These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Complications and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective hospital based cohort study in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively in an unselected series of patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage what at present the complications are, what the outcome is, how many of these patients have "modern treatment"—that is, early obliteration of the aneurysm and treatment with calcium antagonists—what factors cause a delay in surgical or endovascular treatment, and what the estimated effect on outcome will be of improved treatment.?METHODS—A prospective, observational cohort study of all patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the hospitals of a specified region in The Netherlands. The condition on admission, diagnostic procedures, and treatments were recorded. If a patient had a clinical deterioration, the change in Glasgow coma score (GCS), the presence of focal neurological signs, the results of additional investigations, and the final diagnosed cause of the deterioration were recorded.? Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 3 month follow up. In patients with poor outcome at follow up, the cause was diagnosed.?RESULTS—Of the 110 patients, 47 (43%) had a poor outcome. Cerebral ischaemia, 31 patients (28%), was the most often occurring complication. Major causes of poor outcome were the effects of the initial haemorrhage and rebleeding in 34% and 30% of the patients with poor outcome respectively. Of all patients 102 (93%) were treated with calcium antagonists and 45 (41%) patients had early treatment to obliterate the aneurysm. The major causes of delay of treatment were a poor condition on admission or deterioration shortly after admission, in 31% and 23% respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—In two thirds of the patients with poor outcome the causes of poor outcome are the effects of the initial bleeding and rebleeding. Improved treatment of delayed or postoperative ischaemia will have only minor effects on the outcome of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.?? PMID:10675216

Roos, Y; de Haan, R J; Beenen, L; Groen, R; Albrecht, K; Vermeulen, M

2000-01-01

2

The rabbit blood shunt subarachnoid haemorrhage model.  

PubMed

The recently introduced rabbit blood shunt subarachnoid haemorrhage model is based on the two standard procedures of subclavian artery cannulation and transcutaneous cisterna magna puncture. An extracorporeal shunt placed in between the arterial system and the subarachnoid space allows examiner-independent SAH in a closed cranium. Despite its straightforwardness, it is worth examining some specific features and characteristics of the model. We outline technical considerations to successfully perform the model with minimal mortality and morbidity. In addition, we discuss outcome measures, advantages and limitations, and the applicability of the model for the study of early brain injury and delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. PMID:25366648

Marbacher, Serge; Fathi, Ali Reza; Muroi, Carl; Coluccia, Daniel; Andereggen, Lukas; Neuschmelting, Volker; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Jakob, Stephan M; Fandino, Javier

2015-01-01

3

Detection of subarachnoid haemorrhage with magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo measure the sensitivity and specificity of five MRI sequences to subarachnoid haemorrhage.METHODSForty one patients presenting with histories suspicious of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were investigated with MRI using T1 weighted, T2 weighted, single shot fast spin echo (express), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), and gradient echo T2* sequences, and also by CT. Lumbar puncture was performed in cases where CT

P Mitchell; I D Wilkinson; N Hoggard; M N J Paley; D A Jellinek; T Powell; C Romanowski; T Hodgson; P D Griffiths

2001-01-01

4

The source of haemorrhage in traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage (TBSH) following trauma to the head, face or neck is well-established as a cause of death; however it remains a heavily disputed topic as the site of vascular injury is difficult to identify. Whilst many regions within the vasculature of the head and neck have been proposed as more susceptible to rupture, the vertebral artery remains the focal point of many investigations. We present a retrospective case review of TBSH in our forensic centre at Forensic and Scientific Services in Brisbane, Australia, from 2003 to 2011. Thirteen cases of TBSH were found, one case excluded due to vasculopathy. All decedents were male, the majority of which were involved in an altercation receiving blows to the head, face, or neck and were unconscious at the scene. All victims were under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or a combination thereof. External examination revealed injuries to the head, face, and neck in all cases. Various combinations of further examination techniques were used during the post-mortem examination including brain and/or cervical spine retention, CT imaging, and angiography. Vascular injury was identified in eight of the twelve cases, all of which occurred intracranially, with seven involving the vertebral artery. Histology was most reliable in identifying the rupture site and angiography failed to reveal a rupture site. The added benefits of histology over angiography are the ability to identify the microscopic architecture of the tear and to diagnose vasculopathy that may have rendered the individual more susceptible to TBSH. PMID:25572079

Wong, Brittany; Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

2015-01-01

5

Basilar Dolichoectasia with Clot Formation and Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

PATIENT 1See Fig. 1. A 71-year-old hypertensive man on clopidogrel for a previous heart attack experienced a mild brainstem ischaemic stroke, followed by progressive hearing loss. 17 months later, acute anarthria, deafness, multiple cranial nerve deficits, and bilateral corticospinal signs developed. 24 h after admission, he died suddenly from an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage.PATIENT 2See Fig. 2. An 82-year-old hypertensive lady,

P. Michel; A. Lobrinus; M. Wintermark; J. Bogousslavsky

2005-01-01

6

Spinal arachnoid cyst associated with arachnoiditis following subarachnoid haemorrhage in adult patients: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Objective. Arachnoiditis is an inflammatory process resulting with the fibrosis of arachnoid mater. It can vary in severity from mild thickenings to catastrophic adhesions that ruins subarachnoid space. As a result, arachnoid cysts can be formed. Arachnoid cyst induced by symptomatic spinal arachnoiditis is a rare complication of subarachnoid haemorrhages. In this article, we aimed to present a case of spinal arachnoid cyst formation following subarachnoid haemorrhage and examine similar cases in the literature. Case Report. Forty-six years old, previously healthy female patient has been treated medically for headaches due to perimesencephalic subarachnoid bleeding. Approximately two and a half months later, she started to have severe headaches and diplopia. We detected hydrocephalus and performed ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. Two months later, she started to have complaints of weakness in her lower extremities. On neurological examination, she had paraparesis and on spinal magnetic resonance imaging she had an arachnoid cyst lengthening from C7 to T2 and compressing the spinal cord posteriorly. We performed partial laminectomy, drainage of arachnoid cyst and replacement of cystopleural T tube shunt. On follow-up, her lower extremity strength has ameliorated. She was taken into a physical therapy and rehabilitation programme. Three months later she was able to walk with a crutch. Conclusion. Subarachnoiditis and associated arachnoid cyst can cause severe morbidity. This rare situation (which especially occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage of posterior fossa) should be known and physicians should keep in mind that it requires urgent surgical procedure. PMID:25365662

Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Efendioglu, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Kaner, Tuncay

2014-11-01

7

Endovascular Management of Complete Vertebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Summary Spontaneous vertebral artery (VA) dissection may involve the intradural segment of the VA and result in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). These lesions are frequently associated with recurrent SAH, and have a high mortality. Prior to the development of endovascular techniques the majority of these lesions were treated surgically. In cases where the dissection involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin surgery was associated with significant complications including recurrent SAH from retrograde VA flow into the dissected segment above the surgical clip. We describe two cases of complete VA dissection in which the entire intradural VA was sacrificed to prevent recurrent SAH. The first case tolerated planned left PICA occlusion without developing a significant neurological deficit. The second case had infarcted the right PICA territory at presentation. PMID:20670506

Lenthall, R.K.; White, B.D.; Mcconachie, N.S.

1999-01-01

8

Endothelin and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a study of subarachnoid cisternal cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Endothelin (ET) is considered one of the most potent vasoconstrictor polypeptides; several experimental studies have suggested its possible role in the pathogenesis of arterial vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Previously reported data on plasma and CSF levels of endothelin in patients with a diagnosis of SAH have been controversial. Cisternal endothelin CSF levels and the possibility that they could be related to vasospasm and other clinical patterns of SAH were investigated. CSF samples were obtained from 55 patients admitted after angiographic diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm. Levels of ET-1 and ET-3 were measured through radio-immunoassay technique. Twelve patients who had operations for unruptured aneurysms were considered control cases; 43 patients with SAH were classified according to: Hunt and Hess grading at admission, vasospasm grading, CT classification and timing of surgery. In all 55 patients ET-1 was measured, while positive levels of ET-3 were found only in 17 cases of 48. No linear correlation was found between cisternal CSF ET-1 levels when considering time of surgery, CT classification, Hunt and Hess grading at admission, and vasospasm grading. The results of ET-3 assay should be considered with great caution because of the low percentage of positive cases. Cisternal CSF levels of ET-1 and ET-3 are not directly related to the occurrence of arterial vasospasm after the aneurysm rupture, or to other major clinical patterns of SAH; however, ET-1 expression occurs either in paraphysiological (unruptured aneurysm) or in pathological conditions (SAH). It is suggested that ET may potentiate, or may be potentiated by, other factors playing a consistent pathophysiological role in the development of vasospasm. PMID:8301307

Gaetani, P; Rodriguez y Baena, R; Grignani, G; Spanu, G; Pacchiarini, L; Paoletti, P

1994-01-01

9

Sudden headache, third nerve palsy and visual deficit: thinking outside the subarachnoid haemorrhage box.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old lady presented with sudden severe headache and vomiting. Examination was normal, and CT and lumbar puncture not convincing for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Shortly thereafter, she developed painless diplopia. Examination confirmed right third cranial nerve palsy plus homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia. Urgent cerebral MRI with angiography was requested to assess for a possible posterior communicating artery aneurysm, but revealed an unsuspected pituitary mass. Pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Pituitary apopolexy is a syndrome comprising sudden headache, meningism, visual and/or oculomotor deficits, with an intrasellar mass. It is commonly due to haemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Treatment includes prompt steroid administration, and potentially surgical decompression. While subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important, well-recognised cause of sudden severe headache, other aetiologies, including pituitary apoplexy, should be considered and sought. PMID:23913476

Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Lambert, John

2013-11-01

10

Classification of Non-Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: CT Correlation to the Clinical Outcome.  

PubMed

To propose a new computed tomography (CT)-based classification system for nonaneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which predicts patients' discharge clinical outcome and helps to prioritize appropriate patient management. A 5-year, retrospective, two-centre study was carried out involving 1486 patients presenting with SAH. One hundred and ninety patients with nonaneurysmal SAH were included in the study. Initial cranial CT findings at admission were correlated with the patients' discharge outcomes measured using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS). A CT-based classification system (type 1 e 4) was devised based on the topography of the initial haemorrhage pattern. Seventy-five percent of the patients had type 1 haemorrhage and all these patients had a good clinical outcome with a discharge MRS of 1. Eight percent of the patients presented with type 2 haemorrhage, 62% of which were discharged with MRS of 1 and 12% of patients had MRS 3 or 4. Type 3 haemorrhage was found in 10%, of which 16% had good clinical outcome, but 53% had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4) and 5% were discharged with severe disability (MRS 5). Six percent of patients presented with type 4 haemorrhage of which 42% of the patients had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4), 42% had severe disability and one-sixth of the patients died. Highly significant differences were found between type 1 (1a and 1b) and type 2 (p¼ 0.003); type 2 and type 3 (p ¼ 0.002); type 3 and type 4 (p ¼ 0.001). Haemorrhages of the type 1 category are usually benign and do not warrant an extensive battery of clinical and radiological investigations. Type 2 haemorrhages have a varying prognosis and need to be investigated and managed along similar lines as that of an aneurysmal haemorrhage with emphasis towards radiological investigation. Type 3 and type 4 haemorrhages need to be extensively investigated to find an underlying cause. PMID:24059766

Nayak, S; Kunz, A B; Kieslinger, K; Ladurner, G; Killer, M

2011-10-31

11

Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction

J. D. Pickard; G. D. Murray; R. Illingworth; M. D. Shaw; G. M. Teasdale; P. M. Foy; P. R. Humphrey; D. A. Lang; R. Nelson; P. Richards

1989-01-01

12

To Look Beyond Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Delayed cerebral vasospasm has classically been considered the most important and treatable cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Secondary ischemia (or delayed ischemic neurological deficit, DIND) has been shown to be the leading determinant of poor clinical outcome in patients with aSAH surviving the early phase and cerebral vasospasm has been attributed to being primarily responsible. Recently, various clinical trials aimed at treating vasospasm have produced disappointing results. DIND seems to have a multifactorial etiology and vasospasm may simply represent one contributing factor and not the major determinant. Increasing evidence shows that a series of early secondary cerebral insults may occur following aneurysm rupture (the so-called early brain injury). This further aggravates the initial insult and actually determines the functional outcome. A better understanding of these mechanisms and their prevention in the very early phase is needed to improve the prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on this topic and so to illustrate how the presence of cerebral vasospasm may not necessarily be a prerequisite for DIND development. The various factors determining DIND that worsen functional outcome and prognosis are then discussed. PMID:24967389

Messerer, Mahmoud; Oddo, Mauro; Daniel, Roy Thomas

2014-01-01

13

Acute Aneurismal Bilateral Subdural Haematoma without Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations. PMID:25045554

Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh

2014-01-01

14

Acute Aneurismal Bilateral Subdural Haematoma without Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations. PMID:25045554

Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh

2014-01-01

15

Subarachnoid haemorrhage above the age of 59: are intracranial investigations justified?  

