgery, e.g. for complex free flap transfer, medical problems are present at a higher rate, which is to be expected in this age group. Risk factors such as alcoholism and coronary heart diseases seem to be independent predictors of perioperative complications. Therefore older patients can also benefit from plastic surgery and recurrent operations by the corresponding risk and complication management. Complication management necessitates careful patient selection, estimation of operative risks and patient-adapted selection of procedures. In addition to expertise in plastic surgery a thorough knowledge of non-surgical and surgical back-up procedures for technical incidents as well as vascular circulatory and wound healing disorders is required to deal successfully with complications in plastic surgery. This article presents these specific aspects of postoperative complication management in plastic surgery. PMID:19669715

  9. Unusual Complications of Quinalphos Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    This 40-year-old man was treated for suicidal quinalphos 25%EC consumption. He developed intermediate syndrome with normal response to repetitive nerve stimulation, pancreatitis with high enzyme elevations, and normal computed tomography and excreted black, brown, and orange urine sequentially over the first nine days of hospitalization. The last complication has not been previously reported with any organophosphate compound. He finally succumbed to complication of ventilator associated pneumonia related septic shock and ventricular tachycardia. PMID:23762661

  10. Pulmonary complications of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sandur, S; Stoller, J K

    1999-06-01

    Although life-saving, mechanical ventilation may be associated with many complications, including consequences of positive intrathoracic pressure, the many aspects of volutrauma, and adverse effects of intubation and tracheostomy. Optimal ventilatory care requires implementing mechanical ventilation with attention to minimizing adverse hemodynamic effects, averting volutrauma, and effecting freedom from mechanical ventilation as quickly as possible so as to minimize the risk of airway complications. PMID:10386254

  11. Medical complications of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Becker, C E

    1979-01-01

    Because we do not fully understand the cause of drug abuse, we do not currently have specific therapy for the abuse phenomenon. It is likely that those patients who abuse drugs are not a homogeneous treatment group. The patients seen most frequently because of medical complications probably represent only a small percentage of the total number of drug abusers. The medical complications of drug abuse affect almost all organ systems, and may result acutely from overdose or may not become apparent until after prolonged or recurrent use. Special emphasis has been placed on recognizing the key points of the physical examination in the overdose setting and in the drug-abusing patient that will give clues as to the nature and degree of the drug abuse. It is not clear whether drug abuse causes behavioral problems or vice versa. Physicians need to develop the medical expertise necessary to care for patients with drug abuse problems. Special attention is called to new drug abuse problems: complications associated with phencyclidine, amyl nitrate, and layman's remedies; acute and pulmonary complications; rhabdomyolysis; the brown heroin syndrome; and methylphenidate abuse. Although each of these complications has individual importance, a high incidence of alcohol use and smoking further compromises the general health of drug-abusing patients. Treating all of the medical complications of drugs must be viewed as only the beginning of a therapeutic attempt to restore these patients to a more physically and emotionally healthy life. PMID:371359

  12. [Complications of permanent cardiac pacing].

    PubMed

    Klug, D; Marquié, C; Lacroix, D; Kacet, S

    2003-12-01

    The implantation of a pacemaker is an everyday medical procedure. New indications are under evaluation. However, it should be recalled that this is a surgical intervention with implantation of a prosthesis with possible complications. This should, therefore, be a considered decision. There are early complications which occur in the first 6 weeks after implantation. Their incidence is underestimated (up to 7%) as is their seriousness. There are late complications. Some are responsible for pacemaker dysfunction, the risk of which is proportional to the dependence of the patient on permanent cardiac pacing. The migration of a pacing catheter or the fracture of an Accufix catheter expose the patient to much greater risk. Venous complications are overlooked as they are usually asymptomatic. The superior vena cava syndrome is, however, a serious complication of cardiac pacing. Two recent studies (MOST and DAVID) underline the deleterious haemodynamic effects of unnecessary right ventricular pacing. This right ventricular pacing may have a pro-arrhythmic effect on the ventricles and be responsible for sudden death. It may also cause atrial arrhythmia even if atrio-ventricular synchronisation is preserved. Infectious complications are also under-reported, partially because of the difficulty of diagnosis. They may be life-threatening and require extraction of the implanted material. In conclusion, it is wrong to think that even if a patient does not benefit from his implanted device this cannot have deleterious consequences. Pacemakers should be adjusted especially to avoid inappropriate right ventricular stimulation. PMID:15272521

