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Sample records for complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

  1. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports

    PubMed Central

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P.; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. Methods We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Results Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation. PMID:26648972

  2. [Pain management in subarachnoid haemorrhages].

    PubMed

    Martin, Carole; Garbacz, Michle; Bracard, Serge

    2015-12-01

    Pain and anxiety are among the recurring complaints in patients with a subarachnoid haemorrhage. A team assessed the efficacy and quality of pain management in a clinical neuroradiology unit. A global pain management procedure, including antalgic drug protocols and recommendations, was then put in place. PMID:26675097

  3. [Depression remitted after subarachnoid haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Lauritsen, Lise; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-26

    A 65-year-old man was seen in a specialized ambulatory for mood disorders because of treatment-resistant depression. He was treated throughout a period of three years with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, dual action, lithium, nortriptyline, reboxetine, aripiprazole, benzodiazepines, isocarboxazide and lamotrigine with no significant effect. However, the psychiatric symptoms resolved abruptly after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The patient was turned over to his general practitioner 15 months after the incidence with continuously complete remission. PMID:25612950

  4. Thrombus formation in a dilated torcula following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Haynes, H R; Visca, A; Renowden, S; Malcolm, G

    2013-08-01

    A case of thrombus formation occurring within a dilation of the dural venous sinuses following aneurysmal sub-arachnoid haemorrhage is presented. Acute neurological deterioration accompanied propagation of the thrombus. The patient was anticoagulated on day 5 post-SAH with no haemorrhagic complications and made a full recovery. The optimum time to commence anticoagulation is not clear and is discussed. PMID:23451941

  5. The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Goffi, Alberto; Marotta, Tom R; Schweizer, Tom A; Abrahamson, Simon; Macdonald, R Loch

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is a neurological syndrome with complex systemic complications. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to the acute extravasation of arterial blood under high pressure into the subarachnoid space and often into the brain parenchyma and ventricles. The haemorrhage triggers a cascade of complex events, which ultimately can result in early brain injury, delayed cerebral ischaemia, and systemic complications. Although patients with poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies 4 and 5) are at higher risk of early brain injury, delayed cerebral ischaemia, and systemic complications, the early and aggressive treatment of this patient population has decreased overall mortality from more than 50% to 35% in the last four decades. These management strategies include (1) transfer to a high-volume centre, (2) neurological and systemic support in a dedicated neurological intensive care unit, (3) early aneurysm repair, (4) use of multimodal neuromonitoring, (5) control of intracranial pressure and the optimisation of cerebral oxygen delivery, (6) prevention and treatment of medical complications, and (7) prevention, monitoring, and aggressive treatment of delayed cerebral ischaemia. The aim of this article is to provide a summary of critical care management strategies applied to the subarachnoid haemorrhage population, especially for patients in poor neurological condition, on the basis of the modern concepts of early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischaemia. PMID:26801901

  6. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children caused by cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S

    1983-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children. PMID:6101222

  7. [Inverted takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to subarachnoid haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Michels, G; Pfister, R

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of a 34-year-old woman with cardiogenic shock after successful resuscitation. In the medical history migraine was known. Emergency echocardiography demonstrated left ventricular dysfunction with hypokinetic basal and midventricular segments and hyperkinetic apex. Cerebral computed tomography suggested a massive subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with transtentorial herniation, so that taking into account the clinical history (severe headache) the diagnosis of a SAH-associated inverted takotsubo cardiomyopathy could be made. In the case of subarachnoid haemorrhage it should be noted that extracerebral organ dysfunction, e.g. inverted takotsubo cardiomyopathy, frequently occurs. PMID:25994842

  8. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage models in rats.

    PubMed

    Alkan, T; Korfali, E; Kahveci, N

    2002-01-01

    There is no comprehensive and reliable model available in small animals that are suitable for the study of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). In the study we reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of available SAH models in rats and presented our model. Experimental SAH was induced in a group of 350-450 g Sprague-Dawley rats. A 2 mm-diameter burr hole was drilled and, working under a microscope, haemorrhage was produced by transclival puncture of the basilar artery with a 20 microns thick piece of glass. The rats were assigned to either the experimental group (n: 7) or the control group (n: 7). Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were measured for 60 min after SAH, after which the rats were decapitated. Microscopic examinations were done on three different segments of the basilar artery. There was a significant and sharp drop in LCBF just after SAH was induced (56.17 +/- 12.80 mlLD/min/100 g and 13.57 +/- 5.85 mlLD/min/100 g for baseline and post-SAH, respectively; p < 0.001), the flow slowly increased by the end of the experiment but never recovered to pre-SAH values (43.63 +/- 7.6 mlLD/min/100 g, p < 0.05). ICP (baseline 7.33 +/- 0.8 mmHg) increased acutely to 70.6 +/- 9.2 mmHg, and also returned to normal levels by 60 min after SAH. CPP (baseline 75.1 +/- 4.9 mmHg) dropped accordingly (to 21.0 +/- 6.3 mmHg) and then increased, reaching 70.1 +/- 4.9 mmHg at 60 min after SAH. Examinations of the arteries revealed decreased inner luminal diameter and distortion of the elastica layer. We present an inexpensive and reliable model of SAH in the rat that allows single and multiple haemorrhages and to study the early and late course of pathological changes. PMID:12442623

  9. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Terrance T; Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Brody, David L

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury-axonal injury-is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage, raising the prospect of common diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches to these conditions. PMID:26115676

  10. Subarachnoid haemorrhage: what happens to the cerebral arteries?

    PubMed

    Sobey, C G; Faraci, F M

    1998-11-01

    1. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a unique disorder and a major clinical problem that most commonly occurs when an aneurysm in a cerebral artery ruptures, leading to bleeding and clot formation. Subarachnoid haemorrhage results in death or severe disability of 50-70% of victims and is the cause of up to 10% of all strokes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm, which is the most critical clinical complication that occurs after SAH, seems to be associated with both impaired dilator and increased constrictor mechanisms in cerebral arteries. Mechanisms contributing to development of vasospasm and abnormal reactivity of cerebral arteries after SAH have been intensively investigated in recent years. In the present review we focus on recent advances in our knowledge of the roles of nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP, endothelin (ET), protein kinase C (PKC) and potassium channels as they relate to SAH. 2. Nitric oxide is produced by the endothelium and is an important regulator of cerebral vascular tone by tonically maintaining the vasculature in a dilated state. Endothelial injury after SAH may interfere with NO production and lead to vasoconstriction and impaired responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators. Inactivation of NO by oxyhaemoglobin or superoxide from erythrocytes may also occur in the subarachnoid space after SAH. 3. Nitric oxide stimulates activity of soluble guanylate cyclase in vascular muscle, leading to intracellular generation of cGMP and relaxation. Subarachnoid haemorrhage appears to cause impaired activity of soluble guanylate cyclase, resulting in reduced basal levels of cGMP in cerebral vessels and often decreased responsiveness of cerebral arteries to NO. 4. Endothelin is a potent, long-lasting vasoconstrictor that may contribute to the spasm of cerebral arteries after SAH. Endothelin is present in increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of SAH patients. Pharmacological inhibition of ET synthesis or of ET receptors has been reported to attenuate cerebral vasospasm. Production of and vasoconstriction by ET may be due, in part, to the decreased activity of NO and formation of cGMP. 5. Protein kinase C is an important enzyme involved in the contraction of vascular muscle in response to several agonists, including ET. Activity of PKC appears to be increased in cerebral arteries after SAH, indicating that PKC may be critical in the development of cerebral vasospasm. Recent evidence suggests that PKC activation may occur in cerebral arteries after SAH as a result of decreased negative feedback influence of NO/cGMP. 6. Cerebral arteries are depolarized after SAH, possibly due to decreased activity of potassium channels in vascular muscle. Decreased basal activation of potassium channels may be due to several mechanisms, including impaired activity of NO (and/or cGMP) or increased activity of PKC. Vasodilator drugs that produce hyperpolarization, such as potassium channel openers, appear to be unusually effective in cerebral arteries after SAH. 7. Thus, endothelial damage and reduced activity of NO may contribute to cerebral vascular dysfunction after SAH. Potassium channels may represent an important therapeutic target for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after SAH. PMID:9807657

  11. Ultrastructure of cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, J D; Graham, D I; Matear, E; MacPherson, P; Tamura, A; Fitch, W

    1985-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy have been used to examine the ultrastructure of cerebral arteries taken from dogs up to nine days following the injection of autologous blood into the suprachiasmatic cistern and using meticulous perfusion-fixation technique. No ultrastructural changes in the cerebral arteries were noted either at sites of radiologically demonstrated arterial constriction or elsewhere. The only abnormality noted was the presence of some leucocytes and macrophages in the subarachnoid space surrounding the arteries. These results are discussed in relation to changes in cerebrovascular reactivity that occur at this stage following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Images PMID:3981195

  12. [Incidental aneurysms and perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhages].

    PubMed

    Rojas Jimnez, A; Martnez Cueto, P; Vila Nieto, O; Vzquez Fernndez, E

    2014-01-01

    A perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage refers to the presence of bleeding around the midbrain with a normal angiography, meeting the well established clinical criteria and radiological criteria. Unlike the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, it has a good prognosis, the recovery in most cases being complete and satisfactory. On the other hand, between 2 and 5% of the population will develop an intracranial aneurysm in the course of their life, most of them asymptomatic, with the likelihood of finding an incidental aneurysm in patients who have suffered a perimesencephalic hemorrhage. The importance of a proper diagnosis governs the course to follow, being a challenge for vascular treatment teams who must analyse the findings in detail and individualize treatment decisions. PMID:21944713

  13. Subarachnoid haemorrhage mimicking transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-H; Juan, Y-H; Chang, S-L; Lee, W-L; How, C-K; Hsu, T-F

    2015-08-01

    Patients often present to the emergency department with loss of consciousness. The differential diagnosis of such condition may be difficult because of limited clinical information. The authors present a case of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with initial electrocardiographic (ECG) finding mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which was confirmed to resolve in a follow-up study. Accurate and timely diagnosis of SAH-related ST-segment elevation was important, as the therapeutic strategy for SAH is completely different from that for STEMI. If the clinicians do not have other tools for diagnosis, the follow-up ECG may help us make a most possible diagnosis. PMID:26032227

  14. Beneficial effects of adrenergic blockade in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, P; Neil-Dwyer, G; Cruickshank, J M

    1982-01-01

    A total of 148 patients presenting within 48 hours of subarachnoid haemorrhage were assigned at random to receive standard management only or standard management and treatment with the adrenergic-blocking agents propranolol and phentolamine (or propranolol alone) for three weeks. One hundred and thirty-four patients completed the study. Assessment at four weeks showed a strong trend for less neurological deficit in the treated group, almost statistically significant (p=0.053) in the women. During the first month the treated group suffered fewer episodes of clinical deterioration consistent with cerebral arterial spasm: thus more treated patients underwent operation and those who did had a better outcome (p=0.030). At one year fewer were dead or disabled (unable to work) in the treated group; a significant difference for women (p=0.030). Possible mechanisms for these actions may include a reduction in pulmonary oedema, prevention of myocardial infarcts, a reduction in plasma renin activity, nd a reduction in cerebral oxygen requirements. It is concluded that early adrenergic blockade benefits patients (particularly women) with subarachnoid haemorrhage for up to one year in terms of lesser neurological deficit. Beta-blocker rather than alpha-blockade appears to be the useful component. A randomised, blind extension of the present study using long-acting propranolol and placebo has shown a significant (p=0.026) decrease in deaths and significantly (p=0.003) fewer poor results in the treatment group. PMID:6805647

  15. Complications and follow up of subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Danire, F; Gascou, G; Menjot de Champfleur, N; Machi, P; Leboucq, N; Riquelme, C; Ruiz, C; Bonaf, A; Costalat, V

    2015-01-01

    Complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage are the major life threatening and functional components of the follow up of a ruptured aneurysm. Knowing how to identify these is a key challenge. They vary in type throughout the postoperative follow up period. The aim of this article is firstly to list the main complications of the acute phase (rebleeding, acute hydrocephalus, acute ischemic injury and non-neurological complications), the subacute phase (vasospasm) and the chronic phase of subarachnoid hemorrhages: (chronic hydrocephalus and cognitive disorders) and to describe their major clinical and radiological features. Secondly, we describe the long-term follow up strategy for patients who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and have been treated endovascularly or by surgery. This follow up involves a combination of clinical consultations, cerebral MRI and at least one review angiogram. PMID:26119863

  16. Bleeding in the subarachnoid space: a possible complication during laser therapy for equine progressive ethmoid haematoma.

    PubMed

    Vreman, S; Wiemer, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-10-01

    A 10-year-old KWPN (Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands) gelding was euthanized after developing severe neurological symptoms preceded by severe epistaxis during laser treatment for progressive ethmoid haematoma (PEH) in the right nasal cavity. Postmortem examination of the head revealed a large amount of clotted blood between the right ventral and dorsal conchae in the nasal cavity and acute haemorrhage in the right subarachnoid space. Histologically, there was moderate, acute polioencephalomalacia in the neuropil adjacent to the haemorrhage. The haemorrhages were most likely caused by the laser treatment and therefore should be considered a possible complication that could lead to severe peracute neurological symptoms. PMID:24199337

  17. Disordered cerebro-vascular physiology in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Symon, L

    1978-01-01

    The technical problems of surgery for anterior circle aneurysm have in large measure been solved. The problem of reduced perfusion to the brain which characterises the patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in a poor clinical condition demands more subtle physiological handling. It appears likely that maintenance of an intact cell membrane and blood brain barrier may be aided by the exhibition of pre and post-operative steriods, and that concentration on regional perfusion should be the main aim in post-operative management of such cases. This demands maintenance of adequate blood volume, avoidance of platelet stickiness, and utilisation of the pathological paralysis of autoregulation to improve flow to ischaemic zones by hypertensive agents if necessary. The possibility that early operation with evacuation of blood from the basal cisterns may in the end prevent the vascular damage and disordered vaso-reactivity which encourages the development of transient ischaemic deficits, is a concept which has to be actively pursued. The problem is a continuing one which has bedevilled aneurysm surgery for 25 years, but the omens suggest that a solution is appreciably nearer at hand. PMID:665340

  18. Pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Vinge, E; Andersson, K E; Brandt, L; Ljunggren, B; Nilsson, L G; Rosendal-Helgesen, S

    1986-01-01

    Patients with a ruptured supratentorial aneurysm undergoing early surgery after the subarachnoid haemorrhage were treated postoperatively with nimodipine to prevent delayed ischaemic dysfunction. It was given first as a continuous intravenous infusion 2 mg/h (mean dose 0.5 micrograms/kg/min) for at least 7 days, and then orally (45 mg X 6) for at least a further 7 days. During the i.v. infusion, the mean plasma concentration was 26.6 +/- 1.8 ng/ml. The plasma clearance ranged from 0.57 to 1.771/kg/h and was negatively correlated with the age of the patient. Immediately prior to successive oral doses, the mean plasma concentration was 13.2 ng/ml (range less than 3-38.8 ng/ml). The peak level was usually found after 1 h; it ranged from 7.0-96.0 ng/ml. Mean bioavailability was 15.9%. The nitropyridine metabolite was found in measurable concentrations only after oral treatment with nimodipine. In some cases, the concentration of metabolite exceeded that of the parent compound. The three patients investigated who developed delayed ischaemic dysfunction had plasma concentrations well within the range in patients who did not, so it seems unlikely that the therapeutic failure could be attributed to individual deviations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug. PMID:3743617

  19. Magnesium for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (MASH-2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W Peter; van Kooten, Fop; Kuijsten, Hans AJM; Boiten, Jelis; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Lavados, Pablo M; Rinkel, Gabriel JE; van den Bergh, Walter M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia. We did a trial to test whether magnesium therapy improves outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods We did this phase 3 randomised, placebo-controlled trial in eight centres in Europe and South America. We randomly assigned (with computer-generated random numbers, with permuted blocks of four, stratified by centre) patients aged 18 years or older with an aneurysmal pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage on brain imaging who were admitted to hospital within 4 days of haemorrhage, to receive intravenous magnesium sulphate, 64 mmol/day, or placebo. We excluded patients with renal failure or bodyweight lower than 50 kg. Patients, treating physicians, and investigators assessing outcomes and analysing data were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was poor outcomedefined as a score of 45 on the modified Rankin Scale3 months after subarachnoid haemorrhage, or death. We analysed results by intention to treat. We also updated a previous meta-analysis of trials of magnesium treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 68742385) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2006-003523-36). Findings 1204 patients were enrolled, one of whom had his treatment allocation lost. 606 patients were assigned to the magnesium group (two lost to follow-up), 597 to the placebo (one lost to follow-up). 158 patients (262%) had poor outcome in the magnesium group compared with 151 (253%) in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 103, 95% CI 085125). Our updated meta-analysis of seven randomised trials involving 2047 patients shows that magnesium is not superior to placebo for reduction of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (RR 096, 95% CI 086108). Interpretation Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Funding Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council. PMID:22633825

  20. Fatal subarachnoidal haemorrhage in a Norwegian traveller with dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jensenius, Mogens; Berild, Dag; Ormaasen, Vidar; Maehlen, Jan; Lindegren, Gunnel; Falk, Kerstin I

    2007-01-01

    We present a Norwegian female in her thirties who acquired dengue fever caused by dengue virus serotype 2 while travelling to Mexico. When hospitalised 3 days after symptom onset, the patient had severe headache, fever, rash and a positive tourniquet test, but did not fulfil the criteria of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Five days later she developed a fatal subarachnoidal haemorrhage. A post-mortem examination failed to reveal any intracranial arterial aneurysm. Our case was consistent with so called 'dengue fever with haemorrhages', a recently described entity that mainly affects adults and may cause severe bleedings also in the absence of DHF. PMID:17366065

  1. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and cerebral vasculopathy in a child with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Inusa, Baba; Casale, Maddalena; Booth, Caroline; Lucas, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Stroke in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is either infarctive or haemorrhagic in nature. In childhood, over 75% of strokes in SCA are infarctive. We present an adolescent with SCA who developed hypertension at the age of 13, and was treated with lisinopril. Sixteen months later she was found in cardiorespiratory arrest and died on arrival in hospital. The last transcranial Doppler scan performed 6 months before her death and a brain MRI were reported normal. The autopsy discovered massive subarachnoid haemorrhage in association with vascular damage in the circle of Willis arteries. The case highlights a cause of haemorrhagic stroke, the first reported association between hypertension, SCA and a histopathologically proven cerebral vasculopathy. The difficulties in the management of haemorrhagic stroke and the poor outcome in SCA are discussed. PMID:25336550

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels, a sensitive diagnostic test in delayed presenting subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, A.; Worthington, V.; Appleby, I.; Kerr, M.E.; Kitchen, N.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The workup of patients with suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) presenting late is complicated by loss of diagnostic sensitivity of CT brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bilirubin levels. Methods A prospective, longitudinal study on CSF ferritin levels in SAH. Results Serial CSF samples from 14 aneurysmal SAH cases requiring extraventricular drainage (EVD) were collected. The control group consisted of 44 patients presenting with headaches suspicious of SAH. In 9 cases a traumatic spinal tap occurred. CSF ferritin levels were significantly higher following SAH compared to controls (p<0.0001). The upper reference range of CSF ferritin is 12 ng/mL and there was no significant difference between a traumatic (mean 9.0 ng/mL) or normal spinal tap (3.9 ng/mL, p=0.59). CSF ferritin levels increased following the SAH from an average of 65 ng/mL (day 1) to 1750 ng/mL (day 11, p<0.01). Both the Fisher and Columbia CT score significantly correlated with CSF ferritin levels. Conclusion CSF ferritin levels increase after a SAH and may potentially provide additional diagnostic information in patients with suspected SAH who present late to clinic. PMID:20719531

  3. Immunomodulators interfere with angiopathy but not vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ryba, M; Iwańska, K; Walski, M; Pastuszko, M

    1991-01-01

    The present study deals with the effects of immunomodulators on the morphology of intracerebral arterial walls in rabbits with experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Immunostimulators:thymostimuline and inosine dimethylamino-isopropanol-p-acetamido-benzoate were found to aggravate the angiopathic changes, whereas immunosuppressive drugs-cyclosporine A and azathioprine appeared to prevent the damage. The authors consider the possibility of using immunosuppressive drugs in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. PMID:1711764

  4. Neurosurgical versus endovascular treatment of subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm: comparison of patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kamensky, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this critical review is to determine whether endovascular treatment (EVT) of a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has better patient outcomes than neurosurgical treatment (NST). A review of six cohort studies (listed in Table 1) was carried out and the main findings were summarised in the conclusion. In addition the list of author's recommendations is included at the end of the paper. Theatre practitioners involved in neurosurgery might find this review useful in enhancing their understanding of how SAH is currently treated. It could also bring some insights about the reasons why a particular modality of the treatment was chosen for their patient. PMID:26016283

  5. Advances in the understanding of delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Liam; Andrews, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischaemia has been described as the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who survive the initial aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischaemia is meagre at best and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine remains the only intervention to consistently improve functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. There is substantial evidence to support cerebral vessel narrowing as a causative factor in delayed cerebral ischaemia, but contemporary research demonstrating improvements in vessel narrowing has failed to show improved functional outcomes. This has encouraged researchers to investigate other potential causes of delayed cerebral ischaemia, such as early brain injury, microthrombosis, and cortical spreading depolarisation. Adherence to a common definition of delayed cerebral ischaemia is needed in order to allow easier assessment of studies using multiple different terms. Furthermore, improved recognition of delayed cerebral ischaemia would not only allow for faster treatment but also better assessment of interventions. Finally, understanding nimodipines mechanism of action may allow us to develop similar agents with improved efficacy.

  6. Haemorrhagic complications of pancreatitis: presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849330

  7. Subarachnoid haemorrhage from the rupture of two intracranial aneurysms in the same day: a rare occurrence, not a myth.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jerome Laval Cyril; Major, Otto

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of intracranial aneurysms is approximately 6% throughout the world, although it can be more prevalent in some populations than others. Subarachnoid haemorrhage from a single aneurysm rupture can be devastating, with approximately 35% of patients not regaining consciousness after the initial bleed. In some cases, patients will have two or more aneurysms at presentation, and only one of them will have bled. Having two or more aneurysms that have bled within a few minutes or few hours of one another, is almost unheard of. Our case report is based on a patient who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage from two ruptured aneurysms, confirmed intraoperatively and corroborated by the available, preoperative, standard head CT scan, which can be performed in any hospital with CT scanning facilities, and CT angiogram. PMID:26884073

  8. An asymmetrical fenestration of the basilar artery coexisting with two aneurysms in a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; Majos, M; Topol, M; Majos, A

    2014-05-01

    The vertebrobasilar system is a part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis), which forms the collateral circulation of the brain. A 75-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to hospital because of a strong headache radiating to the neck. On the basis of a neurological examination, the patient was classified into group III of the Hunt and Hess scale. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of the cerebral arteries were diagnosed during multidetector 64-row computed tomography and angiography. An asymmetrical fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery was also observed. The bleeding aneurysm locating at anterior communicating artery was diagnosed and clipped surgically by right fronto-parietal craniotomy. The second aneurysm was located just after the junction of the vertebral arteries on the wall of the basilar artery. The presented case firstly illustrates the asymmetric fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery coexisting with subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of brain arteries. Such observation should increase diagnostic attention in the detection of possible associated aneurysms and can help in preventing complications during all endovascular treatment procedures. PMID:24902104

  9. Preventive effects of intracisternal alphatochopherol on cerebral vasospasm in experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kemaloglu, Serdar; Ozkan, Umit; Yilmaz, Fahri; Ak, Erdem; Acemoglu, Hamit; Olmez, Gonul; Simsek, Ramazan; Bakir, Abdurrahman

    2003-12-30

    Vasospasm is an important cause of morbidity and/or mortality with a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The roles of lipid peroxidation in a vasospasm caused by a SAH remain to be investigated. The effect of an intracisternal administration of alphatochopherol on a cerebral vasospasm was investigated in an experimental model. The authors assessed whether the administration of alphatochopherol reduced the vasospasm. By means of an intracisternal blood injection model, a SAH was induced in 30 rats, which were randomly divided into three groups, as follows: group I (G1), without a SAH and drug, group II (G2), a SAH alone, group III (G3), a SAH and alphatochopherol. Following the withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a fresh unheparinized arterial blood was injected into the cisterna magna to induce a SAH. In G3, 20 U (0.4ml) alphatochopherol was intracisternally injected forty-five hours after induction of the SAH. All rats were sacrificed 72 hours after the induction. The basilar artery, with surrounding tissue, was removed from the cranium. The cross-sectional diameter of the lumen and vessel wall of the rat basilar artery was assessed from a planimetric analysis, and changes compared with G1 and G2. The reduction in the luminal cross-sectional diameter of the vessels exposed to subarachnoid blood was found to be 29.01 % (p=0.001). The group treated with alphatochopherol had a 9% reduction (p=0.004). The role of lipid peroxidation on a vasospasm caused by SAH is well known to be critical. Data from the present study indicated that antioxidant therapy, with topical alphatochopherol, may be promising on a vasospasm caused by a SAH. PMID:14703601

  10. Focal subarachnoid haemorrhage mimicking transient ischaemic attack - do we really need MRI in the acute stage?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute non-traumatic focal subarachnoid haemorrhage (fSAH) is a rare transient ischaemic attack (TIA)-mimic. MRI is considered to be indispensable by some authors in order to avoid misdiagnosis, and subsequent improper therapy. We therefore evaluated the role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis of fSAH patients by comparing our cases to those from the literature. Methods From 01/2010 to 12/2012 we retrospectively identified seven patients with transient neurological episodes due to fSAH, who had received unenhanced thin-sliced multiplanar CT and subsequent MRI within 3days on a 1.5T scanner. MRI protocol included at least fast-field-echo (FFE), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and time-of-flight (TOF) MRA sequences. By using MRI as gold-standard, we re-evaluated images and data from recent publications regarding the sensitivity to detect fSAH in unenhanced CT. Results fSAH was detected by CT and by FFE and FLAIR on MRI in all of our own cases. However, DWI and T2w-spin-echo sequences revealed fSAH in 3 of 7 and 4 of 6 cases respectively. Vascular imaging was negative in all cases. FFE-MRI revealed additional multiple microbleeds and superficial siderosis in 4 of 7 patients and 5 of 7 patients respectively. Including data from recently published literature CT scans delivered positive results for fSAH in 95 of 100 cases (95%), whereas MRI was positive for fSAH in 69 of 69 cases (100%). Conclusions Thin-sliced unenhanced CT is a valuable emergency diagnostic tool to rule out intracranial haemorrhage including fSAH in patients with acute transient neurological episodes if immediate MRI is not available. However, MRI work-up is crucial and mandatorily has to be completed within the next 2472hours. PMID:24720867

  11. Recurrent non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in Takayasu arteritis: is the cause immunological or mechanical?

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Umar Ashfaq; Kate, Mahesh; Homik, Joanne; Jerrakathil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is rarely associated with Takayasu's arteritis (TA). The present report describes a 21-year-old woman with recurrent SAH and TA. In addition, she also had recurrent spells of postural weakness in the bilateral lower limb occurring at the same time. Sequential CT of the head and MRI showed bilateral cortical SAH. Vascular imaging with MR angiogram and CT angiogram showed bilateral subclavian arteries and left common carotid artery occlusion with multiple hypertrophied collaterals vessels in the neck. There was no evidence of aneurysms in the intracranial vasculature in the conventional angiogram. The CT angiogram of the aorta showed severe stenosis of the abdominal aorta above the renal arteries. The patient was treated with immunomodulatory therapy and had a favourable outcome without further recurrence at end of 1?year of follow-up. A review of the literature showed 21cases with aneurysmal SAH and three cases non-aneurysmal SAH in patients with TA have been reported. Various factors are responsible for the reorganisation of the intracranial of the arteries in patients with chronic vasculitis in the presence of extracranial stenosis and occlusion, which could possibly explain the SAH in absence of aneurysm in patients with TA. PMID:23771963

  12. The role of transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Deb, Smita; Gogos, Andrew J; Drummond, Katharine J; Teddy, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound monitoring of vasospasm on patient management following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) remains unclear. We reviewed our departmental use of TCD by retrospectively analysing 152 medical records. Results of investigations and management changes, including frequency of neurological monitoring and changes in triple H therapy, were examined. TCD monitoring occurred in 87 patients (57%) by untrained neurosurgical registrars. There was high variability in the number of operators for each patient (over 50% of patients had more than two different operators), insonation protocol and monitoring duration (at least 50% of patients were monitored for fewer than seven days). TCD results influenced management in only 18 (12%) patients, while clinical deterioration or improvement dictated more than 80% of changes in triple H therapy and neurological monitoring. Prospective validation in similar neurosurgical settings is needed to justify continued usage of TCD monitoring. Formal training for operators and a standard monitoring protocol should also be considered to increase TCD utility. Prospective evaluation of TCD at our centre has recently been completed. PMID:22281386

  13. Measurement of total circulating blood volume following subarachnoid haemorrhage: methodological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R J; Roberts, J; Ackery, D M; Pickard, J D

    1987-01-01

    The total circulating blood volume (TCBV) and total body/venous haematocrit ratio (Htb/Hv) was determined by simultaneous measurement of the red cell volume (RCV) and the plasma volume (PV) in 10 subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients, 10 supine bedresting control patients and 20 ambulant out-patients. The mean Htb/Hv of the SAH patients, 0.866, was found to be significantly lower than that of the supine controls, 0.908, and the ambulant patients, 0.909, (p less than 0.01). Using the ratio 0.866 the total circulating blood volume of the SAH patients was calculated from either their RCV or their PV and compared with their measured TCBV. Expressed as a percentage of measured TCBV the mean errors of these single volume determinations were 2.84% and 1.76% respectively. The significance of these changes in the Htb/Hv ratio of SAH patients is discussed in relation to the circulatory disturbances they suffer. PMID:3668563

  14. Cerebral fungal infection with mycotic aneurysm of basilar artery and subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, H; Ajmal, F; Saleem, M F; Sonawala, A B

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old Pakistani man was admitted with unresolved severe headaches for the past four weeks. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography showed an enhancing mass in the sphenoid sinus, bilateral cerebellar infarcts and aneurysmal dilatation of the basilar artery. The differential diagnosis included fungal infection versus neoplastic lesion. The scrappings taken through the endoscope from the sphenoid sinus were initially negative for fungal infection. However, the second biopsy, done after putting him on antifungal, itraconazole 200 mg twice daily, revealed the presence of a fungal infection (aspergillosis). MR imaging revealed extension of the fungal infection from the sphenoid sinus into the clivus, and then intracranially. Imaging also revealed aneurysmal dilatation of the basilar artery and infarctions in the cerebellum and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Despite aggressive antifungal treatment, the patient died after 29 days. This case report describes the probable mechanism of fungal mycotic aneurysmal vascular dilatation and growth. It also points to the need for a rapid diagnosis of potential cases and an aggressive treatment approach of confirmed cases of fungal infections of the central nervous system. PMID:19224064

  15. CallFleming syndrome associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage: three new cases

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, R R; Allen, C M C; Baron, J-C

    2009-01-01

    The CallFleming syndrome (CFS) comprises acute severe recurrent (thunderclap) headaches, occasional transient or fluctuating neurological abnormalities and reversible segmental cerebral vasoconstriction. It is a benign condition with an excellent prognosis, yet because it is often clinically and radiologically similar to a number of commonly encountered conditions, diagnostic difficulties may arise, leading to inappropriate, and even potentially harmful, investigative and therapeutic approaches. Three personal cases are presented to highlight the occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) as part of CFS. In two patients with a positive CT head, SAH involved the sulci in the upper cerebral convexity, an unusual location in aneurysmal SAH. SAH is not an uncommon feature of CFS, occurring in approximately 25% of reported cases, and may pose a diagnostic challenge. CFS has a relatively characteristic spectrum of features, allowing a confident diagnosis in most cases, even when atypical features such as SAH are present. Recognising the spectrum of abnormalities seen in CFS, including particularly SAH, allows a sound approach to a safe diagnosis. PMID:21686521

  16. Investigation of nimodipine pharmacokinetics in Chinese patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Kou, M; Yu, Y L; Fong, K Y; Fung, C F; Chang, C M; Mck, W; Lauder, I J

    1993-01-01

    Nimodipine pharmacokinetics was investigated in 12 Chinese patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage receiving an IV infusion of 1.6 or 2 mg/h (based on estimated body weight) for 10 days. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected for up to 4 days and plasma nimodipine was assayed by GC/ECD. The mean value was taken as the steady state concentration (Css) and Clearance (CL) (hourly dose/Css) was calculated. Eight survivors were given oral nimodipine (60 or 90 mg) every 6h (based on body weight), blood was sampled over 6 h and the plasma nimodipine level determined. The values for Css, CL and CL.kg-1 were 33.5 micrograms.l-1, 58 l.h-1 and 1.0 l.h-1 x kg-1 respectively; in survivors receiving the drug orally, bioavailability of the 30 mg tablet was 9%. In one very sick patient given crushed tablets by naso-gastric tube, the AUC was very low; in vitro studies indicated that adsorption of nimodipine by the tubing was unlikely to have been the cause. The pharmacokinetic findings in Chinese patients are comparable to previously reported values in Caucasians. PMID:8299671

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in an elderly woman with a missed diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Odubanjo, M O; Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A; Ekwere, T E; Awelimobor, D I

    2013-09-01

    This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification. Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation. We highlight the pertinent details in our patient's management that could have helped to prevent a missed diagnosis of SAH. Even though SAH occurs most commonly following head trauma, the more familiar medical use of SAH is for non-traumatic SAH occurring following a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This patient had notable risk factors for cerebral aneurysm formation but an aneurysm was not identified at autopsy. The location of the blood high on the cerebral convexities further suggests a traumatic origin rather than a ruptured aneurysm. Heterotopic calcification and ossification (HO) is known to occur in the setting of severe neurologic disorders such as traumatic brain injury but the fact that the lung calcification in our patient predated the brain injury by over 10 years makes it unlikely for the HO to have been due to the brain trauma. Other organ pathologies found at autopsy include chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal papillary necrosis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, and seborrheic keratosis. PMID:24391231

  18. Antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage risk. A nationwide case-control study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Pottegård, Anton; García Rodríguez, Luis Alberto; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Hallas, Jesper; Gaist, David

    2015-11-01

    The study objective was to investigate the relationship between use of antithrombotic drugs and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We identified patients discharged from Danish neurosurgery units with a first-ever SAH diagnosis in 2000 to 2012 (n=5,834). For each case, we selected 40 age-, sex- and period-matched population controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (aOR), adjusted for comorbidity, education level, and income. Low-dose aspirin (ASA) use for < 1 month was associated with an increased risk of SAH (aOR 1.75, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.40). This aOR decreased to 1.26 (95 %CI: 0.98-1.63) with 2-3 months of ASA use, and approached unity with use for more than three months (1.11, 95 %CI 0.97-1.27). Analyses with first-time users confirmed this pattern, which was also observed for clopidogrel. ASA treatment for three or more years was associated with an aOR of SAH of 1.13 (95 %CI: 0.86-1.49). Short-term use (< 1 month) of vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) yielded an aOR of 1.85 (95 %CI 0.97-3.51) which dropped after 3+ years to 1.24, 95 %CI: 0.86-1.77. The risk of SAH was higher in subjects in dual antithrombotic treatment (aOR 2.08, 95 %CI: 1.26-3.44), and in triple antithrombotic treatment (aOR 5.74, 95 %CI: 1.76-18.77). In conclusion, use of aspirin,clopidogrel and VKA were only associated with an increased risk of SAH in the first three months after starting treatment. Long-term aspirin use carried no reduced SAH risk. Results should be interpreted cautiously due to their observational nature. PMID:26202836

  19. The 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist ketanserin inhibits the vasoconstrictor activity of per-operative CSF, from subarachnoid haemorrhage patients, on isolated tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tagari, P C; Kaye, A H; Teddy, P J; Schachter, M; Adams, C B; Boullin, D J

    1983-01-01

    Peri-aneurysmal CSF was obtained at operation from 13 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist ketanserin inhibited contractions of isolated human intracranial arteries, elicited by this CSF. The presence of 5-HT in CSF was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. The use of ketanserin in the therapy of postoperative cerebral vasospasm is discussed. PMID:6188804

  20. Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage from rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a patient with pituitary macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Almeida Silva, J M; Campos, R R; Souza, R R; Sette Dos Santos, M E; Aguiar, G B

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a cerebral aneurysm in patients with pituitary adenoma is a rare event. Diagnostic suspicion may stem from magnetic resonance imaging, which should lead to complementary investigation. As for treatment, even in conditions in which there has been no previous bleeding, the simultaneous approach should be considered, prioritising the aneurysm most of the time. The present report describes the case of a patient with a history of pituitary macroadenoma, who had undergone a partial transsphenoidal resection ten years earlier. Admission to our service occurred after a sudden headache followed by mental confusion. A cranial computed tomography showed subarachnoid haemorrhage and expansive suprasellar lesion. Cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm of the anterior communicating complex. The patient underwent a surgical procedure for microsurgical clipping of the aneurysm and partial resection of the pituitary tumour. We have also included a brief review of the literature on this subject. PMID:23845268

  1. Finding out if "The 'me' will shut down": successful cognitive-behavioural therapy of seizure-related panic symptoms following subarachnoid haemorrhage: a single case report.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Fergus; Oldham, Paul; Kritzinger, Rudi

    2007-01-01

    Successful cognitive and behavioural therapies for anxiety disorders in separate cases of acquired brain injury and seizure disorder have been reported although evidence of efficacy is limited. This paper describes the presentation and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) of seizure-related panic symptoms in the context of subarachnoid haemorrhage and cavernoma. Multidisciplinary clinical assessment was conducted and 12 sessions of CBT according to the model of Clark (1986) were delivered. Outcome was measured in terms of goal attainment, belief ratings of target cognitions and completion of standardised questionnaire measures pre and post-treatment. Process was measured through client's ratings of anxiety-related beliefs through treatment. The client attained all goals, eliminated avoidance and other unhelpful coping behaviour, and rated reduced levels of anxiety on a standardised measure. Changes in identified target cognitions were also evident. It is concluded that a cognitive-behavioural approach may be helpful in understanding and treating anxiety disorders where symptom presentation is complicated by neurological problems. Further investigation of the relationship between development of anxiety disorders, occurrence of neurological events, and processes of CBT following acquired brain injury is suggested. PMID:17178607

  2. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is beneficial after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rat by blocking haem-driven inflammatory pathology

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Andrew D.; Brough, David; Robinson, Emily M.; Girard, Sylvie; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Allan, Stuart M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a major contributor to the burden of stroke on society. Treatment options are limited and animal models of SAH do not always mimic key pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering development of new therapeutics. Inflammation is strongly associated with brain injury after SAH in animals and patients, and inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) represents a possible therapeutic target. Here we report that a rupture of the middle cerebral artery in the rat produces heterogeneous infarct patterns similar to those observed in human SAH. Administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) reduced blood-brain barrier breakdown, and the extent of breakdown correlated with brain injury. After SAH, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was strongly expressed around the bleed site and in the cortex and striatum, indicating the presence of free haem, a breakdown product of haemoglobin. HO-1 expression was also found in the same regions as microglial/macrophage expression of IL-1?. The direct effect of haem on IL-1? expression was confirmed in vitro using organotypic slice culture (OSC). Haem-induced cell death was dependent on IL-1 signalling, with IL-1Ra completely blocking cellular injury. Furthermore, stimulation of mouse primary mixed glial cells with haem induced the release of IL-1?, but not IL-1?. Thus, we suggest that haem, released from lysed red blood cells (RBCs) in the subarachnoid space, acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) driving IL-1-dependent inflammation. These data provide new insights into inflammation after SAH-induced brain injury and suggest IL-1Ra as a candidate therapeutic for the disease. PMID:22679224

  3. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%). Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65), with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64). Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681 PMID:20920243

  4. The effect of formal training on the clinical utility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M Rasin; Deb, Smita; Mitchell, Ruth A; Teddy, Peter J; Drummond, Katharine J

    2012-09-01

    We have previously shown that the clinical utility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound monitoring for vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, as performed by untrained operators in a busy neurosurgical unit, is questionable, despite the recommendations for its use in the literature. We determined if formal training improved the utility of TCD. Twelve untrained operators and one trained operator performed a total of 206 TCD examinations. There was poor agreement of results between trained and untrained operators. For the left middle cerebral artery (MCA), right MCA, left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and right ACA, the blood flow velocities (BFV) recorded by the trained operator were greater than those recorded by the untrained operators by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 27.7 (25.0-30.4), 24.3 (21.4-27.1), 28.2 (25.6-30.9) and 28.1 (24.9-31.1) cm/s, respectively (p<0.001 for all vessels). Greater sensitivity was observed in TCD measurements from the trained operator (100%) compared to untrained operators (40%). To improve the utility of TCD, operators should be provided with training or a professional sonographer employed. PMID:22727749

  5. Predictive model for patients with poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage in 30-day observation: a 9-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Szklener, Sebastian; Melges, Anna; Korchut, Agnieszka; Zaluska, Wojciech; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Rejdak, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors and build the predictive model based on poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) population received only supportive symptomatic treatment. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Intensive care unit at the Clinical Department of Neurology. Participants A total of 101 patients with spontaneous SAH disqualified from neurosurgical operative treatment due to poor clinical condition. Data were collected over a 9-year period. Outcome measures Unfavourable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Score ?5 at 30?days of observation. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale score, increasing age, Fisher grade and admission leucocytosis as independent predictive factors. The proposed scale subdivides the study population into four prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes: grade I: probability of favourable outcome 89.9%; grade II: 47.5%; grade III: 4.2%; grade IV: 0%. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the prediction of outcome performed by the new scale had an area under the curve (AUC)=0.910 (excellent accuracy). Conclusions Unfavourable outcome in non-operated patients with poor-grade SAH is strongly predicted by traditional unmodifiable factors such as age, amount of bleeding in CT, level of consciousness as well as leucocytosis. A new predictive scale based on the above parameters seems to reliably predict the outcome and may contribute to more effective planning of therapeutic management in patients with poor-grade SAH. PMID:26070797

  6. Benefit of cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in the assessment of CT scan negative suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Hann, Angus; Chu, Kevin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Williams, Julian; Brown, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if performing cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in addition to visual inspection detects more ruptured cerebral aneurysms than performing cerebrospinal fluid visual inspection alone in patients with a normal head CT scan but suspected of suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We performed a single-centre retrospective study of patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital who underwent both head CT scan and lumbar puncture to exclude SAH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an approach utilising both spectrophotometry and visual inspection (combined approach) was compared to visual inspection alone. A total of 409 patients (mean age 37.8 years, 56.2% female) were recruited and six (1.5%) had a cerebral aneurysm on angiography. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.4-82.6%), specificity was 99% (95% CI: 97.5-99.7%), PPV was 42.9% (95% CI: 10.4-81.3%) and NPV was 99.2% (95% CI: 97.8-99.8%). The combined approach had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 54.1-100%), specificity of 79.7% (95% CI: 75.4-83.5%), PPV of 6.8% (95% CI: 2.6-14.3%) and a NPV of 100% (95% CI: 98.8-100%). The sensitivity of the combined approach was not significantly different to that of visual inspection alone (p=0.25). Visual inspection had a significantly higher specificity than the combined approach (p<0.01). The combined approach detected more cases of aneurysmal SAH than visual inspection alone, however the difference in sensitivity was not statistically significant. Visual xanthochromia should prompt angiography because of a superior specificity and PPV. Due to its reduced sensitivity, caution should be applied when using only visual inspection of the supernatant. PMID:25439758

  7. Topiramate attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats via duplex protection against inflammation and neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Guo, Song-Xue; Li, Jian-Ru; Du, Hang-Gen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun

    2015-10-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) ?1, GABAAR ?2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. PMID:26086367

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  9. Pharmacokinetic modelling of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Clark, Simon R; McMahon, Catherine J; Scarth, Sylvia; Rothwell, Nancy J; Tyrell, Pippa J; Hopkins, Stephen J; Rowland, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Aim The naturally occurring interlukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) markedly protects rodents against ischaemic, excitotoxic and traumatic brain injury, suggesting it may be of therapeutic value. The aim was to determine the pharmacokinetics of IL-1RA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, to allow modelling that would aid development of therapeutic regimens. Methods When administered intravenously to patients soon after stroke, IL-1RA is safe and reduces the peripheral inflammatory response. However, IL-1RA is a large protein (17 kDa), which may limit brain penetration, thereby limiting its potential utility in brain injury. In seven patients with subarchnoid haemorrhage (SAH), IL-1RA was administered by intravenous bolus, then infusion for 24 h, and both blood and CSF, via external ventricular drains, were sampled during and after stopping the infusion. Results Plasma steady-state concentrations were rapidly attained and maintained throughout the infusion, whereas CSF concentrations rose slowly towards a plateau during the 24-h infusion, reaching at best only 4% of that in plasma. Plasma kinetic parameters were within the literature range. Modelling of the combined data yielded rate constants entering and leaving the CSF of 0.0019 h?1[relative standard error (RSE) = 19%] and 0.1 h?1 (RSE = 19%), respectively. Conclusions Peripherally administered IL-1RA crosses slowly into and out of the CSF of patients with SAH. However, there is a large concentration gradient of IL-1RA between plasma and CSF. These CSF:plasma data are consistent with very low permeation of IL-1RA into the CSF and elimination kinetics from it controlled by the volumetric turnover of CSF. What is already known about this subject? The naturally occurring interlukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) markedly protects rodents against ischaemic, excitotoxic and traumatic brain injury, suggesting it may be of therapeutic value.When administered intravenously to patients soon after stroke, IL-1RA is safe and reduces the peripheral inflammatory response.However, IL-1RA is a large protein (17 kDa), which may limit brain penetration, thereby limiting its potential utility in brain injury. What this study adds The purpose of these experiments was to determine the pharmacokinetics of IL-1RA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, to allow modelling that would aid development of therapeutic regimens.Peripherally administered IL-1RA crosses slowly into and out of the CSF of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and, at steady state, CSF IL-1RA concentration (range 115886 ng ml?1) was similar to that found to be neuroprotective in rats (range 91232 ng ml?1), although there was considerable variability among patients.However, there is a large concentration gradient of IL-1RA between plasma and CSF.These CSF:plasma data are consistent with very low permeation of IL-1RA into the CSF and elimination kinetics from it controlled by the volumetric turnover of CSF. PMID:17875190

  10. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may need more imaging tests. Treatment for coma or decreased alertness includes: Draining tube placed in ... subarachnoid hemorrhage may become worse and lead to coma or death. Other complications include: Complications of surgery ...