PubMed Central

Out of 186 patients aged over 59 referred to a neurosurgical department after spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage, 143 underwent cerebral angiography; only 28 (15%) of the patients had surgery, of whom 16 were independent one year later. The doubtful benefit of surgery and the small proportion of patients who underwent surgery have economic and ethical implications; in particular, neurosurgical beds and neuroradiological facilities should not be occupied by such patients if this delays the admission of younger patients and those requiring investigation of intracranial space-occupying and spinal lesions. PMID:414813

Martindale, B V; Garfield, J

1978-01-01

16

Pituitary apoplexy can mimic acute meningoencephalitis or subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon but life-threatening condition that is often overlooked and underdiagnosed. We report a 45-year-old man who presented to our emergency department with a sudden onset headache, acute confusion, signs of meningeal irritation and ophthalmoplegia. An initial diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis was made, which was amended to pituitary apoplexy following thorough investigation within the emergency department.A 45-year-old man was brought to our emergency department by ambulance with a history of sudden onset of frontal headache and acute confusion. His wife provided the history. There was no significant past medical history of diabetes, hypertension, recent travel abroad, exposure to sick contacts, involvement in outdoor pursuits such as hiking/cave diving, or trauma. He worked in a bank and had been well until 24 h prior to the onset of sudden headache, which was gradually worsening in nature and associated with increasing confusion. The patient's wife reported that he had neither experienced any fevers, night sweats, or coryzal symptoms nor received any recent vaccinations. He was not on any regular medications. He was a non-smoker and occasionally consumed alcohol. There was no significant family history. On examination in the ED, his temperature was 37.6°C, his pulse was 110/min, and he was normotensive and normoglycaemic. A macular blanching rash was noted over the patient's trunk. The patient was disoriented to time and place. Neurological examination revealed reduced GCS (11/15-E3, M6, V2), marked neck stiffness, a positive Kernig's sign and a right sixth nerve palsy.A provisional diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis was made and the patient was started on a course of intravenous antibiotics with benzyl penicillin 1.2 g, cefotaxime 2 g and acyclovir 750 mg. Baseline blood investigations revealed hyponatraemia (122 mmol/l), a white-cell count of 11 × 109/l and a C-reactive protein > 250. Due to the sudden onset of the symptoms and lack of prodrome, an urgent CT head scan was performed to rule out a cerebrovascular event. The scan demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland (3 cm in diameter) with impingement of the optic chiasm. The centre of the enlarged pituitary gland was noted to be hypodense in comparison to its periphery, which was consistent with a diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy. A subsequent MRI confirmed the diagnosis (Figure 1) of an enlarged sella containing abnormal soft tissue with increased signal intensity suggestive of haemorrhage (Figure 1A).Post-MRI a lumbar puncture was performed revealing glucose 3.4 mmol/l, protein 1.0 g/l, red cells of 53/mm3 and white cells of 174/mm3 with predominant neutrophilia. No organisms were seen, and CSF cultures and HSV DNA tests were found to be negative. Endocrinological investigations demonstrated low concentrations of thyroid hormones [TSH: 0.14 mIu/l (0.35-5.5 mlU/l), FT3: 1.1 nmol/l (1.2-3.0 nmol/l), FT4: 9.6 pmol/l (8-22 pmol/l)], gonadal hormones (LH: < 1 u/l) and prolactin: 16 u/l (<450 u/l). Serum FSH was 2.9 u/l (0.8-11.5 u/L) and cortisol 575 nmol/l (450-700 nmol/l). The patient was treated for hypopituitarism based on clinical and radiological findings with intravenous fluids, hydrocortisone (100 mg) and thyroxine (50 ?g) as loading doses in the ED.Within 24 h of commencement of therapy the patient's GCS rose to 15, and within 48 h there was marked improvement in the right sixth cranial nerve palsy. Formal visual field assessment demonstrated temporal visual field loss in the left eye. The patient was discharged to his usual residence a week later and follow-up was organised with both the endocrinologists and ophthalmologists. Follow-up MRI demonstrated that there was no significant change in either size or signal characteristics of the pituitary fossa mass (Figure 1B). PMID:21975129

Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Gregory, Stephen; Jaiganesh, Thiagarajan

2011-01-01

17

Haemorrhagic complications of pancreatitis: presentation, diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Massive haemorrhage is an uncommon complication in pancreatitis. Most affected patients suffer from chronic disease with associated pseudocyst. We present five patients (four male) with a mean age of 41 years (range 34-48 years). All patients had alcohol-induced pancreatitis complicated either by haematemesis (3), intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1) or both haematemesis and intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1). Source of bleeding was pseudocyst wall (2), splenic artery pseudoaneurysm (2) and splenic artery rupture (1). Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed in two patients, intracystic ligation and drainage in two, and packing with subsequent external drainage in one. Rebleeding occurred in two patients and required subsequent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in one; the other patient died of splenic rupture. No rebleeding and no mortality occurred after resection. Primary pancreatic resection is recommended whenever possible. Other management options include embolisation and ligation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849330

Ammori, B. J.; Madan, M.; Alexander, D. J.