  13. POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN THE ONCOLOGY DOG PATIENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. IGNA; A. SALA; LARISA SCHUSZLER; M. SAB?U; C. LUCA

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective: to investigate post0operative complications in the dogs' oncology patients Design : retrospective study of the 211 canines with cancer. Intervention: curative, palliative, or cytoreductive surgery. Results: after 211 oncology surgery 17 per cent complications were assessed; wound complication (30.5%), excessive pain (25%), hypothermia (22%), and sinus tachycardia (11%) of the total complications. Conclusion: common complications registered after the

  14. Embolic Signals during Routine Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; de Almeida Lins Ronconi, Karla; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Nogueira, Ricardo de Carvalho; Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral emboli may occur in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm surgery. Although embolic signs (ES) have been reported in SAH, their origin remains unclear. The aim of this study was to report the detection of ES during routine TCD monitoring in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Methods. A total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were submitted to TCD evaluation. Patients were monitored almost daily (5 times per week). In each monitoring session, one experienced operator performed TCD to detect or assess vasospasm and ES in arteries of the Willis polygon. Results. Four patients out of a total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were found to present spontaneous cerebral embolization during routine TCD monitoring. The average age of the 4 patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 59.5 ± 8.34 years (range 49–68?ys); female patients predominated representing 75% (3/4) of subjects. Conclusion. Although detection of ES was relatively rare in this study, rates of emboli occurrence may be higher under systematic monitoring. The detection of ES after SAH surgery reinforces the need to study the role of embolus in this condition and may be an indicator for prophylactic antithrombotic treatment.

  15. Distribution of /sup 3/H-morphine following lumbar subarachnoid injection in unanesthetized rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.C.; Hiller, J.M.; Simon, E.J.; Hillman, D.E.; Rosenberg, C.; Turndorf, H.

    1989-05-01

    Morphine sulfate (40-100 micrograms) and /sup 3/H-morphine (125-200 pmol) were injected into the lumbar subarachnoid space of 18 unanesthetized rabbits through a surgically implanted catheter. Radioactivity remaining in the spinal cord 2, 4, 6, and 12 h later revealed recovery (mean +/- SEM) of 45 +/- 5.6% (n = 3), 30.5 +/- 14.1% (n = 4), 11.23 +/- 4.4% (n = 3), and 3.7 +/- 1.1% (n = 3), respectively, of the injected radioactivity. Tritiated morphine was found to be predominantly centered around the injection site, with limited rostral and caudal spread in the cord. No significant radioactivity was detected in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the cisterna magna taken at 5, 15, 30, min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after receiving radioactive labeled drug (with the exception of that in one rabbit). Of the injected radioactivity, 75% was recovered in the urine in 12 h. These results suggest that the persistence of morphine in the spinal cord could account for its prolonged analgesic effect following intrathecal administration.

  16. The predictive value of serum myeloperoxidase for vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lim, Michael; Bower, Regina S; Wang, Ying; Sims, Leroy; Bower, Mark R; Camara-Quintana, Joaquin; Li, Gordon; Cheshier, Samuel; Harsh, Griffith R; Steinberg, Gary K; Guccione, Samira

    2012-07-01

    Vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with inflammation playing a key role in its pathophysiology. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an inflammatory marker, was examined as a potential marker of vasospasm in patients with SAH. Daily serum samples from patients with aneurysmal SAH were assayed for MPO, and transcranial Doppler (TCDs) and neurological exams were assessed to determine vasospasm. Suspected vasospasm was confirmed by angiography. Peak MPO levels were then compared with timing of onset of vasospasm, based on clinical exams, TCDs and cerebral angiography. Patients with vasospasm had a mean MPO level of 115.5 ng/ml, compared to 59.4 ng/ml in those without vasospasm, 42.0 ng/ml in those with unruptured aneurysms, and 4.3 ng/ml in normal controls. In patients who experienced vasospasm, MPO was elevated above the threshold on the day of, or at any point prior to, vasospasm in 10 of 15 events (66.7%), and on the day of, or within 2 days prior to, vasospasm in 8 of 15 events (53.3%). Elevated serum MPO correlates with clinically evident vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. The potential utility of MPO as a marker of vasospasm is discussed. PMID:22370810