  11. The Effect of Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis on the Vasospasm and Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Patients Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hatefi, Masoud; Azhary, Shirzad; Naebaghaee, Hussein; Mohamadi, Hasan Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: SAH (Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage) is a life threatening that is associated with complications such as vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of FLT (Fenestration of Lamina Terminalis) on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in ACoA (Anterior Communicating Artery) aneurismal in SAH. Materials and Methods: The data of 50 ruptured ACoA aneurism patients were selected during the year 2001-2009 admitted to Imam Hussein hospital, Tehran, IR. In a randomized double-blind trial patients assigned in two group {with fenestration (FLT, n=25), without fenestration (No FLT, n=25)}. All patients underwent craniotomy by a single neurosurgeon. Patients age, sex, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, vasospasm, presence of hydrocephalus and incidences of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were compared between groups. Results: There were no significant differences among groups in relation to demographic characteristics, neurological scale scores (Hunt-Hess grade) and the severity of the SAH (Fisher grade) (p>0.05). The rate of hydrocephalus on admission, were 24% and 16% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). The shunt placement postoperatively in FLT and no FLT group were 16% and 12% respectively (p>0.05). The clinical vasospasm was 20% and 24% in FLT and no FLT group respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: Despite FLT can be a safe method there were not significant differences of FLT on the incidence of vasospasm and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. A systematic evaluation with multisurgeon, multicentre and with greater sample size to disclose reality is suggested. PMID:26393164

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by diffuse alveolar haemorrhage: risk factors, therapy and survival

    PubMed Central

    Kazzaz, Nayef M; Coit, Patrick; Lewis, Emily E; McCune, W Joseph; Sawalha, Amr H; Knight, Jason S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is recognised as a life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), little is known about its risk factors and response to treatment. We describe 22 cases of DAH in a US lupus cohort of approximately 1000 patients, and compare them to 66 controls from the same outpatient cohort. Methods We captured variables pertaining to diagnoses of SLE and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), and analysed them by univariate testing. Those variables with p values <0.05 were then further considered in a multivariate model. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for each group, and survival was analysed by Log-rank test. Results Of the 22 patients with DAH, 59% were diagnosed with DAH within 5?years of lupus diagnosis. By univariate testing, several manifestations of SLE and APS were more common in patients with DAH, including history of thrombocytopenia, cardiac valve disease, low C3, leucopenia, neuropsychiatric features, haemolysis, arterial thrombosis, lupus anticoagulant, secondary APS and low C4. On multivariate analysis, history of thrombocytopenia and low C3 were maintained as independent risk factors. Importantly, only two patients had platelet counts <50?000/L at the time of the DAH episode, arguing that DAH was not simply a haemorrhagic complication of thrombocytopenia. All patients were treated with increased immunosuppression, including various combinations of corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil. Notably, all patients in the cohort survived their initial episode of DAH. While the patients with DAH did well in the short-term, their long-term survival was significantly worse than controls. Several of the deaths were attributable to thrombotic complications after recovering from DAH. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest casecontrol study of lupus DAH to date. History of thrombocytopenia was strongly predictive of DAH (OR ?40). A number of APS manifestations correlated with DAH by univariate analysis, and deserve further consideration in larger studies. PMID:26430514

  13. Heart Rate Variability for Preclinical Detection of Secondary Complications after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J. Michael; Sow, Daby; Crimmins, Michael; Albers, David; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E. Sander; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Hripcsak, George; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine if monitoring heart rate variability (HRV) would enable preclinical detection of secondary complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods We studied 236 SAH patients admitted within the first 48 hours of bleed onset, discharged after SAH day 5, and had continuous electrocardiogram records available. The diagnosis and date of onset of infections and DCI events were prospectively adjudicated and documented by the clinical team. Continuous ECG was collected at 240 Hz using a high-resolution data acquisition system. The Tompkins Hamilton algorithm was used to identify R-R intervals excluding ectopic and abnormal beats. Time, frequency, and regularity domain calculations of HRV were generated over the first 48 hours of ICU admission and 24 hours prior to the onset of each patient's first complication, or SAH day 6 for control patients. Clinical prediction rules to identify infection and DCI events were developed using bootstrap aggregation and cost sensitive meta-classifiers. Results The combined infection and DCI model predicted events 24 hours prior to clinical onset with high sensitivity (87%) and moderate specificity (66%), and was more sensitive than models that predicted either infection or DCI. Models including clinical and HRV variables together substantially improved diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.83) compared to models with only HRV variables (AUC 0.61). Conclusions Changes in HRV after SAH reflect both delayed ischemic and infectious complications. Incorporation of concurrent disease severity measures substantially improves prediction compared to using HRV alone. Further research is needed to refine and prospectively evaluate real-time bedside HRV monitoring after SAH. PMID:24610353

  14. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Chisho; Satoh, Noriyuki; Sugawara, Shinichi; Kuriyama, Chizuko; Kikuchi, Akio; Ohta, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman was admitted because of a high fever, right ptosis, chemosis, proptosis and ocular muscle palsy. Cranial MRI revealed a cavernous sinus thrombosis and a subarachnoid abscess. Carotid angio-gram demonstrated marked stenosis as well as aneurismal formation of the right internal carotid artery at the intracavernous portion. Chest radiograph showed bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules, some of which contained a cavity. Blood culture was positive for Streptococcus constellatus. She was diagnosed with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli. She recovered with partial ocular sequelae as a result of seven weeks of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. PMID:17380002

  15. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated with different manifestations of transient abnormal left ventricular wall motion: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Fumitaka; Tsuzuki, Takashi; Thoma, Yoshiki; Shiono, Shigeru; Tabuse, Hisayuki; Hoshida, Thoru; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2006-05-01

    Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient abnormal left ventricular wall motion. Case 1 was a 56-year-old man. Electrocardiography showed ST segment elevation in leads I, II, II, aVL, aVF, V3-V6. Echocardiography showed localized left ventricular hypokinesis around the apical area (takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy). Ejection fraction was 20% (1st hospital day). Troponin T was positive. Case 2 was a 48-year-old woman. Electrocardiography showed ST segment elevation in leads I, aVL, V2-V6 and ST segment depression in leads II, III, aVF, V1. Echocardiography showed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis. Ejection fraction was 21% (1st hospital day). Troponin T was positive. These two patients had no history of cardiac disease, and coronary angiography showed no stenosis or obstruction. Catecholamine was given for 1 day(Case 1) and for about 2 weeks (Case 2). Pimobendane was given to Case 2. Ejection fraction was 57% in Case 1 (2nd hospital day) and 33% (6th hospital day), 43% (7th hospital day)and 58% (16th hospital day)in Case 2. The recovery period of left ventricular abnormal wall motion and the medication period were longer in Case 2 showing diffuse hypokinesis than in Case 1 showing takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. PMID:16764331

  16. Postpartum Pyomyoma, a Rare Complication of Sepsis Associated with Chorioamnionitis and Massive Postpartum Haemorrhage Treated with an Intrauterine Balloon

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Mandeep; Gailer, Ruth; Iskaros, Joseph; David, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of a postpartum pyomyoma, a rare but serious complication of uterine leiomyomata in a 28-year-old primigravida. The patient was treated for an Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) at 16 weeks of gestation. She had asymptomatic short cervical length on ultrasound scan at 20 weeks that was managed conservatively due to the presence of further UTI and received antibiotics. She was known to have a left sided intramural leiomyoma. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 23+1 weeks of gestation and the next day she had spontaneous vaginal delivery and collapsed with E. Coli septic shock, massive postpartum haemorrhage, and disseminated intravascular coagulation and was successfully treated with oxytocic drugs, a Rusch intrauterine balloon, and intravenous antibiotics. Eleven days postnatally she re-presented with systemic sepsis and was treated for retained products of conception. Sepsis persisted and investigations showed a postpartum pyomyoma that was initially managed with intravenous antibiotics to avoid surgery. Ultimately she required laparotomy, drainage of pyomyoma, and myomectomy. Postoperative recovery was good and the patient had a successful pregnancy two years later. PMID:26199774

  17. Flight-related complications are infrequent in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia/pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, despite low oxygen saturations and anaemia.

    PubMed

    Mason, Christopher G; Shovlin, Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) commonly have low oxygen saturations and anaemia, two parameters generally used to indicate medical fitness to fly. Using a retrospective questionnaire-based study, the authors examined in-flight complications and predictors in 145 HHT patients (96 with PAVMs) who reported 3950 flights, totalling 18?943 flight hours. Dyspnoea and thrombotic complications were less common than expected, and could not be predicted from sea level oxygen saturations or haemoglobin concentrations. Nosebleeds that can bar individuals from boarding a flight occurred in 13.6% (11.5% to 15.8%) of long-haul flights. The findings should influence preflight advice. PMID:21953065

  18. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign-Up Contact Us Understanding Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage ...

  19. The dilemma of complicated shunt valves: How to identify patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage who will benefit from a simple valve?

    PubMed Central

    von der Brelie, Christian; Meier, Ullrich; Grwe, Alexander; Lemcke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sophisticated shunt valves provide the possibility of pressure adjustment and antisiphon control but have a higher probability of valve dysfunction especially in a posthemorrhagic setting. The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinical outcome of patients with shunt dependent posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to identify patients who would benefit from a simple differential pressure valve. Methods: From 2000 to 2013, 547 patients with aneurysmatic SAH were treated at our institution, 114 underwent ventricular shunt placement (21.1%). 47 patients with available pre- and post-operative computed tomography scans, and an available follow-up of minimum 6 months were included. In order to measure the survival time which a nonprogrammable differential pressure valve would have had in an individual patient we defined the initial equalized shunt survival time (IESS). IESS is the time until surgical revisions of fixed differential pressure or flow-regulated valves for the treatment of over- or under-drainage as well as re-programming of adjustable valves due to over- or under-drainage. Results: Twenty patients were treated with fixed differential pressure valves, 15 patients were treated with flow-regulated valves, and 12 underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement with differential pressure valves assisted by a gravitational unit. Patients who reacted with remarkable changes of the ventricular width after the insertion of external ventricular drainage (EVD), before shunt placement, showed a significantly longer IESS. Conclusions: Decline of the ventricular width after EVD placement was a predictor for successful VP shunt therapy in the later course of disease. Possibly, this could allow identifying patients who benefit from a simple differential pressure valve or a flow-regulated valve, and thus could possibly avoid valve-associated complications of a programmable valve in the later course of disease. PMID:26933344

  20. Blindness following gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mofredj, A; Curan, D; d'Arondel, C; Laribi, K; Coutarel, P; Cassaz, C; Devergie, B; Cadranel, J F

    2000-12-01

    Loss of vision is a rare but well known complication of distant and recurrent haemorrhage. It shares a poor prognosis, with only 10-14% of cases likely to make a complete recovery. Visual symptoms, due to ischaemic anterior optic neuropathy, vary from blurred vision to complete loss of vision in one or both eyes. The pathogenesis of such ischaemia remains unclear. Gastrointestinal bleeding seems to be the leading cause of loss of vision secondary to haemorrhage. However, complete and permanent blindness following gastrointestinal bleeding has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 51 -year-old woman who complained of complete blindness following blood loss, secondary to peptic ulcer, and discuss the pathogenesis of such a complication. PMID:11192325

  1. Rivaroxaban and retropharyngeal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Jonathan Andrew; Bell, Philip Robert; McCadden, Luke; Scally, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Haemorrhage is a well-known and accepted complication of anticoagulation. A retropharyngeal haemorrhage (RH) is a rare condition that without prompt recognition and management may result in fatal complications. We report a case of RH in a 67-year-old man anticoagulated with rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation. The patient presented to the emergency department, with a two-day history of atraumatic right-sided neck swelling and associated progressive odynophagia, dysphagia and dysphonia. Rivaroxaban is a potent new oral anticoagulant that has been approved for use by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) but still has no approved reversal agent. Despite its rarity, an RH is a potentially life threatening complication of anticoagulation that must be carefully considered. This is especially true for a drug that cannot be easily reversed. We present a discussion of this case presentation with possible differential diagnoses and a review of the literature, and recommend the use of Capp's triad as a diagnostic criterion. PMID:26884072

  2. Pharmacologic management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Quandt, C M; de los Reyes, R A; Diaz, F G; Ausman, J I

    1982-12-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage, following rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, affects about 25 000 people in the U.S. each year. Less than half the patients who survive until hospital admission have an overall favorable outcome. This high morbidity and mortality rate is a result of serious complications following the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most significant of these being rebleeding and cerebral ischemia secondary to vasospasm. While surgical clipping of the aneurysm is the most definitive therapy, this procedure may be postponed for a week or two after the initial hemorrhage, depending on the patient's clinical condition. Pharmacological therapy is a critical part of the preoperative care of these patients and of the postoperative management of complications. This article discusses the syndromes of rebleeding and vasospasm and reviews the current pharmacologic therapy for each. PMID:6129959

  3. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Tushar B.; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with the support of a stick for the last 3 months and suffered from constipation and intermittent urinary retention for the past 1 week. The patient had a history of swelling in the back of left thigh for which surgical resection was done 6 months back. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes all over the body, along with many caf-au-lait spots and Lisch nodule in iris. Patient had weakness in bilateral hip abduction, extension, knee flexion, extension and ankle dorsiflexion and plantiflexion. Bilateral ankle reflexes were absent while other deep tendon reflexes were sub-optimal. A noncontrast computed tomography brain indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage in left perisylvian region. Ultrasound of left thigh showed a hypoechoic solid lesion in the posterior aspect of left thigh in muscle plane. Histopathology of the lesion following resection showed features suggestive of a low-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Histology of cutaneous nodules was consistent with neurofibroma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated a tumor arising from cauda equina. Histopathological examination of the tumor suggested high-grade MPNST. Unfortunately, the patient's MPNST was inoperable, and he received palliative radiotherapy for local control of the disease. The care of a patient with neurofibromatosis requires a comprehensive multisystem evaluation. MPNST occurs in 8-13% patients with neurofibromatosis. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are key to prolong survival. Though rare, rhabdomyosarcoma can occur with a higher frequency in NF1, necessitating through clinical investigation. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can occur due to aneurismal rupture or vascular friability in NF1 patients. PMID:26283846

  4. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Tushar B; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with the support of a stick for the last 3 months and suffered from constipation and intermittent urinary retention for the past 1 week. The patient had a history of swelling in the back of left thigh for which surgical resection was done 6 months back. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes all over the body, along with many caf-au-lait spots and Lisch nodule in iris. Patient had weakness in bilateral hip abduction, extension, knee flexion, extension and ankle dorsiflexion and plantiflexion. Bilateral ankle reflexes were absent while other deep tendon reflexes were sub-optimal. A noncontrast computed tomography brain indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage in left perisylvian region. Ultrasound of left thigh showed a hypoechoic solid lesion in the posterior aspect of left thigh in muscle plane. Histopathology of the lesion following resection showed features suggestive of a low-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Histology of cutaneous nodules was consistent with neurofibroma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated a tumor arising from cauda equina. Histopathological examination of the tumor suggested high-grade MPNST. Unfortunately, the patient's MPNST was inoperable, and he received palliative radiotherapy for local control of the disease. The care of a patient with neurofibromatosis requires a comprehensive multisystem evaluation. MPNST occurs in 8-13% patients with neurofibromatosis. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are key to prolong survival. Though rare, rhabdomyosarcoma can occur with a higher frequency in NF1, necessitating through clinical investigation. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can occur due to aneurismal rupture or vascular friability in NF1 patients. PMID:26283846

  5. The link between intracranial haemorrhage and cardiogenic shock: a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Caretta, Giorgio; Vizzardi, Enrico; Rovetta, Riccardo; Evaristi, Laura; Quinzani, Filippo; Raddino, Riccardo; Dei Cas, Livio

    2012-06-01

    Myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently during subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and it is often referred to as neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), which can lead to life-threatening acute heart failure, has been considered a possible complication of SAH. Actually, NSM and TTC are believed to share the same pathophysiological mechanisms and are likely a manifestation of the same disease. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with SAH and cardiogenic shock due to acute left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography and ventriculography showed the typical pattern of TTC. Angiography excluded coronary artery disease or coronary spasm. Short-term inotropic support was necessary. Rapid recovery of left ventricular function was observed after 8 days. Acute myocardial dysfunction due to TTC in the setting of SAH may lead to cardiogenic shock which is difficult to treat. Patients with SAH and haemodynamic instability warrant a careful assessment of ventricular function on admission to rule out TTC PMID:22870749

  6. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with neurocardiogenic stunning.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jason J; Vanhecke, Thomas E; McCullough, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    A well-recognized complication of acute neurologic injury from intracranial bleeding is cardiotoxicity with electrocardiographic changes and transient left ventricular dysfunction. The phenomenon, called neurocardiogenic stunning (NCS), occurs in 20% to 30% cases of patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this article, we describe a patient with acute SAH complicated by NCS and use this case to highlight the pathogenesis, diagnostic challenges, and management dilemmas that arise in such patients. We also review conventional surgical and medical treatment and present new therapeutic options for this problem. PMID:21389917

  7. Viral haemorrhagic fevers of man*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D. I. H.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases. PMID:310725

  8. Viral haemorrhagic fevers of man.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D I

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the viral haemorrhagic fevers that infect man, namely smallpox, chikungunya fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, Crimean haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Argentinian haemorrhagic fever (Junin virus), Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (Machupo virus), Lassa fever, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and Marburg and Ebola virus diseases. PMID:310725

  9. Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

  10. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is usually applied to disease caused by Arenaviridae (Lassa fever, Junin and Machupo), Bunyaviridae (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, ... fever Dengue and severe dengue Ebola virus disease Lassa fever Marburg haemorrhagic fever Rift Valley fever Multimedia, features ...

  11. Spontaneously reported haemorrhagic adverse events associated with rivaroxaban and dabigatran in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Esa Y. H.; Diug, Basia; Bell, J. Simon; Mc Namara, Kevin P.; Dooley, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, Carl M.; McNeil, John J.; Caughey, Gillian E.; Ilomäki, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to describe spontaneously reported haemorrhagic adverse events associated with rivaroxaban and dabigatran in Australia. Methods: Data were sourced from the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Database of Adverse Event Notifications between June 2009 and May 2014. Records of haemorrhagic adverse events in which rivaroxaban or dabigatran was considered as a potential cause were analysed. Results: There were 240 haemorrhagic adverse events associated with rivaroxaban and 504 associated with dabigatran. Age was specified for 164 (68%) haemorrhages associated with rivaroxaban, of which 101 occurred in people aged ⩾75 years. Age was specified for 437 (87%) haemorrhages associated with dabigatran, of which 300 occurred in people aged ⩾75 years. Time from treatment initiation to haemorrhage was specified for 122 (51%) haemorrhages associated with rivaroxaban, with 69 (57%) haemorrhages occurring within 30 days of rivaroxaban initiation. Time from treatment initiation to haemorrhage was specified for 253 (50%) haemorrhages associated with dabigatran, with 123 (49%) haemorrhages occurring within 30 days of dabigatran initiation. Gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhages were the most frequent type of haemorrhages associated with both rivaroxaban (n = 105, 44%) and dabigatran (n = 302, 60%). Data were available on the severity of haemorrhage for 101 (42%) haemorrhages associated with rivaroxaban, with haemorrhage leading to death in 17 people. The severity of haemorrhage was specified for 384 (76%) haemorrhages associated with dabigatran, with haemorrhage leading to death in 61 people. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for research on the haemorrhagic complications of anticoagulation in clinical care. A considerable proportion of reported haemorrhagic events occurred within 30 days of rivaroxaban and dabigatran initiation. This highlights the importance of considering bleeding risk at the time of treatment initiation. PMID:26834958

  12. [Viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Masuda, G

    1997-08-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fever denotes various kinds of febrile illness caused by certain viruses which often presents with bleeding tendency and occasionally shock. Out of these, the four maladies, Lassa fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever which are endemically present in Africa or eastern Europe, are known to be such diseases with high man-to-man communicability. These four haemorrhagic fevers are, therefore, designated as special conditions requiring isolation during the period when the infected patients are shedding the viruses, not only in Japan but also in many other countries. We have so far only one such case of Lassa fever who returned to Japan from Sierra Leone in 1987. Some haemorrhagic fevers including dengue (haemorrhagic) fever and hantavirus infections (e.g. haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) are not known to be man-to-man transmissible and requiring no isolation. We have a number of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers here in Japan today among imported febrile cases from tropical or subtropical countries. Every physician should take viral haemorrhagic fevers into consideration as one of the possibilities in diagnosing patients returning from overseas travel. PMID:9283226

  13. Management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Diringer, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a complex multifaceted disorder that plays out over days to weeks. Many SAH patients are seriously ill and require a prolonged ICU stay. Cardiopulmonary complications are common. The management of SAH patients focuses on the anticipation, prevention and management of these secondary complications. Data Sources Source data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature. Data Synthesis and Conclusion The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a sudden devastating event with immediate neurologic and cardiac consequences that require stabilization to allow for early diagnostic angiography. Early complications include rebleeding, hydrocephalus, and seizures. Early repair of the aneurysm (within 1-3 days) should take place by surgical or endovascular means. Over the first 1-2 weeks after hemorrhage, patients are at risk for delayed ischemic deficits due to vasospasm, autoregulatory failure and intravascular volume contraction. Delayed ischemia is treated with combinations of volume expansion, induced hypertension, augmentation of cardiac output, angioplasty and intra-arterial vasodilators. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a complex disease with a prolonged course that can be particularly challenging and rewarding to the intensivist. PMID:19114880

  14. Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious non contagious viral disease transmitted by insects of the genus Culicoides which affects wild and domestic ruminants. The causative agent, the epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus and sha...

  15. Subconjunctival haemorrhage from bronchoscopy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Huey Ying; Puah, Ser Hon; Ang, Leslie Jonathan P.S.; Teo, En Qi; Lau, Sabrina Y.; Goh, Kee San; Lim, Albert Y.H.; Tai, Dessmon Y.H.; Abisheganaden, John; Verma, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has been available for almost five decades. It has evolved as one of the most commonly used invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in pulmonology, and its scope of applications is progressively expanding with the addition of new adjunct technologies such as endobronchial ultrasound, bronchial Thermoplasty, and navigational bronchoscopy. It is a safe procedure with complications ranging from fever, infiltrates, hypoxemia, bleeding, pneumothoraces and death, with most significant complications being bleeding and pneumothorax. We report a case of subconjuctival haemorrhage as an immediate complication of bronchoscopy. To our knowledge this is the first report documenting this rare complication.

  16. Thalamic haemorrhage vs internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage: clinical profile and predictors of in-hospital mortality

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adri; Rodrguez-Aguilar, Raquel; Oliveres, Montserrat; Comes, Emili; Garca-Eroles, Luis; Massons, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b) to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage. Methods Forty-seven patients with thalamic haemorrhage were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 17 years. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The region of the intracranial haemorrhage was identified on computerized tomographic (CT) scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Results Thalamic haemorrhage accounted for 1.4% of all cases of stroke (n = 3420) and 13% of intracerebral haemorrhage (n = 364). Hypertension (53.2%), vascular malformations (6.4%), haematological conditions (4.3%) and anticoagulation (2.1%) were the main causes of thalamic haemorrhage. In-hospital mortality was 19% (n = 9). Sensory deficit, speech disturbances and lacunar syndrome were significantly associated with thalamic haemorrhage, whereas altered consciousness (odds ratio [OR] = 39.56), intraventricular involvement (OR = 24.74) and age (OR = 1.23), were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion One in 8 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage had a thalamic hematoma. Altered consciousness, intraventricular extension of the hematoma and advanced age were determinants of a poor early outcome. PMID:17919332

  17. Visual restoration after suprachoroidal haemorrhage in glaucoma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Suprachoroidal haemorrhage is the most dreaded complication feared by any surgeon during glaucoma surgery. Rapid explosive expulsion of intraocular contents can occur, which makes vision loss almost inevitable in most cases. Yet, adequate preparedness, prompt recognition of the earliest signs and quick closure of the wound can salvage the eye or even prevent loss of vision. This case highlights the successful visual rehabilitation and outcome in a patient with advanced glaucoma who experienced delayed expulsive haemorrhage intraoperatively. PMID:24596415

  18. Peripheral retinal haemorrhages with papilloedema.

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, R; Sanders, M D

    1980-01-01

    Two cases are described with severe intracranial hypertension, papilloedema, and a hitherto unreported haemorrhagic peripheral retinopathy. The marked disc swelling in these patients has probably contributed to a venous occlusive element resulting in the haemorrhagic retinopathy. Images PMID:7387960

  19. Managing Major Postpartum Haemorrhage following Acute Uterine Inversion with Rusch Balloon Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Keriakos, Remon; Chaudhuri, Smriti Ray

    2011-01-01

    Acute postpartum uterine inversion is a relatively rare complication. The uterus inverts and the uterine fundus prolapses to or through the dilated cervix. It is associated with major postpartum haemorrhage with or without shock. Shock is sometimes out of proportion to the haemorrhage. Minimal maternal morbidity and mortality can be achieved when uterine inversion is promptly and aggressively managed. We present this report of three cases of acute uterine inversion complicated with major postpartum haemorrhage and managed with Rusch balloon. The paper highlights the importance of early recognition and the safety of the use of intrauterine balloon to manage major postpartum haemorrhage in these cases. PMID:24826322

  20. Variant Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium in a Young Female After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mahanna, Elizabeth; Edwards, David A; Tarante, Nicki; Rahman, Maryam; Petersen, John W; Bihorac, Azra

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a significant complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Diagnosis of neurogenic stunned myocardium is complicated by variable presentation. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from an arteriovenous malformation and associated aneurysm. Postoperatively, she developed pulmonary edema and mildly elevated cardiac biomarkers. Echocardiography showed hypokinesis of the basal left ventricular segments and normal contraction of the apical left ventricular segments consistent with a variant form of neurogenic stunned myocardium. We describe characteristics and outcomes of neurogenic stunned myocardium in this young patient with arteriovenous malformation-associated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26422453

  1. Concerns and challenges during anesthetic management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Kamath; Venkataramaiah, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is challenging because of the emergency nature of the presentation, complex pathology, varied intracranial and systemic manifestations and need for special requirements during the course of management. Successful perioperative outcome depends on overcoming these challenges by thorough understanding of pathophysiology of Subarachnoid hemorrhage, knowledge about associated complications, preoperative optimization, choice of definitive therapy, a good anesthetic and surgical technique, vigilant monitoring and optimal postoperative care. Guidelines based on randomized studies and provided by various societies are helpful in the routine management of these patients and wherever there is a lack of high quality evidence, the available data is provided for practical management. PMID:26240552

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

    2015-02-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

  3. Haemorrhagic shock, therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    David, J-S; Spann, C; Marcotte, G; Reynaud, B; Fontaine, O; Lefvre, M; Piriou, V

    2013-01-01

    The management of a patient in post-traumatic haemorrhagic shock will meet different logics that will apply from the prehospital setting. This implies that the patient has beneficiated from a "Play and Run" prehospital strategy and was sent to a centre adapted to his clinical condition capable of treating all haemorrhagic lesions. The therapeutic goals will be to control the bleeding by early use of tourniquet, pelvic girdle, haemostatic dressing, and after admission to the hospital, the implementation of surgical and/or radiological techniques, but also to address all the factors that will exacerbate bleeding. These factors include hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. The treatment of these contributing factors will be associated to concepts of low-volume resuscitation and permissive hypotension into a strategy called "Damage Control Resuscitation". Thus, the objective in situation of haemorrhagic shock will be to not exceed a systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg (in the absence of severe head trauma) until haemostasis is achieved. PMID:23896213

  4. Ruptured distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm presenting with casting intraventricular haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yoneoka, Y; Ezuka, I; Takai, N; Oda, T; Tamura, T; Yamashita, S

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of a distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm which developed intraventricular haemorrhage without subarachnoid haemorrhage as shown on computerized tomographic (CT) scan. A 69-year-old hypertensive man suddenly became unconscious. An emergency CT scan showed a severe intraventricular haemorrhage and a small round low-dense lesion within the haematoma at the right trigone. The haematoma with obstructive hydrocephalus made the lateral ventricles larger on the right than on the left. CT scan could not detect any subarachnoid haemorrhage. Right interal carotid angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm at the plexal point of the right anterior choroidal artery. We approached the aneurysm and the small round lesion through the trigone via a right temporo-occipital corticotomy. We could clip the aneurysmal neck and remove the intraventricular haematoma and the papillary cystic mass (corresponding to the small round lesion on CT scan) totally in one sitting. Histological examination revealed the aneurysm to be a true one and the papillary cystic mass to be a choroid plexus cyst. PMID:10399000

  5. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage in young patients].

    PubMed

    Naggara, Olivier; Nataf, Franois

    2013-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 5 % of strokes with a high rate of death and morbidity. It occurs in young patients, often hypertensive and smoking. Patients usually present with sudden headache. Initial clinical evaluation uses a prognosis grading scale including level of consciousness and motor deficit on admission (WFNS scale). Unenhanced CT brain imaging demonstrates the SHA together with evaluation of the initial blood amount, predictive of the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm that may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia. After referral to a multidisciplinary center with neurovascular expertise, MR, CT and/or catheter angiography detects the ruptured aneurysm, the cause of SAH in 85 % of cases. Since rebleeding is an imminent danger, occlusion of the aneurysm should be performed, as soon as possible and within the first 72 heures, either by an endovascular or microsurgical approach. Medical management includes early detection of hydrocephalus and cerebral vasospasm is a devastating complication inducing death and functional impairment. Prevention strategies remain limited and include maintenance of normovolemia and calcium antagonists such as nimodipine. Treatment of cerebral vasospasm associates maintenance of cerebral perfusion and more invasive techniques such as chemical or mechanical angioplasty. PMID:24167898

  6. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali; Ahmad, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Zahoor; Al-Quliti, Khalid W.

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is the most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may present initially as acute SAH, and clinically mimics aneurysmal bleed. We report 2 cases of CVST who presented with severe headache associated with neck pain and focal seizures. Non-contrast brain CT showed SAH, involving the sulci of the convexity of hemisphere (cSAH) without involving the basal cisterns. Both patients received treatment with anticoagulants and improved. Awareness of this unusual presentation of CVST is important for early diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the inclusion of vascular neuroimaging like MRI with venography or CT venography in the diagnostic workup of SAH, especially in a patient with strong clinical suspicion of CVST or in a patient where neuroimaging showed cSAH. PMID:25630784

  7. [Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-04-28

    Massive subarachnoid hemorrhage may occur on a traumatic basis. The injury is most often sustained by a blow with a clenched fist against the posterolateral part of the cranial basis, but the injury may also occur in relation to an accident. The condition is rare, most often occurring in alcohol intoxicated men. The victim typically collapses immediately and usually dies within a few minutes. The origin of the bleeding may be the vertebral artery on the neck or the intercranial basal brain arteries. In some cases the origin of the bleeding cannot be located. The pathogenetic mechanisms have been a subject of discussion. The damage to the artery may occur in relation to a fracture of the transverse process of the atlas or in relation to subluxations in the cervical vertebral column. The arterial rupture may occur in both normal and abnormal arteries. In many of the cases the trauma may be very slight. This has, of course, important legal implications. PMID:12772392

  8. Foetal and neonatal intracranial haemorrhage in term newborn infants: Hacettepe University experience.

    PubMed

    Tavil, Betl; Korkmaz, Ay?e; Bayhan, Turan; Ayta, Selin; Unal, Sule; Kuskonmaz, Baris; Yigit, Sule; Cetin, Mualla; Yurdakk, Murat; Gumruk, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, causes and clinical management of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) diagnosed during foetal life or in the first month of life in term neonates with a discussion of the role of haematological risk factors. This study included term neonates (gestational age 37-42 weeks) with ICH diagnosed, treated and followed up in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, between January 1994 and January 2014. Medical follow-up was obtained retrospectively from hospital files and prospectively from telephonic interviews and/or clinical visits. During the study period, 16 term neonates were identified as having ICH in our hospital. In six (37.5%) neonates, ICH was diagnosed during foetal life by obstetric ultrasonography, and in 10 (62.5%) neonates, it has been diagnosed after birth. Haemorrhage types included intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in eight (50.0%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage in six (37.5%), subarachnoid haemorrhage in one (6.2%) and subdural haemorrhage in one (6.2%) neonate. IVH was the most common (n?=?5/6, 83.3%) haemorrhage type among neonates diagnosed during foetal life. Overall, haemorrhage severity was determined as mild in three (18.7%) neonates, moderate in three (18.75%) neonates and severe in 10 (62.5%) neonates. During follow-up, one infant was diagnosed as afibrinogenemia, one diagnosed as infantile spasm, one cystic fibrosis, one orofaciodigital syndrome and the other diagnosed as Friedrich ataxia. Detailed haematological investigation and search for other underlying diseases are very important to identify the reason of ICH in term neonates. Furthermore, early diagnosis, close monitoring and prompt surgical interventions are significant factors to reduce disabilities. PMID:26829281

  9. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  10. Idiopathic Spontaneous Intraperitoneal Haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Samina, Mubushra; Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-07-01

    Idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage is a rare and potentially fatal condition. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult or rarely possible. Urgent surgical exploration is the treatment of choice. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage that was observed undergoing sudden deterioration of her condition while in a hospital ward. She was attending to her child admitted in the ward. She developed lower abdominal pain and extreme weakness. Hospital staff recognized her to be gradually undergoing a state of shock. She was resuscitated and urgent ultrasound abdomen revealed free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. Immediate laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of spontaneous intraperitoneal bleeding, however, no significant cause of bleeding was found except for a very small area of breached peritoneum in the pouch of Douglas. Haemostasis was secured by two stitches of vicryl. Postoperative CT scan of abdomen and pelvis did not reveal any abnormal finding. Patient was followed-up in the OPD for 6 months and she was symptom-free and in a healthy state. PMID:26208562

  11. Frequency, types and causes of intraventricular haemorrhage in lethal blunt head injuries.

    PubMed

    Maxeiner, H; Schirmer, Cynthia

    2009-11-01

    Autopsy findings and neuropathological examination of formalin-fixed brains in 676 deaths due to blunt head injury, here with special attention to injuries of the inner (periventricular) cerebral structures and haemorrhages into the ventricles. Intraventricular haemorrhage of any degree was present in 17.6%, considering only distinct and massive haemorrhage in 10% of all cases. Considering the types of trauma, the frequency was lowest in ground level falls and highest in traffic accidents (pedestrians with head contact to the car) - indicating a relation between the severity of impacts and the likelihood of ventricular haemorrhage. They predominantly resulted from periventricular injuries (27%) or retrograde expansions of infratentorial lesion with subarachnoid bleeding (19%), from massive contrecoup lesions (14%) or deep intracerebral ruptures (13%). In cases with predominant lesions of the cerebral surface the rate was lower than in those with more diffuse or internal damages. Injuries of the internal cerebral regions (away from cortex and subcortical white matter) were classified into those directly affecting the periventricular structures (9.1-13.5%; half of them affecting corpus callosum and/or fornix) and lesions of deep white matter or basal ganglia not adjoining the ventricular walls (4.0-5.9%). Intraventricular haemorrhage as well as injuries of the inner cerebral structures mostly are one element of a complex and severe blunt head injury. Solitary lesions - without other intracranial findings clearly indicating a trauma and therefore cases producing difficulties in forensic classification (spontaneous? traumatic?) - are rarities according to literature as well as our experiences. PMID:19828352

  12. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of the CCHF virus ... be effective. Prevention and control Controlling CCHF in animals and ticks Ticks of the genus Hyalomma are ...

  13. The use of fibrinogen concentrate to correct hypofibrinogenaemia rapidly during obstetric haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bell, S F; Rayment, R; Collins, P W; Collis, R E

    2010-04-01

    Haemorrhage is a common complication of childbirth with 0.65% of deliveries associated with significant (>1500 mL) peripartum blood loss. Hypofibrinogenaemia secondary to dilutional and consumptive coagulopathies can be challenging to correct quickly with conventional blood and plasma therapy. Fibrinogen concentrate offers rapid restoration of fibrinogen levels with a small volume infusion and minimal preparation time. It is effective in treating patients with congenital hypofibrinogenaemia, but there are few reports of its use in association with continuing obstetric haemorrhage. Six cases of obstetric haemorrhage, associated with hypofibrinogenaemia, treated with fibrinogen concentrate in conjunction with platelets, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells, uterotonics and obstetric intervention are described. In all cases, laboratory assessed coagulation was rapidly normalised and severe haemorrhage improved. These cases suggest that fibrinogen concentrate may be an effective addition to conventional treatments for obstetric haemorrhage associated with hypofibrinogenaemia. PMID:20194010

  14. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Qian; Wu, Haijian; Krafft, Paul R.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH. PMID:25110700

  15. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, N J; Zientara, S; Savini, G; Daniels, P W

    2015-08-01

    Summary Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised than they are for BTV. Whereas most natural and experimental EHDV infections (other than Ibaraki virus infection) of livestock are subclinical or asymptomatic, outbreaks of EHD have recently been reported among cattle in the Mediterranean Basin, Reunion Island, South Africa, and the United States. Accurate and convenient laboratory tests are increasingly available for the sensitive and specific serological and virological diagnosis of EHDV infection and confirmation of EHD in animals, but commercial vaccines are available only for prevention of Ibaraki disease and not for protection against other strains and serotypes of EHDV. PMID:26601439

  16. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matua, Gerald A; Van der Wal, Dirk M; Locsin, Rozzano C

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world's most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zare, Reston and Ta Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies. PMID:26052448

  17. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Matua, Gerald A.; Van der Wal, Dirk M.; Locsin, Rozzano C.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world’s most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies. PMID:26052448

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Kohok, Dhanashri D; Parashar, Akash; Punnam, Vinay; Tandar, Anwar

    2011-02-01

    Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia accounts for 5% of all cases of infective endocarditis (Roberts et al, Rev Infect Dis. 1979;1:955-66) and 5% to 6% of all cases of streptococcal endocarditis (Bouvet, Eur Heart J. 1995;16(suppl B):24-7; Brouqui et al, Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:177-207). This endocarditis is associated with a high rate of embolization and treatment failure (Bouvet, Eur Heart J. 1995;16(suppl B):24-7). Neurological complications occur in 20% to 40% of all cases of infective endocarditis (Ossorio et al, Hosp Physician. 2003;39:21-4). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a rare but devastating neurological complication. The authors presented a case of massive fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis. To our knowledge, there are only 2 reported cases of mycotic aneurysms in Abiotrophia endocarditis, 1 of which was associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (Leonard et al, N Engl J Med. 2001;344:233-4; Yang et al, Am J Med Sci. 2010;339:190-1). PMID:21030855

  19. Spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage after catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Kristanto, William; Chan, Po Fun; Yeong, Siew Swan; Kojodjojo, Pipin

    2015-01-01

    Catheter ablation is established as a first-line therapy for most patients with recurrent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), with high success rates and very low complication rates. A 60-year-old woman developed severe right flank pain following straightforward catheter ablation for SVT. This was caused by a spontaneous right adrenal haemorrhage, which, after much delay, was eventually recognised as the cause of her symptoms. Adrenal haematomas are rare and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage occurring after any interventional cardiac procedure. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but potentially serious complication and consider it as a differential diagnosis in any patient with severe flank pain following interventional cardiac procedures, to prevent delays in diagnosis. PMID:26400589

  20. Spontaneous Subdural Haemorrhage: A Rare Association with Plasmodium Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Hariprasad, Shetty; Koya, Rohini; Acharya, Vasudev; Krishna, Shastry Barkur Anantha

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease in tropical countries and disease of universal importance. Central Nervous System (CNS) complications of malaria are severe and associated with significant mortality. Thrombocytopaenia in malaria causing haemorrhagic CNS complications is rare. We report a case of 35-year-old male patient presented with headache, vomiting and was diagnosed to have subdural haemorrhage (SDH). On examination patient was found to be febrile with peripheral smear showing evidence of Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) infection with severe thrombocytopaenia. In endemic regions with malaria, SDH being rare presentation of malaria should be considered as a differential diagnosis in febrile patients with neurological manifestations. Rarity of spontaneous SDH in malaria and raising awareness amongst treating physicians about the same is the driving factor for reporting this case. PMID:26894111

  1. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  2. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  3. Combined assessment of thrombotic and haemorrhagic risk in acute medical patients.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Micaela; Orlandini, Francesco; Marchini, Francesca; Marinaro, Alessia; Bonacci, Rosanna; Bonanni, Paola; Corsini, Francesca; Ceraudo, Anna Maria; Pacetti, Edoarda; Scuotri, Lucia; Costabile, Davide; Dentali, Francesco

    2016-01-27

    Acute medical patients have a high risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Unfortunately, the fear of bleeding complications limits the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis in this setting. To stratify the VTE and haemorrhagic risk, two clinical scores (PADUA, IMPROVE) have recently been developed. However, it is not clear how many patients have a concomitant high VTE and haemorrhagic risk and what is the use of prophylaxis in this situation. To clarify these issues we performed a prospective cohort study enrolling consecutive patients admitted to internal medicine. Patients admitted to internal medicine (January to December 2013) were included. VTE and haemorrhagic risk were evaluated in all the included patients. Use and type of anti-thrombotic prophylaxis was recorded. A total of 1761 patients (mean age 77.6 years) were enrolled; 76.8?% (95?% CI 74.7-78.7) were at high VTE risk and 11.9?% (95?% CI 10.4-13.5) were at high haemorrhagic risk. Anti-thrombotic prophylaxis was used in 80.5?% of patients at high VTE risk and in 6.5?% at low VTE risk (phaemorrhagic risk and in 72.5?% at low haemorrhagic risk (phaemorrhagic risk and in 88.9?% at high VTE risk but low haemorrhagic risk. At multivariate-analysis, use of prophylaxis appeared highly influenced by the VTE risk (OR 68.2, 95?% CI 43.1 - 108.0). In conclusion, many patients admitted to internal medicine were at high risk of VTE. Since almost 90?% of them were at low haemorrhagic risk, pharmacological prophylaxis may be safely prescribed in most of these patients. PMID:26403152

  4. [Dengue as haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Olszy?ska-Krowicka, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In September 2010 two cases of indigenous dengue fever were diagnosed in metropolitan France for the first time and next DENV infection was diagnosed in a German traveler returning from a trip to Croatia. The Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were found in several European countries (for example in greenhouses in Netherlands). The indigenous DENV infections in Europe are rare diseases, probably acquired after bites of infected mosquitoes imported by airplanes from endemic areas. Nonspecific symptoms including: fever (up to 39 degrees C), chills, arthralagia, headache, myalgia and abnormalities in laboratory tests such as: thrombocytopaenia, leukopaenia and liver tests cause problems with differential diagnosis ofhematologic and hepatologic syndromes. The most serious complications are associated with dengue shock syndrome with mortality rate of 50%. PMID:22390040

  5. Progressive post traumatic tearing of an arachnoid cyst membrane resulting in intracystic and subdural haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Heather M; Phal, Pramit M; King, James A J

    2015-05-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man with a middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst who presented post trauma with neurological symptoms. The initial CT scan of the brain did not detect acute changes in the arachnoid cyst but subsequent imaging revealed abnormalities which progressed over time. Arachnoid cysts are usually a benign and incidental finding. Rare complications such as intracystic haemorrhage and subdural haemorrhage can occur. It is important to be aware of these complications so that patients with arachnoid cysts are appropriately investigated when presenting with neurological symptoms. PMID:25769260

  6. Biomarkers and vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J Dedrick; Nyquist, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage from the rupture of a saccular aneurysm is a devastating neurological disease that has a high morbidity and mortality not only from the initial hemorrhage, but also from the delayed complications, such as cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral vasospasm can lead to delayed ischemic injury 1 to 2 weeks after the initial hemorrhage. Although the pathophysiology of vasospasm has been described for decades, the molecular basis remains poorly understood. With the many advances in the past decade in the development of sensitive molecular biological techniques, imaging, biochemical purification, and protein identification, new insights are beginning to reveal the etiology of vasospasm. These findings will not only help to identify markers of vasospasm and prognostic outcome, but will also yield potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. This review focuses on the methods available for the identification of biological markers of vasospasm and their limitations, the current understanding as to the utility and prognostic significance of identified biomarkers, the utility of these biomarkers in predicting vasospasm and outcome, and future directions of research in this field. PMID:20380977

  7. Subarachnoidal pleural fistula after resection of intradural thoracic disc herniation and multimodal treatment with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV).

    PubMed

    Schlag, Holger R; Muquit, Samiul; Hristov, Tanyo B; Morassi, Guiseppe; Boszczyk, Bronek Maximilian; Shafafy, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid pleural fistula (SPF) is a type of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula that can arise as a complication following transthoracic resection of intervertebral disc herniation in the thoracic spine. It is an abnormal communication between the subarachnoid and pleural space. Negative intrapleural pressure promotes CSF leak due to a suction effect into the pleural cavity, with little chance of spontaneous closure. Due to the risk of severe complications with CSF leak into the thoracic cavity, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. However, management can be challenging. We report a case of a 72-year-old woman who underwent anterior thoracic surgery to treat thoracic myelopathy caused by an ossified intradural disc herniation. The postoperative period was complicated by a subarachnoidal pleural fistula. We describe our successful treatment of this using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and lumbar CSF drainage and review other methods reported in the literature. PMID:26215176

  8. High frequency of spinal involvement in patients with basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Callacondo, D.; Garcia, H.H.; Gonzales, I.; Escalante, D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gonzalez, Armando; Lopez, Maria T.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarado, Manuel; Porras, Miguel; Saavedra, Herbert; Rodriguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Mayta, Holger; Herrera, Genaro; Lescano, Andres G.; Zimic, Mirko; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC compared with that in individuals with viable limited intraparenchymal NCC (?20 live cysts in the brain). Methods: We performed a prospective observational case-control study of patients with NCC involving the basal cisterns or patients with only limited intraparenchymal NCC. All patients underwent MRI examinations of the brain and the entire spinal cord to assess spinal involvement. Results: Twenty-seven patients with limited intraparenchymal NCC, and 28 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC were included in the study. Spinal involvement was found in 17 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC and in only one patient with limited intraparenchymal NCC (odds ratio 40.18, 95% confidence interval 4.74340.31; p < 0.0001). All patients had extramedullary (intradural) spinal NCC, and the lumbosacral region was the most frequently involved (89%). Patients with extensive spinal NCC more frequently had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (7 of 7 vs 3 of 11; p = 0.004) and tended to have a longer duration of neurologic symptoms than those with regional involvement (72 months vs 24 months; p = 0.062). Conclusions: The spinal subarachnoid space is commonly involved in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC, compared with those with only intraparenchymal brain cysts. Spinal cord involvement probably explains serious late complications including chronic meningitis and gait disorders that were described before the introduction of antiparasitic therapy. MRI of the spine should be performed in basal subarachnoid disease to document spinal involvement, prevent complications, and monitor for recurrent disease. PMID:22517102

  9. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze. PMID:25685569

  10. UK guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Dhiraj; Stanley, Adrian J; Hayes, Peter C; Patch, David; Millson, Charles; Mehrzad, Homoyon; Austin, Andrew; Ferguson, James W; Olliff, Simon P; Hudson, Mark; Christie, John M

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. The nature of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with its complex range of complications makes rigid guidelines inappropriate. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of varices in patients with cirrhosis under the following subheadings: (1) primary prophylaxis; (2) acute variceal haemorrhage; (3) secondary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage; and (4) gastric varices. They are not designed to deal with (1) the management of the underlying liver disease; (2) the management of variceal haemorrhage in children; or (3) variceal haemorrhage from other aetiological conditions. PMID:25887380

  11. 'Pseudocirrhosis' in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, T; Sweeney, E C; Coll, R; Greally, M

    1977-01-01

    Telangiectasia-associated hepatic fibrosis (TAHF) in a 68-year-old woman with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is described. The patient died of oat-cell carcinoma of the lung. In addition to the structural alterations which have been described previously in HHT, the liver exhibited focal midlobular hepatocytic necrosis and tumour metastases. The possibility that treatment of HHT was causally related to some of the hepatic abnormalities found in our patient and the differentiation of TAHF from true cirrhosis are discussed. Images PMID:203609

  12. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Ftika, L; Maltezou, H C

    2013-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound haemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. VHFs that have the potential for human-to-human transmission and onset of large nosocomial outbreaks include Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever. Nosocomial outbreaks of VHFs are increasingly reported nowadays, which likely reflects the dynamics of emergence of VHFs. Such outbreaks are associated with an enormous impact in terms of human lives and costs for the management of cases, contact tracing and containment. Surveillance, diagnostic capacity, infection control and the overall preparedness level for management of a hospital-based VHF event are very limited in most endemic countries. Diagnostic capacities for VHFs should increase in the field and become affordable. Availability of appropriate protective equipment and education of healthcare workers about safe clinical practices and infection control is the mainstay for the prevention of nosocomial spread of VHFs. PMID:23333147

  13. Aneurysm Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign-Up Contact Us Understanding Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage ...

  14. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Burma.

    PubMed

    Thaung, U; Ming, C K; Thein, M

    1975-12-01

    Although sporadic from 1965 to 1969, a major outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred for the first time in Rangoon in 1970. Since then the disease has occurred every year in Rangoon and is now observed to be expanding to other urban areas in the country. The clinical diagnosis of DHF was confused by concurrent outbreaks of influenza A in 1971 and influenza A and B in 1972. A laboratory study of 3,447 clinically diagnosed haemorrhagic fever cases showed that 1643 cases (47.8%) were due to dengue and chikungunya, 296 (8.6%) to influenza A, 85(2.5%) to influenza B, 12(0.3%) to measles and 1411(40.8%) were of unknown aetiology during the 5 year period 1970-1974. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are widely distributed in the country up to and including 900 meters above sea level but breeding is not found above that altitude. The absolute larval population which is highest in July as well as landing rate correlated with the peak incidence of DHF cases. PMID:131977

  15. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Peyrefitte, C; Marianneau, P; Tordo, N; Bouloy, M

    2015-08-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widespread arboviroses in the world. It is present in Africa, south-east Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is caused by a nairovirus (Bunyaviridae family) transmitted by several species of ticks. The geographical distribution of the disease coincides with the distribution of Hyalomma ticks. While infected livestock do not show signs of illness, humans are severely affected, with a high mortality rate. The most common symptoms are high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and haemorrhages. Pathogenesis studies in interferon-receptor-deficient mice indicated that the interferon response is crucial in controlling virus propagation and in protecting against the disease. Detection of the virus in biological material is currently performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence are used to detect the presence of CCHF virus-specific antibodies. In the 1970s, a formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from suckling mouse brain was used in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but its efficacy remains to be proven. Treatment of patients with ribavirin is recommended by the World Health Organization, but it should be administered as early as possible. Although important progress has been made over the last few decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease are still to be addressed and there is a need to develop efficient vaccines and antivirals. PMID:26601443

  16. Intraparenchymal haemorrhage and uncal herniation resulting from dobutamine stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga Kobina; Ramoutar, Virin; Velarde, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) resulting from dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is a rare complication in an otherwise relatively safe procedure. There has been one previously reported case of ICH associated with DSE in a patient who was fully anticoagulated. The authors report a second case of ICH associated with DSE leading to a poor outcome. Unlike the previous report, this patient was not fully anticoagulated and bleeding resulted from uncontrolled hypertension. Clinicians should be attentive to the risk of ICH associated with DSE in the setting of uncontrolled hypertension. PMID:24642173

  17. Spontaneous spinal epidural haemorrhage complicating transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunting.

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, S.; de Silva, R.; Sandercock, P. A.; Hayes, P. C.; Dillon, J.; Redhead, D.

    1997-01-01

    A patient with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension who developed acute spinal cord compression following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunting is described. Radiological and pathological examinations revealed an epidural haematoma. Images Figure PMID:9497978

  18. An unusual cause of haemorrhagic shock from a subcutaneous haematoma: a Morel-Lavalle lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Renhao Desmond; Tan, Enjiu Pauleon; Goh, Hsin Kai

    2015-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to our emergency department after he was hit by a forklift. He developed haemorrhagic shock from a subcutaneous haematoma in his left thigh and required monitoring in the surgical intensive care unit. He stabilised with aggressive fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and blood transfusion. The recovery was complicated by an infection of the subcutaneous haematoma. Following open drainage of the infected subcutaneous haematoma, he improved and was discharged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a subcutaneous haematoma causing haemorrhagic shock. PMID:25917478

  19. Retinal and Conjunctival Haemorrhage in the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J. D.; Bulpitt, C. J.