1998-01-01

18

Incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of cardiac arrest among patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage [SAH], and the prevalence of SAH as the cause following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest [OHCA] or in-hospital cardiac arrest [IHCA] is unknown. In addition it is unclear whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] and post-resuscitation care management differs, and to what extent this will lead to meaningful survival following cardiac arrest [CA] due to SAH. Aim We reviewed the literature in order to describe; 1.The prevalence and predisposing factors of CA among patients with SAH 2.The prevalence of SAH as the cause of OHCA or IHCA and factors characterising CPR 3.The survival and management of SAH patients with CA. Material and methods The following sources, PubMed, CinAHL and The Cochrane DataBase were searched using the following Medical Subheadings [MeSH]; 1. OHCA, IHCA, heart arrest and 2. subarachnoid haemorrhage. Articles containing relevant data based on the abstract were reviewed in order to find results relevant to the proposed research questions. Manuscripts in other languages than English, animal studies, reviews and case reports were excluded. Results A total of 119 publications were screened for relevance and 13 papers were included. The prevalence of cardiac or respiratory arrest among all patients with SAH is between 3-11%, these patients commonly have a severe SAH with coma, large bleeds and evidence of raised intracerebral pressure on computed tomography scans compared to those who did not experience a CA. The prevalence of patients with SAH as the cause of the arrest among OHCA cases vary between 4 to 8% among those who die before hospital admission, and between 4 to 18% among those who are admitted. The prevalence of SAH as the cause following IHCA is low, around 0.5% according to one recent study. In patients with OHCA survival to hospital discharge is poor with 0 to 2% surviving. The initial rhythm is commonly asystole or pulseless electrical tachycardia. In IHCA the survival rate is variable with 0-27% surviving. All survivors experience brief cardiac arrests with short latencies to ROSC. Conclusion Cardiac arrest is a fairly common complication following severe SAH and these patients are encountered both in the pre-hospital and in-hospital setting. Survival is possible if the arrest occurs in the hospital and the latency to ROSC is short. In OHCA the outcome seems to be uniformly poor despite initially successful resuscitation. PMID:23151345

2012-01-01

19

Prognostic value of the amount of post-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage in a six month follow up period.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and radiological patterns from 148 patients with post-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (TSAH) were analysed with specific regard for the amount and distribution of blood in subarachnoid spaces to verify if these variables have any influence on overall outcome. The degree and extent of TSAH were classified according to Fisher's criteria: in 93 patients it was grade 1, in 36 grade 2, in 13 grade 3, and in six grade 4. There was a significant correlation between increasing clinical severity at admission and the amount of subarachnoid bleeding and a direct relation between a favourable outcome and a low Fisher grade. The distribution of subarachnoid blood was not significantly related to clinical condition at admission, whereas the pattern had a significant impact on the outcome. The results of the present study confirm that TSAH is a negative prognostic factor. Whereas the degree of TSAH is mainly related to clinical conditions at admission, the presence of subarachnoid blood clots both in basal cisterns and over the cerebral convexity indicates a poor outcome. PMID:7500106

Gaetani, P; Tancioni, F; Tartara, F; Carnevale, L; Brambilla, G; Mille, T; Rodriguez y Baena, R

1995-01-01

20

The role of erythropoietin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured aneurysm accounts for only 5 % of strokes, but occurs at a fairly young age and carries a poor prognosis. Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) is an important cause of death and dependence after aneurysmal SAH. The current mainstay of preventing DCI is nimodipine and maintenance of normovolemia, but even with this strategy DCI occurs in a considerable proportion of patients.Several drugs have been developed that have the potential to limit cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, thus improving outcome for patients. However, although numerous agents can prevent arterial narrowing and/or block the excitatory cascade of events leading to ischaemic neuronal death in experimental conditions, there is still no pharmacologic agent that has been shown conclusively to improve the outcome in clinical practice.Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known erythropoietic hormone recently found to exert neuroprotective properties and has been shown to reduce cerebral vasospasm and infarct volume after experimental SAH. In humans, although EPO treatment did not impact the overall incidence of vasospasm, it significantly reduced the incidence of severe vasospasm, the incidence of delayed ischaemic deficits with new cerebral infarcts, and the duration of impaired autoregulation. The current study provides new evidence for the potential benefit and relative safety of EPO for the treatment of SAH in humans. Future clinical trials will hopefully provide definite evidence whether EPO treatment is beneficial in SAH patients. PMID:25366603

Grasso, Giovanni; Buemi, Michele; Giambartino, Filippo

2015-01-01

21

Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) code I60). Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL) data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS) £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses) of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories. PMID:20423472

2010-01-01

22

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood. PMID:24699459

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

23

Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in an elderly woman with a missed diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification. Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation. We highlight the pertinent details in our patient's management that could have helped to prevent a missed diagnosis of SAH. Even though SAH occurs most commonly following head trauma, the more familiar medical use of SAH is for non-traumatic SAH occurring following a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This patient had notable risk factors for cerebral aneurysm formation but an aneurysm was not identified at autopsy. The location of the blood high on the cerebral convexities further suggests a traumatic origin rather than a ruptured aneurysm. Heterotopic calcification and ossification (HO) is known to occur in the setting of severe neurologic disorders such as traumatic brain injury but the fact that the lung calcification in our patient predated the brain injury by over 10 years makes it unlikely for the HO to have been due to the brain trauma. Other organ pathologies found at autopsy include chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal papillary necrosis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, and seborrheic keratosis. PMID:24391231

Odubanjo, M O; Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A; Ekwere, T E; Awelimobor, D I

2013-09-01

24

Is there a role for heparin in the management of complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage?  

PubMed

Proven effective therapy to prevent ischemic deficits and other complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage is lacking despite extensive research efforts. A literature review documented both clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that heparin may be effective in preventing ischemic deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage by reversing vasospasm, improving blood flow through narrowed vessels, and preventing the development of a proliferative angiopathy. Additional evidence suggests that heparinization of the cerebrospinal fluid following subarachnoid hemorrhage may prevent the development of hydrocephalus. In the only clinical trial using heparin after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the incidence of rebleeding in the heparinized patients was no higher than in the control group. We conclude that the existing preliminary data concerning a role for heparin in the management of the complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage is promising, but further controlled studies are needed prior to clinical application. PMID:3318003