  17. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chilean population, with emphasis on risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) is caused principally by the rupture of intracranial aneurisms. Important risk factors have been described such as age, sex, hypertension (HT) and season of the year, among others. The objective is to investigate the demographic characteristics and possible risk factors in a population of Chilean patients. Methods This retrospective study was based on the analysis of 244 clinical records of patients diagnosed with aneurismal SAH who were discharged from the Instituto de Neurocirugía ASENJO in Santiago, Chile. Results The mean age of patients was 49.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1:2.7. The signs and symptoms were not different between sexes; cephalea (85.7%) was predominant, followed by loss of consciousness, vomiting/nausea and meningeal signs. Risk factors included sex, age and HT. Concordant with other reports, the incidence of SAH was greatest in spring. Conclusions The demographic characteristics and risk factors observed in patients with aneurismal SAH treated in ASENJO were comparable to those of other populations. We were not able to conclude that tobacco and alcohol consumption were risk factors for this population. PMID:22035203

  18. Relationship between angiographic vasospasm, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral infarction are major contributors to poor functional recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral vasospasm, the narrowing of proximal intracranial arteries after SAH, has long been assumed to be the primary cause of DCI, and has therefore been the primary therapeutic target in attempts to diminish disability after SAH. However, emerging evidence has questioned the strength and causality of the relationship between vasospasm and DCI. To address this fundamental question, we performed two parallel studies assessing the relationship between the presence of vasospasm in a vascular territory and both regional reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebral infarction.In a cohort of SAH patients at high-risk for DCI, we identified regions of hypoperfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and compared their distribution with territories exhibiting vasospasm on concurrent angiography. We found that regional hypoperfusion was common in the absence of proximal vasospasm and that some patients without any significant vasospasm still could have hypoperfused brain regions. Similarly, our parallel study demonstrated that both patients and brain territories without vasospasm could develop delayed cerebral infarction, and that such vasospasm-independent infarcts account for more than a quarter of the infarct burden from DCI. These findings suggest that other processes, perhaps at a microvascular level, contribute at least part of the burden of DCI and future interventions should also address these other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:25366617

  19. The neuroprotective effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in a mouse model of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ayer, R; Jadhav, V; Sugawara, T; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    The CNS inflammatory reaction occurring after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) involves the upregulation of numerous cytokines and prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition is a well-established pharmacological anti-inflammatory agent. Previous studies have shown marked increases in COX-2 expression in neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells following brain injury. COX-2 inhibition has been shown to be beneficial following various types of brain injury. This experiment investigates the role of COX-2 activity in early brain injury following SAH. CD-1 mice were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH or SHAM surgery. Following experimental SAH animals were treated with the specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS398, in dosages of either 10 or 30 mg/kg. Neurological performance and brain edema were evaluated 24 and 72 h after SAH. NS398 at 30 mg/kg significantly reduced SAH-induced neurological deterioration. NS 398 at 30 mg/kg resulted in a trend toward the reduction of SAH-induced cerebral edema. Treatment had no effect on mortality. This experiment provides preliminary evidence that COX-2 inhibition is an effective pharmacological intervention for the prevention of brain edema and the preservation of neurological function following SAH. PMID:21725746

  20. Unfractionated Heparin: Multitargeted Therapy for Delayed Neurological Deficits Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Schreibman, David; Aldrich, E. Francois; Stallmeyer, Bernadette; Le, Brian; James, Robert F.; Beaty, Narlin

    2010-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with numerous “delayed neurological deficits” (DNDs) that have been attributed to multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including ischemia, microthrombosis, free radical damage, inflammation, and vascular remodeling. To date, effective prophylactic therapy for SAH-induced DNDs has been elusive, due perhaps to the multiplicity of mechanisms involved that render typical, single-agent therapy seemingly futile. We hypothesized that heparin, which has multiple underappreciated salutary effects, might be useful as a multitargeted prophylactic agent against SAH-induced DNDs. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to evaluate the potential utility of heparin in targeting the multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that have been identified as contributing to SAH-induced DNDs. Our literature review revealed that unfractionated heparin can potentially antagonize essentially all of the pathophysiological mechanisms known to be activated following SAH. Heparin binds >100 proteins, including plasma proteins, proteins released from platelets, cytokines, and chemokines. Also, heparin complexes with oxyhemoglobin, blocks the activity of free radicals including reactive oxygen species, antagonizes endothelin-mediated vasoconstriction, smooth muscle depolarization, and inflammatory, growth and fibrogenic responses. Our review suggests that the use of prophylactic heparin following SAH may warrant formal study. PMID:20809188

  1. fMRI of Working Memory Impairment after Recovery from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ellmore, Timothy M.; Rohlffs, Fiona; Khursheed, Faraz