    1970-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty newborn infants were examined for retinal and conjunctival haemorrhages. Retinal photographs were taken in selected cases to record the morphological varieties and the different rates of disappearance of the retinal haemorrhages. The incidence of retinal and conjunctival haemorrhages was studied in relation to a number of possible aetiological factors. In the case of retinal haemorrhages we did not identify the critical factor or factors that determine their occurrence. Neither cephalic venous congestion, nor a coagulation defect, nor birth asphyxia was associated with retinal haemorrhages. It is likely that they are of multifactorial origin, and it is suggested that blood viscosity may be an important contributory factor. In contrast, conjunctival haemorrhages occurred in association with multiparity, rapid second stage of labour, Negro race, high Apgar score, and relatively high birthweight, head circumference, and gestational age. In addition the occurrence of conjunctival haemorrhage as part of the picture of `traumatic cyanosis' suggests that these lesions do result from changes in cephalic venous pressure. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:5464064

  20. Bilateral nodular sarcoid choroiditis with vitreous haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, L S; Ehrenberg, M

    1984-01-01

    A 21-year-old black man with presumed systemic sarcoidosis had bilateral choroidal nodules, unilateral retinal neovascularisation and vitreous haemorrhage, and non-caseating granulomas on percutaneous liver biopsy. The choroidal nodules were serially documented by fundus photography and fluorescein angiography over a 22-month period. Fluorescein angiography was more accurate than ophthalmoscopy in demonstrating choroidal inflammation. The choroidal nodules resolved after systemic corticosteroid therapy. A vitreous haemorrhage occurred probably secondary to neovascularisation related to occlusion of an inferotemporal branch vein. The non-resolving vitreous haemorrhage and associated traction retinal detachment were treated with vitrectomy and membrane sectioning. Images PMID:6205681

  1. Delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage following failed odontoid screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David A; Fusco, David J; Theodore, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    Iatrogenic vascular injury is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spine instrumentation. The authors report on a patient who developed an anterior spinal artery pseudoaneurysm associated with delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage after undergoing odontoid screw placement 14 months earlier. This 86-year-old man presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (Fisher Grade 4) and full motor strength on neurological examination. Imaging demonstrated pseudarthrosis of the odontoid process, extension of the odontoid screw beyond the posterior cortex of the dens, and a pseudoaneurysm arising from an adjacent branch of the anterior spinal artery. Due to the aneurysm's location and lack of active extravasation, endovascular treatment was not attempted. Posterior C1-2 fusion was performed to treat radiographic and clinical instability of the C1-2 joint. Postoperatively, the patient's motor function remained intact. Almost all cases of vascular injury related to cervical spine instrumentation are recognized at surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of delayed vascular injury following an uncomplicated cervical fixation. This case further suggests that the risk of this phenomenon may be elevated in cases of failed fusion. PMID:21395399

  2. Pharmacologic Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K; Helmy, Adel; Budohoski, Karol P; Kirollos, Ramez W; Bulters, Diederik O; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Trivedi, Rikin A

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a condition with suboptimal functional outcomes, especially in the young population. Pharmacotherapy has an accepted role in several aspects of the disease and an emerging role in several others. No preventive pharmacologic interventions for SAH currently exist. Antiplatelet medications as well as anticoagulation have been used to prevent thromboembolic events after endovascular coiling. However, the main focus of pharmacologic treatment of SAH is the prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Currently the only evidence-based medical intervention is nimodipine. Other calcium channel blockers have been evaluated without convincing efficacy. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as statins have demonstrated early potential; however, they failed to provide significant evidence for the use in preventing DCI. Similar findings have been reported for magnesium, which showed potential in experimental studies and a phase 2 trial. Clazosentane, a potent endothelin receptor antagonist, did not translate to improve functional outcomes. Various other neuroprotective agents have been used to prevent DCI; however, the results have been, at best inconclusive. The prevention of DCI and improvement in functional outcome remain the goals of pharmacotherapy after the culprit lesion has been treated in aneurysmal SAH. Therefore, further research to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which DCI is propagated is clearly needed. In this article, we review the current pharmacologic approaches that have been evaluated in SAH and highlight the areas in which further research is needed. PMID:25701766

  3. Elevation of intracranial pressure following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jalan, R; Dabos, K; Redhead, D N; Lee, A; Hayes, P C

    1997-11-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and cerebral oedema in patients with chronic liver disease is rare and is more typical of acute liver failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt is being increasingly used in the management of uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. In our institution, a total of 160 patients has undergone transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent-shunt for variceal haemorrhage; 56 of these procedures were emergencies for uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage. Four of these 56 patients developed features of acute liver failure, with marked deterioration in liver function tests and elevated intracranial pressure. This unusual but important complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt has not been reported in the literature previously, and may have important consequences both for clinical practice and in the provision of further clues to understanding the pathogenesis of increased intracranial pressure in patients with liver diseases. PMID:9382983

  4. The role of recombinant activated Factor VII in major obstetric haemorrhage: the Farnborough experience.

    PubMed

    Wissa, I; Ebeid, E; El-Shawarby, S; Chandakas, S; Kamal, T; Hill, N

    2009-01-01

    Major obstetric haemorrhage is one of the commonest causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It may result in coagulopathy and diffuse pelvic or vaginal bleeding. Correction of coagulopathy when administering Factor VII may be crucial to the management of selected cases. We report the use of recombinant activated factor in three cases of massive obstetric haemorrhage. Prolonged international normalised ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and reduced fibrinogen were the trigger to use rFVIIa. It was effective to halt the process of coagulopathy, secure haemostasis and improve laboratory parameters in all three patients. We review the relevant literature and discuss its indications, the potential benefits and possible complications. Recombinant activated Factor VII is a potential haemostatic agent in massive obstetric haemorrhage. Its successful use has been reported in post-surgical bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy. It may abolish the need for hysterectomy, which has a devastating effect on the patient future fertility and psychological well-being. PMID:19280490

  5. Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Morad, Yair; Wygnansky-Jaffe, Tamara; Levin, Alex V

    2010-07-01

    Paediatric abusive head injury may have grave consequences, especially when characterized by repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces (shaken baby syndrome). Death occurs in approximately 30% and permanent neurologic damage in up to 80% of the victims. Retinal haemorrhages are a cardinal sign seen in approximately 85% of cases. In most cases haemorrhages are preretinal, intraretinal and subretinal, too numerous to count, and involving the entire retinal surface extending to the ora serrata. Traumatic macular retinoschisis is a lesion with important diagnostic significance. Vitreoretinal traction appears to be the mechanism of haemorrhage and schisis formation along with a possible role of orbital tissue trauma from repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces. Ophthalmologists must carefully document ocular findings. Appropriate autopsy examination should include ocular and orbital tissue removal. Although there is a wide differential diagnosis for retinal haemorrhages, clinical appearance, when considered in the context of systemic and laboratory findings, usually leads to the correct diagnosis. PMID:20584025

  6. Early Cerebral Infarction after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wong, George Kwok Chu; Leung, Joyce Hoi Ying; Yu, Janice Wong Li; Lam, Sandy Wai; Chan, Emily Kit Ying; Poon, Wai Sang; Abrigo, Jill; Siu, Deyond Yun Woon

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious disease with high case fatality and morbidity. Early cerebral infarction has been suggested as a risk factor for poor outcome. We aimed to assess the pattern of early and delayed cerebral infarction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled consecutive aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients presenting to an academic neurosurgical referral center (Prince of Wales Hospital, the Chinese University of Hong Kong) in Hong Kong. Cerebral infarction occurred in 24 (48 %) patients, in which 14 (28 %) had early cerebral infarction and 14 (28 %) had delayed cerebral infarction. Early anterior cerebral infarction occurred in a similar proportion of anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms (24 % vs. 21 %), whereas posterior circulation aneurysm patients had a higher proportion of early posterior cerebral infarction compared with anterior circulation aneurysm patients (18 % vs. 2 %). In conclusion, early cerebral infarction was common and different from delayed cerebral infarction. PMID:26463941

  7. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use].

    PubMed

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Bricaire, Franois; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    The majority of haemorrhagic fever viruses are responsible for various clinical manifestations, the mutual characteristics of which are fever and haemorrhage in 5 to 70% of cases. All degrees of severity can be observed, ranging from isolated fever to multi-organ failure and death. These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae. They must be considered as dangerous biological weapons that could potentially be used. Most of the viruses responsible for haemorrhagic fever can be transmitted to humans through the air in spray form, except the dengue virus and the agents of haemorrhagic fever from the Congo Crimea and the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that are difficult to handle in cell culture. In the event of a bioterrorist act, the management of persons infected or suspected of being so will be made by the referent departments of infectious diseases, defined by the French Biotox plan. Management includes isolation, confirmation or invalidation of the diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment with ribavirin. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of arenavirus and bunyavirus infections; it is not effective for the other families of virus. Except for yellow fever, there is no vaccination for the other forms of viral haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15687968

  8. Pulmonary hypertension in a patient with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Davinder; Handa, Ajay; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    A young male patient reported for evaluation of progressive easy fatigability, accompanied by a recent history of recurrent haemoptysis. His clinical examination was unremarkable except for evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Routine investigations (haemogram, coagulogram, serological tests for connective tissue disorders and a sputum Ziehl Neelsen stain for acid-fast bacilli) were normal. Two-dimensional echocardiography suggested PAH (pulmonary artery systolic pressure-67 mm Hg), whereas the 64-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiogram showed a dilated main pulmonary artery along with bilateral arteriovenous malformations. Cardiac catheterisation performed subsequently confirmed the presence of PAH. On the basis of the above findings, a diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) complicated with PAH was made, and the patient was started on oral sildenafil therapy to which he responded well. This rare complication of HHT, which requires a high degree of suspicion for diagnosis, is discussed. PMID:23378554

  9. Signaling Pathway in Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: News Update.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingyun; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms is a serious threat to human health and life. Although advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques have improved the prognosis of patients with aneurysms, the rate of death and disability caused by SAH remains high, predominantly due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after SAH and early brain damage. In particular, CVS is a common complication after SAH. However, its pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated, and clinically effective prevention and treatment measures are still lacking. Spasm of blood vessels can decrease cerebral blood flow, leading to ischemia and hypoxia in brain tissues and ultimately severe neurological dysfunction. Currently, there is no comprehensive theory that can fully explain the mechanisms underlying SAH-caused CVS. However, studies on signal transduction, apoptosis, and glial cell-mediated mechanisms in recent years have shed new light on the treatment of CVS. PMID:26463942

  10. [Giant racemose subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis: A case report].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Larsen, Alvaro; Monteagudo, Maria; Lozano-Setien, Elena; Garcia-Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, which can affect different anatomical sites. In Spain there is an increasing prevalence mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. The extraparenchymal forms are less common, but more serious because they usually develop complications. Neuroimaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease, supported by serology and a compatible clinical and epidemiological context. First-line treatments are cysticidal drugs such as albendazole and praziquantel, usually coadministered with corticosteroids, and in some cases surgery is indicated. We here report a case of neurocysticercosis with simultaneous intraventricular and giant racemose subarachnoid involvement. PMID:26321177

  11. Pathogenesis of filoviral haemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Bray, Mike

    2004-08-01

    The filoviruses, marburgvirus and ebolavirus, cause epidemics of haemorrhagic fever with high case-fatality rates. The severe illness results from a complex of pathogenetic mechanisms that enable the virus to suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, infect and kill a broad variety of cell types, and elicit strong inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation, producing a syndrome resembling septic shock. Most experimental data have been obtained on Zaire ebolavirus, which causes uniformly lethal disease in experimentally infected non-human primates but produces a broader range of outcomes in naturally infected human beings. 10-30% of patients can survive the illness by mobilising adaptive immune responses, and there is limited evidence that mild or symptomless infections also occur. The other filoviruses that have caused human disease, Sudan ebolavirus, Ivory Coast ebolavirus, and marburgvirus, produce a similar illness but with somewhat lower case-fatality rates. Variations in outcome during an epidemic might be due partly to genetically determined differences in innate immune responses to the viruses. Recent studies in non-human primates have shown that blocking of certain host responses, such as the coagulation cascade, can result in reduced viral replication and improved host survival. PMID:15288821

  12. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years. PMID:25660265

  13. Neurocritical care for intracranial haemorrhage: a systematic review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Badenes, R; Bilotta, F

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with significant early mortality (up to 50% at 30 days) and long-term morbidity (with permanent neurological deficits in 75-80% of patients) and represents a serious health issue worldwide. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in clinical research on ICH diagnosis and treatment that has led to revision of the guidelines for the diagnosis and management of ICH from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association in 2013. This systematic review reports recent clinical evidence (original studies published between September 2013 and July 2015) related to neurocritical care and intensive care unit management of patients with ICH. All but one publication included in this review report original studies related to managment of patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage. These include insights on risk stratification and neurocritical care or intensive care unit treatment, management of haemodynamic variables and mechanical ventilation (goal-directed fluid therapy, advanced haemodynamic monitoring, and avoidance of hyperoxia and hyperventilation), and pharmacological neuroprotection. PMID:26658203

  14. Post-operative bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: A case report

    PubMed Central

    McNicol, R.E.; Bradley, A.; Griffin, J.; Duncan, G.; Eriksen, C.A.; Guthrie, G.J.K.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is a rare, but serious, illness carrying an estimated 15% mortality.1,2 The majority of cases occur in patients with acute, stressful illness, however the exact mechanism underlying adrenal haemorrhage remains unclear. This medical emergency carries significant diagnostic difficulty4 with non-specific clinical symptoms and variations in electrolyte abnormalities. Timely treatment is important as it prevents both the acute and long-term sequelae of adrenal failure. PRESENTATION OF CASE This report describes a medical emergency in a surgical patient following emergency surgery for intra-abdominal sepsis. The patient reported non-specific symptoms of confusion, mild pyrexia and vague abdominal pain during the post-operative phase, with subtle electrolyte abnormalities and a low serum cortisol suggestive of adrenal crisis. Timely medical treatment, with intravenous hydrocortisone and intensive monitoring, and appropriate medical follow-up with addition of long-term fludrocortisone resulted in a satisfactory outcome. DISCUSSION This report describes a potentially life-threatening complication of intra-abdominal sepsis with adrenal crisis secondary to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. In particular, this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty in such surgical patients due to vague symptoms and, in this case, the presence of a presentation variant with acute hyponatraemia and normal potassium. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of awareness of both the symptoms and signs and variation in electrolyte profile when assessing surgical patients post-operatively. In addition, this case highlights the benefit of early recognition and initiation of treatment and the importance of follow-up as long-term medical management is often required to prevent further relapse. PMID:25437659

  15. Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S V; Vicari, P; Cavalheiro, S; Bordin, J O

    2003-09-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in haemophilic patients. The overall incidence of ICH has been reported to range from 2.2% to 7.5% in patients with haemophilia. From 1987 to 2001, 401 haemophilic patients from the Servio de Hemofilia, Disciplina de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, Universidade Federal de So Paulo were evaluated. The episodes of ICH were documented by CT scan and the anatomic location, clinical presentation, relationship to trauma and clinical factors, including the presence of HIV infection and the presence of inhibitor, were reviewed. Among 401 haemophilic patients, 45 ICH episodes in 35 (8.7%) patients with age ranging from 4 days to 49 years (mean 10.6 years) were observed. A history of recent trauma was documented in 24 (53.3%) cases. Seventeen (37.8%) episodes occurred in more than one site of bleeding, 12 (26.7%) were subdural, seven (15.5%) subarachnoid, four (8.9%) epidural, two (4.4%) intracerebral and one (2.2%) intraventricular. The most frequent symptoms were headache and drowsiness. All patients were submitted to replacement therapy and neurosurgical intervention was performed in eight (17.8%) patients. Despite the treatment, three (8.6%) haemophilia A patients died due to the ICH event and three presented late sequelae. The most important aspect of ICH management is the early replacement therapy in haemophilic patients. This prompt treatment will increase the chances of a better prognosis. Another impact measure consists in the administration of the deficient coagulation factor after every head trauma, even when considered minor. PMID:14511296

  16. Fahr's Disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jehani, Hosam; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Sinclair, David

    2012-01-01

    Fahr's disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22754741

  17. Fahr's Disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Al-Jehani, Hosam; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Sinclair, David

    2012-01-01

    Fahr's disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22754741

  18. Recombinant activated factor VII in post partum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Magon, Navneet; Babu, K. M.; Kapur, Krishan; Chopra, Sanjiv; Joneja, Gurdarshan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal death. Any bleeding that results in or could result in haemodynamic instability, if untreated, must be considered as PPH. There is no controversy about the need for prevention and treatment of PPH. The keystone of management of PPH entails first, non-invasive and nonsurgical methods and then invasive and surgical methods. However, mortality remains high. Therefore, new advancements in the treatment are most crucial. One such advancement has been the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in PPH. First used 12 years back in PPH, this universal haemostatic agent has been effectively used in controlling PPH. The best available indicator of rFVIIa efficacy is the arrest of haemorrhage, which is judged by visual evidence and haemodynamic stabilization. It also reduces costs of therapy and the use of blood components in massive PPH. In cases of intractable PPH with no other obvious indications for hysterectomy, administration of rFVIIa should be considered before surgery. We share our experience in a series of cases of PPH, successfully managed using rFVIIa. PMID:24403703

  19. Intracranial tumour haemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Christian; Haux, Daniel; Sahm, Felix; Unterberg, Andreas W; Beynon, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous administration of thrombolytic agents is considered to be contraindicated in patients with intracranial neoplasms. However, only a single case of thrombolysis-related intracranial tumour haemorrhage has been reported to our knowledge and several studies have suggested that systemic thrombolysis can be safely carried out in these patients. Here we report a patient who developed haemorrhage into a previously unknown intracranial tumour following intravenous thrombolysis for acute myocardial ST-elevation infarction. Identification of abnormal tissue during surgical haematoma evacuation initiated histopathological examination which revealed meningioma World Health Organization Grade I. Intracranial tumours may represent the causative pathology in cases of thrombolysis-related intracranial haemorrhage and this should be considered in the treatment of these patients. PMID:26646504

  20. Life-threatening haemorrhage in patients without pulmonary embolism who received anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    van den Oever, Huub; Schreurs, John W G M; Huisman, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Local and international guidelines recommend that anticoagulation should be initiated before diagnostic work up has been completed, in patients with high clinical probability of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, many patients receiving anticoagulants for suspected PE do not have this disease. We present three cases of life-threatening bleeding complications after treatment with low-molecular-weight heparins for suspected PE. A 35-year-old woman had acute chest pain and died of a ruptured thoracic aneurysm. A man with herpes encephalitis developed acute dyspnoea, and died of intracerebral haemorrhage. And a woman with mild chest trauma had a complicated recovery after life-threatening intrapleural haemorrhage. Neither of these patients had PE. These cases emphasise that delaying diagnostics may pose a risk in patients with acute chest symptoms. An early CT scan may avoid unnecessary anticoagulation in patients without PE, and may help to direct attention to the actual cause. PMID:26628305

  1. Nimodipine in the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, S U; Tietze, K J

    1989-06-01

    Nimodipine, a calcium-channel antagonist with a relatively selective vasodilatory effect on cerebral blood vessels, has recently been approved for improvement of neurologic deficits due to spasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nimodipine has low oral bioavailability (2.7-27.9 percent), a short half-life (2 h), is highly protein bound (98-99 percent), and is hepatically metabolized. Clinical studies have evaluated topical, intravenous, and oral administration of nimodipine for the treatment of cerebral artery spasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. These studies document some benefit of the drug in reducing the occurrence of severe neurologic deficit, although this effect is not universal. Few adverse effects have been noted. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, the appropriate dose and route of administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and the therapeutic efficacy of nimodipine before routine use can be recommended. PMID:2662635

  2. [Viral haemorrhagic fevers--evolution of the epidemic potential].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Markov, V I

    2002-01-01

    In this review modern data on dangerous and particularly dangerous viral haemorrhagic fevers caused by a group of viruses belonging to the families of phylo-, arena-, flavi-, bunya- and togaviruses are presented. Morbidity rates and epidemics caused by Marburg virus, Ebola fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Argentinian and Bolivian haemorrhagic fever viruses, dengue haemorrhagic fever virus, Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaviruses are analyzed. Mechanisms of the evolution of the epidemic manifestation of these infections are considered. The importance of the development of tools and methods of diagnosis, rapid prevention and treatment of exotic haemorrhagic fevers is emphasized. PMID:11949268

  3. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, Aditya; Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Ghosh, Shibajyoti

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a primary adrenal cortical malignancy presenting with spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth such case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:24658522

  4. Perioperative critical care management for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442

  5. Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 3.1 vs 18.6 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  6. Lessons from nosocomial viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    The outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola in 2004-2005 shows once again the devastating and rapid spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers in medical settings where hygiene practices are poorly applied or ignored. The legacy of years of war and poverty in Angola has resulted in very poor medical education and services. The initial high rate of infection among infants in Angola may have been related to poor hospital practices, possibly administration of vaccines. Though the outbreak in Angola was in a part of Africa not previously known to have filovirus infection, prior ecological modelling had predicted this location and many others. Prevention of future outbreaks will not be easy. The urgent need is dissemination of knowledge and the training, discipline and resources for good clinical practice. Educating the public to demand higher standards could be a powerful tool. Good practices are difficult to establish and maintain on the scale needed. PMID:16373655

  7. European Research Priorities for Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Christensen, Hanne; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Csiba, Laszlo; Harnof, Sagi; Krieger, Derk; Mendelow, David; Molina, Carlos; Montaner, Joan; Overgaard, Karsten; Roine, Risto O.; Schmutzhard, Erich; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Toni, Danilo; Stapf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time. No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH. PMID:21986448

  8. Epidemiology of Intracranial Haemorrhages Associated with Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Spain: TAC Registry

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Wainberg, Gustavo; Ximnez-Carrillo Rico, lvaro; Benavente Fernndez, Lorena; Masjuan Vallejo, Jaime; Gllego Culler, Jaime; Freij Guerrero, Mara del Mar; Egido, Jos; Gmez Snchez, Jos Carlos; Martnez Domeo, Alejandro; Purroy Garca, Francisco; Vives Pastor, Brbara; Blanco Gonzlez, Miguel; Vivancos, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (VKA-OACs) are effective for primary and secondary prevention of embolic events. The rate of haemorrhagic neurological complications in patients admitted to neurology departments in Spain is not yet known. Aims We aimed to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with intracranial haemorrhage secondary to VKA-OACs as well as the incidence of this severe complication. Methods We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, multi-centre study using information from the medical records of all patients admitted to neurology departments, diagnosed with spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage, and treated with VKA-OACs within a 1-year period. We collected demographic and care data from centres, patients' medical records [demographic data, medical history, haemorrhage origin, vascular risk factors, concomitant treatment, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores], and patients' outcome at 3 months [independence (modified Rankin Scale score <3) and mortality rate]. Results Twenty-one hospitals serving a population of 8,155,628 inhabitants participated in the study. The total number of cases was 235, the mean age was 78.2 (SD 9.4) years, and the baseline NIHSS score was 11.6 (SD 9.5; median 9; interquartile range 14). The VKA-OACs used were acenocoumarol in 95.3% (224 patients) and warfarin in 4.7% (11 patients). The haemorrhage origin was deep in 29.8%, lobar in 25.5%, intraventricular in 11.5%, extensive in 17.4% (>100 ml), cerebellar in 12.3%, and in the brainstem in 3.4%. The international normalised ratio was within therapeutic ranges at admission (according to indication) in 29.4% (69 patients). The global incidence (cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year) is 2.88. The in-hospital mortality rate was 40%, and 24.3% of the patients were independent at 3 months, while the mortality at 3 months was 42.6%. Conclusion VKA-OAC treatment is associated with a large percentage of all cases of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage, an event leading to high dependence and mortality rates. PMID:26600798

  9. Cervical tourniquet in case of uncontrollable haemorrhage during caesarean section owing to a placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Q C A; Gijsen, A F; Hink, E; Van Kesteren, P J M

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a 38-year-old woman in whom a primary caesarean section for placenta previa was complicated by postpartum haemorrhage due to a placenta accreta. Despite tamponade with a Bakri balloon and placement of a B-Lynch suture, the amount of blood loss could not be effectively reduced. The blood loss was eventually minimised by the placement of a Penrose drain around the cervix as a cervical tourniquet. We think that a cervical tourniquet is an effective method of stopping haemorrhage during caesarean section, as shown in this case report, and we consider this technique to be a valuable addition to several existing methods through which fertility is preserved by preventing emergency hysterectomy. PMID:23608864

  10. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11?days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. PMID:25315802

  11. Massive haemorrhage associated with inadvertent incision of a suspected carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a cat.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, A W; Rozanski, E A; Lynch, A M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old, castrated male, domestic long-haired cat experienced massive haemorrhage associated with an incision of a swelling on the neck 2 weeks after right-sided ventral bulla osteotomy. Emergent control of haemorrhage was gained through unilateral carotid artery ligation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was provided in conjunction with massive blood transfusion. The cat made an unremarkable recovery. Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm due to surgical disruption of the carotid artery during ventral bulla osteotomy, specifically through the use of self-retaining retractors, was suspected. This case highlights the development of pseudoaneurysm as a potential complication of head and neck surgery, and additionally describes a case of massive transfusion in a cat. PMID:26017189

  12. Intracranial haemorrhage 4?days after receiving thrombolytic therapy in a young woman with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sameera Mohamed; Rajani, Ali Raza; Baslaib, Fahad Omar

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage is a known complication after fibrinolytic therapy and occurs usually in the first 24?h. We report a 35-year-old woman who presented with severe central chest pain and she was diagnosed as anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction. She was given fibrinolytic therapy with Tenecteplase. She responded well to the treatment with a decrease in the intensity of chest pain and resolution of the ST segment elevation. She was taken for coronary angiogram the next day, which revealed an occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, and stenting of LAD was carried out. Four? days later, she developed severe headache, confusion, slurring of speech and right haemiparesis. CT brain revealed intracerebral haemorrhage and she was referred to an neurosurgeon who advised for conservative management. Her condition gradually improved with physiotherapy and was discharged home with no marked functional impairment. PMID:23704457

  13. Viral haemorrhagic fevers: current status, future threats.

    PubMed

    Speed, B R; Gerrard, M P; Kennett, M L; Catton, M G; Harvey, B M

    1996-01-15

    In developing countries, the major outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola and Lassa fever viruses have been nosocomially spread. The high mortality and absence of specific treatment have had a devastating effect. Epidemics of this highly contagious disease remain a constant threat to Australia and, as a result, carefully planned laboratory and public health strategies and clinical infection control measures have been instituted for the management of suspected cases. PMID:8569577

  14. Breastfeeding in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Ayse; Cevik, Mustafa Aydin; Onguru, Pinar; Gözel, Gökhan; Akinci, Esragul; Kubar, Ayhan; Bodur, Hurrem

    2008-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is potentially a fatal disease transmitted by tick bite, close contact with blood or tissues of infected humans or viraemic livestock. We present the clinical course of 2 breastfeeding women with CCHF and their babies. Both the mothers had positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for CCHF virus in blood and it was negative in breast milk. At follow-up, babies did not develop CCHF infection. PMID:17934982

  15. [Hepatic haemorrhage in pregnancy: a case report].

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, R; Capasso, L; Sgueglia, S; Casale, L S; Buonincontro, S; Carfora, E; Iodice, A; Borsi, E

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous hepatic haemorrhage in pregnancy (SHHP) is a rare event (1 woman out of 15,000). It is generally considered as an advanced state of the microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (HELLP, Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzyme levels, Low Platelet count). Furthermore, the HELLP is considered as a different form of preeclampsia. The patient, a 33-year-old-woman at 30 weeks' gestation, was admitted to hospital for preeclampsia, underwent an emergency Stark caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus and evidence of massive intraperitonal haemorrhage from a large hepatic haematoma. A haemostasis with gauzes of Surgicel was performed, with consequent arrest of the haemorrhage. After approximately 6 hours, a recurrence of the intraperitonal haemorrhage led to a new surgical intervention with hepatic packing with gauzes. After 4 days the patient died. The etiopathogenesis of disease is uncertain, both foetal and maternal mortality are high, and the slight number of reported cases (27) of SPPH from HELLP in international literature offer elements for debate. The following points have been put forward: 1. the monitoring of the counts of the platelets represent the only valid predictive test of HELLP. These concerned women in the third trimester of pregnancy, especially those with a history of preeclampsia; 2. the treatment must be immediate, intensive and multidisciplinary, the plasmapheresis has remarkably improved the prognosis; 3. surgical treatment performed in order to control the SPPH makes use of packing, embolization and/or fastening of the common hepatic artery and, in extreme cases, total hepatectomy with transplantation. The Authors believe it is useful to suggest a national epidemiological research in order to estimate the real incidence of the syndrome in Italy and to establish the guidelines for the medico-surgical treatment. PMID:15847096

  16. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following hemodynamic treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Awori, Jonathan; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-04-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon but significant complication of hemodynamic therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-induced vasospasm. We performed a PubMed literature search for the period January 1999 to January 2015 using the search terms "posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome", "subarachnoid hemorrhage", "vasospasm", and "hypertensive encephalopathy", and identified nine cases of PRES after aSAH-induced vasospasm in the literature. We also present a 63-year-old man with aSAH complicated by vasospasm treated with hemodynamic augmentation who subsequently developed PRES. Imaging following development of PRES symptoms shows vasogenic edema in the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes. Age, sex, history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure were variable among patients in the literature review. In all cases, patients improved both from a radiological and clinical perspective following blood pressure reduction. To summarize, PRES is a rare complication of hemodynamic therapy for vasospasm following aSAH. The literature at the time of writing demonstrates no common pattern with regard to patient demographics, medical history, or mode of treatment for symptomatic vasospasm. Given its sporadic and unpredictable nature, considering PRES in the differential diagnosis is important when addressing neurological decline following hemodynamic treatment of vasospasm related to aSAH. PMID:26755456

  17. Plasma leakage in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2009-12-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV), a group of four serologically distinct but related flaviviruses, are the cause of one of the most important emerging viral diseases. DENV infections result in a wide spectrum of clinical disease including dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a viral haemorrhagic disease characterised by bleeding and plasma leakage. The characteristic feature of DHF is the transient period of plasma leakage and a haemorrhagic tendency. DHF occurs mostly during a secondary DENV infection. Serotype cross-reactive antibodies and mediators from serotype cross-reactive Dengue-specific T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis. A complex interaction between virus, host immune response and endothelial cells likely impacts the barrier integrity and functions of endothelial cells leading to plasma leakage. Recently the role of angiogenic factors and the role of dengue virus on endothelial cell transcription and functions have been studied. Insights into the mechanisms that confer protection or cause disease are critical in the development of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for this important disease. PMID:19967133

  18. Bevacizumab in vitreous haemorrhage secondary to radiation retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Javier Antonio; Yanez-Castro, Giovanni; Sanchis-Merino, Maria Eugenia; Ruiz-Moreno, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Radiation retinopathy is a delayed-onset side effect of radiation exposure caused by retinal ischaemia that may induce proliferative retinopathy with neovascularisation, vitreous haemorrhage and macular oedema. An otherwise healthy, 51-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with olfactory neuroblastoma and undergone complete surgical removal of the lesion followed by cranial irradiation developed bilateral cataracts and radiation retinopathy. The patient was treated by panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), followed by three-port pars-plana vitrectomy. Recurrent episodes of vitreous haemorrhages occurred following surgery and the patient was successfully treated by one intravitreal injection of bevacizumab with resolution of vitreous blood. Vitreous haemorrhage recurred 6?months later and a scheduled treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab every 4?months was established, preventing further haemorrhagic episodes. Six months after the last injection, a new episode of vitreous haemorrhage occurred. Scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections may help prevent recurrent vitreous haemorrhages in vitrectomised patients with radiation retinopathy. PMID:24510700

  19. Description of the Vasospasm Phenomena following Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Oded; Bruk, Bela; Bakon, Mati; Hadani, Moshe; Harnof, Sagi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-NASAH) is characterized by a benign course compared with aneurysmal SAH. While vasospasm (VS) after aneurysmal SAH is considered responsible for serious complications, VS post-PM-NASAH is not well documented. Our purpose was to characterize the incidence and course of VS among 63 patientsone of the largest databases of PM-NASAH patients with documented blood flow velocities in the literature. Methods. Data from 63 patients that were admitted with PM-NASAH from 2000 to 2012 and underwent transcranial Doppler tests to assess cranial vessel flow velocity was analyzed. Results. On average, the maximal flow velocity was measured on the 7th day after hemorrhage. Higher risk for VS was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher Hunt and Hess scores, a lower risk for patients treated with statins (P < 0.05). Using velocity thresholds for diagnosis of VS, 49.2% showed evidence of VS. This is the first description of blood flow velocities in PM-NASAH. VS average onset was on the 4th day, average cessation on day 15 after hemorrhage. No patients showed clinical manifestation of VS. Conclusions. VS post-PM-NASAH is not as rare as previously believed. However, its lack of clinical significance raises questions regarding the need for diagnosis and may suggest a less intensive treatment protocol. PMID:24455690

  20. Inflammation, Vasospasm, and Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes, and there are few pharmacologic treatments available for treating this condition. Both animal and human studies provide evidence of inflammation being a driving force behind the pathology of SAH, leading to both direct brain injury and vasospasm, which in turn leads to ischemic brain injury. Several inflammatory mediators that are elevated after SAH have been studied in detail. While there is promising data indicating that blocking these factors might benefit patients after SAH, there has been little success in clinical trials. One of the key factors that complicates clinical trials of SAH is the variability of the initial injury and subsequent inflammatory response. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the variability of patients' post-SAH inflammatory response and that this confounds trials of anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, systemic inflammation from other conditions that affect patients with SAH could contribute to brain injury and vasospasm after SAH. Continuing work on biomarkers of inflammation after SAH may lead to development of patient-specific anti-inflammatory therapies to improve outcome after SAH. PMID:25105123

  1. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

  2. Tranexamic acid in the prevention of periventricular haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hensey, O J; Morgan, M E; Cooke, R W

    1984-01-01

    Increased fibrinolytic activity in the ganglionic eminence of the preterm human brain has been proposed as a factor in the aetiology of periventricular haemorrhage. The effect of tranexamic acid in preventing periventricular haemorrhage was evaluated in 100 infants in a double blind, randomised controlled trial. Haemorrhages developed in 22 infants who received tranexamic acid and in 20 of those who received placebo. A significant reduction in fibrin degradation products in treated infants was seen. Our study suggests that excessive fibrinolytic activity is not an important factor in the aetiology of periventricular haemorrhage and that treatment with tranexamic acid will not prevent its occurrence. PMID:6383225

  3. [Subarachnoidal anesthesia: the limits of its potentials].

    PubMed

    Svetlov, V A; Kozlov, S P; Vashchinskaia, T V; Sarkisova, N G

    1999-01-01

    A total of 250 subarachnoidal anesthesias (SA) have been performed in patients operated on the lower limbs, perineum, external genitals, pelvic organs, and anterior abdominal wall at department for plastic and reconstructive surgery. The efficacy and safety of SA in everyday practice has been evaluated. A total of simultaneous 228 SA with three hyperbaric solutions were carried out: 5% ultracaine, 0.75% bupivacaine, 0.5% marcaine, and one isobaric solution 0.5% bupivacaine. Prolonged SA was administered to 10 patients and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) to 19. The sensory block was assessed by the pin prick test and the motor blocking by Bromage score. Of the central segmentary blockades, SA has been preferred for the above-listed interventions in recent years. Hyperbaric and isobaric solutions caused analgesia of different duration, latent period, and dissemination of the anesthetic under different clinical situations. Prolonged SA is justified in patients with limited hemodynamic reserves, and CSEA should be preferred when the expected duration of the intervention is longer than the estimated duration of SA effects. SA is an effective and safe method for surgical anesthesia on condition of proper choice of the local anesthetic, use of high-quality kits, and strict adherence to the protocol of subarachnoidal puncture and injection. PMID:10560150

  4. Cerebral Infarction After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Kenji; Suzuki, Hidenori; Taki, Waro

    2016-01-01

    Predictors for cerebral infarction, an important cause of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), were examined. This study used data from the Prospective Registry of Subarachnoid Aneurysms Treatment (PRESAT) cohort, which included 579 patients whose ruptured aneurysms were treated with either clipping or coiling within 12 days of onset. Patient, clinical, radiographic, and treatment variables associated with cerebral infarction were determined. Ruptured aneurysms were clipped in 282 patients and coiled in 297 patients. Cerebral infarction occurred in 162 patients (28.0 %): 101 patients by cerebral vasospasm, 34 patients by clipping, and 33 patients by coiling. Univariate analyses showed that significant factors associated with cerebral infarction development were Fisher computed tomography (CT) group 3 on admission, premature aneurysm rupture during clipping procedure, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, symptomatic vasospasm, endovascular treatment for vasospasm, and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that cerebral infarction was significantly associated with Fisher CT group 3 on admission, larger aneurysm dome size, ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms, premature aneurysm rupture during clipping procedure, symptomatic vasospasm, and infection, while endovascular treatment for vasospasm significantly decreased the development of cerebral infarction. The most important potentially treatable factor associated with cerebral infarction was symptomatic vasospasm. PMID:26463943

  5. Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

  6. Diphtheria Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Materials Publications Related Links World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) Diphtheria and the Alaskan Iditarod Complications Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Complications from ...

  7. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high risk for peripartum hemorrhage. Early removal of the endovascular catheter and close postoperative surveillance of the vascular system are required with this procedure to minimize the risk of vascular complications. However, further studies are needed to determine whether the potential benefits of temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon outweigh the potential risks. PMID:26679671

  8. Periprocedural complications in endovascular stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Suha H; Yilmaz, Guliz

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stroke treatment is a neurointerventional emergency where the main goal is the early recanalization of the occlusion within the critical time window, as safely as possible. Although the time window and rate of complications for endovascular stroke treatment differ with anterior and posterior circulation strokes, awareness of potential periprocedural complications is important, as they affect patient morbidity and mortality. Periprocedural complications are classified as haemorrhagic complications, procedure-/device-related, puncture site complications, and late-onset events including vascular stenosis. We present the digital subtraction angiography and CT imaging findings related to these complications in a study of 56 stroke patients, as they relate to previous findings in the literature. PMID:26529228

  9. Intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants--can we improve outcome by addressing coagulation?

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Amir A; Brenner, Benjamin; Kenet, Gili

    2015-11-01

    During the last few decades, the survival of preterm infants has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, with the increasing number of very young and extremely low birth weight infants, morbidity is still a major problem. Intraventricular Haemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth, and large haemorrhages or haemorrhages associated with parenchymal brain lesions may yield a high rate of future disability. IVH is a complex, multi-factorial disorder. Prematurity and low birth weight remain as its most important risk factors, affecting vulnerability of the germinal matrix as well as the coagulation system. Approximately 80% of IVHs occur by 72 h after birth, but a considerable proportion of IVH is already visible on the first cranial ultrasound scan within a few hours of birth. The hypothesis that a severe coagulation deficiency in the premature newborn could be a major contributing factor to IVH has been suggested, and small open label interventional studies targeting the premature coagulation system have been conducted with ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate. The outcome of these studies will be reviewed. PMID:23968273

  10. Epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    McMoli, T. E.; Bordoh, A. N.; Munube, G. M.; Bell, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Enterovirus 70 has recently emerged as a causative agent of epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( AHC ). This paper is a report of the first association of enterovirus 70 with epidemic AHC in Nigeria. Despite numerous symptoms, including reduction in visual acuity, eventual recovery in 2 to 3 weeks with no functional loss was the rule except in 11 patients. Five of these patients ended up with superficial corneal scarring. Two had evisceration for unresolving panophthalmitis, while 4 went blind from ruptured corneal abscesses or ulcers. All the 11 patients had treated themselves or used traditional medications. None of the patients had signs of involvement of the central nervous system. PMID:6326796

  11. Outcome following subdural haemorrhages in infancy.

    PubMed

    Jayawant, Sandeep; Parr, Jeremy

    2007-04-01

    Subdural haemorrhages (SDH) are associated with significant neurodisability in affected individuals. The incidence of SDH in infants is between 12 and 25 cases per 100,000 children and most detected SDH are due to physical abuse. In the infant brain, SDH are caused by tearing of the bridging veins in the subdural space and may result in significant brain injury. The challenge of assessing outcome in infants with SDH is evaluating whether SDH or other accompanying brain insults are instrumental in the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:17376941

  12. Outcome following subdural haemorrhages in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, Sandeep; Parr, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Subdural haemorrhages (SDH) are associated with significant neurodisability in affected individuals. The incidence of SDH in infants is between 12 and 25 cases per 100 000 children and most detected SDH are due to physical abuse. In the infant brain, SDH are caused by tearing of the bridging veins in the subdural space and may result in significant brain injury. The challenge of assessing outcome in infants with SDH is evaluating whether SDH or other accompanying brain insults are instrumental in the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:17376941

  13. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

  14. Endovascular Perforation Murine Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo Jia; Lu, Gang; Zheng, Zhi Yuan; Poon, Wai Sang; Wong, Kwok Chu George

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subtype of stroke with disastrous outcomes of high disability and mortality. A variety of endeavors have been developed to explore a SAH animal model for investigation of the disease. Among these models, the endovascular perforation SAH model was considered to be the most simulative to the clinical human SAH because it reproduces several pathophysiology procedures and presents some of the most important post-hemorrhage features. An applicable SAH animal model should have the characteristics of low mortality rate, limited surgical manipulation, and adaptation to many species, which permits reproducibility and standardization. An intensive discussion of how to improve the techniques and refine the procedure has taken place in the last decade. This report describes our experiences with a murine model of SAH. We aim to standardize and optimize the procedures to establish a relatively stable animal model for SAH research. PMID:26463927

  15. Non-communicating supratentorial subarachnoid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Y. S.

    1972-01-01

    The clinical and radiological features and operative treatment of six patients with supratentorial subarachnoid cysts are reviewed. Five were adults aged 37 to 57 years and the other a male infant, aged 8 months. Three patients presented with epilepsy and hemiparesis, one with epilepsy without signs, another as Parkinsonian syndrome, and the infant with hydrocephalus. Diagnosis was revealed at operation in four cases, in one case by ventriculography, and in one case the lesion was strongly suspected on angiographic appearances. Surgical treatment is highly effective, since the cystic lesion is benign in nature, but recurrence of symptoms is not unusual and repeated evacuation of the cyst may be required. It is, therefore, considered essential to conduct a prolonged and careful follow-up. Images PMID:4539639

  16. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prognostic features and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tamargo, R J; Walter, K A; Oshiro, E M

    1997-11-01

    The prognostic features and outcomes associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are reviewed. In the first section, the epidemiology of SAH is discussed with emphasis on prevalence, incidence, risk factors, heredity, activity, and seasonal variability. In the second section, the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with aneurysmal SAH is briefly reviewed. In the third section, the prognostic features associated with aneurysmal SAH are discussed with emphasis on neurologic condition and SAH grading scales, patient's age, aneurysm size and location, repeat hemorrhage, vasospasm, systemic disease, hypertensive response, computed tomograph features, hydrocephalus, timing of surgery, and expertise of the aneurysm center. Also in the third section, the prognostic features associated with unruptured aneurysms are discussed with emphasis on the actuarial risk of rupture, aneurysm size and location, and multiplicity of lesions. In the fourth and final section, the outcomes of aneurysmal SAH over the past 60 yrs are reviewed. PMID:9433989

  17. Secondary intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spinal missile injury.

    PubMed

    Smialek, J E; Chason, J L; Kshirsagar, V; Spitz, W U

    1981-04-01

    Fresh intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage may occur secondary to blast-type injury of the spinal cord. This phenomenon is demonstrated in four cases of gunshot and shotgun wounds involving the spinal column. The significance of such a finding is that the subarachnoid hemorrhage should not be construed to represent an independent injury. Such an erroneous conclusion could jeopardize a theory of self-defense in a homicidal shooting. PMID:7264587

  18. Acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage: the role of the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Kerr, S F; Puppala, S

    2011-05-01

    Acute gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage is a frequent and potentially life threatening medical presentation, the management of which depends on more than one speciality. Upper GI haemorrhage is often treated by endoscopic methods, failing which radiological intervention or surgery are the alternative methods of treatment. Radiology is crucial both in the diagnosis and treatment of lower GI haemorrhage, where the role of endoscopy is limited by poor visibility. CT angiography is now the first line investigation of choice and catheter angiography is used as a prelude to intervention. Interventional radiological techniques for treatment include embolisation for both upper and lower GI arterial haemorrhage and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting for upper GI variceal haemorrhage refractory to endoscopic treatment. PMID:21398684

  19. Midbrain and thalamic haemorrhage as first presentation of intracerebral glioma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh T; Wray, Alison C; Laidlaw, John D

    2005-11-01

    A case of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (midbrain and thalamic, with intraventricular extension) as the first presentation of an anaplastic astrocytoma is presented. Multiple CT scans and cerebral angiography failed to identify any vascular or neoplastic cause for the haemorrhage, and a presumptive diagnosis of hypertensive haemorrhage was made. Shunting of hydrocephalus was followed by early clinical improvement. However, delayed progressive deterioration necessitated MRI scan, which demonstrated a mass lesion in the basal ganglia and midbrain. This was subsequently found to be anaplastic astrocytoma on biopsy. The literature regarding this uncommon presentation of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage from an occult brain tumour is reviewed. The need for investigation and close follow-up of presumed hypertensive haemorrhage is emphasised by this case. PMID:16326274

  20. Sonographic findings in an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Tongsong, Theera; Puntachai, Pongsun; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this series was to describe sonographic features of an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space with a thin cerebral mantle and possible associations. Between January 2004 and December 2013, fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space were prospectively recruited and followed. Histories of medical and familial diseases, as well as other demographic data such as drug exposure and lifestyles, were assessed and prospectively recorded. The women were investigated for possible associated factors. Ten pregnant women were recruited. Their fetuses showed various degrees of a widened subarachnoid space, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Nearly all were diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. Four cases had normal brain structures documented at midpregnancy anomaly screening. Only 1 case had a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space at 20 weeks' gestation. Two fetuses had exposure to alcohol in utero; 2 were proven to have cytomegalovirus infection; 1 had subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to maternal use of warfarin; and 1 had a diagnosis of lissencephaly. Only 1 case in this series had normal postnatal development. A prenatal series of fetal widened subarachnoid spaces with possible associated factors is described. Although such relationships were not fully proven, they should be index cases for future studies. PMID:25911725

  1. Prognosis and Outcome of Intracerebral Haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Solne; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 15% of all strokes and is a leading cause of disability, with a one-month mortality rate of 40%. Whereas factors predicting short-term mortality are well known, data regarding long-term outcome are scarce and imprecise. The two main underlying vasculopathies responsible for ICH, i.e. deep perforating vasculopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, might have an impact on the overall prognosis of ICH survivors. ICH survivors are at high risk of epileptic seizures, depression and cognitive impairment, which may influence their functional outcome. Lobar location of an ICH, frequently due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, partly determines the long-term risk of recurrent haemorrhage. Because of common vascular risk factors, patients with ICH are also at considerable risk of serious ischaemic events. Risks of future ischaemic events may be as high as that of recurrent ICH, raising the relevance of antithrombotic treatment in ICH survivors. Future studies of long-term follow-up after ICH are needed to determine predictors of outcome, including biomarkers of the underlying vasculopathies, to tailor preventive strategies to survivors. PMID:26587771

  2. The neuropathology of infant subdural haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney; Mack, Julie

    2009-05-30

    Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) in the infant has a different pattern from that seen in the older child and adult. It is usually a widespread, bilateral, thin film, unlike the thick, space-occupying and often unilateral clot seen in older children and adults after trauma. Whether both arise by the same mechanism is unknown, but it seems unlikely. Most SDH is said to be due to trauma but in infants there are other, atraumatic causes. Birth is also important; recent MRI studies show an incidence of almost 50% in asymptomatic neonates. Traumatic SDH is said to result from rupture of bridging veins but new insights into the anatomy of infant dura suggest a dural origin for thin film subdural bleeding in young babies. Acute SDH usually rapidly resolves, but sometimes develops into a chronic fluid collection. Healing of SDH is by formation of a granulating membrane which may confer vulnerability to rebleeding, either spontaneously or after an otherwise innocuous event. SDH has a particular significance as one of the features of the triad (together with retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy) associated with non-accidental injury. As the possibility of non-accidental injury is often first raised by a radiologic report of subdural bleeding, it becomes critically important in the interpretation of the scan appearances to understand the unique physiology and anatomy of the infant dura. PMID:19303229

  3. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

    2004-12-01

    Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy. PMID:15677844

  4. Foot Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Complications > Foot Complications Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Foot Complications People with diabetes can develop many different foot problems. Even ordinary problems can get worse and ...