Chimowitz, M I; Pessin, M S

1987-01-01

25

Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total cortisol, stimulated total cortisol and free cortisol concentrations in acute aneurysmal SAH. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted of patients with acute aneurysmal SAH (n = 30) admitted to a tertiary university hospital. Patients admitted for elective aneurysmal surgery (n = 16) served as the control group. An ACTH stimulation test was performed twice during the first week and at three months. The main outcome measure was description of the ACTH-cortisol response by calculating serum free cortisol and measuring total cortisol and ACTH concentrations. A mixed models method was used for testing between the groups, allowing heterogeneity between the groups. Results Patients with SAH had higher initial serum total cortisol (mean +/- SD; 793 +/- 312 nmol/L) and free cortisol concentrations (83 +/- 55 nmol/L) than control patients (535 +/- 193 nmol/L, p = 0.001 and 33 +/- 18 nmol/L, p < 0.001, respectively). Thereafter, there were no differences in this respect. Serum free and total cortisol concentrations correlated but were unaffected by the severity of SAH. ACTH concentrations were comparable between SAH and control groups. Patients with Hunt-Hess grades IV to V had higher ACTH concentrations at day one (10.7 +/- 7.1 pmol/l/L) and day five (8.2 +/- 7.7 pmol/L) than patients with grade I-III (day one: 3.8 +/- 2.0 pmol/L, p = 0.002; day five: 4.7 +/- 1.8 pmol/L, p = 0.04). Conclusions Calculation of serum free cortisol concentration was not helpful in identifying patients with potential hypocortisolism. SAH severity did not affect cortisol concentrations, possibly indicating relative pituitary-adrenal insufficiency in patients with more severe bleeding. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00614887. PMID:18851750

Bendel, Stepani; Koivisto, Timo; Ruokonen, Esko; Rinne, Jaakko; Romppanen, Jarkko; Vauhkonen, Ilkka; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Uusaro, Ari

2008-01-01

26

Ventriculocisternal drainage via endoscopic third ventriculostomy after endovascular embolization for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coil embolization is a favoured method of treating acutely ruptured aneurysms. However, subarachnoid clots cannot be removed with endovascular treatment, which is disadvantageous from the view point of preventing vasospasm. The authors report intrathecal fibrinolytic therapy via a ventricular drainage tube instituted after endoscopic third ventriculostomy for effective prevention of vasospasm after coil embolization. Two cases of poor grade aneurysmal

Hisashi Nagashima; Hiroshi Okudera; Shigeaki Kobayashi; Yoshiki Ichinose

1999-01-01

27

The effect of formal training on the clinical utility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the clinical utility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound monitoring for vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, as performed by untrained operators in a busy neurosurgical unit, is questionable, despite the recommendations for its use in the literature. We determined if formal training improved the utility of TCD. Twelve untrained operators and one trained operator performed a total of 206 TCD examinations. There was poor agreement of results between trained and untrained operators. For the left middle cerebral artery (MCA), right MCA, left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and right ACA, the blood flow velocities (BFV) recorded by the trained operator were greater than those recorded by the untrained operators by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 27.7 (25.0-30.4), 24.3 (21.4-27.1), 28.2 (25.6-30.9) and 28.1 (24.9-31.1) cm/s, respectively (p<0.001 for all vessels). Greater sensitivity was observed in TCD measurements from the trained operator (100%) compared to untrained operators (40%). To improve the utility of TCD, operators should be provided with training or a professional sonographer employed. PMID:22727749

Bhuiyan, M Rasin; Deb, Smita; Mitchell, Ruth A; Teddy, Peter J; Drummond, Katharine J

2012-09-01

28

Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

2015-01-01

29

Benefit of cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in the assessment of CT scan negative suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage: A diagnostic accuracy study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine if performing cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in addition to visual inspection detects more ruptured cerebral aneurysms than performing cerebrospinal fluid visual inspection alone in patients with a normal head CT scan but suspected of suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We performed a single-centre retrospective study of patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital who underwent both head CT scan and lumbar puncture to exclude SAH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an approach utilising both spectrophotometry and visual inspection (combined approach) was compared to visual inspection alone. A total of 409 patients (mean age 37.8years, 56.2% female) were recruited and six (1.5%) had a cerebral aneurysm on angiography. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.4-82.6%), specificity was 99% (95% CI: 97.5-99.7%), PPV was 42.9% (95% CI: 10.4-81.3%) and NPV was 99.2% (95% CI: 97.8-99.8%). The combined approach had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 54.1-100%), specificity of 79.7% (95% CI: 75.4-83.5%), PPV of 6.8% (95% CI: 2.6-14.3%) and a NPV of 100% (95% CI: 98.8-100%). The sensitivity of the combined approach was not significantly different to that of visual inspection alone (p=0.25). Visual inspection had a significantly higher specificity than the combined approach (p<0.01). The combined approach detected more cases of aneurysmal SAH than visual inspection alone, however the difference in sensitivity was not statistically significant. Visual xanthochromia should prompt angiography because of a superior specificity and PPV. Due to its reduced sensitivity, caution should be applied when using only visual inspection of the supernatant. PMID:25439758

Hann, Angus; Chu, Kevin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Williams, Julian; Brown, Anthony

2015-01-01

30

Trends in incidence and in short term survival following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in Scotland, 1986 - 2005: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine age and sex specific incidence and 30 day case fatality for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Scotland over a 20 year period. Methods A retrospective cohort study using routine hospital discharge data linked to death records. Results Between 1986 and 2005, 12,056 individuals experienced an incident SAH. Of these 10,113 (84%) survived to reach hospital. Overall age-standardised incidence rates were greater in women than men and remained relatively stable over the study period. In 2005, incidence in women was 12.8 (95% CI 11.5 to 14.2) and in men 7.9 (95% CI 6.9 to 9.1). 30 day case fatality in individuals hospitalised with SAH declined substantially, falling from 30.0% in men and 33.9% in women in 1986-1990 to 24.5% in men and 29.1% in women in 2001-2005. For both men and women, the largest reductions were observed in those aged between 40 to 59 years. After adjustment for age, socio-economic status and co-morbidity, the odds of death at 30 days in 2005 compared to odds of death in 1986 was 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76), p < 0.001 for those below 70 years, and 1.14 (0.83 to 1.56), p = 0.4 in those 70 years and above. Conclusions Incidence rates for SAH remained stable between 1986 and 2005 suggesting that a better understanding of SAH risk factors and their reduction is needed. 30 day case fatality rates have declined substantially, particularly in middle-age. However, they remain high and it is important to ensure that this is not due to under-diagnosis or under-treatment. PMID:21447158