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often incomplete and accompanied by subtle but persistent cognitive deficits. Previous neuropsychological reports indicate these deficits include most prominently memory impairment, with working memory particularly affected. The neural basis of these memory deficits remains unknown and unexplored by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the present study, patients who experienced (SAH) underwent fMRI during the performance of a verbal working memory paradigm. Behavioral results indicated a subtle but statistically significant impairment relative to healthy subjects in working memory performance accuracy, which was accompanied by relatively increased blood-oxygen level dependent signal in widespread left and right hemisphere cortical areas during periods of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Activity increases remained after factoring out inter-individual differences in age and task performance, and included most notably left hemisphere regions associated with phonological loop processing, bilateral sensorimotor regions, and right hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that deficits in verbal working memory following recovery from (SAH) are accompanied by widespread differences in hemodynamic correlates of neural activity. These differences are discussed with respect to the immediate and delayed focal and global brain damage that can occur following (SAH), and the possibility that this damage induces subcortical disconnection and subsequent decreased efficiency in neural processing. PMID:24223572

  2. Dysfunction of nitric oxide induces protein kinase C activation resulting in vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, S; Yamamoto, S; Yokoyama, T; Uemura, K

    1997-10-01

    We hypothesize that the interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the modulation of cerebral vascular tone, and the disturbance of this interaction following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in vasospasm. To prove this hypothesis with direct evidence, PKC activities of smooth muscle cells of canine basilar arteries in the control and in the SAH groups were measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. N omega-nitro-L arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO production, enhanced PKC activity. This enhancement was inhibited neither by 8-bromo-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cGMP) nor SIN-1, a NO releasing agent. PKC activity in the SAH was significantly higher than in the control; however, no further enhancement was produced with L-NA. In the SAH, PKC activity was not inhibited either by 8-bromo-cGMP or SIN-1. We conclude that NO maintains an appropriate vascular tone through inactivation of PKC, and that this effect is disturbed following SAH, resulting in PKC-dependent vascular contraction, such as vasospasm. On the other hand, once PKC has been activated, NO precursors do not inhibit PKC. These facts indicate NO inactivates PKC through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol breakdown. PMID:9329037

  3. CO2 has no therapeutic effect on early microvasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Benjamin; Michalik, Radoslaw; Oniszczuk, Anna; Abubaker, Khalid; Kozniewska, Ewa; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2014-08-01

    In addition to delayed vasospasm also early brain injury, which occurs during the first few days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when large cerebral arteries are still fully functional, plays an important role for the outcome after SAH. In the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that carbon dioxide (CO2), a strong cerebral vasodilator, has a therapeutic potential against early posthemorrhagic microvasospasm. C57BL/6 mice (n=36) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n=23) were subjected to sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. The pial microcirculation in the mice was visualized 3 and 24 hours after SAH using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) was modulated by hyper- or hypoventilation or by inhalation of 10% CO2. In rats, CO2-mediated changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured at the same time points using laser Doppler fluxmetry. Increased PaCO2 caused vasodilatation in sham-operated animals. Following SAH, however, cerebral arterioles were nonreactive to CO2. This lack of microvascular CO2 reactivity was accompanied by a complete loss of CO2-induced hyperemia. Our data show that CO2 is not able to dilate spastic microvessels and to increase CBF early after SAH. Future therapeutic approaches will therefore need to address mechanisms beyond CO2. PMID:24865999

  4. Delayed cerebral ischemia and spreading depolarization in absence of angiographic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Woitzik, Johannes; Dreier, Jens P; Hecht, Nils; Fiss, Ingo; Sandow, Nora; Major, Sebastian; Winkler, Maren; Dahlem, Yuliya A; Manville, Jerome; Diepers, Michael; Muench, Elke; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Schmiedek, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that vasospasm is the prime mechanism of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Recently, it was found that clusters of spreading depolarizations (SDs) are associated with DCI. Surgical placement of nicardipine prolonged-release implants (NPRIs) was shown to strongly attenuate vasospasm. In the present study, we tested whether SDs and DCI are abolished when vasospasm is reduced or abolished by NPRIs. After aneurysm clipping, 10 NPRIs were placed next to the proximal intracranial vessels. The SDs were recorded using a subdural electrode strip. Proximal vasospasm was assessed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). 534 SDs were recorded in 10 of 13 patients (77%). Digital subtraction angiography revealed no vasospasm in 8 of 13 patients (62%) and only mild or moderate vasospasm in the remaining. Five patients developed DCI associated with clusters of SD despite the absence of angiographic vasospasm in three of those patients. The number of SDs correlated significantly with the development of DCI. This may explain why reduction of angiographic vasospasm alone has not been sufficient to improve outcome in some clinical studies. PMID:22146193