  5. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H

    2015-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973

  6. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed. PMID:18278167

  7. Exsanguinated uterus after massive atonic postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mahadik, Kalpana V; Swami, M B; Pandey, Neha; Pathak, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses issues related to pregnancy anaemia and late referral by a village birth attendant in resource poor setting in a central state of India. A young anaemic woman had labour onset at her village, a birth attendant tried to deliver her but failed. When she came to our hospital, had established septicaemia and absolutely non-reassurable uterine tone leading to intractable atonic postpartum haemorrhage. She died after 5?days because of coagulopathy and multiorgan failure. Huge budgets are being spent for the promotion of institutional deliveries but still the maternal mortality ratio has not reduced. The epidemiology of childbirth, social awareness for safe labour and administrative lethargy towards implementation of government programmes have not changed. The tertiary careblood and componentsmultidisciplinary approach could not prevent the death of an anaemic woman. Unless there is a grassroot level change in the healthcare delivery system at the village level, the scenario might not change. PMID:23853190

  8. Retinal haemorrhages associated with fatal paediatric infections.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Marcus C; Lantz, Patrick E

    2015-04-01

    For many physicians, retinal haemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children remain highly diagnostic of non-accidental (abusive) head trauma. Because clinicians have applied indirect ophthalmoscopy selectively to cases of suspected child abuse, the association between RH and other conditions such as infection, coagulopathy and accidental trauma has encountered habitual bias, creating the potential for iatrogenic misdiagnosis of child abuse. We present an autopsy case series of four children, aged three years old or younger, in whom RHs were detected by post-mortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy after the patients had died from infections. We discuss the laterality, number, type and location of RHs in these cases, and summarize proposed mechanisms of RH formation in fatalities from paediatric infection. We demonstrate that many of the ophthalmological findings that have been considered diagnostic of abusive head trauma can also occur in association with infective processes. PMID:24644226

  9. A rare case of delayed subarachnoid anesthetic blockade effects in a 103-year-old female patient

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The elderly represent a unique challenge for the effects of regional anesthesia, and very few cases of block onset delay have been described. Their delayed response is attributed to a number of factors that include: Physiologic deterioration, musculoskeletal contractures, degenerative joint disease, autonomic regulatory dysfunction, cognitive dysfunction, altered pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of local anesthetics and adjuvants. Case Description: In this report we present the rare case of 45-min delay between the administration and onset of action of a subarachnoid blockade in a 103-year-old female, who was scheduled for left hip pinning, for repair of a femoral neck fracture. Patient received an injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 1.5 ml of 0.75% (11.25 mg), with 15 mcg of fentanyl into the subarachnoidal space and underwent the surgical procedure without complications. Conclusions: Delayed responses to subarachnoid anesthesia can be expected in extremely elderly patients. Anesthetic procedures should be monitored and managed on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26060597

  10. Impact of Comorbidity on Early Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Avdagic, Selma Sijercic; Brkic, Harun; Avdagic, Harun; Smajic, Jasmina; Hodzic, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the complications aneurysms subarachnoid hemorrhage is the development of vasospasm, which is the leading cause of disability and death from ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Aim: To evaluate the significance of previous comorbidities on early outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm in the prevention of vasospasm. Patients and methods: The study had prospective character in which included 50 patients, whose diagnosed with SAH caused by the rupture of a brain aneurysm in the period from 2011to 2013. Two groups of patients were formed. Group I: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered nimodipine at a dose of 15-30 mg / kg bw / h (3-10 ml) for the duration of the initial treatment. Group II: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered with MgSO4 at a dose of 12 grams in 500 ml of 0.9% NaCl / 24 h during the initial treatment. Results: Two-thirds of the patients (68%) from both groups had a good outcome measured with values according to GOS scales, GOS IV and V. The poorer outcome, GOS III had 20% patients, the GOS II was at 2% and GOS I within 10% of patients. If we analyze the impact of comorbidity on the outcome, it shows that there is a significant relationship between the presence of comorbidity and outcomes. The patients without comorbidity (83.30%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), the same outcome was observed (59.4%) with comorbidities, which has a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). Patients without diabetes (32%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), while the percentage of patients with diabetes less frequent (2%) with a good outcome, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.009). Conclusion: The outcome of treatment 30 days after the subarachnoid hemorrhage analyzed values WFNS and GOS, is not dependent on the method of prevention and treatment of vasospasm. Most concomitant diseases in patients with SAH which, requiring additional treatment measures are arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The best predictors in the initial treatment of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm has the presence of comorbidity, which has statistical significance. PMID:26622076

  11. Multimodal MRI characterization of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Shen, Q; Watts, L T; Muir, E R; Huang, S; Yang, G-Y; Suarez, J I; Duong, T Q

    2016-03-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We implemented an in-scanner rat model of mild SAH in which blood or vehicle was injected into the cistern magna, and applied multimodal MRI to study the brain prior to, immediately after (5min to 4h), and upto 7days after SAH. Vehicle injection did not change arterial lumen diameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2, venous signal, vascular reactivity to hypercapnia, or foot-fault scores, but mildly reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF) up to 4h, and open-field activity up to 7days post injection. By contrast, blood injection caused: (i) vasospasm 30min after SAH but not thereafter, (ii) venous abnormalities at 3h and 2days, delayed relative to vasospasm, (iii) reduced basal CBF and to hypercapnia 1-4h but not thereafter, (iv) reduced ADC immediately after SAH but no ADC and T2 changes on days 2 and 7, and (v) reduced open-field activities in both SAH and vehicle animals, but no significant differences in open-field activities and foot-fault tests between groups. Mild SAH exhibited transient and mild hemodynamic disturbances and diffusion changes, but did not show apparent ischemic brain injury nor functional deficits. PMID:26708744

  12. Toxic megacolon complicating Escherichia coli O157 infection.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Deepa M; Vetrivel, Shanmu; McElroy, Jack; Pai, Pearl; Koerner, Roland J

    2006-04-01

    Toxic megacolon is a well known complication in inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The development of toxic megacolon as a complication of infectious colitis is rare. However it is recognised as a complication of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Salmonella species, Cytomegalovirus and amoebae. We describe a case of necrotising haemorrhagic ileo-colitis in a previously fit and healthy young adult female caused by Escherichia coli O157 where toxic megacolon developed as a complication along with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). PMID:16126276

  13. Decorin alleviated chronic hydrocephalus via inhibiting TGF-?1/Smad/CTGF pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Chen, Yujie; Li, Lingyong; Jiang, Jiaode; Wu, Guangyong; Zuo, Yuchun; Zhang, John H; Feng, Hua; Yan, Xiaoxin; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus is one of the severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there is no efficient treatment for the prevention of chronic hydrocephalus, partially due to poor understanding of underlying pathogenesis, subarachnoid fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-?1(TGF-?1) is a potent fibrogenic factor implicated in wide range of fibrotic diseases. To investigate whether decorin, a natural antagonist for TGF-?1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and chronic hydrocephalus after SAH, two-hemorrhage-injection SAH model was conducted in 6-week-old rats. Recombinant human decorin(rhDecorin) (30ug/2ul) was administered before blood injection and on the 10th day after SAH. TGF-?1, p-Smad2/3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide were assessed via western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. And neurobehavioral tests and Morris water maze were employed to evaluate long-term neurological functions after SAH. We found that SAH induced heightened activation of TGF-?1/Smad/CTGF axis, presenting as a two peak response of TGF-?1 in cerebrospinal fluid, elevation of TGF-?1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I in brain parenchyma and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide in cerebrospinal fluid, and increased lateral ventricle index. rhDecorin treatment effectively inhibited up-regulation of TGF-?1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide after SAH. Moreover, rhDecorin treatment significantly reduced lateral ventricular index and incidence of chronic hydrocephalus after SAH. Importantly, rhDecorin improved neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, rhDecorin suppresses extracellular matrix accumulation and following subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibiting TGF-?1/Smad/CTGF pathway, preventing development of hydrocephalus and attenuating long-term neurocognitive defects after SAH. PMID:26556770

  14. Causes of 30-day readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Washington, Chad W; Guniganti, Ridhima; Dacey, Ralph G; Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Hospital readmission is a common but controversial quality measure increasingly used to influence hospital compensation in the US. The objective of this study was to evaluate the causes for 30-day hospital readmission following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to determine the appropriateness of this performance metric and to identify potential avenues for improved patient care. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who received surgical orendovas-cular treatment for aneurysmal SAH at Barnes-Jewish Hospital between 2003 and 2013. Two senior faculty identified by consensus the primary medical/surgical diagnosis associated with readmission as well as the underlying causes of rehospitalization. RESULTS Among 778 patients treated for aneurysmal SAH, 89 experienced a total of 97 readmission events, yielding a readmission rate of 11.4%. The median time from discharge to readmission was 9 days (interquartile range 3-17.5 days). Actual hydrocephalus or potential concern for hydrocephalus (e.g., headache) was the most frequent diagnosis (26/97, 26.8%), followed by infections (e.g., wound infection [5/97, 5.2%], urinary tract infection [3/97, 3.1%], and pneumonia [3/97, 3.1%]) and thromboembolic events (8/97, 8.2%). In most cases (75/97, 77.3%), we did not identify any treatment lapses contributing to readmission. The most common underlying causes for readmission were unavoidable development of SAH-related pathology (e.g., hydrocephalus; 36/97, 37.1%) and complications related to neurological impairment and immobility (e.g., thromboembolic event despite high-dose chemoprophylaxis; 21/97, 21.6%). The authors determined that 22/97 (22.7%) of the readmissions were likely preventable with alternative management. In these cases, insufficient outpatient medical care (for example, for hyponatremia; 16/97, 16.5%) was the most common shortcoming. CONCLUSIONS Most readmissions after aneurysmal SAH relate to late consequences of hemorrhage, such as hydrocephalus, or medical complications secondary to severe neurological injury. Although a minority of readmissions may potentially be avoided with closer medical follow-up in the transitional care environment, readmission after SAH is an insensitive and likely inappropriate hospital performance metric. PMID:26361278

  15. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome involving the liver.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Wong, T W; Yap, E H; Tan, H C; Lee, H W; Chu, Y K; Lee, P W

    1987-09-01

    A case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that originated in Malaysia is reported. The patient presented with clinical symptoms which were not typical of the disease as seen in endemic regions. Renal involvement, which is characteristic of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, was mild, and the predominant symptom was a persistently marked elevation of serum transaminase levels that was suggestive of hepatitis. Liver involvement has not been described in the Asian form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The patient developed a petechial skin rash and had severe thrombocytopenia. Serological confirmation of the diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome was obtained by the demonstration of significant antibody rises to hantaviruses in the patient's acute- and convalescent-phase sera. PMID:2890086

  16. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper. PMID:25181505

  17. Effect of statins treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhui; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm is one of the most common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.Statins have been proven to be effective to reduce the incidence of vasospasm both in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and several clinical trials before. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of statins for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We made strict search strategies to select the randomized controlled trial and observational studies published up to December 20th 2014. Outcomes of interest were cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. Data analyses of RCTs and observational studies were made separately. Finally six randomized clinical trial and eight observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were in total 1031 patients in six RCTs with 504 patients received statins and 527 patients in placebo group. 561 patients with statins compared with 1579 patients in no statin-use group were finally included in 8 observational studies. Outcomes included in this meta-analysis (cerebral vasospasm, DIC and poor outcome) all indicated no statistical significance between two groups both in RCTs and observational studies. No benefits of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed in both RCTs and observational studies, which was quite different from the results of several previous meta-analysis. PMID:26221259

  18. Epizootic occurrence of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis virus infection of geese.

    PubMed

    Palya, Vilmos; Ivanics, Eva; Glvits, Rbert; Dn, Adm; Mat, Tams; Zarka, Pter

    2004-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis in geese flocks of 3 to 10 weeks in age in Hungary were investigated. Mortality varied between 4% and 67%. Affected birds generally died suddenly. Occasional clinical signs included tremors of the head and neck, subcutaneous haemorrhages and excretion of faeces containing partly digested blood. At necropsy the most frequent findings were a turgid wall and reddish mucosa of the intestines and reddish discolouration of the swollen kidneys, but oedema and haemorrhages of the subcutaneous connective tissue, hydropericardium and ascites were also seen. In subacute cases, visceral gout was frequently observed. Histological examination revealed zonal necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells with haemorrhages in the kidney. Other histological findings were serous hepatitis with fatty infiltration, necrotizing haemorrhagic enteritis and haemorrhages in the different organs including the brain. Experimental geese infected parenterally with crude liver and spleen homogenates prepared from diseased birds died after 8 to 20 days without premonitory signs, and had typical gross and histological lesions. Attempts to isolate cytopathic virus on different tissue cultures failed. The presence of polyomavirus was proven by polymerase chain reaction. Five isolates were further investigated by analysing their complete VP1 gene sequence. All tested strains were very closely related to each other on the basis of the nucleotide sequence, and they were identical at the deduced amino acid level. PMID:15276995

  19. Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

  20. Basal Ganglia Damage in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haining; Okubo, Shuichi; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a primary therapeutic target, and early SAH-induced basal ganglia injury is not well studied. The present study examined basal ganglia injury in a rat model of SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?78) weighing 275-300 g underwent endovascular perforation to mimic aneurysmal SAH. Sham rats (n?=?12) underwent the same procedure but without perforation. Magnetic resonance imaging (T2 MRI) was performed at 24 h after SAH to measure ventricle volumes and brain T2 lesion. Hydrocephalus in SAH rats was defined as a ventricular volume greater than three standard deviations above that in shams. Western blotting and immunochemistry were utilized to assess basal ganglia damage. Sixty rats survived the SAH and 40 % of those animals had T2 lesions in the basal ganglia. Twenty-six SAH rats had hydrocephalus. Rats with hydrocephalus had higher incidence of basal ganglia lesion (69 vs. 18 % in rats without hydrocephalus; p?

  1. Axonal pathology in subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Rejdak, K; Belli, A; Sen, J; Keir, G; Kitchen, N; Smith, M; Thompson, E J

    2005-03-01

    Electrically active axons degenerate in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. High CSF NO concentrations have been observed in patients with hemorrhagic brain injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study investigated the evidence for axonal injury in SAH and ICH and related this to CSF NO levels. In this study, neurofilament phosphoforms (NfH(SMI34), NfH(SMI35), NfH(SMI38), NfH(SMI310)), surrogate markers for axonal injury, and NO metabolites (nitrate, nitrite = NOx) were measured by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with SAH and ICH and from a group of controls. Injury severity was classified using the Glasgow Coma Scale, and survival was used as the outcome measure. Compared to the control group, a higher proportion of patients with SAH and ICH had elevated NfH(SMI34) levels from day 0 to day 6 (p < 0.001), elevated NfH(SMI35) levels from day 1 to 6 (p < 0.001), and elevated NfH(SMI310) levels at day 0, 1, 4, and 6 (p < 0.001). The NOx levels were higher in the SAH and ICH patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and distinguished the non-survivors from the survivors (p < 0.05). No direct correlation was found for NOx with any of the NfH phosphoforms. This study provides evidence for primary and secondary axonal injury in patients with SAH and ICH, with non-survivors also having higher NOx levels. CSF NfH phosphoforms might emerge as a putative surrogate marker for monitoring the development for secondary axonal degeneration in neurocritical care and guiding targeted neuroprotective strategies. PMID:15785235

  2. Cerebral vasospasm following traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aminmansour, Bahram; Ghorbani, Abbas; Sharifi, Davood; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cerebral vasospasm is a preventable cause of death and disability in patients who experience aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of cerebral vasospasm following traumatic SAH and its relationship with different brain injuries and severity of trauma. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2006 to March 2007 in department of Neurosurgery in Al-Zahra Hospital. Consecutive head-injured patients who had SAH on the basis of an admission CT scan were prospectively evaluated. The severity of the trauma was evaluated by determining Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography evaluations were performed at least 48 hours after admission and one week thereafter. Vasospasm in the MCA and ACA was defined by mean flow velocity (FV) of more than 120 cm/sec with a Lindegaard index (MVA/ICA FV ratio) higher than 3. Basilar artery vasospasm was defined by FV higher than 85 cm/sec. Results: Seventy seven patients with tSAH were enrolled from whom 13 were excluded. The remaining were 52 (81.2%) men and 12 (18.7%) women, with a mean age of 37.89 years. Trauma was severe in 11 (17.2%), moderate in 13 (20.3%), and mild in 40 (62.5%) patients. From all, 27 patients (42.1%) experienced at least one vasospasm during the study period and MCA vasospasm was the most common in the first and second weeks (55.5%). Conclusions: Traumatic SAH is associated with a high incidence of cerebral vasospasm with a higher probability in patients with severe TBI. PMID:21772907

  3. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  4. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with thalamic involvement during vasopressor treatment of vertebrobasilar vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Madaelil, Thomas Philip; Dhar, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic augmentation is the primary medical intervention employed to reverse neurological deficits associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Failure to improve despite induced hypertension (IH) may raise concern for persistent hypoperfusion and prompt even more aggressive blood pressure augmentation. However, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a hyperperfusion syndrome reported as a rare complication of IH that may confound this picture. We report a case of PRES with prominent thalamic involvement and impaired level of consciousness secondary to blood pressure augmentation for the treatment of symptomatic vertebrobasilar vasospasm. Recognition of this syndrome in distinction to worsening ischemia is particularly critical, as normalization of blood pressure should lead to rapid clinical improvement. PMID:26655666

  5. A review of current and future medical therapies for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mocco, J; Zacharia, Brad E; Komotar, Ricardo J; Connolly, E Sander

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to help clarify the current state of medical therapy for cerebral vasospasm, the authors reviewed the relevant literature on the established medical therapies used for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and they discuss burgeoning areas of investigation. Despite advances in the treatment of aneurysmal SAH, cerebral vasospasm remains a common complication and has been correlated with a 1.5- to threefold increase in death during the first 2 weeks after hemorrhage. A number of medical, pharmacological, and surgical therapies are currently in use or being investigated in an attempt to reverse cerebral vasospasm, but only a few have proven to be useful. Although much has been elucidated regarding its pathophysiology, the treatment of cerebral vasospasm remains a dilemma. Although a poor understanding of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm pathophysiology has, to date, hampered the development of therapeutic interventions, current research efforts promise the eventual production of new medical therapies. PMID:17029348

  6. Simvastatin Re-Couples Dysfunctional Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Marsden, Philip A.; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2011-01-01

    Reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function has been linked to secondary complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We previously found that there is increased eNOS function after SAH but that it is uncoupled, leading to secondary complications such as vasospasm, microthromboembolism and neuronal apoptosis. Here we test the hypothesis that recoupling eNOS with simvastatin can prevent these complications. SAH was created in mice that were treated with vehicle or simvastatin starting 2 weeks before or 30 minutes after SAH. SAH increased phosphorylated eNOS which was prevented by pre- or post-treatment with simvastatin. Simvastatin pre-treatment also prevented the increase in eNOS monomer formation that was associated with SAH, decreased superoxide anion radical production and increased NO. These changes were associated with decreased vasospasm, microthromboemboli and neuronal injury. The data suggest that simvastatin re-couples eNOS after SAH, leading to decreased secondary complications such as vasospasm, microthromboemboli and neuronal injury. PMID:21373645

  7. Genetic risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Amanda M; Singh, Inder P; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the greatest morbidity and mortality of all stroke subtypes. Established risk factors for ICH include hypertension, alcohol use, current cigarette smoking, and use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents. Familial aggregation of ICH has been observed, and the heritability of ICH risk has been estimated at 44%. Few genes have been found to be associated with ICH at the population level, and much of the evidence for genetic risk factors for ICH comes from single studies conducted in relatively small and homogenous populations. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of genetic variants associated with primary spontaneous ICH. Two variants of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE) - which also contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy - are the most likely candidates for variants that increase the risk of ICH. Other promising candidates for risk alleles in ICH include variants of the genes ACE, PMF1/SLC25A44, COL4A2, and MTHFR. Other genetic variants, related to haemostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and the CNS microenvironment, have been linked to ICH in single candidate gene studies. Although evidence for genetic contributions to the risk of ICH exists, we do not yet fully understand how and to what extent this information can be utilized to prevent and treat ICH. PMID:26670299

  8. Incidence and risk factors associated with in-hospital venous thromboembolism after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Seicean, Andreea; Kelly, Michael L; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Weil, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with in-hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2002 to 2010 for hospital admissions for subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage and either aneurysm clipping or coiling. Exclusion criteria were age <18, arteriovenous malformation/fistula diagnosis or repair, or radiosurgery. Primary outcome was VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolus [PE]). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess association between risk factors and VTE. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, discharge disposition, length of stay and hospital charges. A total of 15,968 hospital admissions were included. Overall rates of VTE (DVT or PE), DVT, and PE were 4.4%, 3.5%, and 1.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with increased VTE risk: increasing age, black race, male sex, teaching hospital, congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, neurologic disorders, paralysis, fluid and electrolyte disorders, obesity, and weight loss. Patients that underwent clipping versus coiling had similar VTE rates. VTE was associated with pulmonary/cardiac complication (odds ratio [OR] 2.8), infectious complication (OR 2.8), ventriculostomy (OR 1.8), and vasospasm (OR 1.3). Patients with VTE experienced increased non-routine discharge (OR 3.3), and had nearly double the mean length of stay (p<0.001) and total inflation-adjusted hospital charges (p<0.001). To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of VTE after aSAH. The presence of one or more of these factors may necessitate more aggressive VTE prophylaxis. PMID:24128773

  9. The metabolic effects of moderately severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in man.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. J.; Alberti, K. G.; Binder, C.; Holdstock, G.; Karran, S. J.; Smith, C. L.; Talbot, S.; Turnell, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic effects of moderately severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage were investigated in man. Before resuscitation, patients had raised circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, alanine, glycerol and cortisol. After urgent operation for haemorrhage, metabolite concentrations were similar to those of control patients having elective abdominal surgery, but insulin concentrations were higher and cortisol lower in haemorrhage patients. There were no significant differences in nitrogen excretion between haemorrhage patients and their controls, but urinary 3-methyl-histidine excretion by haemorrhage patients was lower indicating decreased muscle protein breakdown. Decreased amino acid release from muscle might account for previously reported imparied wound healing after haemorrhage. PMID:7045838

  10. Computed tomography demonstration of subarachnoid-pleural fistula.

    PubMed

    Hicken, P; Martin, J; Hakanson, S

    1990-08-01

    A persistent left pleural effusion caused diagnostic difficulty in a young girl, 2 years after a road accident had rendered her paraplegic. Eventually, after instillation of a contrast medium into the pleural fluid, computed tomography showed a fistulous communication between the subarachnoid and pleural spaces at the level in the dorsal spine where trauma had occurred. PMID:2207780

  11. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of— Preeclampsia. Early delivery. Cesarean birth . Having a big baby, which can complicate delivery. Having a baby ... health prevention with improved sources of maternal health data, and methods for measuring and studying the data. ...

  12. Metastatic angiosarcoma: a vascular tumour or an intracranial haemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Masih, Izhaq; McIlwaine, Werner

    2010-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with weakness of his right arm and leg. He had previously had mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annuloplasty, leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and femoral embolism. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed an acute left thalamic haemorrhage. Repeat CT brain showed resolution of the original haemorrhage, but the apparent development of new areas of haemorrhage. Warfarin continued due to high risk of thromboembolism. He was readmitted with the rapid development of a visible swelling at the sternum and on the scalp. Ultrasound scan of the sternum revealed a vascular tumour. Suspected haemorrhages in the past were reported as the metastatic deposits. Biopsy and immunohistochemical staining confirmed angiosarcoma of the scalp. Being vascular tumours, angiosarcoma can mimic a brain haemorrhage. Our case illustrates a clinical conundrum. Diagnosing metastatic angiosarcoma of the brain proved difficult without visible primary and histology. The rapid clinical course of the disease and problems with anticoagulation therapy made treatment options limited and the prognosis worse. PMID:22736558

  13. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome complicating pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Blasco, Marta; Andérica, José; Herrera, José

    2012-01-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that affects one or more limbs. It is characterised by cutaneous vascular nevi, venous malformations and hypertrophy of soft tissues and bone. There are very few cases reported in pregnant women, so the level of uncertainty is high when it appears during gestation. It is a disease that increases obstetric risk and can exacerbate complications, mainly thromboembolic and haemorrhagic. We report below the case of a pregnant woman diagnosed with this syndrome and the multidisciplinary management held in our centre. PMID:22854239

  14. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors.The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister.Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic.Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation.This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 10(6.5)-10(4.5) infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

  15. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic. Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 106.5-104.5 infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

  16. Role of self-expanding metal stents in the management of variceal haemorrhage: Hype or hope?

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Brian J; O’Beirne, James P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advances of medical, endoscopic and radiological therapy over recent years the mortality rates of acute variceal haemorrhage are still 16%-20% and the medium term outcome has not improved in the last 25 years. Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has proved to be an effective therapy for selected groups of patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and moderate liver disease. However, there is an unmet need for a therapy that can be applied in patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and advanced liver disease either as definitive therapy or as a bridge to permanent therapy. Self-expanding metal stents can be placed without the need for endoscopic or fluoroscopic control and, once in place, will provide effective haemostasis and allow a route for oral fluids and nutrition. They can remain in place whilst liver function recovers and secondary prophylaxis is initiated. We review the results of 6 case series including a total of 83 patients and the first randomised controlled trial of self-expanding metal stents vs balloon tamponade (BT) in the management of refractory variceal haemorrhage. We report that self-expanding metal stents provide effective haemostasis and perform better than BT in refractory bleeding, where they are associated with fewer complications. Whilst the most effective place for self-expanding metal stents in the management algorithm needs to be determined by further randomised controlled trials, currently they provide an effective alternative to BT in selected patients. PMID:26788260

  17. Role of self-expanding metal stents in the management of variceal haemorrhage: Hype or hope?

    PubMed

    Hogan, Brian J; O'Beirne, James P

    2016-01-10

    Despite the advances of medical, endoscopic and radiological therapy over recent years the mortality rates of acute variceal haemorrhage are still 16%-20% and the medium term outcome has not improved in the last 25 years. Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has proved to be an effective therapy for selected groups of patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and moderate liver disease. However, there is an unmet need for a therapy that can be applied in patients with a high risk of re-bleeding and advanced liver disease either as definitive therapy or as a bridge to permanent therapy. Self-expanding metal stents can be placed without the need for endoscopic or fluoroscopic control and, once in place, will provide effective haemostasis and allow a route for oral fluids and nutrition. They can remain in place whilst liver function recovers and secondary prophylaxis is initiated. We review the results of 6 case series including a total of 83 patients and the first randomised controlled trial of self-expanding metal stents vs balloon tamponade (BT) in the management of refractory variceal haemorrhage. We report that self-expanding metal stents provide effective haemostasis and perform better than BT in refractory bleeding, where they are associated with fewer complications. Whilst the most effective place for self-expanding metal stents in the management algorithm needs to be determined by further randomised controlled trials, currently they provide an effective alternative to BT in selected patients. PMID:26788260

  18. Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunting for control of acute and recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, K J; Chalmers, N; Redhead, D N; Finlayson, N D; Bouchier, I A; Hayes, P C

    1993-01-01

    The insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) was evaluated in 22 patients with recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension (bleeding from oesophageal varices 10, gastric varices six, portal hypertensive gastropathy six). TIPSS was successfully performed electively in 15 patients and as an emergency in three patients. Twelve patients have had no further admissions with bleeding after TIPSS. Single episodes of bleeding were noted in six patients after TIPSS associated with shunt thrombosis (two), intimal hyperplasia within the shunt (two), and shunt migration (one). Another patient presented with reaccumulated ascites suggesting poor shunt function but died from massive variceal haemorrhage before further assessment could be performed. There was one death related to the procedure. Two patients developed encephalopathy after TIPSS, in one patient this was controlled by the insertion of a smaller diameter stent within the existing TIPSS. Several complications arose in earlier patients that have not recurred after modification of the initial technique. TIPSS can be life saving and is effective in controlling variceal haemorrhage and rebleeding from oesophageal or gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy. Larger and longer term studies are required, however, to define the role of TIPSS in the overall management of such patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8344585

  19. Antibodies to haemorrhagic fever viruses in Madagascar populations.

    PubMed

    Mathiot, C C; Fontenille, D; Georges, A J; Coulanges, P

    1989-01-01

    Sera of 381 adult people from 5 areas in Madagascar were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence method for antibodies against Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley fever viruses (Bunyaviridae), Ebola (strains Zaire and Sudan) and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), and Lassa virus (Arenaviridae). The highest prevalence rate was that of Ebola virus (4.5%). As no haemorrhagic syndrome has been found associated with this virus, the possible presence of a less pathogenic, antigenically related, strain is discussed. The prevalences of Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley viruses were very low, despite previous viral isolations from potential vectors. No serum reacted against Lassa or Marburg antigens. The results are analysed in the light of the geographical and bioecological characteristics of Madagascar, which is a true 'microcontinent' very different from the African mainland. PMID:2515626

  20. [Erythrocytes and microvascular tone during acute traumatic haemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Biais, M; Delaunay, F; Dubuisson, V; Cassone, O; Simon, F; Morel, O; Janvier, G

    2013-05-01

    Haemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The concept of haematologic damage control is gradually taking place in the management of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. It is based primarily on the early implementation of a quality blood transfusion involving erythrocytes, plasmas and platelets transfusion. Red blood cell transfusion is mainly supported by the oxygen carrier properties of erythrocytes. However, it appears that erythrocytes ability to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in capillary opening and perfusion. Erythrocytes are also actively involved in the processes of hemostasis and coagulation. In this context, it seems difficult to define a threshold of hemoglobin concentration to determine the implementation of a blood transfusion in traumatic haemorrhagic shock. PMID:23611789

  1. Aberrant innominate artery may complicate a potentially safe surgery.

    PubMed

    Dave, Varun Jitendra; Upadhya, Ila Balakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Surgeries of the anterior neck include thyroid surgery, open or percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy, bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy and oesophagoscopy. These are potentially safe surgeries with mortality rates less than 1%. Today, the most common cause of death following a tracheotomy is haemorrhage and, following thyroid surgery, the causes are haemorrhage, giant goitres and upper airway complications. Bronchoscopies and mediastinoscopies are almost never fatal. While operating around the trachea, no major vessel is encountered in the surgical field. We report a case in which an aberrant innominate artery was encountered crossing anterior to the trachea just below the thyroid isthmus. As it is an uncommon finding, even minor complacency can lead to torrential bleeding culminating in death. Thus, we recommend surgeons to be vigilant for any aberrant artery in the surgical field rather than finding it accidentally; thereby preventing any complications in a potentially safe surgery. PMID:26795742

  2. A new NOTCH3 mutation presenting as primary intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pradotto, Luca; Orsi, Laura; Daniele, Dino; Caroppo, Paola; Lauro, Danilo; Milesi, Alessandra; Sellitti, Luigi; Mauro, Alessandro

    2012-04-15

    Primary intracerebral haemorrhages (PICH) are defined as haemorrhages within the brain parenchyma in the absence of readily identifiable causes. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) is a hereditary vascular disease and its mainly clinical manifestations are early-onset infarcts. Spontaneous lobar haematomas are a rare occurrence. We report a very unusual presentation of CADASIL in a 65 year-old man carrying a new NOTCH3 mutation. The clinical onset of the disease was related to an intracerebral haematoma following colon surgery and causing a delirium. In brief, our report suggests that CADASIL must be considered in patient with PICH. PMID:22206696

  3. [Detection of goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) in flocks with haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese in southern Germany].

    PubMed

    Miksch, Katja; Grossmann, Ernst; Khler, Kernt; Johne, Reimar

    2002-01-01

    Two flocks of geese in the South of Germany independently diseased on Haemorrhagic Nephritis and Enteritis of Geese (HNEG) at the age of 4 weeks. The flocks were approximately 300 km apart but had received goslings from the same hatchery. In both flocks the animals died within 12 hours mainly without showing clinical signs. Some of the first cases showed haemorrhagic typhlitis, whereas in later cases visceral gout was the main finding. In all cases, pathohistological examination generally showed necrosis of the tubular epithelium of the kidney. After a course of 5 weeks no new occurrences were seen. Death rates of 43.8% for the first flock and 29.2% for the second flock, respectively, were recorded. In both cases, the diagnosis HNEG was confirmed by the detection of the recently described Goose Haemorrhagic Polyomavirus (GHPV) using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:12357678

  4. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with atypical imagingfindings of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tempaku, Akira; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Nitta, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is observed in most cases of nonhypertensive subcortical hemorrhage involving elderly patients. We herein describe the case of a female in whom a convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed at 55 years of age. The cerebral hemorrhage occurred repeatedly; however, no obvious vascular lesions were observed on a cerebral angiography, and no signs of microbleeding or lesions in the deep white matter were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Partial excision of the right frontal cortex and hematoma evacuation were performed, and histopathological examination showed deposition of an acidophilic substance with positive staining for Direct Fast Scarlet (DFS) in the cerebral vascular wall. Finally, brain hemorrhage due to CAA was diagnosed. This case suggests that CAA is an important differential diagnosis in patients with localized non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the convexity sulcus. PMID:26705433

  5. Diffuse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. Case Report These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. Conclusions There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report. PMID:26097524

  6. Haemophagocytosis in dengue haemorrhagic fever: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Duraisamy, G

    1991-11-01

    Virus associated haemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), a distinct clinico-pathologic entity, is characterised by systemic proliferation of non-neoplastic histotiocytes showing haemophagocytosis resulting in blood cytopaenia. It has been described in relation to several viruses earlier. Here we describe a young girl who developed this reactive process during the course of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). PMID:1803975

  7. [Resumption of antithrombotic treatment after an intracerebral haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kappelle, L J Jaap; Hofmeijer, Jeanette; Chamuleau, Steven A; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M; Hemels, Martin E W; Klijn, C J M Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence from randomised clinical trials with regard to the question if and when to resume antithrombotic medication in patients who have suffered an intracerebral haemorrhage and in whom medication continues to be indicated. It is unknown whether new oral anticoagulants are more suitable than vitamin K antagonists in this group of patients. Oral anticoagulants should probably not be resumed in patients with a lobar intracerebral haemorrhage caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy. They can be considered in patients with a haemorrhage in subcortical regions of the brain, the brain stem or the cerebellum, provided that blood pressure levels are under control. Depending on the risk of a cardiac embolus, antithrombotic medication can be resumed from 1 to 10 weeks after the intracerebral haemorrhage. In patients with atrial fibrillation this risk can be calculated using the CHA2DS2-VASc score. In patients with a cardiac indication for antithrombotic medication the decision whether or not to resume medication should be made by a cardiologist and a neurologist in collaboration. PMID:25873219

  8. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage associated with aerosol propellant use

    PubMed Central

    Kelchen, Phillip; Jamous, Fady; Huntington, Mark K

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome resulting from injury to the alveolar microcirculation, most commonly associated with not only autoimmune disorders or connective tissue disease, but also a variety of infections, neoplasms and toxins. We report here a case of an otherwise healthy young man with DAH attributable to an inhalation injury resulting from use of aerosol spray paint. PMID:23955981

  9. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage associated with aerosol propellant use.

    PubMed

    Kelchen, Phillip; Jamous, Fady; Huntington, Mark K

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome resulting from injury to the alveolar microcirculation, most commonly associated with not only autoimmune disorders or connective tissue disease, but also a variety of infections, neoplasms and toxins. We report here a case of an otherwise healthy young man with DAH attributable to an inhalation injury resulting from use of aerosol spray paint. PMID:23955981

  10. Intraoperative idiopathic subarachnoid hemorrhage during carotid artery stenting: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Akitake; Nakaoka, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Naohiko; Yahara, Kaita; Nabika, Shinya

    2015-10-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has a fatal complication of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS), i.e. brain hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although SAH accounts for a small percentage of these patients, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis of this syndrome from CHS without ICH because the clinical presentations resemble each other. Furthermore, not only does the cause of SAH following CAS remain unclear but also the role of controlling postoperative blood pressure is not detected in preventing ICH after CAS. Herein, we report a case of SAH following CAS and review previous literature to discuss the mechanism and the management of this fatal complication. A 78-year-old woman with a history of arteriosclerotic obliteration and myocardial infarction was referred to our department for intervention to asymptomatic severe stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. We performed CAS under local anesthesia. Although her blood pressure was controlled to normotension during the procedure, the patient complained of headache following predilation. Postoperative emergent non-contrast computed tomography revealed SAH with leakage of contrast medium occupying the right sylvian fissure. We continued strict blood pressure control, and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. A well-opened lumen of the stent was recognized three months later at the outpatient visit. Strict control of intraoperative and postoperative blood pressure may improve the outcome of SAH following CAS though the role in preventing ICH after CAS is unclear. PMID:26184053

  11. Seizures and Epilepsy following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although prophylactic antiepileptic drug (AED) use in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common practice, lack of uniform definitions and guidelines for seizures and AEDs rendered this prescription more habitual instead of evidence-based manner. We herein evaluated the incidence and predictive factors of seizure and complications about AED use. Methods From July 1999 to June 2007, data of a total of 547 patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent operative treatments were reviewed. For these, the incidence and risk factors of seizures and epilepsy were assessed, in addition to complications of AEDs. Results Eighty-three patients (15.2%) had at least one seizure following SAH. Forty-three patients (7.9%) had onset seizures, 34 (6.2%) had perioperative seizures, and 17 (3.1%) had late epilepsy. Younger age (< 40 years), poor clinical grade, thick hemorrhage, acute hydrocephalus, and rebleeding were related to the occurrence of onset seizures. Cortical infarction and thick hemorrhage were independent risk factors for the occurrence of late epilepsy. Onset seizures were not predictive of late epilepsy. Moreover, adverse drug effects were identified in 128 patients (23.4%) with AEDs. Conclusion Perioperative seizures are not significant predictors for late epilepsy. Instead, initial amount of SAH and surgery-induced cortical damage should be seriously considered as risk factors for late epilepsy. Because AEDs can not prevent early postoperative seizures (< 1 week) and potentially cause unexpected side effects, long-term use should be readjusted in high-risk patients. PMID:19763209

  12. Intraventricular haemorrhage as a complication of sub mucosal infiltration of adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shefali; Kumar, Sanjeev; Prakash, Ravi; Mandhar, Vikas; Srivastava, Vinod Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Adrenaline infiltration is a widely used technique in head-neck and ENT surgeries to provide bloodless surgical field. However, use of adrenaline has been associated with hemodynamic changes which can be life threatening at times. Therefore, use of higher concentrations of adrenaline should be avoided and a close hemodynamic monitoring is required with use of other vasopressors. In the present case report, a young male died because of intraventricular bleeding caused by adrenaline infiltration during rhinoplasty. PMID:25954684

  13. Intraventricular Haemorrhage as a Complication of Sub Mucosal Infiltration of Adrenaline

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Prakash, Ravi; Mandhar, Vikas; Srivastava, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adrenaline infiltration is a widely used technique in head-neck and ENT surgeries to provide bloodless surgical field. However, use of adrenaline has been associated with hemodynamic changes which can be life threatening at times. Therefore, use of higher concentrations of adrenaline should be avoided and a close hemodynamic monitoring is required with use of other vasopressors. In the present case report, a young male died because of intraventricular bleeding caused by adrenaline infiltration during rhinoplasty. PMID:25954684

  14. Primary cytomegalovirus ileitis complicated by massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with steroid refractory Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Le, S T T; Lee, S S K; Prideaux, L; Block, A A; Moore, G T C

    2010-11-01

    A young man with known steroid refractory terminal ileal Crohn's disease developed torrential gastrointestinal bleeding necessitating an emergency ileal resection. Serology was indicative of primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and this was confirmed with histopathology of the resected ileum. We highlight the difficulty in clinical practice of distinguishing between CMV infection and CMV disease as well as the different investigations available to aid in the diagnosis of pathogenic CMV disease. PMID:21155157

  15. Bilobed Wide Neck Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Associated with Fusiform Basilar Aneurysm, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Siauw Koan, Tan

    2003-01-01

    Summary A 56 year-old woman presented with a ruptured bilobed wide neck aneurysm of the P2 segment of the PCA, atherosclerotic fusiform basilar artery aneurysm, subarachnoid bleeding with negative CT scan and chronic renal failure. She was managed by a cooperative approach involving neurosurgeons, neuroradiologist, neurointensivist, emergency room physicians, nurses and technicians. She underwent operation by proximal clipping for the aneurysm of the PCA. Postoperative neurological deficits include homonymous hemianopsia and ipsilateral third nerve palsy. The operation was performed through asubtemporal approach. At surgery, the aneurysm was located in the distal of the P2 segment of PCA, bilobed up and down, no definitive neck with small distal branches, and was treated by proximal clipping of the PCA aneurysm. The fusiform basilar artery aneurysm was severely atherosclerotic and left untouched. This is a rare case which required a high index of suspicion to detect subarachnoid bleeding from ruptured posterior fossa aneurysm, accurate prediction of the site of bleeding and the location of aneurysm location by conventional angiogram, MRI and MRA, and careful planned surgical strategy with the right approach for the P2 segment of the PCA aneurysm, complicated post operative care with airway management, triple H therapy, nutrition, additional measures and multiple hemodialysis. PMID:20591269

  16. Asymptomatic moyamoya disease subsequently manifesting as transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a short period: case report.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Miki; Mugikura, Shunji; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2010-01-01

    A 59-year-old man, who had incidentally been found to have asymptomatic moyamoya disease 4 months previously, suffered transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the left extremities. Three weeks later, he again suffered TIA, and neuroimaging examination revealed fresh subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric cistern as well as an asymptomatic thalamic hemorrhage in the contralateral hemisphere, which was not evident at the first onset of TIA. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the diagnosis of moyamoya disease, and single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated significant hemodynamic compromise in the right hemisphere. He underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with indirect pial synangiosis without complication one month later. The TIA completely disappeared after surgery, and no further cerebrovascular event occurred during the follow-up period of 2 years. Asymptomatic moyamoya disease may manifest with a dynamic course, so careful follow up is necessary. Simultaneous manifestation of ischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage in a short period in the present case may indicate the underlying mechanism of the cerebrovascular events in this rare entity. PMID:20448425

  17. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; de Azevedo, Milena Krajnyk; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses. PMID:26109948

  18. A Case Report of Thunderclap Headache with Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage and Negative Angiography: A Review of Call-Fleming Syndrome and the use of Transcranial Dopplers in Predicting Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bittel, Brennen; Husmann, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present a case report in a patient with severe, recurrent, thunderclap with computed tomography (CT) evidence of subarachnoid blood and negative work-up for aneurysm. This case is an example of Call-Fleming syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage in which transcranial Doppler (TCD) was used for monitoring of cerebral vasoconstriction when angiography did not evidence vasoconstriction. We will review Call-Fleming syndrome and the utility of transcranial doppler imaging to assess cerebral vasoconstriction. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding diagnostics, treatment, and morbidity in Call-Fleming (reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome) as well as a review of the data using transcranial color-coded sonography and transcranial doppler imaging to assess vasospasm in these cases. Results: The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV), catheter angiography, lumbar puncture, and vasculitis work-up which were all negative. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T2 weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyper-intensities in the posterior frontal lobes as well as subarachnoid blood along bilateral occipital convexities. TCDs were obtained which showed elevated mean velocities. Conclusion: The use of bedside transcranial doppler imaging is a non-invasive means of assessing vasospasm in Call-Fleming syndrome; even in cases where angiography is negative. Determining the degree of vasospasm based on the data in subarachnoid hemorrhage, we are able to predict a patients risk of complications related to vasospasm including reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and ischemic events. PMID:22518264

  19. Antibodies against haemorrhagic fever viruses in Kenya populations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B K; Ocheng, D; Gichogo, A; Okiro, M; Libondo, D; Tukei, P M; Ho, M; Mugambi, M; Timms, G L; French, M

    1983-01-01

    Human sera from Lodwar (77 sera), Nzoia (841 sera), Masinga (251 sera), Laisamis (174 sera) and the Malindi/Kilifi area (556 sera) in Kenya were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for antibodies against Marburg, Ebola (Zaire and Sudan strains), Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Lassa viruses. Antibodies against Ebola virus, particularly the Zaire strain, were detected in all regions and were, over-all, more abundant than antibodies against the other antigens. Ebola and Marburg antibody prevalence rates were highest in the samples from Lodwar and Laisamis, both semi-desert areas. Antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus were also highest in the Lodwar sample followed by Malindi/Kilifi and Laisamis. Congo haemorrhagic fever virus antibodies were rare and no antibodies against Lassa virus were detected in the 1899 sera tested. PMID:6419422

  20. Intracerebral haemorrhage: mechanisms of injury and therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Keep, Richard F.; Hua, Ya; Xi, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about 1015% of all strokes. ICH is associated with high mortality and morbidity and there has been no successful Phase III clinical trial for this condition. The last six years has seen a great increase in the number of pre-clinical and clinical studies focused on ICH. There have been significant advances in the animal models available to study ICH and in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain injury following haemorrhage. This has led to the identification of several therapeutic targets that are now being pursued into clinical trials. These advances are described in this review in addition to information on past and current clinical trials. Many of the former were based on very limited pre-clinical data and possible guidelines on the nature of pre-clinical results that justify proceeding to the clinic are discussed. PMID:22698888

  1. Pneumonitis and pulmonary haemorrhage after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Sathish K; Teo, Alison Ic; Millar, Colin Gm; Noman, Awsan

    2015-12-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. He received rescue angioplasty with one drug eluting stent. He developed marked breathlessness and haemoptysis two days later. Investigations led to the diagnosis of pulmonary haemorrhage, possibly from pneumonitis caused by ticagrelor. He was successfully managed with high-dose steroids and ticagrelor was replaced with clopidogrel. On stopping the steroids a month later, mild haemoptysis recurred and this was managed conservatively. Pneumonitis and pulmonary haemorrhage is rarely reported with acute myocardial infarction, but poses serious challenge to the patient and the clinician. Diagnosis may be delayed as breathlessness can occur due to myriad causes after myocardial infarction. Interrupting dual anti-platelet therapy after angioplasty could lead to devastating stent thrombosis. PMID:26621956

  2. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  3. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-18

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  4. Resolution of neurological deficits secondary to spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a patient with hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinaemia: a role for plasmapheresis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Delshad; Ilias Basha, Haseeb; Towfiq, Basim; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2014-01-01

    Essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia or type II cryoglobulinaemia is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis C. Cryoglobulinaemia results in the deposition of immune complexes in small or medium-sized blood vessels leading to palpable purpura, arthralgia, renal disease and peripheral neuropathy. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a distinct phenomenon characterised by vasogenic oedema in the posterior circulation of brain. Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis leading to spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage and PRES syndrome is rarely reported in the medical literature. In this report, we present an unusual case of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage and PRES secondary to hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinaemia presenting as right dense hemiplegia. Prompt institution of plasmapheresis resulted in successful resolution of symptoms in our patient, followed by full neurological recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this case describes the first successful use of plasmapheresis in alleviating neurological complications resulting from cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis and PRES secondary to chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24445850

  5. Experimental intracerebral haemorrhage: the effect of nimodipine pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sinar, E J; Mendelow, A D; Graham, D I; Teasdale, G M

    1988-05-01

    The effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the pathophysiological events which follow an intracerebral haemorrhage in rats was compared with a similar control group. Cerebral blood flow was higher and the amount of pathologically determined ischaemic damage measured by light microscopy was less in the nimodipine pretreated group. Bloodbrain barrier permeability was increased in the nimodipine group, but there was no evidence of cerebral oedema. Nimodipine appeared to have no effect on the intracranial pressure. PMID:3245862

  6. Experimental intracerebral haemorrhage: the effect of nimodipine pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sinar, E J; Mendelow, A D; Graham, D I; Teasdale, G M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the pathophysiological events which follow an intracerebral haemorrhage in rats was compared with a similar control group. Cerebral blood flow was higher and the amount of pathologically determined ischaemic damage measured by light microscopy was less in the nimodipine pretreated group. Bloodbrain barrier permeability was increased in the nimodipine group, but there was no evidence of cerebral oedema. Nimodipine appeared to have no effect on the intracranial pressure. Images PMID:3245862

  7. Haemorrhagic diathesis in children associated with vitamin K deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Taj-Eldin, Salman; Al-Nouri, Luay; Fakri, Omar

    1967-01-01

    A haemorrhagic diathesis is described in infants; this is preceded and accompanied by constitutional symptoms such as fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, anorexia, and pallor. These children had a severe coagulation abnormality, due to deficiency of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors, and it was corrected by administration of vitamin K. No conclusion could be drawn as to the aetiology of this condition but some possible causes are discussed. Images PMID:5602558

  8. Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (?1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume). Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p < 0.05) with 80% power. Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs) of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days). Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:21586127

  9. Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma with Simultaneous Cranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwan-Su; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is reported at a rare level of incidence, and is frequently associated with underlying coagulopathy or those receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents; some cases accompany concomitant intracranial hemorrhage. The spontaneous development of spinal subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a neurological emergency; therefore, early diagnosis, the discontinuation of anticoagulant, and urgent surgical decompression are required to enable neurological recovery. In this report, we present a simultaneous spinal subdural hematoma and cranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, which mimicked an aneurysmal origin in a female patient who had been taking warfarin due to aortic valve replacement surgery. PMID:26113966

  10. Gadolinium leakage into subarachnoid space and cystic metastases.

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, Adalet Elin; Atl?, Eray; O?uz, Kader Karl?