2011-01-01

31

Achieved serum magnesium concentrations and occurrence of delayed cerebral ischaemia and poor outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Magnesium therapy probably reduces the frequency of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) but uncertainty remains about the optimal serum magnesium concentration. We assessed the relationship between serum magnesium concentrations achieved with magnesium sulphate therapy 64?mmol/day and the occurrence of DCI and poor outcome in patients with SAH. Methods Differences in magnesium concentrations between patients with and without DCI and with and without poor outcome were calculated. Quartiles of last serum magnesium concentrations before the onset of DCI, or before the median day of DCI in patients without DCI, were related to the occurrence of DCI and poor outcome at 3?months using logistic regression. Results Compared with the lowest quartile of serum magnesium concentration (1.10–1.28?mmol/l), the risk of DCI was decreased in each of the higher three quartiles (adjusted odds ratio (OR) in each quartile 0.2; lower 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; upper limit 0.8 to 0.9). The OR for poor outcome was 1.8 (95% CI 0.5 to 6.9) in the second quartile, 1.0 (95% CI 0.2 to 4.5) in the third quartile and 4.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 19.7) in the highest quartile. Discussion Magnesium sulphate 64?mmol/day results in a stable risk reduction of DCI over a broad range of achieved serum magnesium concentrations, and strict titration of the dosage therefore does not seem necessary. However, concentrations ?1.28?mmol/l could decrease the effect on DCI while concentrations ?1.62 might have a negative effect on clinical outcome. PMID:17135457

Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; van den Bergh, Walter M; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

2007-01-01

32

Predicting long-term outcome in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients utilising the Glasgow Coma Scale.  

PubMed

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most universally accepted system for grading level of consciousness. Predicting outcome is particularly difficult in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) patients. We hypothesised that the GCS and individual examination components would correlate with long-term outcome and have varying prognostic value depending on assessment time points. GCS scores of 160 aSAH patients presenting in stupor or coma were prospectively recorded on admission and each subsequent day until hospital day 14. Early treatment was planned for each patient unless the patient's family refused aggressive intervention or the patient died before surgery. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 14 days, 3 months, and one year. All patients who did not receive surgical treatment died within one year. Of the 104 patients who received surgical treatment, 13.5% of them had a favourable outcome at 14 days, 38.5% at 3 months, and 51% at one year (p<0.0001). Admission GCS scores significantly correlated with outcome (Spearman rank test, rs=0.472, p<0.0001). On admission, motor examination correlated best with one-year outcome (rs=0.533, p<0.0001). Each point increase in motor examination predicted a 1.8-fold increased odds of favourable long-term outcome (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.3). At discharge, eye examination (rs=0.760, p<0.0001) correlated best with one-year outcome, and a one point increase in eye examination predicted a 3.1-fold increased odds of favourable outcome (95% CI, 1.8-5.4). During hospitalisation, the best eye exam (rs=0.738, p<0.0001) and worst motor exam (rs=0.612, p<0.0001) were the most highly correlated with the one-year outcome. Long-term follow-up is necessary when evaluating recovery after aSAH, as outcomes improve significantly during the first year. The GCS and its individual components correlate well with long-term outcome. Admission motor examination and spontaneous eye opening during hospitalisation are most predictive of favourable recovery. PMID:19008104

Starke, Robert M; Komotar, Ricardo J; Otten, Marc L; Schmidt, J Michael; Fernandez, Luis D; Rincon, Fred; Gordon, Errol; Badjatia, Neeraj; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

2009-01-01

33

Subdural haemorrhage following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. A rare complication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Subdural collections or hematomas are frequently observed after shunt placement [7–9, 13], but rarely after ETV [6]. A review\\u000a of literature revealed 7 cases [1, 5, 6, 10, 12], of which only 1 was symptomatic [5]. We will discuss the causes, management,\\u000a and methods of prevention of this complication and we will present a case of symptomatic subdural haematoma, following

M. H. Kamel; M. Murphy; K. Aquilina; C. Marks

2006-01-01

34

Brain damage complicating septic shock: acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis as a complication of the generalised Shwartzman reaction.  

PubMed Central

The neuropathological findings in six patients who developed neurological signs after the onset of "septic shock" caused by Gram-negative septicaemia are described. The changes in the brains were characteristic of acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis, and there was evidence, particularly in the kidneys, of disseminated intravascular coagulation with tubular necrosis and, in some, appearances indistinguishable from membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis. It is agreed that acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis is another manifestation of a generalised Shwartzman reaction, and it is suggested that activation of complement is the final common pathway that produces tissue damage in the brain and kidney. Images PMID:762582

Graham, D I; Behan, P O; More, I A

1979-01-01

35

[Massive intrahepatic haemorrhage responsible for an inferior vena cava syndrome: an exceptional complication of hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

Intralesional massive haemorrhage responsible for inferior vena cava syndrome is a very rare complication of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 36-year-old man with no past medical history was referred to hospital for abdominal pain with clinical and biological signs of internal bleeding. An abdominal CT scan showed a huge right liver mass, with regular margins and a fluid content, indicating a large intratumoral haemorrhage complicating hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to haemodynamic stability and the signs of inferior vena cava compression conservative management was chosen prior to surgical treatment of the tumour. Three months later, the huge liver mass remained unchanged but the inferior vena cava syndrome had decreased and the patient's condition improved. After evaluation of liver function and the extent of the tumour, a surgical procedure was performed via a subcostal incision with midline extension and sternotomy to control the intrapericardial inferior vena cava and perform a veno-venous bypass with the technique used for orthotopic liver transplantation. Then, right hepatectomy (segments V to VIII) was performed with an anterior approach. The postoperative course was uneventful. This two-step strategy allowed successful surgery for this rare complication of a hepatocellular carcinoma on a normal liver and could be recommended for the management of any unruptured intratumoral haemorrhages. PMID:16633318

Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Douard, Richard; Santoro, Roberto; Vidiri, Antonello; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Carboni, Fabio; Boschetto, Arianna; Corazza, Valerio; Maritti, Michela; Antonini, Mario; Santoro, Eugenio