  5. Diagnostic value of a ghrelin test for the diagnosis of GH deficiency after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Blijdorp, K; Khajeh, L; Ribbers, G M; Sneekes, E M; Heijenbrok-Kal, M H; van den Berg-Emons, H J G; van der Lely, A J; van Kooten, F; Neggers, S J C M M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic value of a ghrelin test in the diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) shortly after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Design Prospective single-center observational cohort study. Methods A ghrelin test was assessed after the acute phase of SAH and a GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)–arginine test 6 months post SAH. Primary outcome was the diagnostic value of a ghrelin test compared with the GHRH–arginine test in the diagnosis of GHD. The secondary outcome was to assess the safety of the ghrelin test, including patients' comfort, adverse events, and idiosyncratic reactions. Results Forty-three survivors of SAH were included (15 males, 35%, mean age 56.6±11.7). Six out of 43 (14%) SAH survivors were diagnosed with GHD by GHRH–arginine test. In GHD subjects, median GH peak during ghrelin test was significantly lower than that of non-GHD subjects (5.4 vs 16.6, P=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.869. A cutoff limit of a GH peak of 15??g/l corresponded with a sensitivity of 100% and a false-positive rate of 40%. No adverse events or idiosyncratic reactions were observed in subjects undergoing a ghrelin test, except for one subject who reported flushing shortly after ghrelin infusion. Conclusion Owing to its convenience, validity, and safety, the ghrelin test might be a valuable GH provocative test, especially in the early phase of SAH. PMID:24037787

  6. IL-33 Expression in the Cerebral Cortex Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Tian; Li, Hua; Sun, Qing; Liu, Ming; Li, Wei-De; Li, Song; Yu, Zhuang; Wei, Wu-Ting; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a pervasive and devastating condition in which inflammatory and apoptotic pathways contribute to poor outcome. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) plays a crucial role in the inflammatory and apoptotic pathways through binding of the transmembrane ST2 receptor. This study investigated the expression and cellular localization of IL-33 in the cerebral cortex after SAH in order to clarify the role of IL-33 after SAH. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and SAH groups and evaluated 2, 6, and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after the surgery, with SAH animals subjected to prechiasmatic cistern SAH. IL-33 expression was measured by western blot analysis, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-1? were also assessed. The expression of IL-33, IL-1?, and TNF-? was markedly elevated in the SAH as compared to the sham group; IL-33 was mainly localized in neurons and astrocytes and not microglia after SAH. Moreover, a significant positive association was observed between IL-33 and IL-1? expression. These findings indicate that IL-33 might play an important role in the inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:25417195

  7. The rodent endovascular puncture model of subarachnoid hemorrhage: mechanisms of brain damage and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a considerable health problem. To date, limited therapeutic options are available. In order to develop effective therapeutic strategies for SAH, the mechanisms involved in SAH brain damage should be fully explored. Here we review the mechanisms of SAH brain damage induced by the experimental endovascular puncture model. We have included a description of similarities and distinctions between experimental SAH in animals and human SAH pathology. Moreover, several novel treatment options to diminish SAH brain damage are discussed. SAH is accompanied by cerebral inflammation as demonstrated by an influx of inflammatory cells into the cerebral parenchyma, upregulation of inflammatory transcriptional pathways and increased expression of cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, various cell death pathways including cerebral apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis and autophagy are involved in neuronal damage caused by SAH. Treatment strategies aiming at inhibition of inflammatory or cell death pathways demonstrate the importance of these mechanisms for survival after experimental SAH. Moreover, neuroregenerative therapies using stem cells are discussed as a possible strategy to repair the brain after SAH since this therapy may extend the window of treatment considerably. We propose the endovascular puncture model as a suitable animal model which resembles the human pathology of SAH and which could be applied to investigate novel therapeutic therapies to combat this debilitating insult. PMID:24386932