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid space (SAS) and cystic metastatic lesions of brain parenchyma appear hypointense on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unless there is a hemorrhage or elevated protein content. Otherwise, delayed enhancement and accumulation of contrast media in SAS or cyst of metastases should be considered. We present hyperintense SAS and cystic brain metastases of lung cancer on FLAIR and T1-weighted MRI, respectively, in a patient who had been previously given contrast media for imaging of spinal metastases and had mildly impaired renal functions, and discuss the relevant literature. PMID:23337096

  11. Dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are major causes of hospital admission and mortality in children. Up to 5% of people with dengue haemorrhagic fever die of the infection, depending on availability of appropriate supportive care. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of supportive treatments for dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding blood component transfusion to standard intravenous fluids; adding carbazochrome sodium sulfonate, corticosteroids, or intravenous immunoglobulin to standard intravenous fluids; adding recombinant-activated factor VII to blood component transfusion; colloids; crystalloids; and intravenous fluids. PMID:19445771

  12. Cerebral thrombosis, cerebral haemorrhage, and ABO blood-groups.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D A; Marcu, I; Bicescu, E

    1976-02-01

    The ABO blood-group distributions of 1460 patients who had died from a stroke were compared with those of a control group of 20 705 controls selected at random from the healthy population at risk (i.e., over thirty-five years of age and matched for age and sex ratio). The cause of death was certified as cerebral thrombosis in 329 cases and as cerebral haemorrhage in 482 cases, these diagnoses being established in neurological hospitals; the remaining 649 cases had an unspecified type of stroke, the diagnosis being made by general practitioners. In the group with unspecified type of stroke the blood-group distribution was practically the same as the distribution in the controls. In the thrombosis cases there was an excess of blood-groups A and AB and a deficiency of O and B; in cerebral haemorrhage this situation was reversed. However, these were only trends; the differences were not significant at the 5% level. A statistically significant difference did emerge when the A+AB excess in thrombosis was contrasted with the O+B excess in haemorrhage, suggesting that this difference might be accounted for the major A subgroup (A1) and, consequently, A1B. PMID:55589

  13. Viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance in Kenya, 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B K; Ocheng, D; Gitau, L G; Gichogo, A; Tukei, P M; Ngindu, A; Langatt, A; Smith, D H; Johnson, K M; Kiley, M P; Swanepoel, R; Isaacson, M

    1983-03-01

    Following two cases of Marburg virus disease in Kenya in 1980, viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance was undertaken in western Kenya. Over a 21-month period investigations, including virus isolation attempts, patient and contact serology, visits to areas where suspected cases occurred, interviewing family members and neighbours of suspected cases and following up any additional illnesses in these areas, were carried out. During the study two cases were found that were likely to have been Ebola haemorrhagic fever based on rising antibody titres or positive serology in contacts. Diagnoses of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, malaria, bacterial septicaemia or other causes were arrived at in 24 cases. No diagnosis could be made in 26 instances. 741 human sera were tested for antibodies against Marburg, Ebola, Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever or Lassa fever viruses by indirect fluorescence. Eight sera were positive for Ebola virus antibodies, all of which were from suspected cases or contacts of suspected cases. Two sera were antibody positive to Congo virus and one had antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus. No Marburg or Lassa virus antibodies were detected. PMID:6684336

  14. High incidence of cardiovascular complications in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Zelinka, T; Petrk, O; Turkov, H; Holaj, R; Strauch, B; Krek, M; Vrnkov, A B; Musil, Z; Dukov, J; Kubinyi, J; Michalsk, D; Novk, K; Widimsk, J

    2012-05-01

    Excess of catecholamines in pheochromocytoma is usually accompanied with classical symptoms and signs. In some cases, severe cardiovascular complications (e. g., heart failure, myocardial infarction) may occur. We performed a retrospective analysis focused on the incidence of cardiovascular complications (classified as follows: arrhythmias, myocardial involvement or ischemia and atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular impairment) before the establishment of diagnosis of pheochromocytoma among 145 subjects treated in our hospital. Cardiovascular complications occurred in 28 subjects, but these subjects did not differ significantly from subjects without complications in age, gender, body mass index, paroxysmal symptoms, symptom duration, tumor dimension, catecholamine secretory phenotype, and incidence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Arrhythmias occurred in 15 subjects (2 arrhythmia types in 2 subjects): atrial fibrillation in 9 subjects, supraventricular tachycardia in 3 cases, and ventricular tachycardia in 2 patients. Significant bradycardia was noted in 3 cases. Five subjects presented with heart failure with decreased systolic function (takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy found in 2 cases). One subject suffered from hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Seven subjects presented with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 2 patients with ST-segment myocardial infarction, and 1 subject underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Two subjects suffered from significant peripheral atherosclerosis. Among cerebrovascular complications, transient ischemic attack was found in 3 cases, 2 subjects suffered from stroke, and subarachnoidal bleeding occurred in 1 patient. One subject suffered from diffuse neurological impairment due to multiple ischemic white matter lesions. These data show relatively high incidence of cardiovascular complications (19.3%) in subjects with pheochromocytoma. Early diagnosis is mandatory to prevent severe complications in pheochromocytoma. PMID:22517556

  15. Catastrophic gastrointestinal complication of systemic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lyn Alexandra; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Gaya, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25741165

  16. Vestibular Schwannomas presenting with haemorrhage: clinical presentation and histopathological evaluation of an unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Amir R; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Guha, Abhijit

    2009-08-01

    Gross intratumoral haemorrhage is rare in vestibular schwannomas. The authors describe the clinical features of this entity in 6 patients, the histopathologic findings in 5 of them, and discuss possible factors predisposing to haemorrhage in these tumors. Detailed radiological and histopathological evaluation identified two factors which may be associated with higher likelihood of haemorrhage, namely preoperative radiation therapy and vascular abnormalities. Tumor size may not be a major risk factor for haemorrhage. Good outcomes can be achieved with microsurgical management. The histological features presented here differ clearly from findings in previously published case reports. PMID:19637016

  17. The risk of medical complications after female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Dirie, M A; Lindmark, G

    1992-09-01

    The medical complications of the practice of circumcision were studied in 290 Somali women between ages of 18-54. Thirty-nine percent of the interviewed women had experienced significant complications after circumcision, most commonly haemorrhage, infection or urinary retention. Thirty-seven of the women reported a late complication of circumcision. Among these complications were dermoid cyst at the site of the amputated clitoris, urinary problems such as pain at micturition, dribbling urine incontinence and poor urinary flow. Forty of the women had experienced problems at the time of menarche and ten of them were operated because of haematocolpos. Most of the married women of the study sample were defibulated naturally by their husbands. PMID:1286628

  18. Silicone oil removal. II. Operative and postoperative complications.

    PubMed Central

    Casswell, A G; Gregor, Z J

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the effects of silicone oil removal was carried out on 85 patients who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil exchange for giant retinal tears or proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Silicone oil was removed either as part of the treatment of anterior segment complications such as glaucoma and keratopathy (25 patients) or in order to prevent these complications (60 patients). The major complications of the removal of silicone oil were retinal redetachment (25%), hypotony (16%), and expulsive haemorrhage (1%). The length of time that the oil remained in the eye and the presence of anterior segment complications did not appear to have an effect on the rate of retinal redetachment or hypotony. PMID:3426995

  19. Intravenous magnesium sulfate after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wong, George K C; Chan, Matthew T V; Boet, Ronald; Poon, Wai S; Gin, Tony

    2006-04-01

    We performed a randomized, double-blind, pilot study on magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) infusion for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).Sixty patients with SAH were randomly allocated to receive either MgSO4 80 mmol/day or saline infusion for 14 days. Patients also received intravenous nimodipine. Episodes of vasospasm were treated with hypertensive and hypervolemic therapy. Neurologic status was assessed 6 months after hemorrhage using the Barthel index and Glasgow Outcome Scale. Incidences of cardiac and pulmonary complications were also recorded. Patient characteristics, severity of SAH, and surgical treatment did not differ between groups. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm decreased from 43% in the saline group to 23% in patients receiving MgSO4 infusion, but it did not reach statistical significance, P=0.06. For patients who had transcranial Doppler-detected vasospasm, defined as mean flow velocity >120 cm/s and a Lindegaard index >3, the duration was shorter in the magnesium group compared with controls (P<0.01). There was, however, no difference between groups in functional recovery or Glasgow Outcome Scale score. The incidence of adverse events such as brain swelling, hydrocephalus, and nosocomial infection was also similar in patients receiving MgSO4 or saline. In this small pilot study, MgSO4 infusion for aneurysmal SAH is feasible. On the basis of the preliminary data, a larger study recruiting approximately 800 patients is required to test for a possible neuroprotective effect of magnesium after SAH. PMID:16628069

  20. CSF and Serum Biomarkers Focusing on Cerebral Vasospasm and Ischemia after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Carla S.; Lange, Bettina; Zimmermann, Michael; Seifert, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remain severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although focal changes in cerebral metabolism indicating ischemia are detectable by microdialysis, routinely used biomarkers are missing. We therefore sought to evaluate a panel of possible global markers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients after SAH. CSF and serum of SAH patients were analyzed retrospectively. In CSF, levels of inhibitory, excitatory, and structural amino acids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In serum, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B level were measured and examined in conjunction with CVS and DCI. CVS was detected by arteriography, and ischemic lesions were assessed by computed tomography (CT) scans. All CSF amino acids were altered after SAH. CSF glutamate, glutamine, glycine, and histidine were significantly correlated with arteriographic CVS. CSF glutamate and serum S100B were significantly correlated with ischemic events after SAH; however, NSE did not correlate neither with ischemia nor with vasospasm. Glutamate, glutamine, glycine, and histidine might be used in CSF as markers for CVS. Glutamate also indicates ischemia. Serum S100B, but not NSE, is a suitable marker for ischemia. These results need to be validated in larger prospective cohorts. PMID:23509668

  1. Evidence that a Panel of Neurodegeneration Biomarkers Predicts Vasospasm, Infarction, and Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Siman, Robert; Giovannone, Nicholas; Toraskar, Nikhil; Frangos, Suzanne; Stein, Sherman C.; Levine, Joshua M.; Kumar, Monisha A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers for neurodegeneration could be early prognostic measures of brain damage and dysfunction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with clinical and medical applications. Recently, we developed a new panel of neurodegeneration biomarkers, and report here on their relationships with pathophysiological complications and outcomes following severe aSAH. Fourteen patients provided serial cerebrospinal fluid samples for up to 10 days and were evaluated by ultrasonography, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical examination. Functional outcomes were assessed at hospital discharge and 6–9 months thereafter. Eight biomarkers for acute brain damage were quantified: calpain-derived α-spectrin N- and C-terminal fragments (CCSntf and CCSctf), hypophosphorylated neurofilament H, 14-3-3 β and ζ, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, neuron-specific enolase, and S100β. All 8 biomarkers rose up to 100-fold in a subset of patients. Better than any single biomarker, a set of 6 correlated significantly with cerebral vasospasm, brain infarction, and poor outcome. Furthermore, CSF levels of 14-3-3β, CCSntf, and NSE were early predictors of subsequent moderate-to-severe vasospasm. These data provide evidence that a panel of neurodegeneration biomarkers may predict lasting brain dysfunction and the pathophysiological processes that lead to it following aSAH. The panel may be valuable as surrogate endpoints for controlled clinical evaluation of treatment interventions and for guiding aSAH patient care. PMID:22174930

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improved the Ultrastructural Morphology of Cerebral Tissues after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Mir-Esmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Anvari, Morteza; Hekmati-moghadam, Seyed Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes widespread disruption in the cerebral architecture.The process of SAH is complicated and many people lose their lives or become disabled after injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as good candidate for repair of cerebral damage. The aim was to assess the ultrastructural changes in the rat cerebral tissue after intravenous transplantation of MSCs. Female Wistar rats (8 per group) weighing 275~300 g were assigned to control (SAH+PBS) and experimental groups (SAH+MSCs).The samples from middle cerebral arterial wall and parietal cerebral tissue were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocol. Fine architectures of the vessel wall, including the contraction of the inner layer, smooth muscle layer,as well as neural cells were observed after SAH. Cerebral arterial wall and cortex, including neuronal and glial cells were injured post SAH. But, administration of MSCs improved the structural integrity of cerebral tissues. Changes were much more balanced with their relative improvement in some areas. The role of MSCs for repairing the injured cerebral tissues post experimental SAH was approved by electron microscopy. PMID:24737942

  3. Role of P2X Purinoceptor 7 in Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Zhu, Zhigang; Klebe, Damon; Bian, Hetao; Krafft, Paul R.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is an acute and serious complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with high mortality. The present study aimed to test the therapeutic potential of brilliant blue G (BBG), a selective P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R) antagonist, on NPE in a rat SAH model. Methods SAH was induced by endovascular perforation. 86 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, vehicle-, or BBG-treatment groups. Mortality, body weight, SAH grading, neurological deficits, NPE clinical symptoms, and pulmonary index were measured at 24 hours following SAH. Western blot, gelatin zymography, lung histopathology, and immunofluorescence staining were performed in the left lung lobe to explore the underlying mechanisms at 24 hours post-surgery. Results The incidence of clinical symptoms was correlated with pulmonary index. P2X7R and the marker of alveolar type I epithelial cells (the mucin-type glycoprotein T1-?) immunoreactivities were generally co-localized. BBG administration decreased mature interleukin-1?, myeloperoxidase, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 activation, but increased tight junction proteins, such as ZO-1 and occludin, which ameliorated pulmonary edema via anti-inflammation and improved neurological deficits. Conclusion P2X7R inhibition prevented NPE after SAH by attenuating inflammation. Thus, BBG is a potential therapeutic application for NPE after SAH and warrants further research. PMID:24533168

  4. Biomarkers of vasospasm development and outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Ruiz de Azúa-López, Zaida; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco

    2014-06-15

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic emergency caused by a brain aneurysm burst, resulting in a bleeding into the subarachnoid space. Its incidence is estimated between 4 and 28/10,000 inhabitants and it is the main cause of sudden death from stroke. The prognosis of patients with SAH is directly related to neurological status on admission, to the magnitude of the initial bleeding, as well as to the development of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Numerous researchers have studied the role of different biomarkers in CVS development. These biomarkers form part of the metabolic cascade that is triggered as a result of the SAH. Hence, among these metabolites we found biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation biomarkers, indicators of brain damage, and markers of vascular pathology. However, to the author knowledge, none of these biomarkers has been demonstrated as a useful tool for predicting neither CVS development nor outcome after SAH. In order to reach success on future researches, firstly it should be stated which pathophysiological process is mainly responsible for CVS development. Once this process has been determined, the temporal course of this pathophysiologic cascade should be characterized, and then, perform further studies on biomarkers already analyzed, as well as on new biomarkers not yet studied in the SAH pathology, focusing attention on the temporal course of the diverse metabolites and the sampling time for its quantification. PMID:24811975

  5. Prolonged Paroxysmal Sympathetic Storming Associated with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Jolly, Suneil; Pokala, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS) is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli. PMID:23476663

  6. Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Knight, Britta; Tariq, Asma; Jeon, Hyojin; Shang, Xueyuan; Marsden, Philip Anthony; Loch Macdonald, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We studied whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is upregulated and uncoupled in large cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and also whether this causes cerebral vasospasm in a mouse model of anterior circulation SAH. Control animals underwent injection of saline instead of blood (n=16 SAH and n=16 controls). There was significant vasospasm of the middle cerebral artery 2 days after SAH (lumen radius/wall thickness ratio 4.31.3 for SAH, 23.22.1 for saline, P<0.001). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, cleaved caspase-3, and Fluoro-Jade-positive neurons in the cortex and with CA1 and dentate regions in the hippocampus. There were multiple fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli in the cortex and hippocampus after SAH. Transgenic mice expressing lacZ under control of the eNOS promoter had increased X-gal staining in large arteries after SAH, and this was confirmed by the increased eNOS protein on western blotting. Evidence that eNOS was uncoupled was found in that nitric oxide availability was decreased, and superoxide and peroxynitrite concentrations were increased in the brains of mice with SAH. This study suggests that artery constriction by SAH upregulates eNOS but that it is uncoupled and produces peroxynitrite that may generate microemboli that travel distally and contribute to brain injury. PMID:20517322

  7. Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

  8. [M. A. Baron's concept of subarachnoid communications of the pia mater of the cerebral hemispheres].

    PubMed

    Ma?orova, N A; Dobrovol'ski?, G F

    1981-09-01

    In the pia mater of the human cerebral hemisphere certain specific structures named subarachnoid alveoli have been revealed. The best method for their revealing is the method of volumetric microscopy--tracheoscopy--but they can be detected in histological sections, as well. The subarachnoid alveoli are situated in the subarachnoid space between liquor canals. By their form they resemble honeycombs. Their walls have a carcass consisting of argyrophile and collagenous fibres to give the alveoli a definite form. The carcass is lined with arachnoid-endothelial cells. The alveoli are connected with the liquor canals by means of holes in the walls of the canals. The subarachnoid alveoli are connected with each other by means of holes in their walls. The arachnoid-endothelial cells of the subarachnoid alveoli are capable to accumulate colloid substances from the spinal liquor. The walls of the subarachnoid alveoli discharge macrophages into the lumen of the latter. Protective function of the subarachnoid alveoli system contributes to normalization of the spinal liquor composition both under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:7316804

  9. Differentiation between traumatic tap and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Alyahya, Bader; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; mond, Marcel; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Hohl, Corinne; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary A; Pauls, Merril; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the findings in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute headache that could distinguish subarachnoid hemorrhage from the effects of a traumatic lumbar puncture. Design A substudy of a prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting 12 Canadian academic emergency departments, from November 2000 to December 2009. Participants Alert patients aged over 15 with an acute non-traumatic headache who underwent lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main outcome measure Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring intervention or resulting in death. Results Of the 1739 patients enrolled, 641 (36.9%) had abnormal results on cerebrospinal fluid analysis with >1106/L red blood cells in the final tube of cerebrospinal fluid and/or xanthochromia in one or more tubes. There were 15 (0.9%) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage based on abnormal results of a lumbar puncture. The presence of fewer than 2000106/L red blood cells in addition to no xanthochromia excluded the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval 74.7% to 100%) and specificity of 91.2% (88.6% to 93.3%). Conclusion No xanthochromia and red blood cell count <2000106/L reasonably excludes the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most patients with acute headache who meet this cut off will need no further investigations and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can be excluded as a cause of their headache. PMID:25694274

  10. Pre-Eclampsia Increases the Risk of Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Nationwide Cohort Study in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    von Schmidt auf Altenstadt, Joost F.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W. P. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identifying risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage is crucial to predict this life threatening condition. Another major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality is pre-eclampsia. Previous studies show conflicting results in the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Our secondary objective was to identify other risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands. Methods A nationwide cohort was used, containing prospectively collected data of women giving birth after 19 completed weeks of gestation from January 2000 until January 2008 (n?=? 1 457 576). Data were extracted from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry, covering 96% of all deliveries in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure, postpartum haemorrhage, was defined as blood loss of ?1000 ml in the 24 hours following delivery. The association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage was investigated with uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 4.3% and of pre-eclampsia 2.2%. From the 31 560 women with pre-eclampsia 2 347 (7.4%) developed postpartum haemorrhage, compared to 60 517 (4.2%) from the 1 426 016 women without pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.74 to 1.89). Risk of postpartum haemorrhage in women with pre-eclampsia remained increased after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.46 to 1.60). Conclusion Women with pre-eclampsia have a 1.53 fold increased risk for postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians should be aware of this and use this knowledge in the management of pre-eclampsia and the third stage of labour in order to reach the fifth Millenium Developmental Goal of reducing maternal mortality ratios with 75% by 2015. PMID:24367496

  11. Vascular complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Ronald D; Malek, Adel M; Watnick, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. Relentless cyst growth substantially enlarges both kidneys and culminates in renal failure. Patients with ADPKD also have vascular abnormalities; intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are found in ?10% of asymptomatic patients during screening and in up to 25% of those with a family history of IA or subarachnoid haemorrhage. As the genes responsible for ADPKDPKD1 and PKD2have complex integrative roles in mechanotransduction and intracellular calcium signalling, the molecular basis of IA formation might involve focal haemodynamic conditions exacerbated by hypertension and altered flow sensing. IA rupture results in substantial mortality, morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. In this Review, we focus mainly on strategies for screening, diagnosis and treatment of IAs in patients with ADPKD. Other vascular aneurysms and anomaliesincluding aneurysms of the aorta and coronary arteries, cervicocephalic and thoracic aortic dissections, aortic root dilatation and cerebral dolichoectasiaare less common in this population, and the available data are insufficient to recommend screening strategies. Treatment decisions should be made with expert consultation and be based on a risk-benefit analysis that takes into account aneurysm location and morphology as well as patient age and comorbidities. PMID:26260542

  12. Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia Cerebrospinal Localization in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, J.; Ozanne, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Weon, YC.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVM) can be associated with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), a dominantly inherited vascular disorder with variable penetrance and expressivity. The presentation and angiographic features were analysed retrospectively. The purpose is to point to special groups of AVM patients within the overall CAVMs and to discuss the issue of screening. We reviewed 34 cases of HHT-related CAVM from the data bank in Bictre from 1985-2003. In Spinal cord AVM (SCAVM) there were 194 patients with 5 HHT. HHT was diagnosed when at least two criteria were met; cutaneous telangiectasia, epistaxis, visceral AVMs, angiographic findings of AVF and first degree family history. Intracranial haemorrhage was the presenting symptom in 8.8% and the risk of haemorrhage in the natural history was 0.7% per year. The commonest angiographic features in adults are nidus(81.8%) and multiplicity(45.5%), while in the paediatric group venous ectasia and giant pouches(91.3%), AVF(69.6%) and multiplicity(52.2%). In spinal cord lesions macrofistulas are demonstrated in 83% of HHT with no multiplicity. HHT-related CAVMs present as multiple lesions, cortical in location, micro AVMs or AVF. HHT in SCAVM is expressed as single macro AVF, especially in the paediatric group. AVF in children are highly suggestive of HHT. We do not recommend screening in HHT adult patients for CAVM, while in the paediatric population, screening could be recommended at six months of age for cerebrospinal localization. These patients should be screened for Pulmonary AVF, which needs to be treated in priority. PMID:20587261

  13. New Insights into Blood Pressure Control for Intracerebral Haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Manning, Lisa S; Robinson, Thompson G

    2015-11-01

    Although blood pressure (BP) levels may rise in the weeks preceding intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), in contrast to findings in the ischaemic stroke population, the initial post-ICH BP is often much higher than the last pre-morbid level. Elevated BP is therefore common in acute ICH, often with markedly elevated levels, and is associated with poor outcomes, though the exact pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage (ATACH) trial and the INTEnsive blood pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) demonstrated that early and intensive lowering of elevated BP in the acute ICH period is feasible and safe. Importantly, recent CT perfusion studies have shown that early, intense BP reduction does not reduce cerebral blood flow or promote cerebral ischaemia. The recent, large INTERACT2 trial confirmed the safety of early BP lowering in ICH and suggested that intensive target-driven BP reduction may improve outcomes, with a non-significant trend towards reduced death and major disability and a significant favourable shift of scores on the modified Rankin scale compared with guideline-based treatment. BP lowering in acute ICH may reduce haematoma growth, particularly when target levels are achieved early and are sustained, though the evidence is partly conflicting. Other aspects of BP may also be important following acute ICH, with maximum systolic BP and systolic BP variability being independent predictors of poor outcomes in a recent study. This chapter gives an overview of the current evidence regarding BP in ICH and covers the following topics: the incidence of elevated BP in acute ICH and the patterns of BP observed before and after the event; the effect of elevated BP on outcomes in ICH and the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; the safety and feasibility of BP lowering; the effects of BP lowering on clinical and radiological outcomes; other important aspects of BP in ICH; and the choice of antihypertensive agent. PMID:26588787

  14. The life-saving effect of physostigmine in haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Savi?, J; Varagi?, V M; Proki?, D; Vujnov, S; Prostran, M; Zuni?, G; Stanimirovi?, D; Rastovac-Bogdanovi?, M

    1991-02-01

    The intravenous injection of physostigmine (70 micrograms kg-1) produces a life-saving effect in acute haemorrhagic shock in non-anaesthetized rabbits. This effect is most probably due to a transfer of tissue fluids into circulation. The crucial beneficial effect of physostigmine might be a decrease of the capillary hydrostatic pressure due to changes in pre- to postcapillary resistance ratio. Both lines of defence comprise a normalization of blood pressure and normalization of blood volume, thus saving the life of the animal. PMID:1852065

  15. [Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].

    PubMed

    Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

    2014-01-01

    A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1 : 800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis. PMID:25423604

  16. Relationship between Postmenopausal Estrogen Deficiency and Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Sadaharu

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most severe forms of stroke, which results from the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. SAH is the only type of stroke with a female predominance, suggesting that reproductive factors may play a significant role in the etiology. Estrogen has important effects on vascular physiology and pathophysiology of cerebral aneurysm and SAH and, thus, potential therapeutic implications. There have been growing bodies of epidemiological and experimental studies which support the hypothesis of a significant relationship between estrogen deficiency and cerebral aneurysm formation with subsequent SAH. This hypothesis is the focus of this review as well as possible pathology-based therapeutics with regard to aspects of molecular pathophysiology, especially related to women's health. PMID:26538819

  17. Transcranial Doppler sonography within 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Romner, B; Ljunggren, B; Brandt, L; Sveland, H

    1989-05-01

    Twenty-one patients were subjected to repeated assessment of cerebral blood flow velocities by means of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCDS) during the first 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In 19 patients the study was performed following the first SAH, and in two after early rebleeds. Flow velocities did not indicate an early phase of arterial narrowing in any case. Following the first TCDS assessment, flows were evaluated repeatedly in the 19 survivors. Increased flow velocities suggesting arterial narrowing or vasospasm occurred only after a delay of at least 4 days. The results of this study favor the restoration of normal velocity patterns in surviving patients and do not indicate that an acute phase of vasospasm exists either immediately after or in the first 12 hours after SAH. PMID:2651585

  18. Demonstration of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from the anterior choroidal artery.

    PubMed

    Sim, Ki-Bum; Park, Sukh Que; Choi, H Alex; Kim, Daniel H

    2014-12-01

    We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH. PMID:25628818

  19. Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical visual impairment as the presenting sign of gliomatosis cerebri.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Geeta; Lee, Andrew G; Maley, Joan; Kirby, Patricia; St Louis, Erik K; Follett, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    A 49-year-old white male presented with a pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage and diffuse brain edema. Neuroimaging showed brain edema causing the unusual findings of a pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage and bilateral occipital lobe infarcts following herniation and compression of the posterior cerebral arteries. An enlarged corpus callosum was noted which led to a brain biopsy and a diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. PMID:15590541

  20. Gastrointestinal complications of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, Peter H.; Murdoch, J. Lamont; Votteler, Theodore

    1969-01-01

    The gastrointestinal abnormalities encountered in 125 patients with the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been described. Spontaneous perforation of the intestine and massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage are uncommon but potentially lethal complications of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Less dangerous abnormalities, such `as external hernia, hiatus hernia, eventration of the diaphragm, intestinal diverticula, and rectal prolapse were all encountered in patients in the series. Abdominal surgery in affected patients may be made difficult by fragility of tissues and a bleeding tendency. In the postoperative period, tearing out of sutures and wound dehiscence may occur. PMID:5308459

  1. Complications of pregnancy and benign familial joint hyperlaxity.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J G; Hill, J; Bird, H A

    1988-01-01

    A family is described in which four generations were affected by benign familial joint hyperlaxity and, in the two generations for which obstetric data were available, pregnancies were complicated by unexplained mid-trimester vaginal bleeding. This prompted a study to determine whether unexplained antepartum haemorrhage (APH) and premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) both of which might reflect the structure of fetal collagen, were associated with joint hyperlaxity in offspring. The joint hyperlaxity of children born from such pregnancies was slightly greater than that found in age matched children born from uncomplicated pregnancies. PMID:3355259

  2. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3 days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours. PMID:26023146

  3. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, O E; Amoni, S S; Samaila, E; Thaker, U; Darougar, S

    1990-01-01

    Clinical studies were carried out on two groups of patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) during an epidemic in 1985 in Northern Nigeria. Group 1 consisted of 99 students attending a girls' boarding school, group 2 of 200 patients selected randomly from 1000 examined at the local clinic. Moderate to severe hyperaemia and papillary responses were present in the palpebral conjunctiva of all patients, and 234 (66%) had subconjunctival haemorrhages. Transient superficial punctate keratitis was noted in over 60% of patients. A transient flare suggestive of a low grade iritis was seen in five patients. No neurological disorders were noted. Serological studies were carried out on patients from group 2. Fifteen paired and 20 single serum samples were titrated against adenovirus type 4 (Ad-4) and enterovirus type 70 (EV-70). Two pairs of sera showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to EV-70, whereas the antibody titres to EV-70 in the rest of the sera ranged from 1:20 (no antibody) to 1:160. None of the paired serum samples showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to adenovirus. The results of clinical studies and serological findings support EV-70 as a probable cause of AHC in Nigeria. PMID:2155654

  4. Comparative studies for serodiagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle sera

    PubMed Central

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Ali, Samah Said; El-Shafii, Soumaya Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan M.; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A.; Mohamed, Moussa I.

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida is a major epizootic disease in cattle and buffaloes in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the present study, a total of 88 P. multocida isolates were isolated from 256 nasopharyngeal swabs and lung tissues samples (34.4%) during the period from January, 2013 to March, 2014 from different governorates located in Egypt. Dead calves showed the highest percentage of P. multocida isolation followed by the emergency slaughtered calves, diseased calves then apparently healthy ones. These isolates were confirmed as P. multocida microscopically, biochemically by traditional tests and by API 20E commercial kit then by PCR. The percentages of positive serum samples using somatic antigen and micro-agglutination test at 1/1280 diluted serum were 10%, 54.49% and 0% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively whereas, the percentages using capsular antigen and indirect haemagglutination test were 40%, 60.89% and 60% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively. The ELISA showed the highest sensitivity for diagnosing P. multocida in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered animals with percentages of 42%; 92.9% and 80%, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the ELISA using capsular antigen of P. multocida is a more sensitive and specific serological test for diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. PMID:26858538

  5. Clinical Neurochemistry of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Toward Predicting Individual Outcomes via Biomarkers of Brain Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tholance, Yannick; Barcelos, Gleicy; Dailler, Frederic; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Renaud, Bernard

    2015-12-16

    The functional outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is difficult to predict at the individual level. The monitoring of brain energy metabolism has proven to be useful in improving the pathophysiological understanding of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nonetheless, brain energy monitoring has not yet clearly been included in official guidelines for the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, likely because previous studies compared only biological data between two groups of patients (unfavorable vs favorable outcomes) and did not determine decision thresholds that could be useful in clinical practice. Therefore, this Viewpoint discusses recent findings suggesting that monitoring biomarkers of brain energy metabolism at the level of individuals can be used to predict the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Indeed, by taking into account specific neurochemical patterns obtained by local or global monitoring of brain energy metabolism, it may become possible to predict routinely, and with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, the individual outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Moreover, combining both local and global monitoring improves the overall performance of individual outcome prediction. Such a combined neurochemical monitoring approach may become, after prospective clinical validation, an important component in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to adapt individualized therapeutic interventions. PMID:26595414

  6. Gastric volvulus following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management. PMID:24515235

  7. Gastric volvulus following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management. PMID:24515235

  8. Massive postpartum haemorrhage as a cause of maternal morbidity in a large tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Hazra, S; Chilaka, V N; Rajendran, S; Konje, J C

    2004-08-01

    All cases of massive PPH (defined as estimated blood loss > 1500 ml within 24 hours of delivery) were identified from the obstetric database of the unit for the period 1997-2001 (inclusive). The casenotes of the patients were retrieved and various variables collected for analyses. Over the 5-year period, there were 145 cases of massive PPH of the 27,106 deliveries; an incidence of five per 1000 deliveries (0.5%). Most (42%) of the women were nulliparous and 12 (8%) had four or more previous deliveries. There was associated antepartum haemorrhage in 12 (8%) cases, five of which were placental abruptions. Risk factors identified to be associated with massive PPH included prolonged labour, emergency caesarean section (CS) for failure to progress, especially in the second stage (34), and placenta praevia (10). Four women had an abdominal hysterectomy. Massive PPH remains an important cause of severe maternal morbidity; risk factors, which are independent of parity, include CS in the late first stage or second stage and previous CS (irrespective of parity). A high index of suspicion is necessary for these cases, as timely intervention is more likely to minimise the complications and its consequences. PMID:15369931

  9. Dexamethasone and haemorrhage risk in paediatric tonsillectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bellis, J R; Pirmohamed, M; Nunn, A J; Loke, Y K; De, S; Golder, S; Kirkham, J J

    2014-07-01

    Summary In children undergoing tonsillectomy, dexamethasone is recommended to reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting while non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for pain relief. We aimed to determine whether children who receive dexamethasone or dexamethasone with NSAID are more likely to experience haemorrhage post-tonsillectomy. Randomized and non-randomized studies in which children undergoing tonsillectomy received dexamethasone or dexamethasone and NSAID were sought within bibliographic databases and selected tertiary sources. The risk of bias assessment and evaluation of haemorrhage rate data collection and reporting were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and McHarm tool. Synthesis methods comprised pooled estimate of the effect of dexamethasone on the risk of haemorrhage rate using the Peto odds ratio (OR) method. The pooled estimate for haemorrhage rate in children who received dexamethasone was 6.2%, OR 1.41 (95% confidence interval 0.89-2.25, P=0.15). There was risk of bias and inconsistent data collection and reporting rates of haemorrhage in many of the included studies. Clinical heterogeneity was observed between studies. The pooled analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage with dexamethasone with/without NSAID use in children. However, the majority of the included studies were not designed to investigate this endpoint, and thus large studies which are specifically designed to collect data on haemorrhage rate are needed. PMID:24942713

  10. Outcome after intracranial haemorrhage from dural arteriovenous fistulae; a systematic review and case-series.

    PubMed

    Jolink, W M T; van Dijk, J M C; van Asch, C J J; de Kort, G A P; Algra, A; Groen, R J M; Rinkel, G J E; Klijn, C J M

    2015-12-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) are a rare cause of intracranial haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate outcome of patients with intracranial haemorrhage from a DAVF. We performed a systematic literature search for studies reporting outcome after intracranial haemorrhage caused by a DAVF. We used predefined selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. In addition, we studied outcome in all patients with DAVF who had presented with intracranial haemorrhage at two university centers in the Netherlands, between January 2007 and April 2012. We calculated case fatality and proportions of patients with poor outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale ? 3 or Glasgow Outcome Scale ? 3) during follow-up. We investigated mean age, sex, mid-year of study and percentage of patients with parenchymal haemorrhage as determinants of case fatality and poor outcome. The literature search yielded 16 studies, all but two retrospective and all hospital-based. Combined with our cohort of 29 patients the total number of patients with DAVF-related intracranial haemorrhage was 326 (58% intracerebral haemorrhage). At a median follow-up of 12 months case fatality was 4.7% (95% CI 2.5-7.5; 17 cohorts) and the proportion of patients with poor outcome 8.3% (95% CI 3.1-15.7; nine cohorts). We found no effect of mean age, sex, mid-year of the cohorts and percentage of patients with parenchymal haemorrhage on either outcome. Hospital based case-series suggest a relatively low risk of death and poor outcome in patients with intracranial haemorrhage due to rupture of a DAVF. These risks may be underestimated because of bias. PMID:26410748

  11. Consent for Brain Tissue Donation after Intracerebral Haemorrhage: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Samarasekera, Neshika; Lerpiniere, Christine; Farrall, Andrew J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; White, Philip M.; Torgersen, Antonia; Ironside, James W.; Smith, Colin; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is a devastating form of stroke and its incidence increases with age. Obtaining brain tissue following intracerebral haemorrhage helps to understand its cause. Given declining autopsy rates worldwide, the feasibility of establishing an autopsy-based collection and its generalisability are uncertain. Methods We used multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment to identify every adult diagnosed with intracerebral haemorrhage between 1st June 2010-31st May 2012, whilst resident in the Lothian region of Scotland. We sought consent from patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (or their nearest relative if the patient lacked mental capacity) to conduct a research autopsy. Results Of 295 adults with acute intracerebral haemorrhage, 110 (37%) could not be approached to consider donation. Of 185 adults/relatives approached, 91 (49%) consented to research autopsy. There were no differences in baseline demographic variables or markers of intracerebral haemorrhage severity between consenters and non-consenters. Adults who died and became donors (n = 46) differed from the rest of the cohort (n = 249) by being older (median age 80, IQR 76–86 vs. 75, IQR 65–83, p = 0.002) and having larger haemorrhages (median volume 23ml, IQR 13–50 vs. 13ml, IQR 4–40; p = 0.002). Conclusions Nearly half of those approached consent to brain tissue donation after acute intracerebral haemorrhage. The characteristics of adults who gave consent were comparable to those in an entire community, although those who donate early are older and have larger haemorrhage volumes. PMID:26302447

  12. Ventricular pneumocephalus, cervical subarachnoid pneumorrhachis, and meningoencephalitis in a dog following rhinotomy for chronic fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Launcelott, Zo A; Palmisano, Mathew P; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Whitney, Beth L

    2016-02-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old 35.8-kg (78.8-lb) neutered male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge associated with a fungal infection. The dog had previously been prescribed antimicrobials and antifungal treatment, but owner compliance was lacking. CLINICAL FINDINGS Bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, mild ulceration of the left nasal commissure, and hyperkeratosis of the dorsal nasal planum were present. Computed tomography revealed destruction of the intranasal structures, focal lysis of the cribriform plate, and invasion of a soft-tissue mass into the frontal cortex. Rhinoscopy revealed a large pale mass in the caudal aspect of the right nasal passage; a biopsy sample was consistent with Aspergillus sp on histologic evaluation. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment included medical management with an antifungal agent. Approximately 3 months later, a large fungal granuloma in the right frontal sinus was removed and debridement was performed via dorsal rhinotomy. One month after surgery, the dog was evaluated for signs of cervical pain and altered mentation. An MRI and CSF analysis were performed; diagnoses of ventricular pneumocephalus, subarachnoid pneumorrhachis, and meningoencephalitis were made. Management included oxygen therapy and administration of antimicrobials, analgesics, and antifungal medications. On follow-up 9 months after initial evaluation, neurologic deficits were reportedly resolved, and the dog was doing well. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This report emphasizes the importance of prompt, appropriate treatment of fungal rhinitis in dogs. Although rare, pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis should be included as differential diagnoses for neurologic signs following treatment for this condition. In this dog, the complications were not considered severe and improved over time with supportive care. PMID:26829276

  13. Impairment of cardiac metabolism and sympathetic innervation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a nuclear medicine imaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often complicated by myocardial injury, whether this neurogenic cardiomyopathy is associated with the modification of cardiac metabolism is unknown. This study sought to explore, by positron emission tomography/computed tomography, the presence of altered cardiac glucose metabolism after SAH. Methods During a 16-month period, 30 SAH acute phase patients underwent myocardial 18?F- fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDGPET), 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy, respectively, assessing glucose metabolism, cardiac perfusion, and sympathetic innervation. Patients with initial abnormalities were followed monthly for two months for 18F-FDG, and six months later for 123I-mIBG. Results In this SAH population, acute cardiac metabolic disturbance was observed in 83% of patients (n?=?25), and sympathetic innervation disturbance affected 90% (n?=?27). Myocardial perfusion was normal for all patients. The topography and extent of metabolic defects and innervation abnormalities largely overlapped. Follow-up showed rapid improvement of glucose metabolism in one or two months. Normalization of sympathetic innervation was slower; only 27% of patients (n?=?8) exhibited normal 123I-mIBG scintigraphy after six months. Presence of initial altered cardiac metabolism was not associated with more unfavorable cardiac or neurological outcomes. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis of neurogenic myocardial stunning after SAH. In hemodynamically stable acute phase SAH patients, cardiomyopathy is characterized by diffuse and heterogeneous 18F-FDG and 123I-mIBG uptake defect. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01218191. Registered 6 October 2010. PMID:24964817

  14. Ischemia modified albumin increase indicating cardiac damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac complications are often developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may cause sudden death of the patient. There are reports in the literature addressing ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an early and useful marker in the diagnosis of ischemic heart events. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum IMA by using the albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test in the first, second, and seventh days of experimental SAH in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of seven animals. These were classified as control group, 1st, 2nd and 7th day SAH groups. SAH was done by transclival basilar artery puncture. Blood samples were collected under anesthesia from the left ventricles of the heart using the cardiac puncture method for IMA measurement. Histopathological examinations were performed on the heart and lung tissues. Albumin with by colorimetric, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined on an automatic analyser using the enzymatic method. IMA using by ACB test was detected with spectrophotometer. Results Serum IMA (p?=?0.044) in seventh day of SAH were higher compared to the control group. Total injury scores of heart and lung tissue, also myocytolysis at day 7 were significantly higher than control group (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001), day 1 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001) and day 2 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.007, p?=?0.001). A positive correlation between IMA - myocytolysis (r?=?0.48, p?=?0.008), and between IMA heart tissue total injury score (r?=?0.41, p?=?0.029) was found. Conclusion The results revealed that increased serum IMA may be related to myocardial stress after SAH. PMID:24564759

  15. Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation Is Associated With Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Otite, Fadar; Mink, Susanne; Tan, Can Ozan; Puri, Ajit; Zamani, Amir A.; Mehregan, Aujan; Chou, Sherry; Orzell, Susannah; Purkayastha, Sushmita; Du, Rose; Sorond, Farzaneh A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral autoregulation may be impaired in the early days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cerebral autoregulation and angiographic vasospasm (aVSP) and radiographic delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with SAH. Methods Sixty-eight patients (5413 years) with a diagnosis of nontraumatic SAH were studied. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed using transfer function analysis (phase and gain) of the spontaneous blood pressure and blood flow velocity oscillations on days 2 to 4 post-SAH. aVSP was diagnosed using a 4-vessel conventional angiogram. DCI was diagnosed from CT. Decision tree models were used to identify optimal cut-off points for clinical and physiological predictors of aVSP and DCI. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to develop and validate a risk scoring tool for each outcome. Results Sixty-two percent of patients developed aVSP, and 19% developed DCI. Patients with aVSP had higher transfer function gain (1.060.33 versus 0.890.30; P=0.04) and patients with DCI had lower transfer function phase (17.539.6 versus 38.318.2; P=0.03) compared with those who did not develop either. Multivariable scoring tools using transfer function gain >0.98 and phase <12.5 were strongly predictive of aVSP (92% positive predictive value; 77% negative predictive value; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.92) and DCI (80% positive predictive value; 91% negative predictive value; area under the curve, 0.94), respectively. Conclusions Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired in the early days after SAH. Including autoregulation as part of the initial clinical and radiographic assessment may enhance our ability to identify patients at a high risk for developing secondary complications after SAH. PMID:24425120

  16. Association of early post-procedure hemodynamic management with the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Ishikawa, Koichi B; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fujimori, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    Post-procedure hemodynamic management for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is controversial because of the paucity of studied patients. Using a Japanese administrative database, we tested whether increased albumin, catecholamine, and volumes of fluid administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day would be associated with outcomes of mortality, consciousness deterioration at discharge and re-intubation between the 5th and 14th post-procedure days. Across 550 hospitals, 5,400 patients were identified who received clipping, wrapping and endovascular coiling within 48h after admission in 2010. Patient characteristics and the administration of albumin, catecholamine, and volume of fluid normalized by body weight were analyzed among the groups and categorized according to the presence of albumin and catecholamine administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day. The association of early hemodynamic management with outcomes was measured using logistic regression models, through controlling for the preference of early administration of albumin and catecholamine. For the patients, 9.3% received albumin only, 14.4% catecholamine only, and 4.9% both between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day, while 16.5% received albumin or catecholamine on other days. Variation in albumin and catecholamine administration was observed. Higher normalized fluid volume, commenced before the 4th post-procedure day, was associated with increased mortality and re-intubation (although with decreased complications), and vice versa between the 4th and 14th post-procedure days. Catecholamine administration was associated with worsened outcomes. Hypervolemic and hypertensive therapies commenced before the 4th post-procedure day require further research to determine whether their associations with outcomes in this administrative data base are causal or not. PMID:23096067

  17. CSF 20-HETE is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Elizabeth A.; Thampatty, Bhavani P.; Sherwood, Paula R.; Kuo, Chie-Wen J.; Bender, Catherine; Balzer, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Michael; Poloyac, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) that is manifested by changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanied by neurological decline and results in long-term functional and neuropsychological (NP) impairment. Preclinical evidence has demonstrated that the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), affects cerebral microvascular tone and CBF after aSAH. The purpose of this study was to determine if CSF 20-HETE levels were associated with DCI and long term NP outcomes in aSAH patients. Methods CSF samples collected twice daily through 14 days after hemorrhage on 108 acute, adult aSAH patients. Samples were analyzed for 20-HETE via HPLC MSQ single quadrupole mass spectrometry. DCI was defined as the presence of impaired CBF (angiographic vasospasm, elevated transcranial Dopplers, abnormal CT or MR perfusion scans) accompanied by neurological deterioration. Outcomes including death and neuropsychological testing were completed at 3 months after hemorrhage. Results and Conclusions Detectible 20-HETE levels were observed in 31% of patient samples and were associated with severity of hemorrhage (Hunt&Hess p=0.04; Fisher p=0.05). Detection of 20-HETE was not associated with angiographic vasospasm (p=0.34), however, detectible 20-HETE was significantly associated with DCI (p=0.016). Our data also suggests that detectable 20-HETE was associated with decreased performance in 5 NP domains. These results provide the first clinical evidence that CSF 20-HETE concentrations are associated with DCI and poor outcomes and provide impetus for future studies to elucidate the clinical utility of inhibiting 20-HETE formation as a novel therapeutic intervention in patients with aSAH. PMID:21617146

  18. The Effect of Gender on Acute Hydrocephalus after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hajime; Zhang, Haining; Okubo, Shuichi; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Acute hydrocephalus is a common complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We investigated the effect of gender on acute hydrocephalus development in a rat SAH model. SAH was induced in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using endovascular perforation. Sham rats underwent the same procedure without perforation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 24 h after SAH to determine ventricular volume. Hydrocephalus was defined as a ventricular volume that was more than 3 standard deviations from the mean value in sham-operated animals. After MRI, animals were euthanized and the extent of SAH was assessed using a modified grading system. No sham animals died. Mortality rates after SAH induction in male and female animals were 27 and 22 %, respectively. SAH induced significant ventricular enlargement compared with sham-operated rats (p < 0.01). The T2* hypointensity volume in the ventricle (used to assess intraventricular blood) was correlated with ventricular volume after SAH (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). The incidence of acute hydrocephalus 24 h after SAH was greater in female (75 %) than in male animals (47 %, p < 0.05) and the relative changes in ventricular volume were significantly larger in female than in male rats (292 ± 150 % vs 216 ± 127 % of sham-operated animals, respectively, p < 0.05). The increased hydrocephalus occurred even though SAH severity grade and ventricular T2* hypointensity volumes were not significantly different between male and female animals. Our data demonstrate that gender influences acute hydrocephalus development in a rat SAH model. Future studies should determine the role of estrogen in SAH-induced hydrocephalus. PMID:26463971

  19. Practical Incidence and Risk Factors of Terson's Syndrome: A Retrospective Analysis in 322 Consecutive Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Han, Myung-Hoon; Byoun, Hyoung-Soo; Lee, Byung-Ro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Terson's syndrome, a complication of visual function, has occasionally been reported in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however the factors responsible for Terson's syndrome in aneurysmal SAH patients have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we report on potential risk factors for prediction and diagnosis of Terson's syndrome in the earlier stage of the disease course in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Materials and Methods The authors retrospectively analyzed the data of 322 consecutive patients who suffered from aneurysmal SAH in a single institution between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2013. Medical records including demographics, neurologic examination, and radiologic images were collected to clarify the risk factors of Terson's syndrome. Patients with visual problem were consulted to the Department of Ophthalmology. Results Among 332 patients with aneurysmal SAH, 34 patients were diagnosed as Terson's syndrome. Four individual factors, including World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade at admission, aneurysm size, method of operation, and Glasgow outcome scale showed statistically significant association with occurrence of Terson's syndrome. Of these, WFNS grade at admission, aneurysm size, and method of operation showed strong association with Terson's syndrome in multivariate analysis. Terson's syndrome accompanied by papilledema due to increased intracranial pressure led to permanent visual complication. Conclusion In patients with aneurysmal SAH, the patients' WFNS grade at admission, the size of the aneurysms, particularly the diameter of the aneurysm dome, and the method of operation might influence development of Terson's syndrome. PMID:26526120

  20. Stem Cells as a Potential Adjunctive Therapy in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Hesham T.; Shah, Sumedh S.; Thompson, John W.; Ambekar, Sudheer; Peterson, Eric C.; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite advances in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage, a considerable proportion of patients are still left with severe and disabling long-term consequences. Unfortunately, there are limited therapeutic options to counteract the sequelae following the initial insult. The role of stem cells has been studied in the treatment of various diseases. The goal of this study was to provide a literature review regarding the potential advantages of stem-cell therapy to counteract or minimize the sequelae of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov searches were conducted to incorporate pertinent studies that discussed stem cell use in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Included articles were subjected to data extraction for the synthesis of the efficacy of stem-cell therapy. RESULTS Four preclinical studies with 181 animal model subjects (44 mice, 137 rats) were incorporated in our review. Endovascular punctures (65%) and blood injections in subarachnoid spaces (17%) were used to induce hemorrhage models. Stem cells were administered intravenously (3.0 × 106 cells) or intranasally (1.5 × 106 cells). According to literature, mesenchymal cell therapy significantly (p<0.05) induces stem-cell migration to lesion sites, decreases associated neural apoptosis and inflammation, improves ultrastructural integrity of cerebral tissue, and aids in improving sensorimotor function post subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSION Stem cells, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, have shown promising cellular, morphological, and functional benefits in animal models suffering from induced subarachnoid hemorrhages. However, further studies are warranted to elucidate the full effects of stem-cell therapy for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  1. Conservative management in a rare case of spontaneous bilateral cerebellar haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Rakesh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Verma, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage is usually associated with various risk factors such as hypertension, aneurysm, bleeding diatheses, anticoagulant use, amyloid angiopathy and remote bleed occurring after supratentorial and spinal surgery. Simultaneous bilateral cerebellar haemorrhage is rarely observed outside the setting of known precipitants and may follow a rapid downhill course. We present an unusual case of a young man who presented to us with sudden-onset cerebellar signs due to haemorrhage occurring in both the cerebellar hemispheres. Our patient had a favourable outcome with conservative management despite having bilateral cerebellar haematoma with partial obliteration of the fourth ventricle. PMID:22707701

  2. Maternal complications associated with stillbirth delivery: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, K J; Mozurkewich, E L; Puder, K S; Treadwell, M C

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to identify delivery complications associated with stillbirth labour and delivery. We conducted a retrospective chart review evaluating stillbirth demographics, pregnancy and maternal risk factors, and complications of labour and delivery. We performed bivariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with medical complications and variations by race. Our cohort included 543 mothers with stillbirth, of which two-thirds were African-American. We noted high rates of shoulder dystocia, clinical chorioamnionitis, postpartum haemorrhage and retained placenta in women with stillbirths. Thirty-three women (6%) experienced at least one serious maternal complication. Complication rates did not vary by maternal race. Providers who perform obstetrical care should be alert to the high rate of maternal medical complications associated with labour and delivery of a stillbirth foetus. PMID:26479679

  3. How to manage patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Geisthoff, Urban W; Nguyen, Ha-Long; Rth, Alexander; Seyfert, Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare systemic autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of the fibrovascular tissue with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Diagnosis is based on the clinical Curaao criteria or molecular genetic testing. Dilated vessels can develop into telangiectases or larger vascular malformations in various organs, calling for an interdisciplinary approach. Epistaxis and gastrointestinal bleeding can result from these vascular defects. Various conservative and interventional treatments have been described for these conditions. However, no optimal therapy exists. Treatment can become especially difficult due to progressive anaemia or when anticoagulant or anti-thrombotic therapy becomes necessary. Screening for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) should be performed in all confirmed and suspected patients. Treatment by percutaneous transcatheter embolotherapy and antibiotic prophylaxis is normally effective for PAVM. Cerebral or hepatic vascular malformations and rare manifestations need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine the best course of action for treatment. PMID:26205234

  4. Threat of Marburg and Ebola viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tukei, P M

    1996-01-01

    Marburg and Ebola viruses are members of the filovirus family that can be regarded as recently emerged. These viruses have caused sporadic outbreaks of fatal haemorrhagic disease in Africa, Europe and recently in the USA. The case fatality rates rank among the highest ranging from 33-80%. The mode of transmission of these viruses are clearly through close contact with blood and body fluids. Disease outbreaks have been amplified in hospital situations with poor blood precautions. In villages disease has been amplified through contamination with blood and fluids during nursing the sick and burial rituals. The source of the viruses has eluded discovery and new theories regarding the nature of these viruses are being entertained. The threat of new outbreaks in Africa is real since serological evidence of the presence of the virus has been documented in Kenya, Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Cote-d'Ivoire and Gabon. PMID:8625857

  5. Viewpoint: filovirus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks: much ado about nothing?

    PubMed

    Borchert, M; Boelaert, M; Sleurs, H; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Pirard, P; Colebunders, R; Van der Stuyft, P; van der Groen, G

    2000-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo has put the filovirus threat back on the international health agenda. This paper gives an overview of Marburg and Ebola outbreaks so far observed and puts them in a public health perspective. Damage on the local level has been devastating at times, but was marginal on the international level despite the considerable media attention these outbreaks received. The potential hazard of outbreaks, however, after export of filovirus from its natural environment into metropolitan areas, is argued to be considerable. Some avenues for future research and intervention are explored. Beyond the obvious need to find the reservoir and study the natural history, public health strategies for a more timely and efficient response are urgently needed. PMID:10886793

  6. Spontaneous pulmonary haemorrhage into an existing emphysematous bulla.

    PubMed

    Withey, Samuel; Tamimi, Asad

    2016-01-01

    A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis presented dyspnoeic with productive cough and large-volume haemoptysis, 1?month after coronary stenting and commencement of clopidogrel. A chest radiograph showed a well-circumscribed opacity in the left lower zone with surrounding consolidation, where previously an emphysematous bulla had been. A CT scan of the thorax confirmed a 14?cm bulla in the left lower lobe, which was 70% filled with blood with associated surrounding consolidation. A diagnosis of pulmonary haemorrhage into an existing emphysematous bulla with co-existing infective exacerbation of COPD was performed. Owing to his significant comorbidities, the patient was managed conservatively, returning to baseline over several days. He had two further admissions due to pulmonary infection over 2?months, where the haematoma was nominally smaller, and died during the second of these. PMID:26744537

  7. Haemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in two newborns.

    PubMed

    Guzoglu, Nilufer; Demirkol, Fatma Nur; Aliefendioglu, Didem

    2015-05-01

    Invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment increase the risk of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. Early identification and appropriate treatment is important. Herein we report two cases of massive hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The first case was diagnosed with congenital pneumonia; a chest tube was inserted because of pneumothorax on the third day of life. The second case had been referred with respiratory distress syndrome, and bilateral pneumothorax was present on admission. Upon follow up, the cases' clinical condition worsened; acute respiratory distress syndrome and massive pulmonary haemorrhage developed. After Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated in blood cultures, the cases were treated successfully using a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolone. PMID:25989175