2006-03-01

36

[Case report: Aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage - Complicated course due to coincidental manifestation of an inverted Tako-Tsubo-cardiomyopathy].  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient who suffered a serious subarachnoid hemorrhage with a cardialaffection and development of an inverted Tako-Tsubo-cardiomyopathy. To avoid apparent cerebral ischemia due to severe cerebral vasospasm after exhaustion of conservative therapeutic options a temporarily endovascular therapy with continuous intra-arterial application of Nimodipine was necessary. In the overall protracted and complicated course the special challenge were the therapeutic efforts to avoid apparent cerebral ischemia in context to the significant cardial affection. PMID:25137200

Zech, Nina; Kieninger, Martin; Seemann, Milena; Künzig, Holger; Bele, Sylvia; Dietl, Alexander

2014-07-01

37

Post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony, complicated by platelet storage pool disease and partial placenta diffusa: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Uterine atony is the most common cause of primary post partum haemorrhage. We report a case where this was complicated by two rare conditions, platelet storage pool disease and placenta diffusa. Platelet storage pool disease is a platelet aggregation disorder associated with mild to moderate bleeding diathesis. There are limited cases reported in pregnancy. Placenta diffusa is a rare anomaly where all or part of the fetal membranes remain covered by chorionic villi, and is associated with post partum haemorrhage. Case presentation A 37-year-old woman was referred to the obstetric haematology clinic for prenatal counselling with a history of three severe post partum haemorrhages, two of which were complicated by placental retention. Platelet aggregation studies confirmed a diagnosis of platelet storage pool disease. She was counselled regarding her risk of a recurrent haemorrhage and a planned delivery was discussed. She subsequently presented at 15 weeks' gestation. Following an uneventful pregnancy, she was covered with prophylactic desmopressin and tranexamic acid before a planned induction of labour. She had a normal delivery but placenta was retained. In theatre, an uncomplicated manual removal was followed by massive haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Aggressive medical management and B lynch sutures at laparotomy failed to contract the uterus. Hysterectomy was therefore performed. Placental histology later showed evidence of partial placenta diffusa. Conclusion Post partum haemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In this patient, despite identification and attempts at correction of an identified clotting disorder, major obstetric haemorrhage was not avoided. An additional rare placental abnormality was later found. This case highlights the need for medical staff to be aware and alert to unusual risk factors. However, these factors may be unavoidable and early surgical intervention as per local protocol is recommended to minimise maternal morbidity. PMID:19077291

Rahman, Shimma S; Myers, Jenny E; Gillham, Joanna C; Fitzmaurice, Richard; Johnston, Tracey A

2008-01-01

38

Early and late complications of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage in the preterm infant: what is new?  

PubMed

Germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains a serious problem in the very and extremely preterm infant. This article reviews current methods of diagnosis, treatment and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with low-grade and severe GMH-IVH. We conclude that there is still no consensus on timing of intervention and treatment of infants with GMH-IVH, whether or not complicated by post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. The discrepancies between the studies underline the need for international collaboration to define the optimal strategy for these infants. PMID:25171657

Brouwer, Annemieke J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; de Vries, Linda S

2014-01-01

39

Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage studies  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating cause of stroke, occurring in relatively young people. It has been suggested that some immune-mediated diseases may be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Methods We analysed a database of linked statistical records of hospital admissions and death certificates for the whole of England (1999–2011). Rate ratios for SAH were determined, comparing immune-mediated disease cohorts with comparison cohorts. Results There were significantly elevated risks of SAH after hospital admission for the following individual immune-mediated diseases: Addison’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Crohn’s disease, diabetes mellitus, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, myxoedema, pernicious anaemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Sjogren’s syndrome, SLE and thyrotoxicosis. Elevated risks that were greater than 2-fold were found for Addison’s disease (rate ratio (RR)?=?2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.97), idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (RR?=?2.42, 1.86-3.11), primary biliary cirrhosis (RR?=?2.21, 1.43-3.16) and SLE (RR?=?3.76, 3.08-4.55). Conclusions Our findings strongly support the suggestion that patients with some immune-mediated diseases have an increased risk of SAH. Further studies of the mechanisms behind this association are warranted. PMID:24229049

2013-01-01

40

The effect of intravenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on inflammatory mediators in cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid haemorrhage: a phase II randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key mediator of ischaemic brain injury induced by stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) limits brain injury in experimental stroke and reduces plasma inflammatory mediators associated with poor outcome in ischaemic stroke patients. Intravenous (IV) IL-1Ra crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in patients with SAH, to achieve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations that are neuroprotective in rats. Methods A small phase II, double-blind, randomised controlled study was carried out across two UK neurosurgical centres with the aim of recruiting 32 patients. Adult patients with aneurysmal SAH, requiring external ventricular drainage (EVD) within 72 hours of ictus, were eligible. Patients were randomised to receive IL-1Ra (500 mg bolus, then a 10 mg/kg/hr infusion for 24 hours) or placebo. Serial samples of CSF and plasma were taken and analysed for inflammatory mediators, with change in CSF IL-6 between 6 and 24 hours as the primary outcome measure. Results Six patients received IL-1Ra and seven received placebo. Concentrations of IL-6 in CSF and plasma were reduced by one standard deviation in the IL-1Ra group compared to the placebo group, between 6 and 24 hours, as predicted by the power calculation. This did not reach statistical significance (P?=?0.08 and P?=?0.06, respectively), since recruitment did not reach the target figure of 32. No adverse or serious adverse events reported were attributable to IL-1Ra. Conclusions IL-1Ra appears safe in SAH patients. The concentration of IL-6 was lowered to the degree expected, in both CSF and plasma for patients treated with IL-1Ra. PMID:24383930

2014-01-01

41

Mouse genetic background is associated with variation in secondary complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a form of hemorrhagic stroke that accounts for approximately 7 % of all strokes worldwide and is associated with mortality in approximately 35 % of cases and morbidity in many of the survivors. Studies have suggested that genetic variations may affect the pathophysiology of SAH. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of mouse genetic background on brain injury and large artery vasospasm after SAH. SAH was induced in seven inbred strains of mice, and the degree of large artery vasospasm and brain injury was assessed. After 48 h, SAH mice showed a significant reduction in middle cerebral artery diameter and increased neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex compared with sham-operated controls. Mouse strains also demonstrated variable degrees of vasospasm and brain injury. This data suggests that different genetic factors influence how much brain injury and vasospasm occur after SAH. Future investigations may provide insight into the causes of these differences between strains and into which genetic contributors may be responsible for vasospasm and brain injury after SAH. PMID:25366595