  8. Meteorological Influences on the Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage – A Single Center Study of 511 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neidert, Marian Christoph; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca; Woernle, Christoph Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential meteorological influence on the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous studies used inhomogeneous patient groups, insufficient study periods or inappropriate statistics. Patients and Methods We analyzed 511 SAH admissions between 2004 and 2012 for which aneurysmal rupture occurred within the Zurich region. The hourly meteorological parameters considered are: surface pressure, 2-m temperature, relative humidity and wind gusts, sunshine, and precipitation. For all parameters we investigate three complementary statistical measures: i) the time evolution from 5 days before to 5 days after the SAH occurrence; ii) the deviation from the 10-year monthly mean; and iii) the change relative to the parameter's value two days before SAH occurrence. The statistical significance of the results is determined using a Monte Carlo simulation combined with a re-sampling technique (1000×). Results Regarding the meteorological parameters considered, no statistically significant signal could be found. The distributions of deviations relative to the climatology and of the changes during the two days prior to SAH events agree with the distributions for the randomly chosen days. The analysis was repeated separately for winter and summer to exclude compensating effects between the seasons. Conclusion By using high-quality meteorological data analyzed with a sophisticated and robust statistical method no clearly identifiable meteorological influence for the SAH events considered can be found. Further studies on the influence of the investigated parameters on SAH incidence seem redundant. PMID:24312565

  9. The Role of Microclot Formation in an Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Andereggen, Lukas; Neuschmelting, Volker; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Fandino, Javier; Marbacher, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Microvascular dysfunction and microthrombi formation are believed to contribute to development of early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Objective. This study aimed to determine (i) extent of microthrombus formation and neuronal apoptosis in the brain parenchyma using a blood shunt SAH model in rabbits; (ii) correlation of structural changes in microvessels with EBI characteristics. Methods. Acute SAH was induced using a rabbit shunt cisterna magna model. Extent of microthrombosis was detected 24?h post-SAH (n = 8) by fibrinogen immunostaining, compared to controls (n = 4). We assessed apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL) in cortex and hippocampus. Results. Our results showed significantly more TUNEL-positive cells (SAH: 115 ± 13; controls: 58 ± 10; P = 0.016) and fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli (SAH: 9 ± 2; controls: 2 ± 1; P = 0.03) in the hippocampus after aneurysmal SAH. Conclusions. We found clear evidence of early microclot formation in a rabbit model of acute SAH. The extent of microthrombosis did not correlate with early apoptosis or CPP depletion after SAH; however, the total number of TUNEL positive cells in the cortex and the hippocampus significantly correlated with mean CPP reduction during the phase of maximum depletion after SAH induction. Both microthrombosis and neuronal apoptosis may contribute to EBI and subsequent DCI. PMID:25110658

  10. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25529443

  11. Role of Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Zhang, Dingding; Hao, Shuangying; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial Ca(2+) is undertaken by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and its accumulation is associated with the development of many diseases. However, little was known about the role of MCU in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MCU can be opened by spermine under a physiological condition and inhibited by ruthenium red (RR). Herein, we investigated the effects of RR and spermine to reveal the role of MCU in SAH animal model. The data obtained with biochemical and histological assays showed that mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration was significantly increased in the temporal cortex of rats 1, 2, and 3 days after SAH, consistent with constant high levels of cellular Ca(2+) concentration. In agreement with the observation in the acute phase, SAH rats showed an obvious increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decrease of ATP production. Blockage of MCU prevented Ca(2+) accumulation, abated the level of oxidative stress, and improved the energy supply. Translocation of cytochrome c, increased cleaved caspase-3, and a large amount of apoptotic cells after SAH were reversed by RR administration. Surprisingly, exogenous spermine did not increase cellular Ca(2+) concentration, but lessened the Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH to benefit the rats. Taken together, our results demonstrated that blockage of MCU or prevention of Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH is essential in EBI after SAH. These findings suggest that MCU is considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25370932

  12. Expression signatures of long non-coding RNAs in early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingjie; Liu, Huailei; Wang, Ruke; Xu, Shancai; Liu, Yaohua; Wang, Kaikai; Hou, Xu; Shen, Chen; Wu, Jianing; Chen, Xin; Wu, Pei; Zhang, Guang; Ji, Zhiyong; Wang, Hongyu; Xiao, Yao; Han, Jianyi; Shi, Huaizhang; Zhao, Shiguang

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of mortality in stroke patients. Long non?coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have important functions in brain disease, however their expression profiles in SAH remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression signatures of LncRNAs and mRNAs in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an SAH group and a sham operation group. The expression signatures of the LncRNAs and mRNAs in the temporal lobe cortex were investigated using a rat LncRNAs array following experimental SAH. The results revealed that there were 144 downregulated and 64 upregulated LncRNAs and 181 downregulated and 221 upregulated mRNAs following SAH. Additionally, two upregulated (BC092207, MRuc008hvl) and three downregulated (XR_006756, MRAK038897, MRAK017168) LncRNAs were confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The differentially expressed mRNAs were further analyzed using the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The pathway analysis results provided by the KEGG database indicated that eight pathways associated with inflammation were involved in EBI following SAH. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the expression profiles of the LncRNAs and mRNAs were significantly different between the SAH?induced EBI group and the sham operation group. These differently expressed LncRNAs may be important in EBI following SAH. PMID:25777551