  8. Haemorrhage and coagulopathy in the Defence Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S J; Tarmey, N T; Woolley, T; Wood, P; Mahoney, P F

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 12 years, the United Kingdom Defence Medical Services have evolved an integrated 'damage control resuscitation - damage control surgery' sequence for the management of patients sustaining complex injuries. During 2009, over 3200 units of blood products were administered as massive transfusions to severely injured UK personnel. An important part of the approach to traumatic bleeding is the early, empirical use of predefined ratios of blood and clotting products. As soon as control of bleeding is achieved, current practice is to switch towards a tailored transfusion, based on clinical and laboratory assessments, including point-of-care coagulation testing. A key goal is to provide resuscitation seamlessly throughout surgery, so that patients leave the operating room with their normal physiology restored. This article outlines the current management of haemorrhage and coagulation employed in Afghanistan from the point of wounding to transfer back to the National Health Service. PMID:23210556

  9. A risk scoring system for prediction of haemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, S P; Tiwari, R R

    2005-01-01

    The present pair-matched case control study was carried out at Government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital with the objective to devise and validate a risk scoring system for prediction of hemorrhagic stroke. The study consisted of 166 hospitalized CT scan proved cases of hemorrhagic stroke (ICD 9, 431-432), and a age and sex matched control per case. The controls were selected from patients who attended the study hospital for conditions other than stroke. On conditional multiple logistic regression five risk factors- hypertension (OR = 1.9. 95% Cl = 1.5-2.5). raised scrum total cholesterol (OR = 2.3, 95% Cl = 1.1-4.9). use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (OR = 3.4, 95% Cl =1.1-10.4). past history of transient ischaemic attack (OR = 8.4, 95% Cl = 2.1- 33.6) and alcohol intake (OR = 2.1, 95% Cl = 1.3-3.6) were significant. These factors were ascribed statistical weights (based on regression coefficients) of 6, 8, 12, 21 and 8 respectively. The nonsignificant factors (diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, type A personality, history of claudication, family history of stroke, history of cardiac diseases and oral contraceptive use in females) were not included in the development of scoring system. ROC curve suggested a total score of 21 to be the best cut-off for predicting haemorrhag stroke. At this cut-off the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and Cohen's kappa were 0.74, 0.74, 0.74 and 0.48 respectively. The overall predictive accuracy of this additive risk scoring system (area under ROC curve by Wilcoxon statistic) was 0.79 (95% Cl = 0.73-0.84). Thus to conclude, if substantiated by further validation, this scorincy system can be used to predict haemorrhagic stroke, thereby helping to devise effective risk factor intervention strategy. PMID:16479901

  10. Statins and Anti-Inflammatory Therapies for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Opinion Statement Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage induces a potent inflammatory cascade that contributes to endothelial dysfunction, imbalance of vasoactive substances (excess endothelin, depletion of nitric oxide) and arterial vasospasm. This process results in delayed cerebral ischemia, a major cause of neurological disability in those surviving the initial hemorrhage. The only therapy shown to be effective in improving neurologic outcomes after SAH is the calcium-channel antagonist, nimodipine (although it achieved this without reducing vasospasm). A number of novel therapies have been explored to inhibit the development of vasospasm and reduce the burden of ischemia and cerebral infarction. Statins are promising candidates, as they block multiple aspects of the inflammatory pathway that contributes to ischemic brain injury. Early clinical trials, however, have produced conflicting results and adoption of their use in clinical practice should await the results of larger more definitive studies. While endothelin-receptor antagonists showed promise in significantly reducing vasospasm in preliminary trials, their failure to improve clinical outcomes in phase III studies has been disappointing, highlighting the complex link between vasospasm and ischemia. Future directions in the quest to improve outcomes of patients with SAH may need to approach ischemia as a multifactorial process with inflammatory, vasoactive, and ionic/metabolic components. PMID:22249788

  11. Puerperal Extracranial Vertebral Artery Dissection and Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Garrard, James W; Simm, Renata F; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Nogueira, Ricardo C

    2016-02-01

    Previously reported only a few times before, we present a case of extracranial vertebral dissection and spontaneous frontoparietal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the puerperium, discussing possible mechanisms and difficulties in management. A 35-year-old woman presented 10 days postcaesarean section with neck pain and vertigo with normal initial investigations. Following recurrent vertigo, headache, and ataxia, imaging revealed a frontoparietal SAH and vertebral artery dissection. The patient was consequently treated with aspirin, and then following a return of symptoms 3 weeks later, warfarin therapy was continued for 6 months. The possible underlying mechanisms for this case are discussed, including reversible cervical vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, although neither was identified. The small SAH alongside recurrent posterior circulation symptoms resulted in the initiation of antithrombotic therapy. This report supports studies demonstrating higher incidence of cervicocephalic arterial dissection in the puerperium. Moreover, the heterogeneous presentation and manifestations of such cases require individualized treatment, and warrant studies into underlying mechanisms behind extracranial dissection and nonaneurysmal SAH. PMID:26696611

  12. Myocarditis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: A histopathologic study.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, Ivo A C; Vendeville, Jean-Paul; van de Hoef, Tim P; Begieneman, Mark P V; Lagrand, Wim K; Kros, Johan M; Wilde, Arthur A M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Niessen, Hans W M

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) such as electrocardiographic changes, echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, and elevated troponin levels are independently associated with a poor prognosis. They are caused by catecholaminergic stress coinciding with influx of inflammatory cells into the heart. These abnormalities could be a sign of a myocarditis, potentially giving insight in pathophysiology and treatment options. These inflammatory cells are insufficiently characterized, and it is unknown whether myocarditis is associated with SAH. Myocardium of 25 patients who died of SAH and 18 controls was stained with antibodies identifying macrophages (CD68), lymphocytes (CD45), and neutrophil granulocytes (myeloperoxidase). Myocytolysis was visualized using complement staining (C3d). CD31 was used to identify putative thrombi. We used Mann-Whitney U testing for analysis. In the myocardium of SAH patients, the amount of myeloperoxidase-positive (P < .005), CD45-positive (P < .0005), and CD68-positive (P < .0005) cells was significantly higher compared to controls. Thrombi in intramyocardial arteries were found in 22 SAH patients and 1 control. Myocytolysis was found in 6 SAH patients but not in controls. Myocarditis, consisting of an influx of neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages, coinciding with myocytolysis and thrombi in intramyocardial arteries, occurs in patients with SAH but not in controls. These findings might explain the cardiac abnormalities after SAH and may have implications for treatment. PMID:26777746

  13. Hydrocephalus in 389 patients with aneurysm-associated subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Woernle, Christoph M; Winkler, Kerstin M L; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Haile, Sarah R; Bellut, David; Neidert, Marian C; Bozinov, Oliver; Krayenbhl, Niklaus; Bernays, Ren-Ludwig

    2013-06-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often leads to hydrocephalus, which is commonly treated by placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. There is controversy over which factors affect the need for such treatment. In this study, data were prospectively collected from 389 consecutive patients who presented with an aneurysm-associated SAH at a single center. External ventricular drainage placement was performed as part of the treatment for acute hydrocephalus, and VP shunts were placed in patients with chronic hydrocephalus. The data were retrospectively analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis. Overall, shunt dependency occurred in 91 of the 389 patients (23.4%). Using logistic regression analysis, two factors were found to be significantly associated with VP shunt placement: an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8-14 (8-14 versus 3-7, p = 0.016; 15 versus 3-7, p = 0.55); and aneurysm coiling (p = 0.017). Patients with an initial GCS score of 8-14 after aneurysm-associated SAH had a 2.5-fold higher risk of receiving a VP shunt than those with a GCS score of 3-7. Those with a GCS of 15 had a 50% lower risk of becoming shunt dependent than did the subgroup with a GCS score of 8-14. To clarify and strengthen these observations, prospective, randomized trials are needed. PMID:23562295

  14. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  15. Role of levosimendan in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Varvarousi, Giolanda; Xanthos, Theodoros; Sarafidou, Pavlina; Katsioula, Ellisavet; Georgiadou, Marianthi; Eforakopoulou, Maria; Pavlou, Hlias

    2016-02-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is one of the leading causes of neurologic disability accounting for dismal long term survival rates. aSAH leads to a sudden increase in intracranial pressure and a massive sympathetic discharge. Excessive sympathetic stimulation leads to catecholamine mediated myocardial dysfunction and hemodynamic instability which may critically hamper brain perfusion and oxygenation. In the setting of acute aSAH, administration of vasoactive drugs aims at stabilizing impaired hemodynamics. However, studies have shown that conventional treatment with vasoactive drugs that lead to Ca(+2) overload and increase myocardial oxygen consumption, fail to restore hemodynamics and decrease cerebral blood flow. Levosimendan is a non-adrenergic inotropic Ca(+2) sensitizer with not only beneficial hemodynamic properties but also pleiotropic effects, contributing to its cardioprotective and neuroprotective role. Although there have been limited data available regarding the use of levosimendan in patients with aSAH, current evidence suggests that levosimendan may have a role in the setting of post-aSAH cardiomyopathy and decreased cerebral blood flow both in the emergency departments and in intensive care units. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of studies of levosimendan therapy for aSAH, and describe current knowledge about the effects of levosimendan in the management of aSAH. PMID:26669277

  16. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  17. Brain Volume Determination in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Rats.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Hardy, Maurice; Fujii, Mutsumi; McBride, Devin W; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema is routinely measured using the wet-dry method. Volume, however, is the sum total of all cerebral tissues, including water. Therefore, volumetric change following injury may not be adequately quantified using percentage of edema. We thus tested the hypothesis that dried brains can be reconstituted with water and then re-measured to determine the actual volume. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?30). Animals were euthanized at 24 and 72 h after evaluation of neurobehavior for determination of brain water content. Dried brains were thereafter reconstituted with equal parts of water (lost from brain edema) and centrifuged to remove air bubbles. The total volume was quantified using hydrostatic (underwater) physics principles that 1 ml water (mass)?=?1 cm(3) (volume). The amount of additional water needed to reach a preset level marked on 2-ml test tubes was added to that lost from brain edema, and from the brain itself, to determine the final volume. SAH significantly increased both brain water and volume while worsening neurological function in affected rats. Volumetric measurements demonstrated significant brain swelling after SAH, in addition to the brain edema approach. This modification of the "wet-dry" method permits brain volume determination using valuable post hoc dried brain tissue. PMID:26463930

  18. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Sukhotinsky, Inna; Ayata, Cenk; Wellman, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders. PMID:23577279

  19. Impact of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Parenchymal Arteriolar Function

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, George C.; Koide, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Intracerebral or parenchymal arterioles play an important role in the regulation of both global and regional blood flow within the brain. Brain cortex lacks significant collateral sources of blood and are thus at risk if blood flow through parenchymal arterioles is restricted. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating that abnormal parenchymal arteriolar constriction contributes to the development of neurological deficits caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For example, parenchymal arterioles isolated from SAH model rats exhibit enhanced constriction in response to increased intravascular pressure. This increased pressure-dependent constriction or myogenic tone would result in a shift in the cerebral autoregulatory response and decreased cerebral perfusion. Here, we summarize our current knowledge regarding cellular mechanisms contributing to enhanced contractility of parenchymal arteriolar myocytes following SAH. Our studies demonstrate SAH-induced membrane potential depolarization involving altered K+ homeostasis leads to enhanced voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity, increased smooth muscle cytosolic Ca2+ and parenchymal arteriolar constriction. In summary, emerging evidence demonstrates that SAH can profoundly affect parenchymal arteriolar tone promoting decreased cortical blood flow and compromised neuronal viability. PMID:22890665

  20. Original surgical treatment of thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts in six chondrodystrophic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid cysts are rare conditions in veterinary medicine, associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Most of the 100 cases of subarachnoid cysts described since the first report in 1968 were apparently not true cysts. Reported cysts are usually situated in the cervical area and occur in predisposed breeds such as the Rottweiler. The purpose of this retrospective study, from May 2003 to April 2012, was to describe the distinctive features of thoracolumbar spinal subarachnoid cysts, together with their surgical treatment and outcome in 6 chondrodystrophic dogs. Results Five Pugs and 1 French Bulldog were examined. Images suggestive of a subarachnoid cyst were obtained by myelography (2/6) and computed tomography myelography (4/6), and associated disc herniation was observed in 3/6 dogs. A hemilaminectomy was performed. The protruding disc eventually found in 5/6 dogs was treated by lateral corpectomy. The ventral leptomeningeal adhesions observed in all dogs after durotomy were dissected. No or only mild post-operative neurological degradation was observed. Follow-up studies (7 months to 4 years) indicated good outcome and no recurrence. Conclusions All the thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts described in these 6 chondrodystrophic dogs were associated with leptomeningeal adhesions. Good results seemed to be obtained by dissecting and removing these adhesions. A protruding disc, found here in 5/6 dogs, needs to be ruled out and can be treated by lateral corpectomy. PMID:24884635

  1. Complications Following Anorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, Hiroko; Poylin, Vitaliy

    2016-03-01

    Anorectal surgery is well tolerated. Rates of minor complications are relatively high, but major postoperative complications are uncommon. Prompt identification of postoperative complications is necessary to avoid significant patient morbidity. The most common acute complications include bleeding, infection, and urinary retention. Pelvic sepsis, while may result in dramatic morbidity and even mortality, is relatively rare. The most feared long-term complications include fecal incontinence, anal stenosis, and chronic pelvic pain. PMID:26929747

  2. Contralateral haemorrhagic pulmonary metastases (choriocarcinoma syndrome) after pneumonectomy for primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Durieu, I; Berger, N; Loire, R; Gamondes, J P; Guillaud, P H; Cordier, J F

    1994-01-01

    The case history is presented of a patient which illustrates both the diagnostic difficulties of an extremely rare tumour (choriocarcinoma of the lung) and its associated haemorrhagic metastases (choriocarcinoma syndrome). Images PMID:7517072

  3. Use of recombinant activated factor VII in a case of severe postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Verre, M; Bossio, F; Mammone, A; Piccirillo, M; Tancioni, F; Varano, M

    2006-02-01

    We describe the case of a 24 year old woman, affected by haemorrhagic shock due to post-partum uterine atony, who underwent an emergency hysterectomy with persistent postoperative bleeding, successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII (Novoseven). PMID:16498374

  4. A suprasellar arachnoid cyst resulting from an intraventricular haemorrhage and showing complete resolution following endoscopic fenestration.

    PubMed

    Palin, Martin; Anderson, Ian; O'Reilly, Gerard; Goodden, John Robert

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a premature neonate who developed a large, acquired arachnoid cyst as a consequence of intraventricular haemorrhage. The child was managed with endoscopic fenestration and made an excellent recovery. PMID:25926587

  5. A pre-hospital technique for controlling haemorrhage from traumatic perineal and high amputation injuries.

    PubMed

    Quayle, J M; Thomas, G O R

    2011-12-01

    Perineal trauma resulting from the adaptive use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has become an increasingly common problem during current operational conflicts in Afghanistan. Control of haemorrhage from the perineum and high amputations is a particular challenge due to the bony anatomy, rich pelvic vascular supply and the difficulty in achieving haemostasis by direct pressure. In this article, the authors describe a potential pre-hospital solution for controlling haemorrhage from perineal and high amputation injuries. PMID:22319995

  6. [How to diagnose intracranial haemorrhages in infants by two-dimensional ultrasound scanning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Strassburg, H M; Bohlayer, R; Niederhoff, H; Pringsheim, W; Knzer, W

    1982-01-01

    Applying a rotatory sector-scanner, in 437 infants between the 29th gestational week and 18th month of life, a sonographic study was performed in order to look for an intracranial haemorrhage. The recording was performed real-time, using the anterior fontanelle as an acoustic window. In 42 infants we saw signs of an intracranial haemorrhage, which was confirmed 11 times anatomically and 11 times by CAT. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. PMID:7099679

  7. Contrecoup haemorrhage in a patient with left pubic fracture but right obturator artery bleeding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying C; Liu, Peter; Su, Jenn-Shyan; Lin, Yi-Lii

    2007-08-01

    Contrecoup injury following head trauma is well known. It is caused by the acceleration-deceleration mechanism that can be fully explained by Newton's first law of motion. We report on a victim of a motor vehicle accident with non-displacement left pubis fracture but haemorrhage from the right obturator artery. Contrecoup haemorrhage should be excluded first in unstable patients without evidence of significant trauma but with a minor pelvic fracture. PMID:17652697

  8. [Neonatal subgaleal haemorrhage causing fatal course after vacuum-assisted extraction].

    PubMed

    Thorup, Line; Koch, Klaus Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    We present a case that emphasizes the importance of early recognition of neonatal subgaleal haemorrhage through knowledge of risk factors and adequate communication within the health team treating the woman in labour. Especially vacuum-assisted extraction of the child significantly multiplies the incidents of subgaleal haemorrhage. The high mortality is directly associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and bleeding. Early monitoring and treatment with replacement of blood volume is crucial. Education concerning this condition is therefore of great importance. PMID:23305636

  9. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  10. Pancreaticoduodenectomy: expected post-operative anatomy and complications

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, L P; Hoare, S M; O'Neill, A C; Awan, F N; Malone, D E; Ryan, E R; McCann, J W; Heffernan, E J

    2014-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complex, high-risk surgical procedure performed for tumours of the pancreatic head and other periampullary structures. The rate of perioperative mortality has decreased in the past number of years but perioperative morbidity remains high. This pictorial review illustrates expected findings in early and late post-operative periods, including mimickers of pathology. It aims to familiarize radiologists with the imaging appearances of common and unusual post-operative complications. These are classified into early non-vascular complications such as delayed gastric emptying, post-operative collections, pancreatic fistulae and bilomas; late non-vascular complications, for example, biliary strictures and hepatic abscesses; and vascular complications including haemorrhage and ischaemia. Options for minimally invasive image-guided management of vascular and non-vascular complications are discussed. Familiarity with normal anatomic findings is essential in order to distinguish expected post-operative change from surgical complications or recurrent disease. This review summarizes the normal and abnormal radiological findings following pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25026968

  11. Isolated Cranial Nerve-III Palsy Secondary to Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Abbatemarco, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe isolated cranial nerve-III palsy as a rare clinical finding in a patient with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this unusual case, the patient presented with complete cranial nerve-III palsy including ptosis and pupillary involvement. Initial studies revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the perimesencephalic, prepontine, and interpeduncular cisterns. Angiographic studies were negative for an intracranial aneurysm. The patient's neurological deficits improved with no residual deficits on follow-up several months after initial presentation. Our case report supports the notion that patients with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage have an excellent prognosis. Our report further adds a case of isolated cranial nerve-III palsy as a rare initial presentation of this type of bleeding, adding to the limited body of the literature. PMID:26949557

  12. Blood clot placement model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Ali Reza; Bakhtian, Kamran D; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Pluta, Ryszard M

    2015-01-01

    Despite ongoing extensive and promising research to prevent and treat cerebrovascular vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), clinical outcomes remain unsatisfying. Neuroprotective strategies developed in basic science research laboratories need to be translated from bench-to-bedside using appropriate animal models. While a primate model is widely accepted as the best animal model mimicking development of delayed cerebral vasospasm after aSAH, its worldwide usage has dramatically decreased because of ethical and financial limitations. However, the use of primate models of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a recommended bridge for translation of early preclinical studies in rodents to human clinical trials. This paper discusses the technical aspects as well as advantages and disadvantages of a blood clot placement model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in non-human primates. PMID:25366649

  13. The Role of Matricellular Proteins in Brain Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Fujimoto, Masashi; Shiba, Masato; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Liu, Lei; Ichikawa, Naoki; Kanamaru, Kenji; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that blood-brain barrier disruption or brain edema is an important pathologic manifestation for poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Many molecules may be involved, acting simultaneously or at different stages during blood-brain barrier disruption via multiple independent or interconnected signaling pathways. Matricellular protein is a class of nonstructural, secreted, and multifunctional extracellular matrix proteins, which potentially mediates brain edema formation. This study reviews the role of osteopontin and tenascin-C, representatives of matricellular proteins, in the context of brain edema formation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in both clinical and experimental settings. PMID:26463940

  14. Treatment of Syringomyelia due to Chiari Type I Malformation with Syringo-Subarachnoid-Peritoneal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Akak?n, Ak?n; Y?lmaz, Baran; K?l?, Trker

    2015-01-01

    Chiari type I malformation is a tonsillar herniation more than 3 mm from the level of foramen magnum, with or without concurrent syringomyelia. Different surgical treatments have been developed for syringomyelia secondary to Chiari's malformations: craniovertebral decompression with or without plugging of the obex, syringo-subarachnoid, syringo-peritoneal, and theco-peritoneal shunt placement. Shunt placement procedures are useful for neurologically symptomatic large-sized syrinx. In this paper, authors define the first successful treatment of a patient with syringomyelia due to Chiari type I malformation using a pre-defined new technique of syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt with T-tube system. PMID:25932303

  15. Incomplete oculomotor nerve palsy in the subarachnoid space caused by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Chen, Kangning; Liu, Bin; Chen, Li

    2012-04-01

    A patient with traumatic brain injury showed incomplete oculomotor nerve palsy in the subarachnoid space. A 12-year-old girl was hospitalized after a head injury. Neuro-ophthalmic examination showed that the left eye had a ptosis and pupillary involvement. An MRI indicated an intracranial hematoma at the basilar portion of the left temple. The ptosis and pupillary involvement improved after elimination of the hematoma. The presentation patterns are best explained by topographic organization of the third nerve fiber within the subarachnoid space. This case suggests that the topographic organization of the third nerve should be considered in diagnosis of oculomotor nerve palsy. PMID:22465892

  16. Substantial radiation exposure for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A; Josephson, S Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the cancer risk conferred by imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT). Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often are critically ill and require numerous imaging studies. A nonradiating diagnostic modality, transcranial Doppler (TCD), effectively screens for cerebral vasospasm. But when TCD is not available, CT angiography or conventional angiography may be ordered, increasing a patient's total radiation dose. This study investigated the total amount of radiation to which patients with SAH are exposed, and whether that amount was decreased by the availability of TCD. Patients with nontraumatic SAH who were admitted to an intensive care unit within 48 hours of symptom onset and who survived and remained hospitalized for at least 7 days were eligible. TCD was available for one group (TCD group) but not for the other group (no-TCD group). The total radiation dose for each patient was tallied. There were no differences in demographic variables or significant difference in radiation exposure between the 2 groups. Average total radiation exposure was 82.03 mSv in the TCD group and 89.79 mSv in the no-TCD group (P=.60). Head imaging accounted for 97.2% of the total radiation exposure in the TCD group and 90% of that in the no-TCD group. Patients with SAH are exposed to a substantial amount of radiation, almost all of which is centered on the head. Using Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII cancer risk estimates, the average lifetime attributable risk from SAH management was approximately 1 in 125. Methods for decreasing radiation exposure are needed. PMID:20621510

  17. The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

  18. Life satisfaction and return to work after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Passier, Patricia E C A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W M

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141) living at home 2-4 years after the SAH responded to a mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were life satisfaction, as measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire 9 (LiSat-9), and employment status. Determinants in multiple regression analysis were demographic and SAH characteristics, subjective complaints (eg, mood disorder, fatigue, cognitive complaints), and personality characteristics (eg, neuroticism, passive coping style). Of the 141 subjects, 64 (46.7%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of V (good outcome) at discharge. Mean subject age was 51.4 12.3 years, and mean time after SAH was 36.1 7.9 months. Of the 88 subjects who were working at the time of the SAH, 54 (61.4%) returned to work, but only 31 (35.2%) resumed their work completely. The subjects were least satisfied with their vocational situation (51.9% satisfied) and sexual life (51.7%) and were most satisfied with their relationships (75.2%-88.7%) and self-care ability (88.6%). Age (? value = 0.17), return to work after SAH (0.19), disability at hospital discharge (0.25), worsened mood (-0.37), and passive coping (-0.25) together accounted for 47.2% of the life satisfaction scores. Our data indicate that return to work is a major issue for individuals who survive an SAH. Not returning to work, disability, depression, and passive coping are associated with reduced life satisfaction. Thus, vocational reintegration after SAH merits more attention during rehabilitation. PMID:20656515

  19. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE: MULTIMODAL DETECTION AND OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Perotte, Adler; Albers, David; Kleinberg, Samantha; Schmidt, J. Michael; Tu, Bin; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lantigua, Hector; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hripcsak, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed intracortical EEG and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury. Results Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (P=0.001), blood pressure (P<0.001), and respiratory rate (P<0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (P=0.03) and intracranial pressure (P =0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (P=0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs. 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively). Interpretation We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in regional cerebral blood flow. These real-world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. PMID:23813945

  20. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE LINK INFLAMMATION AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Albers, David; Schmidt, J. Michael; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Falo, Christina Maria; Mayer, Stephan A.; Cremers, Serge; Agarwal, Sachin; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Connolly, E. Sander; Dukic, Vanja; Hripcsak, George; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Pro-inflammatory states are common after many brain injuries and inflammatory mediated changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability have experimentally been linked to seizures. Methods In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS) and laboratory markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1,TNF-R1; high sensitivity C-reactive protein,hsCRP). Logistic regression, cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships. Results Among 479 SAH patients, 53(11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (OR1.9 per point increase in SIRS; 95%-CI1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR1.2 per 20 point hsCRP increase [95%-CI1.1-1.4]; OR2.5 per 100 point TNF-R1 increase [95%-CI2.1-2.9]). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz. Interpretation In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a pro-inflammatory state following SAH reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz. PMID:24771589

  1. The Early Endocrine Stress Response in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Hillered, Lars; Stridsberg, Mats; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In patients with severe illness, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a physiologic stress response is triggered. This includes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the very early responses of these systems. Methods A porcine animal model of aneurysmal SAH was used. In this model, blood is injected slowly to the basal cisterns above the anterior skull base until the cerebral perfusion pressure is 0 mm Hg. Sampling was done from blood and urine at -10, +15, +75 and +135 minutes from time of induction of SAH. Analyses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, catecholamines and chromogranin-A were performed. Results Plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma aldosterone increased in the samples following induction of SAH, and started to decline after 75 minutes. Urine cortisol also increased after SAH. Urine catecholamines and their metabolites were found to increase after SAH. Many samples were however below detection level, not allowing for statistical analysis. Plasma chromogranin-A peaked at 15 minutes after SAH, and thereafter decreased. Conclusions The endocrine stress response after aneurysmal SAH was found to start within 15 minutes in the HPA axis with early peak values of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone. The fact that the concentrations of the HPA axis hormones decreased 135 minutes after SAH may suggest that a similar pattern exists in SAH patients, thus making it difficult to catch these early peak values. There were also indications of early activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the small number of valid samples made interpretation difficult. PMID:27007694

  2. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  3. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Gurin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  4. Pregnancy Complications: Preexisting Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preexisting diabetes Preexisting diabetes Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please ... to help prevent problems like these. Can preexisting diabetes cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If it’s not ...

  5. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Information Page Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... resources from MedlinePlus What are Neurological Complications of AIDS? AIDS is primarily an immune system disorder caused ...

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss > Pregnancy complications > Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes and pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

  7. Hyperintensity in the subarachnoid space on contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging after central venous catheter removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Sehoon

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral air embolism is a rare complication of central venous catheterization. A 61-year-old man developed a left-sided hemiparesis immediately after his right jugular venous catheter removal. A diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained 2h after the symptom onset was normal. However, postgadolinium cerebral spinal fluid enhancement was seen on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI. A repeat diffusion-weighted MRI, 18h later, showed restricted diffusion in the bilateral hemispheres. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier caused by the air bubbles might lead to accumulation of gadolinium in the subarachnoid space. Postgadolinium cerebral spinal fluid enhancement may be an early, sensitive predictor of blood-brain barrier disruption and impending cerebral infarct after air embolism. PMID:23733105

  8. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  9. Reversal of haemorrhagic shock in rats by cholinomimetic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Guarini, S.; Tagliavini, S.; Ferrari, W.; Bertolini, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. In an experimental model of haemorrhagic shock resulting in the death of all rats within 20-30 min, the intravenous (i.v.) injection of the tertiary amine cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (17-70 micrograms kg-1) induced a prompt, sustained and dose-dependent improvement of cardiovascular and respiratory function, with marked increase in the volume of circulating blood and survival of all treated animals, at least for the 2 h of observation. 2. Similar results were obtained with the i.v. injection of the cholinoceptor agonist oxotremorine (5-25 micrograms kg-1), while neostigmine (54 or 70 micrograms kg-1), a quaternary cholinesterase inhibitor which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, had negligible effects. 3. The anti-shock activities of oxotremorine and physostigmine were blocked by the intracerebroventricular injection of either of the combined nicotinic and M2-muscarinic receptor antagonists gallamine and pancuronium, or of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. They were also blocked by intraperitoneal injection of the adrenergic neurone blocking agent guanethidine, but they were not antagonized by either the combined M1- and M2-muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine, or the M2-muscarinic receptor 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide. 4. It is concluded that cholinomimetic drugs can reverse hypovolaemic shock through central activation (seemingly mediated by nicotinic receptors) of sympathetic tone, with mobilization and redistribution of the residual blood. PMID:2804546

  10. [Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Chlbek, R; Smetana, J; Vackov, M

    2006-12-01

    With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections. PMID:17230375

  11. Relevance of quantitative assessment of bleeding in haemorrhagic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodeghiero, F; Kadir, R A; Tosetto, A; James, P D

    2008-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing interest in the diagnosis of mild bleeding disorders (MBD) to find reliable tools for the assessment of their inherent bleeding risk and minimum criteria for the definition of a clinically useful diagnosis. Unlike in more severe haemorrhagic disorders, in MBD, the bleeding history may overlap with that reported by normal people. This problem has required the development of strategies that could allow the assessment of bleeding symptoms from both a qualitative (presence or absence) and quantitative (bleeding severity) aspect. An example of high quality clinical research in bleeding disorders was given by the systematic approach used for the evaluation of menorrhagia. For this symptom, the most common in women with bleeding disorders, the use of pictorial charts provided many new insights. Dr Kadir will review its use in a clinical context. The assessment of the whole bleeding history requires first, the development of reproducible tools to collect symptoms and secondly, formulation of easily applicable criteria to convert the collected data into clinical information. Dr Tosetto will propose a bleeding questionnaire in which clinical criteria were developed and validated, and show how a summative, quantitative index of bleeding severity (the Bleeding Score) could be used in von Willebrand disease. Finally, Dr James will review the development of quantitative analysis in children, a particularly important and difficult application, but one that needs to be tackled urgently. PMID:18510525

  12. Imaging cerebral haemorrhage with magnetic induction tomography: numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Zolgharni, M; Ledger, P D; Armitage, D W; Holder, D S; Griffiths, H

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new electromagnetic imaging modality which has the potential to image changes in the electrical conductivity of the brain due to different pathologies. In this study the feasibility of detecting haemorrhagic cerebral stroke with a 16-channel MIT system operating at 10 MHz was investigated. The finite-element method combined with a realistic, multi-layer, head model comprising 12 different tissues, was used for the simulations in the commercial FE package, Comsol Multiphysics. The eddy-current problem was solved and the MIT signals computed for strokes of different volumes occurring at different locations in the brain. The results revealed that a large, peripheral stroke (volume 49 cm(3)) produced phase changes that would be detectable with our currently achievable instrumentation phase noise level (17 m degrees ) in 70 (27%) of the 256 exciter/sensor channel combinations. However, reconstructed images showed that a lower noise level than this, of 1 m degrees , was necessary to obtain good visualization of the strokes. The simulated MIT measurements were compared with those from an independent transmission-line-matrix model in order to give confidence in the results. PMID:19491437

  13. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virushost co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  14. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  15. Delineating the Association between Heavy Postpartum Haemorrhage and Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eckerdal, Patricia; Kollia, Natasa; Löfblad, Johanna; Hellgren, Charlotte; Karlsson, Linnea; Högberg, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD), taking into account the role of postpartum anaemia, delivery experience and psychiatric history. Methods A nested cohort study (n = 446), based on two population-based cohorts in Uppsala, Sweden. Exposed individuals were defined as having a bleeding of ≥1000ml (n = 196) at delivery, and non-exposed individuals as having bleeding of <650ml (n = 250). Logistic regression models with PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) score ≥ 12) as the outcome variable and PPH, anaemia, experience of delivery, mood during pregnancy and other confounders as exposure variables were undertaken. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was also conducted. Results There was no association between PPH and PPD symptoms. A positive association was shown between anaemia at discharge from the maternity ward and the development of PPD symptoms, even after controlling for plausible confounders (OR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.15–4.58). Path analysis revealed significant roles for anaemia at discharge, negative self-reported delivery experience, depressed mood during pregnancy and postpartum stressors in increasing the risk for PPD. Conclusion This study proposes important roles for postpartum anaemia, negative experience of delivery and mood during pregnancy in explaining the development of depressive symptoms after PPH. PMID:26807799

  16. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466?686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandz-Dia?, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366?350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53?292), fathers with separate partners (n=47?054), sister pairs (n=97?228), brother pairs (n=91?168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177?944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total variation in liability is attributable to factors that are not shared in families. PMID:25121825

  17. Transoesophageal Echocardiography Related Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, S K; Singh, Pooja

    2009-01-01

    Summary The application of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been continuously increasing over past several decades. It is usually considered a very safe diagnostic and monitoring device. Though the complications are rare, but these complications must be known to the operators performing TEE. The goal of this article is to encapsulate the potential complications associated with TEE. The complications are primarily related to gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems along with some miscellaneous problems related to probe insertion, drugs and inexperience of the operator. Strategies for the prevention of these complications are also analyzed in order to avoid the risk. PMID:20640107

  18. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an ARIA before the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Lizana, Eva; Carmona-Iragui, Mara; Alcolea, Daniel; Gmez-Choco, Manuel; Vilaplana, Eduard; Snchez-Saudins, Mara B; Clarimn, Jordi; Hernndez-Guillamon, Mar; Munuera, Josep; Gelpi, Ellen; Gmez-Anson, Beatriz; de Juan-Delago, Manel; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Montaner, Joan; Ois, Angel; Amaro, Sergi; Blesa, Rafael; Mart-Fbregas, Joan; Lle, Alberto; Fortea, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) in elderly patients is a rare entity that has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH). To characterize this entity and to study these associations, 22 patients over 60 with cSAH were included in a multicenter ambispective cohort study. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, APOE genotyping, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated. Results were compared with data from healthy controls (HC), non-cSAH CAA patients (CAAo), and Alzheimer disease patients. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient sensory or motor symptoms. At follow-up (median 30.7 months), 5 patients had died, 6 survivors showed functional disability (modified Rankins Scale (mRS)>2), and 12 cognitive impairment. Four patients had prior ICH and six had an ICH during follow-up. CSF-A40 and A42 levels were lower in cSAH and CAAo compared with HC. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented an APOE-?2 overrepresentation and CAAo had an APOE-?4 overrepresentation. On MRI, all patients fulfilled CAA-modified Boston criteria and 9 showed cortical ischemia in the surrounding cortex or the vicinity of superficial siderosis. The neuropathologic study, available in one patient, showed severe CAA and advanced Alzheimer-type pathology. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the elderly is associated with cognitive impairment and lobar ICH occurrence. Our findings support the existence of an underlying CAA pathology. PMID:25735919

  19. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  20. Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  1. Changes in the metabolism of sphingolipids after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Testai, Fernando D; Xu, Hao-Liang; Kilkus, John; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Gorshkova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Pelligrino, Dale A; Dawson, Glyn

    2015-05-01

    We previously described how ceramide (Cer), a mediator of cell death, increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study investigates the alterations of biochemical pathways involved in Cer homeostasis in SAH. Cer, dihydroceramide (DHC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and the activities of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), sphingomyelinase synthase (SMS), S1P-lyase, and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were determined in the CSF of SAH subjects and in brain homogenate of SAH rats. Compared with controls (n?=?8), SAH patients (n?=?26) had higher ASMase activity (10.0??3.5 IF/l min vs. 15.0??4.6 IF/l min; P?=?0.009) and elevated levels of Cer (11.4??8.8 pmol/ml vs. 33.3??48.3 pmol/ml; P?=?0.001) and DHC (1.3??1.1 pmol/ml vs. 3.8??3.4 pmol/ml; P?=?0.001) in the CSF. The activities of GCS, NSMase, and SMS in the CSF were undetectable. Brain homogenates from SAH animals had increased ASMase activity (control: 9.7??1.2 IF/g min; SAH: 16.8??1.6 IF/g min; P?

  2. Plasma Catecholamine Profile of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients with Neurogenic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moussouttas, Michael; Mearns, Elizabeth; Walters, Arthur; DeCaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the connection between sympathetic function and neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC), and to determine whether NC is mediated primarily by circulating adrenal epinephrine (EPI) or neuronally transmitted norepinephrine (NE), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods This is a prospective observational investigation of consecutive severe-grade SAH patients. All participants had transthoracic echocardiography and serological assays for catecholamine levels – dopamine (DA), NE and EPI – within 48 h of hemorrhage onset. Clinical and serological independent predictors of NC were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the accuracy of predictors was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate correlations among the catecholamines. Results The investigation included a total of 94 subjects: the mean age was 55 years, 81% were female and 57% were Caucasian. NC was identified in approximately 10% (9/94) of cases. Univariate analyses revealed associations between NC and worse clinical severity (p = 0.019), plasma DA (p = 0.018) and NE levels (p = 0.024). Plasma NE correlated with DA levels (ρ = 0.206, p = 0.046) and EPI levels (ρ = 0.392, p < 0.001), but was predicted only by plasma EPI in bivariate [parameter estimate (PE) = 1.95, p < 0.001] and multivariate (PE = 1.89, p < 0.001) linear regression models. Multivariate logistic regression analyses consistently demonstrated the predictive value of clinical grade for NC (p < 0.05 for all analyses) except in models incorporating plasma NE, where NC was independently predicted by NE level (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55) over clinical grade (OR 4.19, 95% CI 0.874-20.1). ROC curves similarly revealed the greater accuracy of plasma NE [area under the curve (AUC) 0.727, 95% CI 0.56-0.90, p = 0.02] over clinical grade (AUC 0.704, 95% CI 0.55-0.86, p = 0.05) for identifying the presence or absence of NC. Conclusions Following SAH, the development of NC is primarily related to elevated plasma NE levels. Findings implicate a predominantly neurogenic process mediated by neuronal NE (and not adrenal EPI), but cannot exclude synergy between the catecholamines. PMID:26120322

  3. Central nervous system haemorrhage causing early death in acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Anna; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Pawelec, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a rare type of paediatric leukaemia characterised by a specific genetic mutation and life-threatening coagulopathy. The discovery of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which acts directly on promyelocytic locus-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) gene product, brought a revolution to the therapy of this disorder. Unfortunately, despite an improvement in the complete remission rate, the early death (ED) rate has not changed significantly, and the haemorrhages remain a major problem. The most common bleeding site, which accounts for about 65-80% of haemorrhages, is the central nervous system. Second in line are pulmonary haemorrhages (32%), while gastrointestinal bleedings are relatively rare. Haemorrhages result from thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), and systemic fibrinolysis. Herein we present a boy aged one year and nine months with APL. The patient was not eligible for ATRA administration due to poor clinical condition. He developed bleeding diathesis that presented as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and led to intracranial haemorrhage, which resulted in the patient's death. PMID:26862315

  4. Central nervous system haemorrhage causing early death in acute promyelocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borowska, Anna; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a rare type of paediatric leukaemia characterised by a specific genetic mutation and life-threatening coagulopathy. The discovery of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which acts directly on promyelocytic locus-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) gene product, brought a revolution to the therapy of this disorder. Unfortunately, despite an improvement in the complete remission rate, the early death (ED) rate has not changed significantly, and the haemorrhages remain a major problem. The most common bleeding site, which accounts for about 65-80% of haemorrhages, is the central nervous system. Second in line are pulmonary haemorrhages (32%), while gastrointestinal bleedings are relatively rare. Haemorrhages result from thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), and systemic fibrinolysis. Herein we present a boy aged one year and nine months with APL. The patient was not eligible for ATRA administration due to poor clinical condition. He developed bleeding diathesis that presented as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and led to intracranial haemorrhage, which resulted in the patient's death. PMID:26862315

  5. [The role of melanocortin peptides in the cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Jochem, Jerzy; Pier?cie?iski, Tomasz; O?ko, Andrzej; Zwirsika-Korczala, Krystyna

    2005-01-01

    The central neuronal systems associated with cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic shock can be functionally divided into two groups. The first one includes opioid peptides, which inhibit the activity of cardiovascular centre neurones and initiate the sympathoinhibitory phase of regulation in hypovolaemia. The second group consists of non-opioid systems demonstrating anti-shock properties, such as the melanocortinergic. cholecystokininergic, thyreoliberinergic, cholinergic and histaminergic systems. In the present paper, we review recent data concerning the role of the melanocortins in cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic shock. Melanocortin peptides, proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides which have His-Phe-Arg-Trp sequence, are secreted in large amounts in the sympathoinhibitory phase of cardiovascular regulation in shock. Exogenous melanocortins. such as melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs). adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and many ACTH fragments induce a long-lasting pressor effect with an increase in the survival rate in haemorrhage-shocked rats. The mechanisms of their action include centrally mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway". which leads to an increase in the peripheral resistance and suppression of the transcription nuclear factor appaB-dependent systemic inflammatory response. respectively. Moreover, acting peripherally, the melanocortins stimulate secretion of glucocorticoids, normalise the blood levels of nitric oxide and inhibit free radical generation in haemorrhagic shock. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of the melanocortins in the treatment of haemorrhagic shock in humans. PMID:17252985

  6. Imaging of the neurological complications of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Kim, S J; Lee, J Y; Kim, T H; Kim, S C; Choi, Y H; Pai, H; Choi, W S

    1998-02-01

    We describe the findings on CT or MRI in five patients with neurological symptoms and underlying infective endocarditis (IE). We noted the size, number, and distribution of lesions, the presence or absence of haemorrhage, and contrast enhancement patterns. The number of lesions ranged from 4 to more than 10 in each patient. Their size varied from punctate to 6 cm; they were distributed throughout the brain. The lesions could be categorized into four patterns based on imaging features. A cortical infarct pattern was seen in all patients. Patchy lesions, which did not enhance, were found in the white matter or basal ganglia in three. Isolated, tiny, nodular or ring-enhancing white matter lesions were seen in three patients, and parenchymal haemorrhages in four. In addition to the occurrence of multiple lesions with various patterns in the same patient, isolated, tiny, enhancing lesions in the white matter seemed to be valuable features which could help to differentiate the neurological complications of IE from other thromboembolic infarcts. PMID:9541921

  7. Clinical audit: a useful tool for reducing severe postpartum haemorrhages?

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Corinne; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Touzet, Sandrine; Colin, Cyrille; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hlne; Lansac, Jacques; Thevenet, Simone; Boberie-Moyrand, Claire; Piccin, Galle; Fernandez, Marie-Pierre; Rudigoz, Ren-Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objective Reducing the rate of severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major challenge in obstetrics today. One potentially effective tool for improving the quality of care is the clinical audit, that is, peer evaluation and comparison of actual practices against explicit criteria. Our objective was to assess the impact of regular criteria-based audits on the prevalence of severe PPH. Design Quasi-experimental before-and-after survey Setting Two French maternity units in the Rhne-Alpes region, with different organisation of care. Participants All staff of both units. Intervention Quarterly clinical audit meetings at which a team of reviewers analysed all cases of severe PPH and provided feedback on quality of care and where all staff actively participated. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the prevalence of severe PPH. Secondary outcomes included the global quality of care for women with severe PPH, including the performance rate for each recommended procedure. Differences in these variables between 2005 and 2008 were tested. Results The prevalence of severe PPH declined significantly in both units, from 1.52% to 0.96% of deliveries in the level III hospital (p=0.048) and from 2.08% to 0.57% in the level II hospital (p<0.001). From 2005 to 2008, the proportion of deliveries with severe PPH that were managed consistently with the guidelines increased for all of its main components, in both units. Conclusion Regular clinical audits of cases severe PPH were associated with a persistent reduction in the prevalence of severe PPH. PMID:21733978

  8. Dose response study of subarachnoid diamorphine for analgesia after elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R W; Kinsella, S M; Smith, A; Thomas, T A

    1999-10-01

    Subarachnoid diamorphine provides excellent analgesia after elective caesarean section but the optimum dose is still uncertain. We therefore investigated the effects of three regimens of subarachnoid diamorphine. Forty parturients were assigned to one of four groups. A control group received no diamorphine in their subarachnoid bupivacaine and three study groups received 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg or 0.3 mg diamorphine added to 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in a semi-blind randomised design study. All women received a 100 mg diclofenac suppository at the end of the caesarean section and were provided with morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. The patients were assessed for pain, morphine usage and side-effects at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the subarachnoid injection. Postoperative visual analogue scores for pain and PCA morphine consumption were significantly lower, and mean time to first use of morphine was significantly longer in the 0.3 mg diamorphine group. The mean (SD) dose of PCA morphine used over 24 h was 39.4 (14.7), 25.6 (16.5), 21.6 (15.9) and 3.1 (3.6) mg, and mean time to first use of morphine was 1.6 (0.5), 3.0 (1.4), 3.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (9.4) h, in the 0, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg groups respectively. Side-effects of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were dependent on the dose of spinal diamorphine but did not require treatment in any patients. We conclude that 0.3 mg subarachnoid diamorphine provides significantly better postoperative pain relief than the smaller doses with an acceptable increase in side-effects. PMID:15321116

  9. Leptospirosis among the self-supporting convicts of Andaman Island during the 1920s - the first report on pulmonary haemorrhage in leptospirosis?

    PubMed Central

    Vijayachari, P.; Sugunan, A.P.; Singh, S.S.; Mathur, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers had carried out investigations on the possibility of existence of Weil's disease in Andaman Islands during early 20th century. The first report of a series of confirmed cases of leptospirosis that occurred during1929 was published in 1931. There were several reports during 1995 to 2009 that described detailed account of leptospirosis including various clinical syndromes. The possibility of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis being a manifestation historically overlooked rather than newly emerged during the past two decades is examined in this review in the context of Andaman Islands. Two case series of leptospirosis, one occurred in 1929 and the other in 1996-1997 were reviewed with special emphasis on pulmonary involvement and haemorrhagic manifestations. The similarities and differences in the clinical profile of patients of the two case series were analysed. The review shows that respiratory system involvement and pulmonary haemorrhage as evidenced by presence of haemoptysis as a complication of leptospirosis was occurring during 1920s in Andaman Islands. The incidence of pulmonary involvement, however, rose from 9.4 per cent during 1929 to 52 per cent in 1996-1997. The case fatality ratio in patients with pulmonary involvement, which was 50 per cent during 1929 and 42.9 per cent during 1996-1997, was higher than that in cases without pulmonary involvement. Fever, conjunctival congestion, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatomagaly, haemoptysis, haematemesis and subconjunctival haemorrhage were common in both series. The case series in Andaman Islands in 1929 was probably the first report of pulmonary haemorrhage as a manifestation of leptospirosis. The increase in the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in the recent past is probably due to the increase in the density and diversityof its animal vectors, the broadening of the range of circulating serovars and the interactions between the vector and the agent. An increased virulence of Leptospira through gene acquisition and loss on an evolutionary time scale and the resulting change in the gene content, gene order and gene expression cannot be ruled out. PMID:26261162

  10. Diagnostic yield and accuracy of CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography for detection of macrovascular causes of intracerebral haemorrhage: prospective, multicentre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Velthuis, Birgitta K; Rinkel, Gabril J E; Algra, Ale; de Kort, Grard A P; Witkamp, Theo D; de Ridder, Johanna C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Schonewille, Wouter J; de Kort, Paul L M; Dippel, Diederik W; Raaymakers, Theodora W M; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Wermer, Marieke J H; Kerkhoff, Henk; Jellema, Korn; Bronner, Irene M; Remmers, Michel J M; Bienfait, Henri Paul; Witjes, Ron J G M; Greving, Jacoba P; Klijn, Catharina J M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What are the diagnostic yield and accuracy of early computed tomography (CT) angiography followed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage? Methods This prospective diagnostic study enrolled 298 adults (18-70 years) treated in 22 hospitals in the Netherlands over six years. CT angiography was performed within seven days of haemorrhage. If the result was negative, MRI/MRA was performed four to eight weeks later. DSA was performed when the CT angiography or MRI/MRA results were inconclusive or negative. The main outcome was a macrovascular cause, including arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm, dural arteriovenous fistula, and cavernoma. Three blinded neuroradiologists independently evaluated the images for macrovascular causes of haemorrhage. The reference standard was the best available evidence from all findings during one years follow-up. Study answer and limitations A macrovascular cause was identified in 69 patients (23%). 291 patients (98%) underwent CT angiography; 214 with a negative result underwent additional MRI/MRA and 97 with a negative result for both CT angiography and MRI/MRA underwent DSA. Early CT angiography detected 51 macrovascular causes (yield 17%, 95% confidence interval 13% to 22%). CT angiography with MRI/MRA identified two additional macrovascular causes (18%, 14% to 23%) and these modalities combined with DSA another 15 (23%, 18% to 28%). This last extensive strategy failed to detect a cavernoma, which was identified on MRI during follow-up (reference strategy). The positive predictive value of CT angiography was 72% (60% to 82%), of additional MRI/MRA was 35% (14% to 62%), and of additional DSA was 100% (75% to 100%). None of the patients experienced complications with CT angiography or MRI/MRA; 0.6% of patients who underwent DSA experienced permanent sequelae. Not all patients with negative CT angiography and MRI/MRA results underwent DSA. Although the previous probability of finding a macrovascular cause was lower in patients who did not undergo DSA, some small arteriovenous malformations or dural arteriovenous fistulas may have been missed. What this study adds CT angiography is an appropriate initial investigation to detect macrovascular causes of non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage, but accuracy is modest. Additional MRI/MRA may find cavernomas or alternative diagnoses, but DSA is needed to diagnose macrovascular causes undetected by CT angiography or MRI/MRA. Funding, competing interests, data sharing Dutch Heart Foundation and The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development, ZonMw. The authors have no competing interests. Direct requests for additional data to the corresponding author. PMID:26553142

  11. Facial Filler Complications.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Julie; Khan, Tanya; Martin, John

    2015-11-01

    The use of facial fillers has greatly expanded over the past several years. Along with increased use comes a rise in documented complications, ranging from poor cosmetic result to nodules, granulomas, necrosis, and blindness. Awareness of the potential types of complications and options for management, in addition to the underlying facial anatomy, are imperative to delivering the best patient care. This article defines the complications and how to treat them and provides suggestions to avoid serious adverse outcomes. PMID:26505541

  12. Complications of Elbow Trauma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Emilie V; Sarkissian, Eric J

    2015-11-01

    The elbow is a highly congruent trochoginglymoid joint allowing motion in both flexion-extension and pronosupination across 3 articulations. Therefore, treatment of fractures of the elbow can be technically challenging to manage, even after initial surgery. The posttraumatic elbow is prone to complications such as stiffness associated with heterotopic ossification, instability or subluxation (posterolateral rotatory instability and varus posteromedial instability patterns), and wound complications. This article discusses the pathoanatomy, prevention, and treatment of these complications. PMID:26498555

  13. Neurologic Complications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cuero, Mauricio Ruiz; Varelas, Panayiotis N

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women are subject to the same complications as the general population, as well to specific neurologic complications associated with pregnancy, such as preeclampsia or eclampsia. The hormonal and physiologic changes during pregnancy lead to altered incidences of these complications, which usually present during the late period of pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. In addition, the treatment of these conditions is different from that of nonpregnant women, because special attention is paid to avoid any abnormalities or death of the fetus. This article discusses the most common of these neurologic complications. PMID:26600443

  14. Complications of nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il

    2011-08-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect children. Renal histology reveals the presence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in more than 80% of these patients. Most patients with MCNS have favorable outcomes without complications. However, a few of these children have lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, suffer from severe and prolonged proteinuria, and are at high risk for complications. Complications of NS are divided into two categories: disease-associated and drug-related complications. Disease-associated complications include infections (e.g., peritonitis, sepsis, cellulitis, and chicken pox), thromboembolism (e.g., venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism), hypovolemic crisis (e.g., abdominal pain, tachycardia, and hypotension), cardiovascular problems (e.g., hyperlipidemia), acute renal failure, anemia, and others (e.g., hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, bone disease, and intussusception). The main pathomechanism of disease-associated complications originates from the large loss of plasma proteins in the urine of nephrotic children. The majority of children with MCNS who respond to treatment with corticosteroids or cytotoxic agents have smaller and milder complications than those with steroid-resistant NS. Corticosteroids, alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, and mycophenolate mofetil have often been used to treat NS, and these drugs have treatment-related complications. Early detection and appropriate treatment of these complications will improve outcomes for patients with NS. PMID:22087198

  15. Mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fevers of South and South-East Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Scott B.

    1966-01-01

    During the past decade outbreaks of a severe haemorrhagic disease caused by dengue viruses of multiple types have been reported in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Viet-Nam and eastern India. In many of these outbreaks chikungunya virus, a group A arbovirus, was simultaneously the cause of similar but probably milder disease. Both these viruses appear to be able to be able to produce classical dengue fever in some individuals and disease with haemorrhagic manifestations in others. Because of the growing public health importance and the progressive spread of this disease a unified review of its clinical and epidemiological features has been needed. This paper presents the history and salient clinical features of mosquito-borne haemorrhagic fever and summarizes recent epidemiological studies and current diagnostic and control methods. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:5297536

  16. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zare and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area. PMID:2559514

  17. BET 1: Targeted blood pressure management in the hyperacute and acute stages following spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rajwani, Kapil Mohan; Nor, Azlisham Mohd

    2016-02-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether targeted blood pressure management in the hyperacute and acute stages following spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. 275 papers were found of which 6 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is the current evidence suggests in patients with hypertension following spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, intensive lowering of SBP to a target of less than 140mmHg in the hyperacute and acute stages is safe and may improve functional recovery. PMID:26801489

  18. Advances in transfusion science for shock-trauma: Optimising the clinical management of acute haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    The primary resuscitation of severely injured patients, acute haemorrhage and shock-trauma has been well reported in the literature. Resuscitation protocols include the use of diverse agents such as fresh whole blood [FWB], packed red blood cells [PRBCs], reconstituted blood products, fresh frozen plasma [FFP] and its derivative concentrates or recombinant products, volume expanders and tranexamic acid [TXA]. The reasonably prudent use of these agents and products is necessary to reverse risk factors of haemorrhagic shock such as haemodilution, hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. Addressing the mechanisms of haemoregulation in the pathophysiology of DIC is important to optimise transfusion practice. PMID:26653928

  19. Violence is not necessary to produce subdural and retinal haemorrhage: a reply to Punt et al.

    PubMed

    Geddes, J F; Tasker, R C; Adams, G G W; Whitwell, H L

    2004-01-01

    In this article we reply to the recent critique by Punt et al. in Pediatric Rehabilitation. Our hypothesis about the pathogenesis of intracranial bleeding in infants has three important implications. First, in the case of an infant with a swollen brain, subdural and retinal haemorrhage but no objective evidence of trauma, the findings by themselves are not certain evidence of abuse; second, violence is not necessary to produce subdural and retinal haemorrhage; and lastly, non-traumatic events producing apnoea with a catastrophic rise in intracranial pressure could produce a clinical picture identical to that seen in trauma. PMID:15513769

  20. [Complications in thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C P; Raffaelli, M; De Crea, C; Traini, E; Oragano, L; Sollazzi, L; Bellantone, R

    2007-10-01

    Thyroidectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedure worldwide, even if the risks of lethal postoperative complications prevented its evolution and diffusion until the beginning of the XX century. At that time, T. Kocher described his meticulous technique, reporting excellent results in terms of mortality and morbidity. At present, mortality for this procedure approaches 0% and overall complication rate is less than 3%. Nonetheless, major complications of thyroidectomy (i.e. compressive hematoma, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism) are still fearful complications and account for a significant percentage of medico-legal claims. Patients volume and surgical skill play an important role in reducing the risk of complications. Accurate knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology, complications incidence and pathogenesis and a careful surgical performance are essential. In this review, post-thyroidectomy complications basing on literature analysis and personal experience are described. The main anatomical, technical and pathophysiological factors that help preventing post-thyroidectomy complications are analyzed, taking into proper account new technologies and the minimally invasive surgical procedures that influenced thyroid surgery during the last decade. PMID:17947950

  1. COMPLICATIONS IN HIP ARTHROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Marcos Emílio Kuschnaroff; Hoffmann, Rafael Barreiros; de Araújo, Lúcio Cappelli Toledo; Dani, William Sotau; José Berral, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of complications in a series of consecutive cases of hip arthroscopy; to assess the progression of the sample through a learning curve; and to recognize the causes of complications in arthroscopic hip operations. Method: 150 consecutive cases that underwent hip arthroscopy between May 2004 and December 2008 were evaluated. The complications encountered were classified in three ways: organic system affected, severity and groups of 50 consecutive cases. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Results: We observed 15 complications in this study (10%): ten were neurological, two were osteoarticular, one was vascular-ischemic and two were cutaneous. In the classification of severity, three were classified as major, 12 as intermediate and none as minor. The incidence of complications over the course of the learning curve did not present any statistically significant difference (p = 0.16). Conclusions: Hip arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that involves low morbidity, but which presents complications in some cases. These complications are frequently neurological and transitory, and mainly occur because of joint traction. The complication rate did not decrease with progression of our sample.

  2. Infrequent Hemorrhagic Complications Following Surgical Drainage of Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Simone; Bifone, Lidia; Balbi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas mainly occur amongst elderly people and usually develop after minor head injuries. In younger patients, subdural collections may be related to hypertension, coagulopathies, vascular abnormalities, and substance abuse. Different techniques can be used for the surgical treatment of symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas : single or double burr-hole evacuation, with or without subdural drainage, twist-drill craniostomies and classical craniotomies. Failure of the brain to re-expand, pneumocephalus, incomplete evacuation, and recurrence of the fluid collection are common complications following these procedures. Acute subdural hematomas may also occur. Rarely reported hemorrhagic complications include subarachnoid, intracerebral, intraventricular, and remote cerebellar hemorrhages. The causes of such uncommon complications are difficult to explain and remain poorly understood. Overdrainage and intracranial hypotension, rapid brain decompression and shift of the intracranial contents, cerebrospinal fluid loss, vascular dysregulation and impairment of venous outflow are the main mechanisms discussed in the literature. In this article we report three cases of different post-operative intracranial bleeding and review the related literature. PMID:26113968

  3. [Massive haemorrhage after bivalirudin anticoagulation in two heart transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Tauron, M; Paniagua, P; Muoz-Guijosa, C; Mirabet, S; Padr, J M

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombopenia is a common autoimmune complication. It is a prothrombotic state due to the formation of antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes. In this situation drugs other than heparin must be used for anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation (bypass) surgery. Two cases of heart transplantation are presented in whom bivalirudin was used as an anticoagulant during the cardiopulmonary bypass. Severe bleeding complications were observed in both patients. The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombopenia needs to be improved, as well as the development of protocols for using new drugs other than heparin. For this reason, we have reviewed current protocols and alternative therapies to heparin. PMID:22784649

  4. Neuromuscular complications of statins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung C

    2008-02-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methlglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are commonly prescribed for patients who have hyperlipidemia. Statins were first approved in 1987. Statin therapy is well documented to reduce serum low-density lipoprotein levels, incidence of cardiovascular events, and mortality. Although statin therapy is well tolerated, serious adverse affects have been reported, including neuromuscular and hepatic complications. Myopathy is particularly concerning because of the potential for rhabdomyolysis and death. Recently, peripheral neuropathy also has been identified as a possible complication. The incidence of neuromuscular complications is expected to increase with the increased number of people using statin therapy. Clinicians should be aware of the potential neuromuscular complications. This article reviews epidemiology, possible mechanisms, risk factors, and management of statin-associated neuromuscular complications. PMID:18194749

  5. Noninvasive optical imaging of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid pathways based on near-infrared fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, K; Kashiwasake-Jibu, M; Taka, Y; Wang, S; Zuo, H; Yamamoto, K; Shimizu, K

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a noninvasive optical method to image the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid pathways in vivo based on the near-infrared fluorescence of indocyanine green (ICG). The ICG was bound to purified lipoproteins (ICG-lipoprotein) and injected into the subarachnoid space of neonatal and adult rats. The ICG fluorescence was detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera. After injection of ICG-lipoprotein into the cerebral subarachnoid space of the neonatal rat, ICG fluorescence was clearly detected at the injection site through the skull and skin. The ICG fluorescence was observed in the cerebellum and the lumbar spinal cord 1 and 8 hours postinjection, respectively. After injection of ICG-lipoprotein into the lumbar spinal subarachnoid space of an adult rat, ICG fluorescence was observed from the injection site to the thoracic levels along the spinal subarachnoid space. In addition, with the rat's head tilted downward, ICG fluorescence had extended to the cerebral subarachnoid space by 1 hour postinjection. The ICG fluorescence imaging of the cerebral subarachnoid space demonstrated an increase in fluorescence intensity around the lambdoid suture and the forebrain. On dissection of the rat brain the former location was identified as the supracerebellar cistern and the latter as the olfactory cistern. The results of this study are the first to demonstrate that an optical technique is applicable to imaging of the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid pathways in vivo. In addition, ICG-lipoprotein provides a sensitive optical tracer for imaging extravascular biological structures. Finally, ICG fluorescence imaging does not require an intricate imaging system because ICG is localized near the surface of the body. PMID:9347983

  6. Elevated Baseline C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (STASH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There remains a proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, of particular relevance in those who present with a good clinical grade. A forewarning of those at risk provides an opportunity towards more intensive monitoring, investigation, and prophylactic treatment prior to the clinical manifestation of advancing cerebral injury. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether biochemical markers sampled in the first days after the initial hemorrhage can predict poor outcome. METHODS: All patients recruited to the multicenter Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Hemorrhage Trial (STASH) were included. Baseline biochemical profiles were taken between time of ictus and day 4 post ictus. The t-test compared outcomes, and a backwards stepwise binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors providing independent prediction of an unfavorable outcome. RESULTS: Baseline biochemical data were obtained in approximately 91% of cases from 803 patients. On admission, 73% of patients were good grade (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades 1 or 2); however, 84% had a Fisher grade 3 or 4 on computed tomographic scan. For patients presenting with good grade on admission, higher levels of C-reactive protein, glucose, and white blood cells and lower levels of hematocrit, albumin, and hemoglobin were associated with poor outcome at discharge. C-reactive protein was found to be an independent predictor of outcome for patients presenting in good grade. CONCLUSION: Early recording of C-reactive protein may prove useful in detecting those good grade patients who are at greater risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome. ABBREVIATIONS: ALP, alkaline phosphatase ALT, alanine aminotransferase CK, creatine kinase CRP, C-reactive protein EVD, external ventricular drainage ICH GCP, International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for good clinical practice mRS, modified Rankin Scale SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage STASH, Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Trial WBC, white blood cells WFNS, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons PMID:26280117

  7. Complications of glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christina; Westphal, Manfred; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Even with current advances in adjunctive therapies, including radiation, chemotherapy, and various clinical trials of gene therapy and immunotherapy, surgical resection remains one of the most effective treatment for intra-axial gliomas. Survival in these patients has been shown to be related to the extent of resection. In some cases, it can provide cures of long-term remission; in others, it can provide disease control when combined with the above adjunctive treatments. However, surgical resection carries its own risks and complications. These complications can be broadly divided into neurologic, regional, and systemic, including direct cortical and vascular injury, surgical wound complications, and postsurgical medical complications. Certain patient characteristics, including Karnofsky performance status score (KPS) and pathology of the tumor, have been shown to have an impact on the risk of postsurgical complications. Advancement in preoperative and intraoperative adjunct technology such as cortical mapping and navigation has improved the surgeon's ability to safely and maximally resect the tumors. It is therefore important to understand the perioperative complications after craniotomy and tumor resection and factors affecting morbidity and mortality in order for surgeons to optimally select and counsel patients who will benefit the most from surgical resection. This chapter will focus on the complications associated with craniotomy for intrinsic glioma and ways of avoiding these events. PMID:26948356

  8. Coma from wall suction-induced CSF leak complicating spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fehnel, Corey R; Razmara, Ali; Feske, Steven K

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman was admitted for elective L4/L5 laminectomy. The operative procedure was extradural, and a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain was placed in the tissue bed and set to wall suction during skin closure. During closure, the patient developed a 15 s period of asystole. The patient was haemodynamically stable, but was comatose for 3 days postoperatively. Cardiac enzymes and EEG were unrevealing. Head CT showed traces of subarachnoid haemorrhage and signs suggestive of cerebral anoxia. JP drain at the incision produced 170–210 mL/day of fluid, positive for β-2 transferrin, indicating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient fully returned to baseline on hospital day 10. MRI on hospital day 8 normalised. The reversible coma and radiographic findings were most consistent with acute intracranial hypotension relating to acute loss of CSF. Because radiographic findings can mimic hypoxic-ischaemic injury, acute intracranial hypotension should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postoperative coma after cranial or spinal surgery. PMID:24623547

  9. Specific cancer rates may differ in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, affects ~1 in 5,000, and causes multi-systemic vascular lesions and life-limiting complications. Life expectancy is surprisingly good, particularly for patients over 60ys. We hypothesised that individuals with HHT may be protected against life-limiting cancers. Methods To compare specific cancer rates in HHT patients and controls, we developed a questionnaire capturing data on multiple relatives per respondent, powered to detect differences in the four most common solid non skin cancers (breast, colorectal, lung and prostate), each associated with significant mortality. Blinded to cancer responses, reports of HHT-specific features allowed assignment of participants and relatives as HHT-subjects, unknowns, or controls. Logistic and quadratic regressions were used to compare rates of specific cancer types between HHT subjects and controls. Results 1,307 participants completed the questionnaire including 1,007 HHT-subjects and 142 controls. The rigorous HHT diagnostic algorithm meant that 158 (12%) completed datasets were not assignable either to HHT or control status. For cancers predominantly recognised as primary cancers, the rates in the controls generally matched age-standardised rates for the general population. HHT subjects recruited through the survey had similar demographics to controls, although the HHT group reported a significantly greater smoking habit. Combining data of participants and uniquely-reported relatives resulted in an HHT-arm of 2,161 (58% female), and control-arm of 2,817 (52% female), with median ages of 66ys [IQR 53–77] and 77ys [IQR 65–82] respectively. In both crude and age-adjusted regression, lung cancers were significantly less frequent in the HHT arm than controls (age-adjusted odds ratio 0.48 [0.30, 0.70], p = 0.0012). Breast cancer prevalence was higher in HHT than controls (age-adjusted OR 1.52 [1.07, 2.14], p = 0.018). Overall, prostate and colorectal cancer rates were equivalent, but the pattern of colorectal cancer was modified, with a higher prevalence in younger HHT patients than controls. Conclusions These preliminary survey data suggest clinically significant differences in the rates of lung, breast and colorectal cancer in HHT patients compared to controls. For rare diseases in which longitudinal studies take decades to recruit equivalent datasets, this type of methodology provides a good first-step method for data collection. PMID:24354965

  10. Complications Following Radical Nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jay D; Jafri, Syed M

    2016-05-01

    Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is the gold standard treatment strategy for bulky, high-grade, or muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Many patients with UTUC who require RNU are elderly, comorbid, and at risk for perioperative complications. Recognition of likelihood and extent of such complications guides preoperative counseling, decision-making process for major surgery, and perioperative care. A critical review of such data is essential, given the inevitable impact of complications on hospital duration, need for readmission, resource utilization, and costs associated with management. PMID:26968416

  11. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  12. [The treatment of cerebral aneurysm in elderly patients in the acute period of subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Luk'ianchikov, V A

    2008-01-01

    Seven hundreds and forty-nine patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage developed as a result of the rupture of cerebral aneurysm, including 117 (15.6%) people aged 60 years and over (elderly patients) and 632 (83.4%) patients younger than 60 years old, were examined. In these groups severity of a patient's state before the surgery, presence of concomitant pathology, data of instrumental examination, outcome of the surgery were compared. The fatal outcome after the surgery was higher in elderly patients than in younger ones (17.4% versus 12.4%) that might be explained by the greater severity of their state after the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage and higher incidence of hypertensive disease and other concomitant diseases. Clinically significant angiospasm and non-resorptive hydrocephalus were observed in this group most frequently. PMID:19431245

  13. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4?days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6?months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25833904

  14. Postprandial Hypotension and Coma Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Patient with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Hara, Kenjyu; Nishimaki, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson's disease was admitted to our hospital because of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. She underwent clipping the next day. On postoperative days 7-9, she exhibited hypotension and disturbance of consciousness after each meal. The administration of midodrine relieved the hypotension, and postprandial coma was no longer observed. In this case, the autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and impairment of cerebral autoregulation during cerebral vasospasm may have been involved in the postprandial hypotension (PPH) and coma. PPH occurs not only in patients with Parkinson's disease but also in elderly patients, particularly those with diabetes or hypertension. Therefore, PPH must be considered in the management of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26884093

  15. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4 days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6 months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25854687

  16. Multimodal endovascular treatment of a vertebrovertebral fistula presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Chandra, Ronil V; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Yoo, Albert J

    2013-09-01

    Vertebrovertebral fistulae are rare vascular malformations that uncommonly can rupture to present clinically as intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a 69-year-old man presenting following spontaneous apoplectic collapse. Initial workup revealed diffuse, intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. However, the etiology was not apparent on CT angiography of the head. Catheter-based angiography was performed, demonstrating a single-hole, high-flow vertebrovertebral fistula, arising from the V2 segment and decompressing into both cervical and skull base venous structures. Definitive treatment consisted of endovascular fistula obliteration with a combination of coil and liquid embolic material. The patient made a full neurological recovery. High cervical and skull base fistulae are rare causes of intracranial hemorrhage; endovascular treatment is effective at disconnection of the arteriovenous shunt. PMID:23830589

  17. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the muscles of the jaw, or "lockjaw". Tetanus symptoms include: Headache Jaw cramping Sudden, involuntary muscle ... sweating High blood pressure and fast heart rate Tetanus complications include: Uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction of the ...

  18. Dental Implant Complications.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Kevin; Delfini, Ronald H; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants have increased in the last few decades thus increasing the number of complications. Since many of these complications are easily diagnosed on postsurgical images, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with them and to be able to recognize and diagnose them. Radiologists should also have a basic understanding of their treatment. In a pictorial fashion, this article will present the basic complications of dental implants which we have divided into three general categories: biomechanical overload, infection or inflammation, and other causes. Examples of implant fracture, loosening, infection, inflammation from subgingival cement, failure of bone and soft tissue preservation, injury to surround structures, and other complications will be discussed as well as their common imaging appearances and treatment. Lastly, we will review pertinent dental anatomy and important structures that are vital for radiologists to evaluate in postoperative oral cavity imaging. PMID:26589696

  19. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most commonly encountered kidney complications of IBD—particularly oxalate stones. Kidney stones are more common in Crohn's ... of fat malabsorption. Fat binds to calcium, leaving oxalate (a type of salt) free to be absorbed ...

  20. Management of medical complications.

    PubMed

    Dohle, Carolin I; Reding, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Medical comorbidities and complications are expected following stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. The neurorehabilitation physician's role is to manage these comorbidities, prevent complications, and serve as a medical and neurologic resource for the patient, family, and neurorehabilitation team. The most common comorbidities are similar to those found in the general population, namely hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease. Frequent complications encountered in the neurorehabilitation unit relate to medication side effects, medical comorbidities, and the direct effect of the neurologic injury. They include orthostatic hypotension; syncope or presyncope; cardiac arrhythmia; bowel and bladder dysfunction; seizures; pressure sores; dysphagia-related pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; venous thromboembolism; falls; and sexual dysfunction. This article discusses strategies for managing comorbidities and avoiding complications. PMID:22810865

  1. Infection and Other Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stage 3 Infection and Other Complications NLN Position Papers Lymphedema Awareness Campaign Education Kits Educational Videos What ... Patients (8) LymphLink Articles (175) FAQ's (6) Position Papers (9) LSAP Perspective (9) Become a member now » ...

  2. Chickenpox (Varicella) Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Chickenpox (Varicella) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Chickenpox Home About Chickenpox Overview Signs & Symptoms Complications Transmission ...

  3. Biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin: the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mrio Srgio R; Naves de Souza, Dayane L; Guimares, Denise O; Lopes, Daiana S; Mamede, Carla C N; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie C; Ach, David C; Rodrigues, Renata S; Yoneyama, Kelly A G; Borges, Mrcia H; de Oliveira, Fbio; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2015-03-01

    We present the biochemical and functional characterization of Bothropoidin, the first haemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This protein was purified after three chromatographic steps on cation exchange CM-Sepharose fast flow, size-exclusion column Sephacryl S-300 and anion exchange Capto Q. Bothropoidin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and comprised a single chain of 49,558 Da according to MALDI TOF analysis. The protein presented an isoelectric point of 3.76, and the sequence of six fragments obtained by MS (MALDI TOF\\TOF) showed a significant score when compared with other PIII Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Bothropoidin showed proteolytic activity on azocasein, A?-chain of fibrinogen, fibrin, collagen and fibronectin. The enzyme was stable at pH 6-9 and at lower temperatures when assayed on azocasein. Moreover, its activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1.10-phenanthroline and ?-mercaptoethanol. Bothropoidin induced haemorrhage [minimum haemorrhagic dose (MHD) = 0.75 g], inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP, and interfered with viability and cell adhesion when incubated with endothelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results showed that Bothropoidin is a haemorrhagic metalloproteinase that can play an important role in the toxicity of B. pauloensis envenomation and might be used as a tool for studying the effects of SVMPs on haemostatic disorders and tumour metastasis. PMID:25261583

  4. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Frll, M

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. PMID:25380792

  5. Feasibility of electrical impedance tomography in haemorrhagic stroke treatment using adaptive mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J.; Anderson, C.; Jin, C.; van Schaik, A.; Holder, D.; McEwan, A.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been proposed for acute stroke differentiation, specifically to determine the type of stroke, either ischaemia (clot) or haemorrhage (bleed) to allow the rapid use of clot-busting drugs in the former (Romsauerova et al 2006) . This addresses an important medical need, although there is little treatment offered in the case of haemorrhage. Also the demands on EIT are high with usually no availability to take a 'before' measurement, ruling out time difference imaging. Recently a new treatment option for haemorrhage has been proposed and is being studied in international randomised controlled trial: the early reduction of elevated blood pressure to attenuate the haematoma. This has been shown via CT to reduce bleeds by up to 1mL by Anderson et al 2008. The use of EIT as a continuous measure is desirable here to monitor the effect of blood pressure reduction. A 1mL increase of haemorrhagic lesion located near scalp on the right side of head caused a boundary voltage change of less than 0.05% at 50 kHz. This could be visually observed in a time difference 3D reconstruction with no change in electrode positions, mesh, background conductivity or drift when baseline noise was less than 0.005% but not when noise was increased to 0.01%. This useful result informs us that the EIT system must have noise of less than 0.005% at 50 kHz including instrumentation, physiological and other biases.

  6. A case of erythema nodosum leprosum reaction with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, successfully treated by pulsed methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Nakwan, Narongwit; Thaichinda, Sunisa; Nakwan, Narongsak

    2010-06-01

    ary We present a case of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reaction with dse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) in a patient who completely recovered with pulsed methylprednisolone. Our case illustrates that ENL could be a predisposing factor for DAH and a high dose of corticosteroid plays an important role in successfully treating such a patient. PMID:20825117

  7. Genetic background and risk of postpartum haemorrhage: results from an Italian cohort of 3219 women.

    PubMed

    Biguzzi, E; Franchi, F; Acaia, B; Ossola, W; Nava, U; Paraboschi, E M; Asselta, R; Peyvandi, F

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality, particularly in the developing countries, and of severe maternal morbidity worldwide. To investigate the impact of genetic influences on postpartum haemorrhage, in association with maternal and intrapartum risk factors, using a candidate gene approach. All women (n=6694) who underwent a vaginal delivery at the Obstetric Unit of a large University hospital in Milan (Italy) between July 2007 and September 2009 were enrolled. The first consecutive 3219 women entered the genetic study. Postpartum haemorrhage was defined as ?500mL blood loss. Eight functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes were chosen because of their potential role in predisposing to or protecting from haemorrhagic conditions: tissue factor (F3), factor V (F5), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), platelet glycoprotein Ia/IIa (ITGA2), prothrombin (F2), platelet glycoproteins Ib? (GP1BA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). After correction for the already known PPH risk factors, only the promoter polymorphism of the tissue factor gene (F3 -603A>G) showed a significant association with PPH, the G allele exerting a protective effect (P=0.00053; OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.69-0.90). The protective effect against PPH of the TF -603A>G polymorphism is biologically plausible since the G allele is associated with an increased protein expression and Tissue Factor is strongly represented in the placenta at term, particularly in decidual cells of maternal origin. PMID:25333208

  8. Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

  9. Maternal mortality: what can we learn from stories of postpartum haemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Homer, Caroline; Clements, Vanessa; McDonnell, Nolan; Peek, Michael; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Death from pregnancy is rare in developed countries such as Australia but is still common in third world and developing countries. The investigation of each maternal death yields valuable information and lessons that all health care providers involved with the care of women can learn from. The aim of these investigations is to prevent future maternal morbidity and mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage remains a leading cause of maternal death internationally. It is the most common cause of death in developing countries. In Australia and the United Kingdom, obstetric haemorrhage is ranked as the 4th and 3rd most common cause of direct maternal death respectively. In a number of cases there are readily identifiable factors associated with the care that the women received that may have contributed to their death. It is from these identifiable factors that both midwives and doctors can learn to help prevent similar episodes from occurring. This article will identify some of the lessons that can be learnt from the recent Australian and UK maternal death reports. This paper presents an overview of the process and systems for the reporting of maternal death in Australia. It will then specifically focus on obstetric haemorrhage, with a focus on postpartum haemorrhage, for the 12-year period, 1994-2005. Vignettes from the maternal mortality reports in Australia and the United Kingdom are used to highlight the important lessons for providers of maternity care. PMID:19278912

  10. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  11. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Presenting with Seizure due to Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Mesut Emre

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leakage may commonly occur during spinal surgeries and it may cause dural tears. These tears may result in hemorrhage in the entire compartments of the brain. Most common site of such hemorrhages are the veins in the cerebellar region. We report a case of hemorrhage, mimicking aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a cerebrospinal fluid leakage following lumbar spinal surgery and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26885288

  12. Effect of anatomical fine structure on the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal subarachnoid space.

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, Harlan Wheelock

    2005-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is used to model oscillatory flow in the spinal subarachnoid space. The effect of obstacles such as trabeculae, nerve bundles, and ligaments on fluid velocity profiles appears to be small, when the flow is averaged over the length of a vertebra. Averaged fluid flow in complex models is little different from flow in corresponding elliptical annular cavities. However, the obstacles stir the flow locally and may be more significant in studies of tracer dispersion.

  13. Complications of auricular correction

    PubMed Central

    Staindl, Otto; Siedek, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction. PMID:22073079

  14. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. PMID:24314847

  15. Theoretical foundations for non-invasive measurement of variations in the width of the subarachnoid space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinski, Jerzy; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Kaczmarek, Jacek; Juzwa, Witold

    2000-07-01

    Numerical modeling was used for the theoretical analysis of the propagation of optical radiation in the tissues of the human head, generated by a single source placed on the surface of the scalp. Of special interest and importance is the propagation of radiation within the layer of cerebrospinal fluid contained in the subarachnoid space (SAS), which is the only low absorption/high transmittance medium whose width can vary rapidly. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes in propagation of radiation within the SAS could become a source of information on changes in the geometry of this anatomical compartment playing a crucial role in cranio-spinal physiology and pathology. Essential for the idea of the possible noninvasive assessment of changes in width of the SAS by an optical method is the dependence of intensity of radiation reaching a photodetector located at a certain distance from the source on changes in the width of this fluid layer, which acts like a biological optical waveguide. Monte Carlo modeling and numerical analysis confirmed the feasibility of assessing changes in the width of the subarachnoid space optically. Presented here are details of the Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in the tissues of human head and the results of such simulation as a function of the width of the subarachnoid space, calculated for different distances between the source and detector and for a few selected values of bone thickness. Results of numerical modeling were then compared with those of experiments on a mechanical-optical model.

  16. Possible role of Eptifibatide drip in-patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in vasospasm prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dababneh, Haitham; Guerrero, Waldo; Mehta, Siddhart; Moussavi, Mohammad; Kirmani, Jawad F

    2014-01-01

    Objective Approximately 18,000 patients suffer from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States annually. SAH is a form of stroke and comprises 1%5% of all strokes. Nearly 50% of all SAH cases end in fatality within 30 days of presentation; one of eight patients die before reaching a hospital. Those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment. Methods This case report describes the course of two patients who presented to the emergency department with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage and received external ventricular drainage and endovascular treatment of their aneurysm. Results Both patients required treatment with Eptifibatide drip after endovascular approach and their SAH in the basal cisterns resolved by day 5. Neither patient developed signs of clinical or subclinical vasospasm. Comments Eptifibatide drip facilitated resolution of the thick clot in the subarachnoid space early enough to eliminate the direct toxicity of oxyhemoglobin on the cerebral arteries and arachnoid granulations, thus preventing vasospasm and eliminating the necessity for a long-term shunt. PMID:25298852

  17. [Incidence of severe local complications in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W; Rosahl, W

    1986-10-01

    At the example of the severe and foudroyant courses of the ulcerous colitis in patients who died or underwent a resection (n = 93) the severe local complications are demonstrated. 70 patients with resection of the intestine, 21 patients with diagnostic laparotomy as well as 32 deceased patients with Crohn's disease were compared with them. Transmigration peritonitides (3.3% of 458 patients with ulcerous colitis except haemorrhagic proctitis), perforation peritonitides (2.0%) as well as the toxic megacolon (3.3%) alone or in combination are the most frequent severe complications. Therapy-resistant intestinal haemorrhages (1.1%) are infrequent. In 0.9% of the cases colorectal carcinomata appear. The acute or chronic mechanical ileus is the most frequent complication in Crohn's disease (21.1% of 171 patients altogether). Intraabdominal abscesses are found in 11.7%. In participation of the colon fistulae are nearly twice as frequent as in localisation of the small intestine. Free perforations of the small intestine (3.8%) are more frequently observed than perforations of the colon (2.2%). PMID:3492827

  18. Effects of Prophylactic Antiepileptic Drugs on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with a Good Clinical Grade Suffering from Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon Jin; Joo, Jin-Yang; Kim, Yong Bae; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Routine use of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AED) has been debated. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of prophylactic AED on clinical outcomes in patients with a good clinical grade suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Materials and Methods Between September 2012 and December 2014, 84 patients who met the following criteria were included: (1) presence of a ruptured aneurysm; (2) Hunt-Hess grade 1, 2, or 3; and (3) without seizure presentation. Patients were divided into two groups; the AED group (n = 44) and the no AED group (n = 40). Clinical data and outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results Prophylactic AEDs were used more frequently in patients who underwent microsurgery (84.1%) compared to those who underwent endovascular surgery (15.9%, p < 0.001). Regardless of prophylactic AED use, seizure episodes were not observed during the six-month follow-up period. No statistical difference in clinical outcomes at discharge (p = 0.607) and after six months of follow-up (p = 0.178) were between the two groups. After six months, however, favorable outcomes in the no AED group tended to increase and poor outcomes tended to decrease. Conclusion No difference in the clinical outcomes and systemic complications at discharge and after six months of follow-up was observed between the two groups. However, favorable outcomes in the no AED group showed a slight increase after six months. These findings suggest that discontinuation of the current practice of using prophylactic AED might be recommended in patients with a good clinical grade. PMID:26526008

  19. Treating Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The death of a loved one is one of lifes greatest, universal stressors to which most bereaved individuals successfully adapt without clinical intervention. For a minority of bereaved individuals, grief is complicated by superimposed problems and healing does not occur. The resulting syndrome of complicated grief causes substantial distress and functional impairment even years after a loss, yet knowing when and how to intervene can be a challenge. OBJECTIVE To discuss the differential diagnosis, risk factors for and management of complicated grief based on available evidence and clinical observations. EVIDENCE REVIEW MEDLINE was searched from January 1990 to October 2012. Additional citations were procured from references of select research and review articles. Available treatment studies targeting complicated grief were included. RESULTS A strong research literature led to inclusion of complicated grief in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (termed persistent complex bereavement disorder as a subtype of other specified trauma and stressor-related disorders), although it is a condition for which more research is formally recommended, and there is still ongoing discussion about the optimal name and diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Reliable screening instruments are available, and the estimated prevalence rate is 7% of bereaved people. Randomized controlled data support the efficacy of a targeted psychotherapy including elements that foster resolution of complicating problems and facilitate the natural healing process. Preliminary studies suggest antidepressant medications may be helpful. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Individuals with complicated grief have greater risk of adverse health outcomes, should be diagnosed and assessed for suicide risk and comorbid conditions such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and should be considered for treatment. PMID:23917292

  20. Metabolomics in diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Filla, Laura A; Edwards, James L

    2016-04-22

    With a global prevalence of 9%, diabetes is the direct cause of millions of deaths each year and is quickly becoming a health crisis. Major long-term complications of diabetes arise from persistent oxidative stress and dysfunction in multiple metabolic pathways. The most serious complications involve vascular damage and include cardiovascular disease as well as microvascular disorders such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Current clinical analyses like glycated hemoglobin and plasma glucose measurements hold some value as prognostic indicators of the severity of complications, but investigations into the underlying pathophysiology are still lacking. Advancements in biotechnology hold the key to uncovering new pathways and establishing therapeutic targets. Metabolomics, the study of small endogenous molecules, is a powerful toolset for studying pathophysiological processes and has been used to elucidate metabolic signatures of diabetes in various biological systems. Current challenges in the field involve correlating these biomarkers to specific complications to provide a better prediction of future risk and disease progression. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in the field of metabolomics including technological advancements, the identification of potential biomarkers, and metabolic pathways relevant to macro- and microvascular diabetic complications. PMID:26891794

  1. HIV and the Risk of Direct Obstetric Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Clara; Ronsmans, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age in parts of sub-Saharan Africa are faced both with high levels of HIV and the threat of dying from the direct complications of pregnancy. Clinicians practicing in such settings have reported a high incidence of direct obstetric complications among HIV-infected women, but the evidence supporting this is unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether HIV-infected women are at increased risk of direct obstetric complications. Methods and findings Studies comparing the frequency of obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, dystocia and intrauterine infections in HIV-infected and uninfected women were identified. Summary estimates of the odds ratio (OR) for the association between HIV and each obstetric complication were calculated through meta-analyses. In total, 44 studies were included providing 66 data sets; 17 on haemorrhage, 19 on hypertensive disorders, five on dystocia and 25 on intrauterine infections. Meta-analysis of the OR from studies including vaginal deliveries indicated that HIV-infected women had over three times the risk of a puerperal sepsis compared with HIV-uninfected women [pooled OR: 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00–5.85]; this figure increased to nearly six amongst studies only including women who delivered by caesarean (pooled OR: 5.81, 95% CI: 2.42–13.97). For other obstetric complications the evidence was weak and inconsistent. Conclusions The higher risk of intrauterine infections in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women may require targeted strategies involving the prophylactic use of antibiotics during labour. However, as the huge excess of pregnancy-related mortality in HIV-infected women is unlikely to be due to a higher risk of direct obstetric complications, reducing this mortality will require non obstetric interventions involving access to ART in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:24124458

  2. Osteoarticular complications of brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Colmenero, J D; Reguera, J M; Fernndez-Nebro, A; Cabrera-Franquelo, F

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty three patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis between January 1984 and December 1987 were studied prospectively. Sixty five patients (25%) developed osteoarticular complications. These patients had a more prolonged course than those with no complications. Spondylitis in 38 (58%) and sacroiliitis in 29 (45%) were the most prevalent. There were no significant laboratory, serological, or bacteriological differences between patients with and without osteoarticular complications. At diagnosis 47 patients (72%) showed radiographic abnormalities, commonly in axial sites but rarely in peripheral sites. Radionuclide bone scan was positive with no radiographic abnormalities in 17 (26%) of cases. Fifty seven patients received medical treatment alone, 51 (89%) being cured with a single course of treatment. Treatment failed or there was a relapse in six patients (11%), of whom five had spondylitis. Eight of the 65 patients (12%), all of whom had spondylitis and paravertebral or epidural abscesses, also required surgical treatment. Images PMID:1994863

  3. Fatal complications of tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, E A; Oliver, C; Carey, J P; Connolly, J E

    1976-03-01

    Thirty-six of 403 deaths after tracheotomy were direct complications of that procedure. Arterial hemorrhage caused three deaths, venous bleeding, seven. Airway obstruction resulted in six fatalities. Tracheoesophageal fistula caused five deaths. Eight deaths were due to infection and sepsis. Tension pneumothorax developed in one patient and the remaining six deaths were due to cardiopulmonary collapse. Many of the complications of tracheotomy can be avoided with accurate knowledge of anatomic variations, ideal operating conditions, proper technic, careful arterial and venous hemostasis, routine postoperative chest x-ray films, sterile suction technic, proper use of soft cuffed tracheotomy tubes, adequate humidification, and careful postoperative blood gas monitoring. PMID:769582

  4. Anesthetic Complications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, Amie; Yu, Albert; Kaminski, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Anesthesia complications in the parturient can be divided into 2 categories: those related to airway manipulation and those related to neuraxial anesthesia. Physiologic changes of pregnancy can lead to challenging intubating conditions in a patient at risk of aspiration. Neuraxial techniques are used to provide analgesia for labor and anesthesia for surgical delivery. Therefore, complications associated with neuraxial techniques are often seen in this population. In the event of maternal cardiac arrest, modification to advanced cardiac life support algorithms must be made to accommodate the gravid uterus and to deliver the fetus if return of maternal circulation is not prompt. PMID:26600441

  5. Osteoporosis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Varacallo, Matthew A; Fox, Ed J

    2014-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the current burden of osteoporosis and its complications in today's health care system. The impact of osteoporosis on patients' quality of life and direct financial consequences to the entire health care system are emphasized to highlight the need for increased knowledge and awareness of its complications if left untreated or treated incorrectly. Special attention is given to hip fracture and vertebral compression fracture, stressing the importance of diagnosing osteoporosis before fragility fractures occur. Models for improved care of fragility fractures during follow-up in the outpatient setting and the use of pharmacologic agents are discussed. PMID:24994054

  6. Orbital Complications of Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Radovani, Pjerin; Vasili, Dritan; Xhelili, Mirela; Dervishi, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the modern antibiotherapies applied in the practice of otorhinolaryngology, the orbital complications of sinusitis are still considered a serious threat to essential functions of the eye, including loss of vision, and at worst, life threatening symptoms. Aims: The goal of this study is to consider and analyse patients who were treated for these complications in the last decade in our hospital, which is the only tertiary hospital in our country. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of cases. Methods: In our practice, cases treated in the hospital are rhinosinusitis cases where surgical intervention is necessary, or those with a suspicion of complications. Between the years 1999 and 2009 there were 177 cases, the clinical charts of which were reviewed. The cases that are omitted from this study are those involving soft tissues, bone, and intracranial complications. The diagnoses were determined based on anamnesis, anterior rhinoscopy, x-rays of the sinuses with the Water’s projection or where there was a suspicion of a complication, and CT scans with coronal and axial projections. In all cases, intensive treatment was initiated with a combination of cefalosporines, aminoglycosides and Proetz manoeuvre. When an improvement in the conditions did not occur within 24–48 hours, we intervened with a surgical procedure, preferably the Lynch-Patterson external frontoethmoidectomy. Results: In our study, we encountered 35 cases (19.8%) of orbital complications with an average age of 25 (range: 3–75); Palpebral inflammatory oedema (15), orbital cellulitis (10), subperiosteal abscess (6), orbital abscess (3), and cavernous sinus thrombosis (1 patient). The average time that patients remained in hospital was 4.6 days; for those with orbital complications this was 7 days. Conclusion: Orbital complications of sinusitis are considered to be severe pathologies. The appearance of oedema in the corner of the eye should be evaluated immediately and the means to exclude acute sinusitis should be taken under serious consideration. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are key to the reduction of these unwanted manifestations. PMID:25207092

  7. Orthopedic complications in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gehling, Daniel J; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with a number of lower extremity orthopedic conditions and complications including fractures, Charcot neuroarthropathy, plantar ulcers, and infection. These complications are of significant clinical concern in terms of morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. A review of each condition is discussed, with particular emphasis on the clinical importance, diagnostic considerations, and orthopedic treatment recommendations. The goal of the article is to provide a clinical picture of the challenges that orthopedic surgeons confront, and highlight the need for specific clinical guidelines in diabetic patients. PMID:26211990

  8. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    PubMed

    ucha?, M; Hor?k, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempask, S; Kotialov, T; Kova?, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal endoscopic surgery (FEES). In case of superior subperiosteal abscess, combined endonasal and external approach (external orbitotomy) was needed. Combined therapy facilitated quick improvement of local and systematic symptoms. Average time of hospitalisation was 7 days. Early diagnosis and agresive combined therapy prevent loss of vision and life threatening complications. PMID:25640234

  9. Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Lyme Disease - Neurological Complications Table ... resources from MedlinePlus What are Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease? Lyme disease is caused by a bacterial organism ...

  10. Comparative Study of Processing of Haemorrhagic Body Fluids by Using Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Shabnam, Mirza; Sharma, Sangeeta; Upreti, Sanjay; Bansal, Rani; Saluja, Mahip; Khare, Anjali; Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Shrey

    2013-01-01

    Background: Haemorrhagic fluids are samples which are commonly received for cytological examination. The diagnostic efficacy suffers when large numbers of red blood cells are present in the sample. Haemorrhagic fluids are processed by a variety of techniques and the common goal of each technique is selection and concentration of an adequate number of tumour cells with intact cell morphologies, without losing them during processing. Aim: Present study was undertaken to improve the quality of haemorrhagic fluid by using three different haemolysing agents, namely Carnoy’s Fixative (CF), saline in Normal Saline Rehydration Technique (NSRT) and Glacial Acetic Acid (GAA) for haemolysis and to find out the most effective processing technique for better cytomorphological assessment. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 51 haemorrhagic fluids. Processing of haemorrhagic fluid was done by using haemolysing agents, namely CF, GAA and NSRT. After processing fluids with these three techniques, three smears were prepared from each of them, out of which one was air dried and two were wet fixed. Fourth type of smear made without application of haemolysing agent was used as control.The smears were stained with Leishman’s stain and wet fixed smears were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) , and Papanicolou’s stain (Pap) respectively. Results: NSRT showed lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) in 72.5% of cases, followed by that of CF in 60.8% cases and that of GAA in only 3.9% of cases. Retention of epithelial/mesothelial cells was seen in 70.5% cases with NSRT, followed by that of CF in 57.8% of cases and then by that of GAA in 50.9% of cases. Cytomorphological details were best preserved in CF in 60.6% of cases, followed by GAA in 58.8% of cases and NSRT in 52.9% of cases. Conclusion: The most effective method for RBC lysis in smear background and cell retention is NSRT and cytomorphological details are best preserved with CF. But, considering the overall results and procedural simplicity, it was concluded that NSRT was a better technique for processing of haemorrhagic fluid. PMID:24298471

  11. Neurological Complications of Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Amy A.; Graus, Francesc; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the preferred treatment for an expanding range of neoplastic and nonmalignant conditions. Increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOTs) add an additional population of immunosuppressed patients with multiple potential neurological problems. While the spectrum of neurological complications varies with conditioning procedure and hematopoietic cell or solid organ source, major neurological complications occur with all transplantation procedures. This 2 part review emphasizes a practical consultative approach to central and peripheral nervous system problems related to HCT or SOT with clinical and neuroimaging examples from the authors’ institutional experience with the following conditions: the diversity of manifestations of common infections such as varicella zoster virus, Aspergillus, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), drug therapy-related complications, stroke mechanisms, the spectrum of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and neurologically important syndromes of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). These complications preferentially occur at specific intervals after HCT and SOT, and neurological consultants must recognize an extensive spectrum of syndromes in order to effect timely diagnosis and expedite appropriate treatment. PMID:23983885

  12. Complicating Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical

  13. Interpreting Dream Complications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollub, Dan

    1984-01-01

    Explains different complications, i.e., emotional behavior, speech, and symbolism, suggesting that emotional behavior in dreams is either genuine or opposite from emotional reality. Dream speech delineates boundaries between the conscious and unconscious. Symbolism in dreams presents abstract concepts visually. (BH)

  14. [Esophageal stenting complications].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, A N; Radchenko, Iu A; Nefedova, G A; Abakumov, M M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze esophageal stenting complications in case of cancer and benign diseases. It was investigated complications in 8 patients in terms from 7 days to 1 year after intervention. In 4 patients esophageal stenting was performed for constrictive esophageal cancer and compression with pulmonary cancer metastases into mediastinal lymphatic nodes. 2 patients had esophageal stenting for post-tracheostomy tracheo-esophageal fistula, 1 patient - for spontaneous esophageal rupture, 1 patient - for post-burn scar narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach. Severe patients' condition with tumor was determined by intensive esophageal bleeding in 2 cases, bilateral abscessed aspiration pneumonia, tumor bleeding, blood aspiration (1 case), posterior mediastinitis (1 case). Severe patients' condition with benign disease was associated with decompensated esophageal narrowing about proximal part of stent (1 case), increase of tracheo-esophageal fistula size complicated by aspiration pneumonia (1 case), stent migration into stomach with recurrence of esophago-mediastino-pleural fistula and pleural empyema (1 case), decompensated narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach (1 case). Patients with cancer died. And patients with benign diseases underwent multi-stage surgical treatment and recovered. Stenting is palliative method for patients with esophageal cancer. Patients after stenting should be under outpatient observation for early diagnosis of possible complications. Esophageal stenting in patients with benign diseases should be performed only by life-saving indications, in case of inability of other treatment and for the minimum necessary period. PMID:25589315

  15. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  16. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  17. Complications of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Complications of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) ... www.vaccineinformation.org). Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: ...

  18. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and adults with pertussis needed care in the hospital. Pneumonia (lung infection) was diagnosed in 1 out of 50 (2%) of those patients. The most common complications in another study were: Weight loss in 1 out of 3 (33%) adults Loss of bladder control in 1 out of 3 (28%) adults Passing ...

  19. Treatment of complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT) of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide. PMID:22893810

  20. Neurologic complications of influenza.

    PubMed

    Shah, Snehal; Keil, Anthony; Gara, Kieren; Nagarajan, Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    We report on a child with mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with influenza infection and present a case series of neurological complications associated with influenza infections in children who presented to a tertiary children's hospital in Australia over a period of one year. PMID:24072018

  1. Menses, fertility and pregnancy following the use of balloon tamponade technology in the management of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Christos

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes five cases of pregnancies and births in women that have previously required the uterine-specific Bakri balloon in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. In addition, this manuscript reviews the impact on menses, fertility and subsequent pregnancies as potential surrogate effects on the myometrium and endometrium, when balloon tamponade technology is used as a 'uterine-sparing' second-line approach in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:24506416

  2. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Risk Modeling Study for Individual Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-02-01

    The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT.The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT.In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ? 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database.The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (?) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity.The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824-0.904, P?complications were independent risk factors of poor outcome for elderly aSAH patients underwent EVT. In combination with these risk factors, the Changhai score can be a useful tool in the prediction of clinical outcome but needs to be validated in various centers before it can be recommended for application. PMID:26886607

  3. Fatal haemorrhagic infarct in an infant with homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Cardo, E; Campistol, J; Caritg, J; Ruiz, S; Vilaseca, M A; Kirkham, F; Blom, H J

    1999-02-01

    Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with homocystinuria. However, it is unusual for thrombosis and infarction to be the presenting feature leading to investigation for homocystinuria and cerebrovascular lesions in the first year of life. We describe a previously healthy 6-month-old infant who presented with a large middle-cerebral-artery territory infarction and died of massive brain swelling. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency was diagnosed by metabolite analysis and confirmed by enzymatic activity measurement in a postmortem liver biopsy. Homocystinuria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of venous or arterial thrombosis, regardless of age, even in the absence of other common features of the disease. We recommend systematic metabolic screening for hyperhomocysteinemia in any child presenting with vascular lesions or premature thromboembolism. PMID:10075100

  4. [EHEC-associated colon stenosis after ulcerous-chronic haemorrhagic colitis and consecutive resulting ileus].