  13. Astragaloside IV Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Anwen; Guo, Songxue; Tu, Sheng; Ammar, Al-baadani; Tang, Junjia; Hong, Yuan; Wu, Haijian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Astragaloside IV, one of the main effective components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, has multiple neuroprotective properties, while the effects of astragaloside IV on the attenuation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) and its possible mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether astragaloside IV could inhibit oxidative stress, reduce neuronal apoptosis, and improve neurological deficits after experimental SAH in rats. Rats (n=68) were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham group, SAH group, SAH+vehicle group, and SAH+astragaloside IV group. Astragaloside IV or an equal volume of vehicle was administered at 1 h and 6 h after SAH, all the rats were subsequently sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Mortality, neurological scores, and brain edema were assessed, biochemical tests and histological studies were also performed at that point. SAH induced an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, neuronal apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3, brain edema and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Astragaloside IV treatment reversed these changes and improved neurobehavioral outcomes of SAH rats. Our findings suggested that astragaloside IV may alleviate EBI after SAH through antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:25136262

  14. Subarachnoid blood converts neurally evoked vasodilation to vasoconstriction in rat brain cortex

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Bonev, Adrian D.; Nelson, Mark T.; Wellman, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The matching of blood flow to regional brain function, called functional hyperemia or neurovascular coupling, involves the coordinated activity of neurons, astrocytes and parenchymal arterioles. Under physiological conditions, localized neuronal activation leads to elevated astrocyte endfoot Ca2+ and vasodilation, resulting in an increase in cerebral blood flow. In this study, we examined the impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on neurovascular coupling. SAH model rats received two injections of autologous blood into the cisterna magna 24 hours apart. Cortical brain slices from SAH model animals were prepared four days after the initial blood injection. Arteriolar diameter and astrocyte endfoot Ca2+ were simultaneously measured using two-photon microscopy. As expected, neuronal activity evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused an elevation in endfoot Ca2+ and vasodilation in brain slices from control animals. However, in brain slices from SAH animals, EFS induced a similar increase in astrocyte endfoot Ca2+ that caused arteriolar constriction rather than vasodilation. Vasoconstriction was observed in approximately 90 % of brain slices from SAH animals in response to EFS, with 40 % exhibiting a sustained vasoconstriction, 30 % exhibiting a transient vasoconstriction (diameter restored within 1 min after EFS), and 20 % responded with a biphasic response (brief vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction). This inversion of neurovascular coupling may play a role in the development of neurological deficits following SAH. PMID:22890664

  15. Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Sheen, Seung Hun; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal). Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms <30% were excluded from this analysis to avoid spectrum bias. Twenty-nine patients (311 vessel segments) were measured. The intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for depicting vasospasm (k = 0.84 and 0.74, resp.). IV FDCT showed a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 92.3%, positive predictive value of 93.6%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% for detecting vasospasm (>50%) with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman's rank test; r = 0.15, P = 0.35). Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH. PMID:25383367

  16. [Changes in the course after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from the neurological point of view].

    PubMed

    Bewermeyer, H; Szelies, B; Lumenta, C; Heiss, W D

    1982-08-01

    In order to recognize changes in the course after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH) cases hospitalized between 1974 and 1981 were divided in two groups: group 1 contained 53 patients from 1974 to 1976, group 2 84 patients from 1977 to 1981. With respect to age and clinical condition at admission to the hospital (grading according to Hunt and Hess, 20) the two groups were not different and were comparable to the patient population of epidemiologic studies. Due to the high percentage of cases of older age and with poor prognosis mortality in our patients was high when compared to the selected material of neurosurgical and randomized studies, but letality decreased markedly from 47,2% between 1974 and 1976 to 35,7% between 1977 and 1981. Good clinical outcome increased from 41,5% in group 1 to 54,7% in group 2; favourable outcome after surgical treatment (69,5%) had a high impact on this result. This change in the clinical course after sSAH was attributed to more intensive conservative treatment and to improved surgical technique with better defined selection of operable cases and with a tendency to operate early after the bleed. By reducing the number and postponing the occurrence of rebleeding antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid was of supportive value. PMID:7129326