    PubMed

    Lipp, M J; Schirmer, J; Feyerabend, B; Stavrou, G A; Cordruwisch, W; Faiss, S; Oldhafer, K J

    2012-05-01

    We report on the case of a segmentally emphasised, ulcerous chronic haemorrhagic colitis with the development of granulation tissue und scarred fibrosis with consecutive resulting stenosis of the colon. A 49-year-old male patient was infected with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli bacteria during the EHEC-epidemic in northern Germany in early summer 2011. In the course of the infection the patient suffered from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) with acute renal failure and neurological symptoms. Haemodialysis and plasmapheresis had become mandatory. A simultaneous ileus was estimated to be of paralytic origin. One month after treatment of the acute phase of the infection a CT scan of the abdomen was performed and discovered a symptomatic stenosis of the proximal colon transversum. This obstruction needed to be treated by performing a right hemicolectomy with an ileo-transverso anastomosis. After surgery the patient recovered continuously. The histopathological examination verified an ulcerous-chronic haemorrhagic colitis on the background of an EHEC infection. PMID:22581700

  5. Successful treatment of bleeding gastro-intestinal angiodysplasia in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia with thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohamed Aftab; Sami, Sarmad; Babu, Sathish

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by epistaxis, cutaneous telangiectasia and visceral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs). It affects approximately one in 5000 people. Control of sustained and repeated haemorrhages from telangiectasias in the nose and gut in patients who may be transfusion dependent is clinically challenging. After repeated endoscopic coagulations, multiple lesions often recur at other sites of gastro-intestinal tract, where endoscopic therapy or surgical resection is not possible. Hormonal therapy has been employed for more than 50 years but has recently been shown to be ineffective. Thalidomide, with its antiangiogenic mechanism of action, seems to be promising drug as a treatment option where other modalities have been unsuccessful. In this article, the authors discuss a novel treatment of bleeding gastro-intestinal angiodysplasia. PMID:22674103

  6. Antibody prevalence against haemorrhagic fever viruses in randomized representative Central African populations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J P; Josse, R; Johnson, E D; Merlin, M; Georges, A J; Abandja, J; Danyod, M; Delaporte, E; Dupont, A; Ghogomu, A

    1989-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1987, 5,070 randomly selected persons living in 6 central African countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon) were checked for serological evidence of haemorrhagic fever. Rural and urban areas were studied, including ecoclimatic zones ranging from dry savana to tropical rain forest. Virus-reactive antibodies were found with all antigens tested, and the global prevalence of positive sera was distributed as follows: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, 0.22%; Rift Valley fever virus, 0.18%; Ebola virus, 12.40%; Marburg virus, 0.39%; Lassa virus, 0.06%; and Hantaan virus, 6.15%. A significant variation in antibody prevalence was observed within the study regions. Association between the viruses was not observed. PMID:2505350

  7. Spinal Intradural Schwannoma with Acute Intratumoural Haemorrhage: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Kongwad, Lakshman I.; Valiathan, Manna G.

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas account for around half of all intradural spinal tumours, with chronic progressive symptoms as the most common presenting features. Intratumoural haemorrhage as a presenting feature of spinal schwannoma is very rare and only 11 cases have been reported till date. Authors here report a previously asymptomatic 40-year-old male who presented with acute onset paraplegia 12 hours after a minor trauma. MR imaging revealed a C7-D3 intradural-extramedullary lesion with features of acute blood and showing no enhancement. Emergency laminectomy and complete removal of the mass was performed and histopathology revealed features of schwannoma with haemorrhage. Patient had modest improvement of his neurological deficits at a follow-up of 6 months. Pertinent literature is reviewed in brief. PMID:26894121

  8. Multidisciplinary consensus document on the management of massive haemorrhage (HEMOMAS document).

    PubMed

    Llau, J V; Acosta, F J; Escolar, G; Fernndez-Mondjar, E; Guasch, E; Marco, P; Paniagua, P; Pramo, J A; Quintana, M; Torrabadella, P

    2015-11-01

    Massive haemorrhage is common and often associated with high morbidity and mortality. We perform a systematic review of the literature, with extraction of the recommendations from the existing evidences because of the need for its improvement and the management standardization. From the results we found, we wrote a multidisciplinary consensus document. We begin with the agreement in the definitions of massive haemorrhage and massive transfusion, and we do structured recommendations on their general management (clinical assessment of bleeding, hypothermia management, fluid therapy, hypotensive resuscitation and damage control surgery), blood volume monitoring, blood products transfusion (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets and their best transfusion ratio), and administration of hemostatic components (prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, factor VIIa, antifibrinolytic agents). PMID:26233588

  9. Primary Supratentorial Haemorrhage Surgery or no Surgery in an Indian Setup

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Th Gojendra; Ghalige, Hemanth S; S, Abhilash; Singh, Motilal; Berma, Subrata Kishore Deb; N, Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rise of hypertension among younger age group has increased the prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage. Conflicting reviews regarding the mode of treatment has been a concern to the treating physicians especially in a developing country like India. This study was undertaken to underline the importance of management and propose a local protocol for primary supra-tentorial haemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with primary supratentorial (ST) haemorrhage fulfilling inclusion criteria are included in the study. Decompression craniotomy done in all the patients and the patient particulars noted. The primary outcome of death is correlated with various particulars and statistical analysis done with SPSS version 16. Results: Mean age of presentation was 54.2 years, ranging from 38-71years. Male comprised 82.1% (23 patients). Seven out of eight patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) ?7 (87.5%) expired whereas only 3 out of 20 (15%) patients with GCS >7 expired. 50% of the patients with intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in temporo-pari et al., (2/4) or in basal ganglia with cortical extension (5/10) expired whereas the mortality in cases of ICH in parietal lobe and frontal lobes were 25% (1/4) and 20% (2/10) respectively. Clot volume ?100ml had a mortality of 19% (4/21) whereas the mortality was as high as 85.7% (6/7) with clot volume >100ml. Conclusion: Emergency Craniotomy and Evacuation of the Hematoma could be a feasible option in between 40 ml to 100ml of Primary ST ICH without intra-ventricular extension. In cases of intra-ventricular extension of haematoma surgery is less helpful. Midline shift of 5 mm or more might be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:25386479

  10. Laparoscopic Bipolar Coagulation of Hypogastric Artery in Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, Enrico; Volpi, Eugenio; Ferrero, Annamaria; Sismondi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal morbidity and mortality. When PPH continues despite aggressive medical treatment, early consideration should be given to surgical intervention. Various surgical interventions may be used but conservative interventions are recommended primarily. Case. This case report describes laparoscopic coagulation of hypogastric artery technique in a patient with PPH. Conclusions. Laparoscopic ligature of the hypogastric artery for PPH treatment can be a valid alternative to laparotomy in patients with vaginal delivery. PMID:22567499

  11. Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of hypogastric artery in postpartum haemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Enrico; Volpi, Eugenio; Ferrero, Annamaria; Sismondi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal morbidity and mortality. When PPH continues despite aggressive medical treatment, early consideration should be given to surgical intervention. Various surgical interventions may be used but conservative interventions are recommended primarily. Case. This case report describes laparoscopic coagulation of hypogastric artery technique in a patient with PPH. Conclusions. Laparoscopic ligature of the hypogastric artery for PPH treatment can be a valid alternative to laparotomy in patients with vaginal delivery. PMID:22567499

  12. [Morphological characteristics of haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs caused by parvo-like viruses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    v d Gaag, I; van den Ingh, T S; van Dijk, J E

    1980-03-15

    Various outbreaks of parvo-like virus infection in dogs are reported. A form of haemorrhagic enteritis was observed, which was microscopically characterized by a hypo-regenerative villous atrophy of the small intestine, which bears a close resemblance to the typical lesion of feline panleucopenia. This pathomorphological feature may be regarded as typical of canine enteritis due to a parvo-like virus. PMID:6966432

  13. Simultaneous intracerebral haemorrhages; which came first, the supra-tentoral or the infra-tentorial one?

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Osama Shukir Muhammed; Rasheed, Ata H; Ahmed, Soran M

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of simultaneous spontaneous non-traumatic hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages (ICHs) is a rare event that carries a considerable morbidity and mortality. These haematomas constitute 0.72% of all hypertensive ICHs. We report a 42-year-old man with ischaemic heart disease who presented with sudden severe pancephalic headache, repeated vomiting and left-sided weakness. His work-up revealed two right-sided ICHs: putamenal and cerebellar. PMID:22766571

  14. [Complications of silicone oil tamponade].

    PubMed

    Baillif, S; Gastaud, P

    2014-03-01

    Silicone oil tamponade is used for the management of complicated retinal detachment. Patients should be closely monitored as many complications may occur with intraocular silicone oil. Short-term complications include temporarily increased intraocular pressure and anterior segment inflammation. Long-term complications include cataract, emulsification, ocular hyper- or hypotension, keratopathy and retinal redetachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. PMID:24559527

  15. Bereavement and Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Glickman, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bereavement is a common experience in adults age 60 and older. Loss of a loved one usually leads to acute grief characterized by yearning and longing, decreased interest in ongoing activities, and frequent thoughts of the deceased. For most, acute grief naturally evolves into a state of integrated grief, where the bereaved is able to reengage with everyday activities and find interest or pleasure. About 7% of bereaved older adults, however, will develop the mental health condition of Complicated Grief (CG). In CG, the movement from acute to integrated grief is derailed, and grief symptoms remain severe and impairing. This article reviews recent publications on the diagnosis of CG, risk factors for the condition, and evidenced-based treatments for CG. Greater attention to complicated grief detection and treatment in older adults is needed. PMID:24068457

  16. Effects of haemorrhage on the distribution of the peripheral blood flow in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, J. P.; Korner, P. I.; White, S. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. The effects of bleeding unanaesthetized rabbits by 26% of their blood volume on the blood flow in the portal, renal, muscle and skin beds were investigated in normal animals, in animals without functioning autonomic effectors, and in animals with section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves. 2. In animals without functioning autonomic effectors there was progressive vasodilatation during the 4 hr following haemorrhage, which differed markedly in the different regional beds studied. The dilatation was greatest in the portal bed, followed by kidney and skin, but there was no significant change in the vascular resistance in muscle. 3. In normal animals with intact reflexes the vascular resistance either increases or remains at control values, suggesting that reflex constrictor effects oppose locally acting dilator mechanisms. During the 4 hr following haemorrhage reflex vasoconstrictor effects were greatest in kidney, followed by muscle, portal bed and skin. 4. In animals with section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves reflex constrictor effects were absent in the portal, muscle and skin beds, but significant vasoconstriction was still evident in the renal bed, though of smaller magnitude than in normal animals. The results suggest that the arterial baroreceptors are a major source of reflex activity following haemorrhage, but that other reflexogenic zones contribute to the renal effects in normal animals. PMID:6050170

  17. Dengue virus and antiplatelet autoantibodies synergistically induce haemorrhage through Nlrp3-inflammasome and Fc?RIII.

    PubMed

    Lien, Te-Sheng; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chan, Hao; Wu, Wen-Sheng; Su, Shu-Hui; Lin, You-Yen; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-05-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) typically occurs during secondary infections with dengue viruses (DENVs). Although it is generally accepted that antibody-dependent enhancement is the primary reason why patients with secondary infection are at an increased risk of developing DHF, a growing body of evidence shows that other mechanisms, such as the elicitation of antiplatelet autoantibodies by DENV nonstructural protein NS1, also play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of DHF. In this study, we developed a "two-hit" model of secondary DENV infection to examine the respective roles of DENV (first hit) and antiplatelet Igs (second hit) on the induction of haemorrhage. Mice were first exposed to DENV and then exposed to antiplatelet or anti-NS1 Igs 24 hours later. The two-hit treatment induced substantial haemorrhage, coagulopathy, and cytokine surge, and additional treatment with antagonists of TNF-?, IL-1, caspase-1, and Fc?RIII ameliorated such effects. In addition, knockout mice lacking the Fc? receptor III, Toll-like receptor 3, and inflammasome components Nlrp3 and caspase-1 exhibited considerably fewer pathological alterations than did wild type controls. These findings may provide new perspectives for developing feasible approaches to treat patients with DHF. PMID:25740324

  18. Tumour necrosis factor-? as a target of melanocortins in haemorrhagic shock, in the anaesthetized rat

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Domenica; Cainazzo, Maria-Michela; Squadrito, Francesco; Guarini, Salvatore; Bertolini, Alfio; Bazzani, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is involved (mostly through the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the pathogenesis of circulatory shock. On the other hand, melanocortin peptides are potent and effective in reversing haemorrhagic shock, both in animals (rat, dog) and in humans. This prompted us to study the influence of the melanocortin peptide ACTH-(124) on the blood levels of TNF-? in haemorrhage-shocked rats and on the in vitro production of TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Plasma levels of TNF-? were undetectable before starting bleeding and greatly increased 20?min after bleeding termination in saline-treated rats. In rats treated with ACTH-(124) the almost complete restoration of cardiovascular function was associated with markedly reduced levels of TNF-? 20?min after bleeding termination. On the other hand, ACTH-(124) did not influence TNF-? plasma levels in sham-operated, unbled rats. In vitro, ACTH-(124) (25100?nM) dose-dependently reduced the LPS-stimulated production of TNF-? by peritoneal macrophages harvested from untreated, unbled rats. These results indicate that inhibition of TNF-? overproduction may be an important component of the mechanism of action of melanocortins in reversing haemorrhagic shock. PMID:9756372

  19. Update on the Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II): statistical analysis plan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies had suggested that the outcome for patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and no intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) might be improved with early evacuation of the haematoma. The Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) set out to establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients with spontaneous lobar ICH would improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It is an international, multi-centre, prospective randomised parallel group trial of early surgery in patients with spontaneous lobar ICH. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire. Results Recruitment to the study began on 27 November 2006 and closed on 15 August 2012 by which time 601 patients had been recruited. The protocol was published in Trials (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/124/). This update presents the analysis plan for the study without reference to the unblinded data. The trial data will not be unblinded until after follow-up is completed in early 2013. The main trial results will be presented in spring 2013 with the aim to publish in a peer-reviewed journal at the same time. Conclusion The data from the trial will provide evidence on the benefits and risks of early surgery in patients with lobar ICH. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:23171588

  20. Surveillance and laboratory detection system of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, S; Goya, M M; Shirzadi, M R; Ghiasi, S M; Mirahmadi, R; Haeri, A; Moradi, M; Afzali, N; Rahpeyma, M; Zeinali, M; Meshkat, M

    2008-08-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or by contact with blood or tissues of infected livestock. In addition to zoonotic transmission, CCHFV can be spread from person to person and is one of the rare haemorrhagic fever viruses able to cause nosocomial outbreaks in hospitals. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a public health problem in many regions of the world such as Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. In addition to clinical symptoms, the diagnosis of CCHF is based on the use of serological tests for the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies and on the use of molecular tools such as RT-PCR. From 1970 to 1978, serological and epidemiological studies were performed in humans and in livestock of Iran. After two decades and observations of CCHF in some provinces of Iran, a CCHF surveillance and detection system was established in 1999, leading to a dramatically decreased mortality rate from 20% (year 2000) to 2% (year 2007). PMID:18666963

  1. Haemodynamic effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T

    1990-07-01

    A comparison of the haemodynamic benefits of small volume hypertonic saline (2,400 mOsm/litre) versus isotonic saline (300 mOsm/litre) was conducted in 12 adult horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. The horses were anaesthetised and intravascular catheters placed for the measurement of haemodynamic data. Mean systemic arterial pressure was then reduced to 50 to 60 mmHg by controlled haemorrhage and maintained at that level for 40 mins. Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean systemic arterial pressure, plasma volume and urine production decreased significantly following blood loss. Hypertonic or isotonic saline was administered randomly by intravenous infusion and haemodynamic data recorded for a 2 h period. Treatment with hypertonic saline produced rapid elevations in cardiac output, stroke volume, mean systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, cardiac contractility and urine output, and was accompanied by expansion of the plasma volume. The changes in cardiac output and stroke volume were maintained for the duration of the recording period, whereas increases in mean systemic arterial pressure were not as remarkable. Infusion of isotonic saline caused only transient increases in cardiac output and mean systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure, and cardiac output; urine output and plasma volume did not change. This study indicates that hypertonic saline produces haemodynamic improvements in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock in horses. PMID:2209524

  2. Contribution of neovascularization and intraplaque haemorrhage to atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, D A; Orekhov, A N; Bobryshev, Y V

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a continuous pathological process that starts early in life and progresses frequently to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke and atherothrombosis. The vulnerable lesion has several structural and functional hallmarks that distinguish it from the stable plaque. The unstable plaque has large necrotic core (over 40% plaque volume) composed of cholesterol crystals, cholesterol esters, oxidized lipids, fibrin, erythrocytes and their remnants (haeme, iron, haemoglobin), and dying macrophages. The fibrous cap is thin, depleted of smooth muscle cells and collagen, and is infiltrated with proinflammatory cells. In unstable lesion, formation of neomicrovessels is increased. These neovessels have weak integrity and leak thereby leading to recurrent haemorrhages. Haemorrhages deliver erythrocytes to the necrotic core where they degrade promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammatory cells mostly presented by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells extravagate from bleeding neovessels and infiltrate adventitia where they support chronic inflammation. Plaque destabilization is an evolutionary process that could start at early atherosclerotic stages and whose progression is influenced by many factors including neovascularization, intraplaque haemorrhages, formation of cholesterol crystals, inflammation, oxidative stress and intraplaque protease activity. PMID:25515699

  3. Systemic glucose variability predicts cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral glucose metabolism and energy production are affected by serum glucose levels. Systemic glucose variability has been shown to be associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to assess whether glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 28 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring, were studied. Metabolic distress was defined as lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) >40. The relationship between daily glucose variability, the development of cerebral metabolic distress and hospital outcome was analyzed using a multivariable general linear model with a logistic link function for dichotomized outcomes. Results Daily serum glucose variability was expressed as the standard deviation (SD) of all serum glucose measurements. General linear models were used to relate this predictor variable to cerebral metabolic distress and mortality at hospital discharge. A total of 3,139 neuromonitoring hours and 181days were analyzed. After adjustment for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and brain glucose, SD was independently associated with higher risk of cerebral metabolic distress (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.5 (1.1 to 2.1), P?=?0.02). Increased variability was also independently associated with in hospital mortality after adjusting for age, Hunt Hess, daily GCS and symptomatic vasospasm (P?=?0.03). Conclusions Increased systemic glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased hospital mortality. Therapeutic approaches that reduce glucose variability may impact on brain metabolism and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24887049

  4. The Contribution of Chemoreceptor-Network Injury to the Development of Respiratory Arrest Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Eroglu, Atilla; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Al?c?, Hac? Ahmet; Aydin, Nazan; Altas, Sare; Unal, Bunyami

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory arrest following brainstem herniation has been attributed to injuries resulting from compression of the respiratory centers. While it is widely perceived that the chemoreceptor network, consisting of the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body (GPN-CB), is essential for the modulation of respiration, its contribution to the development of respiratory arrest has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether injury to the GPN-CB occurs in animals with respiratory arrest caused by experimentally-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Eighteen hybrid rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (n=4) were used to determine the normal structure of the GPN-CB. The remaining rabbits (n=14) received an autologous blood injection into the cisterna magna to produce a subarachnoid hemorrhage, after which they were observed for 20 days. The number of axons and the neuron density in the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body, respectively, were counted by stereological methods. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results. Results: Six of 14 rabbits died within the first week, likely due to brain swelling and crushing injuries that were observed in the brain stem and related structures. In control rabbits, the average neuronal density of the carotid body was 4250 1250/mm3, while the axonal density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 180005100 mm2. Conversely, in the dead rabbits, the degenerated neuron density of the carotid body was 2100500/mm3, while the degenerated axon density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 85002550 mm2. In addition, histopathological lesions were more severe in the dead rabbits in terms of their glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body. Conclusion: There is an important relationship between neurodegeneration in the GPN-CB and mortality rates following experimentally-induced hemorrhage. This relationship suggests that injury to the GPN-CB network disrupts the breathing reflex and results in respiratory arrest following a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). PMID:25610122

  5. Idiopathic Spinal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin M; Jithoo, Rondhir; Hwang, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) makes up less than 1.5% of all the cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most cases of spontaneous SSAH occur in association with coagulopathy, lumbar punctures, or minor trauma. Idiopathic SSAH is extremely rare with only 17 cases published. Idiopathic SSAH presents a diagnostic dilemma, and the appropriate investigations and treatment remain a matter of controversy. We report a case of idiopathic SSAH and a review of the literature regarding its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods?A 73-year-old woman presented to the emergency department after spontaneously developing severe right leg and lower back pain while bending over to vomit. After a review of the patient's history and examination, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracolumbar spine revealed T1 hyperintensity and T2 hypointensity, a diffusion-restricted collection at the T11-T12 level, and a posterior collection from L3 to S1 producing a mild displacement of the thecal sac. Results?The patient was taken for an L5 laminectomy. Intraoperatively, rust-colored, xanthochromic fluid was drained from the subarachnoid space, confirming SSAH. The thecal sac was decompressed. The cultures and Gram stains were negative. Computer tomography (CT) and CT angiography of the brain were normal. She recovered postoperatively with resolution of the pain and no further episodes of hemorrhage after 2 years of follow-up. Repeat thoracolumbar MRI, selective spinal angiogram, and six-vessel cerebral angiogram did not reveal pathology. Conclusion?We suggest a clinical algorithm to aid in the diagnosis and management of such patients. PMID:26430603

  6. Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Mezo, Roger; Lara Garca, Javier; Arroyo, Mariana; Fleury, Agns

    2015-12-01

    Imagenological diagnosis of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is usually difficult when classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D MRI sequences (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition (FIESTA) and Spoiled Gradient Recalled Echo (SPGR)) with respect to classical sequences (Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T1) in visualizing Taenia solium cyst in these locations. Forty-seven T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space were diagnosed in eighteen Mexican patients. A pre-treatment MRI was performed on all patients, and all four sequences (FIESTA, FLAIR, T1 SPGR, and T2) were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. The sensitivity of each sequence to detect the parasite membrane and scolex was evaluated, along with its capacity to detect differences in signal intensity between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cysts. FIESTA sequences allowed the visualization of cyst membrane in 87.2% of the parasites evaluated, FLAIR in 38.3%, SPGR in 23.4%, and T2 in 17.0%. The superiority of FIESTA sequences over the other three imaging methods was statistically significant (P<0.001). Scolices were detected by FIESTA twice as much as the other sequences did, although this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Differences in signal intensity between CSF and parasite cysts were significant in FIESTA (P<0.0001), SPGR (P<0.0001), and FLAIR (P=0.005) sequences. For the first time, the usefulness of 3D MRI sequences to diagnose T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space was demonstrated. The routine use of these sequences could favor an earlier diagnosis and greatly improve the prognosis of patients affected by this severe form of the disease. PMID:26327445

  7. Complications of antiobesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Wilson, Samuel E

    2007-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment for patients who suffer from morbid obesity, the incidence of which is increasing in North America. Laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement are the two commonly performed bariatric procedures. This article discusses the indications for bariatric surgery and the early and late complications associated with these two procedures. Laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy are also briefly discussed. PMID:17339851

  8. Early complications. Chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Vallires, E; Karmy-Jones, R; Wood, D E

    1999-08-01

    Postpneumonectomy chylothorax is a very common but serious complication. Drainage of the pneumonectomy space, metabolic and nutritional support with TPN, and absolute enteral rest may lead to control of the leak. Failure of these measures to obtain a rapid resolution of the chyle losses should be followed by early surgical intervention in most instances in an effort to alleviate the chronic metabolic, nutritional, and immunological consequences of prolonged chyle losses. PMID:10459431

  9. Surgical complications of ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, B

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 25 years (1963-1988), a total of 311 children under 12 years of age were admitted to the Pediatric Surgical Service of the San Vicente de Pal University Hospital, Medelln, Colombia, with complications resulting from infection with Entamoeba histolytica or Ascaris lumbricoides. In this group, the abdominal complications produced by ascariasis numbered 145, and included intestinal obstruction (n = 107), perforation of the appendix (n = 10), and migration of the parasite to the biliary tree or to the peritoneal cavity (n = 28). Evaluation of the living conditions of a significant subgroup of our patients confirms that intestinal parasitism is an endemic condition prevailing in nations that exhibit deep social and economic imbalance, where large sectors of the population remain deprived of the basic services of education, health, housing, and recreation. Massive infestation in children may give rise to grave complications that demand expert surgical care. Third World surgeons practicing in general hospitals that take care of patients of low economic capacity are usually familiar with the diagnosis and management of this pathology; surgeons who practice in the industrialized nations will only occasionally face such problems. The greater mobility of today's societies and the rather massive migrations that take place in current times have resulted in an increasing incidence of these entities in the hospital populations of the large urban centers of these nations. It is for the surgeons practicing in such centers that the information presented herein may be of greater value. PMID:2031358

  10. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Louise E; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question. PMID:26633369

  11. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Louise E.; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question. PMID:26633369

  12. Pleuropulmonary complications of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Michael D.

    1968-01-01

    Pancreatitis, in common with many other upper abdominal diseases, often leads to pleuropulmonary complications. Radiological evidence of pleuropulmonary abnormality was found in 55% of 58 cases examined retrospectively. The majority of such abnormalities are not specific for pancreatitis; but a particular category of pleural effusions, rich in pancreatic enzymes, is a notable exception. A patient with this type of effusion, complicated by a spontaneous bronchopleural fistula and then by an empyema, is reported. The literature relating to pancreatic enzyme-rich pleural effusions (pathognomonic of pancreatitis) is reviewed. Of several possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, transdiaphragmatic lymphatic transfer of pancreatic enzymes, intrapleural rupture of mediastinal extensions of pseudocysts, and diaphragmatic perforation are the most important. The measurement of pleural fluid amylase, at present little employed in this country, has considerable diagnostic value. Enzyme-rich effusions are more commonly left-sided, are often blood-stained, are frequently associated with pancreatic pseudocysts, and—if long standing—may be complicated by a bronchopleural fistula. Images PMID:4872925

  13. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  14. Camino intracranial pressure monitor: prospective study of accuracy and complications

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Manas, R.; Santamarta, D.; de Campos, J. M; Ferrer, E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThe fibreoptic device is a type of intracranial pressure monitor which seems to offer certain advantages over conventional monitoring systems. This study was undertaken to analyse the accuracy, drift characteristics, and complications of the Camino fibreoptic device.?METHODSOne hundred and eight Camino intracranial pressure (ICP) devices, in their three modalities, were implanted during 1997.The most frequent indication for monitoring was severe head injury due to road traffic accidents.?RESULTSSixty eight probe tips were cultured; 13.2% of the cases had a positive culture without clinical signs of infection, and 2.9% had a positive culture with clinical signs of ventriculitis. The most common isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis. All patients were under cephalosporin prophylaxis during monitoring. Haemorrhage rate in patients without coagulation disorders was 2.1% and 15.3% in patients with coagulation abnormalities. Drift characteristics were studied in 56 cases; there was no drifting from the values expected according to the manufacturer's specifications in 34 probes. There was no relation between direction of the drift and duration of placement, nor between drift and time.?CONCLUSIONSAlthough the complication and drift rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, there was no correlation between the direction of the drift and long term monitoring despite the fact that some published papers refer to overestimation of values with time with this type of device.?? PMID:10864608

  15. Obstetric Complications and Management in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Rai, Rakhi; Yanamandra, Uday; Chaudhary, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Jain, Vanita; Prasad, G R V; Kalra, Jasvinder; Varma, Subhash C

    2016-03-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is amongst the most common haematological malignancies encountered in adults. The younger age of onset and increased incidence of CML in Indians leads to higher chances of encountering it in pregnancy. Pregnancy in CML is a complex situation as first line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), is fraught with multiple fetal safety issues. The fetal aspects have been elucidated in literature, but there is scarcity of information on the obstetric outcome per se in presence of CML, excluding the influence of TKI. Obstetric outcomes of 5 pregnancies in four patients with CML are being reported. Literature on interplay of CML and bleeding or thrombotic manifestations is reviewed. The major complications encountered were antepartum (APH) and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), preterm labour, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine fetal death. Patients in the reproductive age group with diagnosis of CML should be carefully counseled regarding the effect of disease and TKI on the maternal-fetal health. Bleeding complications, particularly APH and PPH may be encountered in CML patients. Close coordination of the obstetrician, haematologist, and neonatologist is required in managing these cases successfully. The need for absolute contraception till the remission of disease needs to be emphasized for further pregnancies. PMID:26855508

  16. Risk Factors for Intracranial Haemorrhage in Accidents Associated with the Shower or Bathtub

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Thomas C.; Kreher, Jannes; Ricklin, Meret E.; Haider, Dominik G.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been little research on bathroom accidents. It is unknown whether the shower or bathtub are connected with special dangers in different age groups or whether there are specific risk factors for adverse outcomes. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included all direct admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 1 January 2000 to 28 February 2014 after accidents associated with the bathtub or shower. Time, age, location, mechanism and diagnosis were assessed and special risk factors were examined. Patient groups with and without intracranial bleeding were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test.The association of risk factors with intracranial bleeding was investigated using univariate analysis with Fisher's exact test or logistic regression. The effects of different variables on cerebral bleeding were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Two hundred and eighty (280) patients with accidents associated with the bathtub or shower were included in our study. Two hundred and thirty-five (235) patients suffered direct trauma by hitting an object (83.9%) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) was detected in 28 patients (10%). Eight (8) of the 27 patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (GCS 1315), (29.6%) exhibited intracranial haemorrhage. All patients with intracranial haemorrhage were older than 48 years and needed in-hospital treatment. Patients with intracranial haemorrhage were significantly older and had higher haemoglobin levels than the control group with TBI but without intracranial bleeding (p<0.05 for both).In univariate analysis, we found that intracranial haemorrhage in patients with TBI was associated with direct trauma in general and with age (both p<0.05), but not with the mechanism of the fall, its location (shower or bathtub) or the gender of the patient. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only age as a risk factor for cerebral bleeding (p<0.05; OR 1.09 (CI 1.01;1.171)) Conclusion In patients with ED admissions associated with the bathtub or shower direct trauma and age are risk factors for intracranial haemorrhage. Additional effort in prevention should be considered, especially in the elderly. PMID:26513749

  17. A severe neurological complication of influenza in a previously well child.

    PubMed

    McSwiney, Philippa; Purnama, Jessica; Kornberg, Andrew; Danchin, Margie

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a 3-year-old girl who was admitted with encephalopathy and a right-sided hemiparesis secondary to acute influenza A. She was up-to-date with the Australian National Immunisation Program (which does not routinely include the seasonal influenza vaccine). After initial treatment with intravenous antimicrobials and acyclovir, a brain and spinal cord MRI demonstrated extensive focal necrotic and haemorrhagic changes in keeping with acute necrotising encephalopathy (ANE). She was started on a course of oseltamivir and intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, followed by an oral weaning regimen of prednisolone. After an intense period of rehabilitation, she has made a remarkable recovery. Genetic testing has since confirmed that this girl has the RANBP2 gene mutation, which leads to increased susceptibility of developing ANE. This case report highlights ANE as a rare but severe complication of influenza, the unfortunate complication of having the RANBP2 mutation and the importance of paediatric influenza vaccination. PMID:25342191

  18. Complications of Macular Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Asencio-Duran, Mnica; Manzano-Muoz, Beatriz; Vallejo-Garca, Jos Luis; Garca-Martnez, Jess

    2015-01-01

    Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. PMID:26425351

  19. [Infectious complications of lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, L; Gironet, N

    2002-06-01

    Erysipelas and lymphangitis are frequent complications of lymphedemas (20 to 30%). The most important risk factor for erysipelas is lymphedema since this is a protein rich edema that contributes to the risk of infection. In case of lymphedema the treatment is the usual consensus treatment for erysipelas. A prophylactic treatment with penicillin is requested as soon as the first recurrence. This prophylactic treatment includes skin care, particularly treatment of injuries and intertrigos. Hyperplastic skin leads to maceration and then mycoses. Physiotherapy does not increase the risk for infection. Moreover an infection needs a complex decongestive physiotherapy which decreases risks of recurrence. PMID:12162204

  20. Neurologic complications of immunization.

    PubMed

    Bale, James F

    2004-06-01

    In the United States and many other developed countries, active immunization of children has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, tetanus, and other diseases, such as disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Individual vaccines can produce systemic or neurologic reactions ranging from minor events, such as pain and erythema at the injection site, to major complications, such as seizures, shock, encephalopathy, or death. Immunization programs have also generated considerable controversy, as witnessed by recent concerns regarding the relationship between vaccines or their constituents and autism or multiple sclerosis. This review summarizes current information regarding vaccines, the diseases that they prevent, and the potential relationships between vaccines and neurologic disease. PMID:15446387

  1. Complications of decorative tattoo.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Michi M

    2016-01-01

    Decorative tattoo is a popular practice that is generally safe when performed in the professional setting but can be associated with a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic complications, risks that may be increased with current trends in home tattooing. Modern tattoo inks contain azo dyes and are often of unknown composition and not currently regulated for content or purity. Biopsy of most (if not all) tattoo reactions presenting to the dermatologist is recommended, given recent clusters of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections occurring within tattoo, as well as associations between tattoo reactions and systemic diseases such as sarcoidosis. PMID:26903190

  2. Imaging Complications of Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Mittal, Pardeep K; Ghonge, Nitin P; Bhargava, Puneet; Heller, Matthew T

    2016-03-01

    Renal transplant complications are categorized as those related to the transplant vasculature, collecting system, perinephric space, renal parenchyma, and miscellaneous complications including posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Many of these renal transplant complications are diagnosed with imaging. Medical complications including rejection, acute tubular necrosis, and drug toxicity also can impair renal function. These medical complications are typically indistinguishable at imaging, and biopsy may be performed to establish a diagnosis. Normal transplant anatomy, imaging techniques, and the appearances of renal transplant complications at ultrasound, computed tomography, and MR imaging are reviewed. PMID:26896222

  3. Complications of Lateral Epicondylar Release.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Michael Lucius

    2016-04-01

    Reported complication rates are low for lateral epicondylitis management, but the anatomic complexity of the elbow allows for possible catastrophic complication. This review documents complications associated with lateral epicondylar release: 67 studies reporting outcomes of lateral epicondylar release with open, percutaneous, or arthroscopic methods were reviewed and 6 case reports on specific complications associated with the procedure are included. Overall complication rate was 3.3%. For open procedures it was 4.3%, percutaneous procedures 1.9%, and arthroscopic procedures 1.1%. In higher-level studies directly comparing modalities, the complication rates were 1.3%, 0%, and 1.2%, respectively. PMID:26772953

  4. Successfully Treated Isolated Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yoshinobu; Katsuta, Toshiro; Samura, Kazuhiro; Wakuta, Naoki; Fukuda, Kenji; Higashi, Toshio; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-12-15

    There are very few published reports of rupture of an isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysm, and consequently the optimal therapeutic strategy is debatable. An 84-year-old man presented with sudden onset of restlessness and disorientation. Neuroradiological imaging showed an intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with no visible intracranial vascular lesion. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a localized subarachnoid hematoma at Th10-11. Both contrast-enhanced spinal computed tomography and enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an area of enhancement within the hematoma. Superselective angiography of the left Th12 intercostal artery demonstrated a faintly enhanced spot in the venous phase. Thirteen days after the onset of symptoms, a small fusiform aneurysm situated on the radiculopial artery was resected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was eventually discharged in an ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this 84-year-old man is the oldest reported case of surgical management of a ruptured isolated PSA aneurysm. This case illustrates both the validity and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26522607

  5. Subpial Hematoma and Extravasation in the Interhemispheric Fissure with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazufumi; Matsuoka, Go; Abe, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshikazu; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-06-01

    A recent report on computed tomography (CT) findings of contrast extravasation in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with Sylvian hematoma suggests that the occurrence of the hematoma is secondary to bleeding in the subpial space. Our patient was in his sixties and was admitted to the hospital because of loss of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale E4V1M4). SAH was diagnosed in plain head CT, and growing hematomas were observed in the Sylvian and interhemispheric fissures following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. CT angiography (CTA) using a dual-phase scan protocol revealed contrast extravasation in both the fissures in the latter phase, and hematoma in the interhemispheric fissure contained multiple bleeding points. This case indicates that the occurrence of subpial hematoma such as Sylvian hematoma can be a secondary event following subpial bleeding from damaged small vessels elsewhere in the cranium. Instead of four-dimensional (4D) CT, the dual-phase CTA technique may help detect minor extravasations with usual helical CT scanner. PMID:25963159

  6. Genetic determinants of cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ducruet, Andrew F; Gigante, Paul R; Hickman, Zachary L; Zacharia, Brad E; Arias, Eric J; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Gorski, Justin W; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive effort to elucidate the cellular and molecular bases for delayed cerebral injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the pathophysiology of these events remains poorly understood. Recently, much work has focused on evaluating the genetic underpinnings of various diseases in an effort to delineate the contribution of specific molecular pathways as well as to uncover novel mechanisms. The majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage genetic research has focused on gene expression and linkage studies of these markers as they relate to the development of intracranial aneurysms and their subsequent rupture. Far less work has centered on the genetic determinants of cerebral vasospasm, the predisposition to delayed cerebral injury, and the determinants of ensuing functional outcome after aSAH. The suspected genes are diverse and encompass multiple functional systems including fibrinolysis, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and neuronal repair. To this end, we present a systematic review of 21 studies suggesting a genetic basis for clinical outcome after aSAH, with a special emphasis on the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. In addition, we highlight potential pitfalls in the interpretation of genetic association studies, and call for uniformity of design of larger multicenter studies in the future. PMID:20068580

  7. Successfully Treated Isolated Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HORIO, Yoshinobu; KATSUTA, Toshiro; SAMURA, Kazuhiro; WAKUTA, Naoki; FUKUDA, Kenji; HIGASHI, Toshio; INOUE, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of rupture of an isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysm, and consequently the optimal therapeutic strategy is debatable. An 84-year-old man presented with sudden onset of restlessness and disorientation. Neuroradiological imaging showed an intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with no visible intracranial vascular lesion. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a localized subarachnoid hematoma at Th10–11. Both contrast-enhanced spinal computed tomography and enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an area of enhancement within the hematoma. Superselective angiography of the left Th12 intercostal artery demonstrated a faintly enhanced spot in the venous phase. Thirteen days after the onset of symptoms, a small fusiform aneurysm situated on the radiculopial artery was resected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was eventually discharged in an ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this 84-year-old man is the oldest reported case of surgical management of a ruptured isolated PSA aneurysm. This case illustrates both the validity and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26522607

  8. A non-human primate model of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

    PubMed

    Pluta, Ryszard M; Bacher, John; Skopets, Boris; Hoffmann, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is relatively rare form of hemorrhagic stroke, which produces significant social and medical challenges. As it affects people in their high productivity age and leaves 50 % of them dead and almost 70 % of survivors disabled, many of them severely, the reasons of such a dismal outcome have been intensively researched all over the world. Nevertheless, despite more than a half a century of clinical and scientific effort and dramatic improvement of surgical repair of aneurysms, the causes of poor outcome remain enigmatic. Introduction of numerous in vitro and in vivo models to study the unleashed by SAH mechanisms that injured the brain significantly advanced our understanding of biology of cerebral vessels, brain responses to intracranial pressure changes, and the presence of blood clot in subarachnoid space. One of the most important animal models that significantly contributed to those advances has been a non-human primate model introduced at the Bryce Weir laboratory in the University of Alberta, Canada, in 1984. Since then, this model, with some modifications, has been successfully used in several animal laboratories in the USA, Canada, and Japan. We present the model characteristics and describe in details medical, surgical, imagining techniques that we have used at the Surgical Neurology Branch of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke from 1989. PMID:25216692

  9. Copeptin as a Marker for Severity and Prognosis of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Christian; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Katan, Mira; Seiler, Marleen; Arnold, Marcel; Gralla, Jan; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Background Grading of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is often confounded by seizure, hydrocephalus or sedation and the prediction of prognosis remains difficult. Recently, copeptin has been identified as a serum marker for outcomes in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated whether copeptin might serve as a marker for severity and prognosis in aSAH. Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with aSAH had plasma copeptin levels measured with a validated chemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was the association of copeptin levels at admission with the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade score after resuscitation. Levels of copeptin were compared across clinical and radiological scores as well as between patients with ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm and ischemia. Results Copeptin levels were significantly associated with the severity of aSAH measured by WFNS grade (P = 0.006), the amount of subarachnoid blood (P = 0.03) and the occurrence of ICH (P = 0.02). There was also a trend between copeptin levels and functional clinical outcome at 6-months (P = 0.054). No other clinical outcomes showed any statistically significant association. Conclusions Copeptin may indicate clinical severity of the initial bleeding and may therefore help in guiding treatment decisions in the setting of aSAH. These initial results show that copeptin might also have prognostic value for clinical outcome in aSAH. PMID:23326397

  10. Craniopharyngiomas Presenting with Nonobstructive Hydrocephalus: Underlying Influence of Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage. Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-09-01

    Nonobstructive hydrocephalus in craniopharyngioma patients is rare, and the etiology is not known. We report two cases of patients with craniopharyngioma who presented with nonobstructive hydrocephalus. Repeated subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) was considered as the underlying mechanism of hydrocephalus development. The first case was a 67-year-old woman presenting with deteriorated consciousness. Head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a solid suprasellar tumor with subarachnoidal and intraventricular hematoma with ventricle dilatation but no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obstruction. The extended transsphenoidal approach achieved gross total removal. Because of persistent ventricle dilatation, ventriculoperitoneal shunt was required. The second case was a 35-year-old woman presenting with persistent headache. Head CT and MR imaging demonstrated a solid suprasellar tumor with ventricular dilatation but no CSF obstruction. The extended transsphenoidal approach achieved gross total removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was not required. In both cases, histologic examination of the tumors revealed squamous-papillary type craniopharyngioma with remarkable inflammatory cell infiltrations in the perivascular space. CSF cytology revealed hemosiderin-laden phagocytes, indicative of previous SAH causing CSF malabsorption. These cases suggested that surgery should be indicated for patients with craniopharyngiomas with nonobstructive hydrocephalus, even if the tumors are not associated with neurologic and/or endocrinologic deficits. PMID:25072315

  11. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death. PMID:26332046

  12. Postmortem dynamic cerebral angiography for detecting aneurysm and bleeding sites in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Go; Yajima, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-12-01

    One of the advantages of postmortem imaging is its ability to obtain diagnostic findings in a non-destructive manner when autopsy is either difficult or may destroy forensic evidence. In recent years, efforts have been made to incorporate computed tomography (CT) based postmortem angiography into forensic pathology; however, it is not currently clear how well the modality can determine sites of bleeding in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the utility of postmortem cerebral angiography using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) by injecting a contrast medium through a catheter inserted into the internal carotid and vertebral arteries of 10 subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. While postmortem MDCT angiography (PMCTA) was capable of detecting aneurysms in a non-destructive manner, it was sometimes difficult to identify the aneurysm and bleeding sites because of a large amount of contrast medium leaking into the extravascular space. To overcome this problem, we developed the novel contrast imaging method "dynamic cerebral angiography," which involves scanning the same area multiple times while injecting contrast medium to enable real-time observation of the contrasted vasculature. Using multiphase contrast images acquired by this method, we successfully captured the moment when contrast medium leaked from the hemorrhage site. This method will be useful for identifying exact bleeding sites on PMCTA. PMID:25074715

  13. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thoracic radicular artery pseudoaneurysm after methamphetamine and synthetic cannabinoid abuse: case report.

    PubMed

    Ray, Wilson Z; Krisht, Khaled M; Schabel, Alex; Schmidt, Richard H

    2013-06-01

    Background Context?Isolated spinal artery aneurysms not associated with vascular malformations are exceedingly rare. Purpose?To present a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage after thoracic radiculomedullary artery pseudoaneurysm rupture in a patient who abused synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamines. Study Design?Case report. Methods?A 41-year-old man with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with acute-onset headache, back pain, and transient bilateral lower-extremity numbness. He reported daily use of the synthetic cannabinoid "Spice." He denied use of other illegal drugs, but laboratory testing was positive for methamphetamines. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal hematoma at T2-3, and spinal angiography was negative for vascular abnormalities; however, a follow-up angiogram 6 days later revealed interval development of an irregular dilation of the left T3 radiculomedullary artery originating from the left supreme intercostal artery. Results?Surgical trapping and resection of the lesion yielded a good clinical outcome. Conclusions?Although two previous case reports have described patients with thoracic radiculomedullary pseudoaneurysm causing spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), this is the first reported case associated with synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamine abuse. Although this diagnosis is exceptionally rare, clinical presentation of SAH with associated back pain and lower-extremity symptoms warrants an aggressive imaging workup. Even in the setting of negative angiography, repeat cerebral and spinal angiograms may be necessary to identify a potentially treatable cause of spinal SAH. PMID:24436861

  14. Common surgery, uncommon complication

    PubMed Central

    Akdeniz, Hande; Ozer, Kadri; Dikmen, Adile; Kocer, Uger

    2015-01-01

    Ingrown nail surgery is the one of the most common surgeries in outpatient clinics that are generally perfomed in response to patient complaints. Still, making simple observations, taking patient histories and conducting further tests are often neglected by outpatient clinics. Consequently, it is important to be aware if ingrown nail is associated with any underlying diseases that can lead to major complications. In this article, we report on two cases ending in amputation that were performed with Winograd’s partial matrix excision procedure for ingrown nails. Such a complication is rare, unexpected, and most unwanted in forefoot surgery. After a detailed analysis of the situation, we discovered that both patients were smokers, and one of them had Buerger’s disease. These conditions led to the ingrown nails in addition to poor wound healing. This case report emphasizes the fact that even when performing minor procedures, obtaining a detailed history and conducting an examination are of paramount importance. Patient selection is also a considerable factor, especially for patients who are smokers, who may experience a worst case surgical scenario. PMID:26693080

  15. Common surgery, uncommon complication.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Hande; Ozer, Kadri; Dikmen, Adile; Kocer, Uger

    2015-10-01

    Ingrown nail surgery is the one of the most common surgeries in outpatient clinics that are generally perfomed in response to patient complaints. Still, making simple observations, taking patient histories and conducting further tests are often neglected by outpatient clinics. Consequently, it is important to be aware if ingrown nail is associated with any underlying diseases that can lead to major complications. In this article, we report on two cases ending in amputation that were performed with Winograd's partial matrix excision procedure for ingrown nails. Such a complication is rare, unexpected, and most unwanted in forefoot surgery. After a detailed analysis of the situation, we discovered that both patients were smokers, and one of them had Buerger's disease. These conditions led to the ingrown nails in addition to poor wound healing. This case report emphasizes the fact that even when performing minor procedures, obtaining a detailed history and conducting an examination are of paramount importance. Patient selection is also a considerable factor, especially for patients who are smokers, who may experience a worst case surgical scenario. PMID:26693080

  16. Septic arthritis: a unique complication of nasal septal abscess.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Ekbom, Dale C

    2015-03-01

    Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the mucoperichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future. PMID:25738728

  17. Initial Clinical Status and Spot Sign Are Associated with Intraoperative Aneurysm Rupture in Patients Undergoing Surgical Clipping for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Mohme, Malte; Seifert, Burkhardt; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Objective?To assess clinical and radiographic risk factors for intraoperative aneurysm rupture (ioAR) during surgical clipping after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and to analyze its influence on patient outcome. Methods?Patient selection was based on a retrospective analysis of our prospective subarachnoid hemorrhage patient database including consecutive patients between January 2008 and August 2012 with aSAH undergoing microsurgical clipping. Demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors, preoperative radiologic aneurysm characteristics, as well as timing of surgery and preoperative severity grades (Hunt and Hess [HH], Fisher, World Federation of Neurological Societies [WFNS]), were collected from hospital charts and surgery videos and compared between patients with and without ioAR. Results?Of 100 patients (38 men, 62 women) with a median age of 57.4 years (range: 23-85 years), ioAR occurred in 34 cases (34%). Univariate analyses showed that severity grades were significantly higher in the ioAR group (Fisher p?=?0.012; HH p?=?0.002; WFNS p?=?0.023). IoAR was significantly associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (23% versus 47%; p?=?0.013) and the spot sign as an indicator of active bleeding within the ICH (0% vs 44%; p?=?0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that HH was the only significant predictor of ioAR (p?=?0.03; odds ratio: 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.0). With a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (??16.6), Glasgow Outcome Scale score, mortality rate (12% versus 15%; p?=?0.82), delayed cerebral ischemia (36% versus 38%; p?=?0.51), and shunt dependency (32% versus 44%; p?=?0.23) were comparable between the non-ioAR and ioAR group. Conclusions?Initial clinical status and spot sign were associated with ioAR during microsurgical clipping of ruptured aneurysms. However, there was no difference regarding clinical outcome and complications of the two groups. PMID:26216733

  18. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish inflammatory damage from the host immune response in the central nervous system. PMID:26506532

  19. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  20. Influence of early antioxidant supplements on clinical evolution and organ function in critically ill cardiac surgery, major trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Mette M; Soguel, Ludivine; Shenkin, Alan; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Pinget, Christophe; Baines, Malcolm; Chioléro, René L

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress is involved in the development of secondary tissue damage and organ failure. Micronutrients contributing to the antioxidant (AOX) defense exhibit low plasma levels during critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early AOX micronutrients on clinical outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with conditions characterized by oxidative stress. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial in patients admitted to a university hospital ICU with organ failure after complicated cardiac surgery, major trauma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stratification by diagnosis was performed before randomization. The intervention was intravenous supplements for 5 days (selenium 270 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin C 1.1 g, and vitamin B1 100 mg) with a double-loading dose on days 1 and 2 or placebo. Results Two hundred patients were included (102 AOX and 98 placebo). While age and gender did not differ, brain injury was more severe in the AOX trauma group (P = 0.019). Organ function endpoints did not differ: incidence of acute kidney failure and sequential organ failure assessment score decrease were similar (-3.2 ± 3.2 versus -4.2 ± 2.3 over the course of 5 days). Plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc, and glutathione peroxidase, low on admission, increased significantly to within normal values in the AOX group. C-reactive protein decreased faster in the AOX group (P = 0.039). Infectious complications did not differ. Length of hospital stay did not differ (16.5 versus 20 days), being shorter only in surviving AOX trauma patients (-10 days; P = 0.045). Conclusion The AOX intervention did not reduce early organ dysfunction but significantly reduced the inflammatory response in cardiac surgery and trauma patients, which may prove beneficial in conditions with an intense inflammation. Trials Registration Clinical Trials.gov RCT Register: NCT00515736. PMID:18687132