  17. Role of Gap Junctions in Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, Robert; Chen, Wanqiu; Sugawara, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Zhang, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Gap junction inhibition has been demonstrated to reverse the vascular contraction that follows experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study hypothesizes that the use of established gap junction inhibitors: octonal and carbenoxolone, to interrupt cell to cell communication will provide neuroprotection against early brain injury after SAH. The filament perforation model of SAH was performed in male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 380g. Octanol (260.46mg or 781.38 mg/kg), carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg), or vehicles were given via intraperitoneal injection 1 hour after SAH. Neurologic deficits and cerebral apoptosis were assessed 24 and 72 hours after SAH. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the in vivo inhibition of CNS gap junctions. The administration of octanol and carbenoxolone both failed to attenuate the neurological deficits induced by SAH, and they did not reduce neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, carbenoloxone increased post SAH mortality and exacerbated SAH induced apoptosis. Despites previous studies that show gap junction inhibitors reverse vasospasm following experimental SAH, they failed to improve clinical outcomes or provide neuroprotection in this study. PMID:20018179

  18. [Timing of helicopter transportation for patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage on isolated islands].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysm re-rupture following subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)is a serious problem that is related with poor outcome. It is generally said that re-rupture occurs within 6 hours of the initial SAH;in the acute stage, strict management is needed even in the period before hospitalization. The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients on isolated islands should be transferred by helicopter > 6 hours after the initial SAH. Here we reviewed 125 cases of SAH in the isolated islands of Nagasaki prefecture between January 2007 and December 2012 who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by helicopter as a result of consultation via TeleStroke(41 men, 84 women;mean age, 65.76 years). Re-rupture was observed in seven patients(5.6%), five of whom were diagnosed with re-rupture in a prior hospital on the isolated island. No patients demonstrated clinical deterioration during transport. Early helicopter transportation under adequate sedation and control of blood pressure within 6 hours is safe, and patients should be transferred as quickly as possible during the day. On the other hand, at night, flight safety must first be considered. Patients in stable clinical condition may be transferred the next day. We should pay special attention to patients with SAH and intracerebral hemorrhage, severe SAH, or vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm because their condition may gradually become more serious even if initially stable. PMID:24920741

  19. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship to solar activity in the United States, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Weil, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common condition treated by neurosurgeons. The inherent variability in the incidence and presentation of ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in association with seasonality, circadian rhythm, lunar cycle, and climate factors. We aimed to identify an association between solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) and the incidence of aneurysmal SAH, all of which appear to behave in periodic fashions over long time periods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) provided longitudinal, retrospective data on patients hospitalized with SAH in the United States, from 1988 to 2010, who underwent aneurysmal clipping or coiling. Solar activity and SAH incidence data were modeled with the cosinor methodology and a 10-year periodic cycle length. The NIS database contained 32,281 matching hospitalizations from 1988 to 2010. The acrophase (time point in the cycle of highest amplitude) for solar flux and for sunspots were coincident. The acrophase for aneurysmal SAH incidence was out of phase with solar activity determined by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Aneurysmal SAH incidence peaks appear to be delayed behind solar activity peaks by 64 months (95% CI; 56-73 months) when using a modeled 10-year periodic cycle. Solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) appears to be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. As solar activity reaches a relative maximum, the incidence of aneurysmal SAH reaches a relative minimum. These observations may help identify future trends in aneurysmal SAH on a population basis. PMID:24979701

  20. Changes in responsiveness of the canine basilar artery to endothelin-1 after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Katsuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Yutaka (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)); Miyata, Noriyuki (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the basilar arteries from control and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) dogs were examined. The maximal contraction of the basilar artery in response to ET-1 was markedly decreased in the SAH group. Treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) reduced the contractile responses to ET-1 in the basilar arteries from control dogs. ET-1-induced contractions of the basilar arteries from control dogs were similar to those in strips from SAH dogs by the treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M PMA. Ca{sup 2+}-induced contraction of the basilar arteries which were depolarized with isotonic K{sup +} were significantly attenuated in SAH dogs. Treatment with PMA also reduced the contractile responses to Ca{sup 2+} in the basilar arteries from control dogs. These results indicate that decreased contractile responses of the basilar arteries to ET-1 and Ca{sup 2+} in the SAH group may be related to changes in the activity of the protein kinase C in vascular smooth muscle.