D'Abbondanza, Josephine A; Lass, Elliot; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2015-01-01

42

Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval Complicated by Life-Threatening Obturator Artery Haemorrhage and Managed by a Vessel-Preserving Technique.  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with secondary infertility who underwent routine transvaginal oocyte retrieval as part of IVF treatment. Four days following the procedure she presented with life threatening haemorrhagic shock. She underwent surgical laparotomy followed by CT and selective angiography, which demonstrated haemorrhage from a pseudoaneurysm of the obturator artery. The haemorrhage was successfully managed endovascularly with a vessel preserving covered stent. PMID:25484463

Bolster, Ferdia; Mocanu, Edgar; Geoghegan, Tony; Lawler, Leo

2014-01-01

43

Haemangioma calcificans presenting as intracranial haemorrhages during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 33-year-old female with intracerebral haemorrhage during pregnancy, associated with subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhages, is presented.Intracranial haemorrhages during pregnancy are known to frequently result from cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. We believe that this is caused by haemangioma calcificans and is noteworthy in considering the indications for surgical treatment for intracranial calcified lesions suggestive of cavernous haemangioma.

Masayuki Fujioka; Kazuo Okuchi; Toshisuke Sakaki; Shigeru Tsunoda; Akio Masuda

1997-01-01

44

Complications of Uterine Fibroids and Their Management, Surgical Management of Fibroids, Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy versus Hysterectomy, Haemorrhage, Adhesions, and Complications  

PubMed Central

A critical analysis of the surgical treatment of fibroids compares all available techniques of myomectomy. Different statistical analyses reveal the advantages of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms. Very seldom does peritonitis occur. Infertility may result from continuous metro and menorrhagia. The difficulty of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic myomectomy lies in achieving satisfactory haemostasis using the appropriate sutures. The hysteroscopic myomectomy requires an operative hysteroscope and a well-experienced gynaecologic surgeon. PMID:22619681

Mettler, Liselotte; Schollmeyer, Thoralf; Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Alkatout, Ibrahim

2012-01-01

45

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage: a fatal complication after alemtuzumab induction therapy in renal transplantation.  

PubMed

We report a fatal case of alemtuzumab-induced diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in an 18-year-old male with Alport syndrome. The patient developed acute onset shortness of breath, hemoptysis and fever after renal transplantation. Computed tomography findings were consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage was performed that showed no evidence of pathogenic bacteria or opportunistic infection. The patient was intubated and ventilated because of worsening respiratory function. The patient received plasma electrophoresis and was maintained on tacrolimus and steroids; however, unfortunately the patient died 31 days post-transplantation due to worsening respiratory function and declining graft function. Although the prevalence and the exact mechanism of this fatal complication remain unknown, an awareness of this complication is important to all clinicians using alemtuzumab. This is a second report of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage secondary to alemtuzumab induction in patients with Alport syndrome. PMID:25645795

Tahir, W; Hakeem, A; Baker, R; Ahmad, N

2015-01-01

46

Subarachnoid hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... snapping feeling in the head. Other symptoms: Decreased consciousness and alertness Eye discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) ... time, the outlook is much worse. Changes in consciousness and alertness due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage may ...

47

Internal haemorrhagic pachymeningiosis: specific disease or complication of chronic subdural hematoma? Report of five cases surgically treated and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Internal haemorrhagic pachymeningiosis (IHP) is a rare disease characterized by a fibrous thickening and inflammatory infiltration in dural space mimicking chronic subdural hematoma. The pathogenesis of IHP is not entirely clear yet and treatment is still controversial. Objective We want to emphasize the importance of differentiating pachymeningiosis from chronic subdural hematoma as distinct pathological entities. Patients and methods The records of five selected cases of IHP histologically confirmed were reviewed, focusing onset, neuroimaging, surgery and outcomes. Conclusions IHP is most likely underestimated. Only through multidisciplinary approach it is possible to plane the proper therapeutic strategy. The diagnosis of IHP is confirmed by definitive histology but in some cases is possible with intraoperative frozen section. PMID:25174295

CARANGELO, B.; LAVALLE, L.; MUSCAS, G.; PERI, G.; TIEZZI, G.; BRANCO, D.; TACCHINI, D.; COSTANTINO, G.; MARIOTTINI, A.; MATURO, A.

2014-01-01

48

Intraventricular recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for treatment of spontaneous intraventricular haemorrhage in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy, which is usually subarachnoid or intraparenchymal in nature, causes significant maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Solitary intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in pregnancy has never been previously reported nor has the use of intraventricular fibrinolysis in this situation. A 28-year-old woman presented at 20 weeks' gestation with status epilepticus from spontaneous severe IVH. Angiography and magnetic

K. Y. C Goh; J. N. K Hsiang; X. L Zhu; W. S Poon

1999-01-01

49

Supratentorial Intraparenchymal Haemorrhages during Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Intracranial haemorrhages are rare but potentially life-threatening complications of spine surgery. Most reported cases involved subdural or cerebellar haemorrhages; supratentorial parenchymal bleeding is very uncommon. We report a 28-year-old woman who underwent resection of a thoracic Ewing's sarcoma, and developed fatal haemorrhages around her cerebral metastases during surgery. The clinical presentations, possible pathogenesis and potential preventive measures are discussed. Patients with disseminated metastases within the neural axis are at risks of intracranial complications during spine surgery. The presence of intracranial mass lesions should be considered as a relative contraindication to intradural spine surgery. PMID:24653806

Chan, Johnny Ping Hon

2014-01-01

50

Cerebellar haemorrhage after evacuation of an acute supratentorial subdural haematoma.  

PubMed

Recent reports have highlighted the unusual complication of distant cerebellar haemorrhage after supratentorial craniotomy, with only 25 previous cases reported in the literature. Nearly all reported cases occurred after craniotomy for temporal lobectomy or for deep seated intracerebral pathology requiring brain retraction and removal of CSF at surgery. Only one previous case of a cerebellar haemorrhage after evacuation of an extracerebral fluid collection has been reported. We describe the case of a cerebellar haemorrhage complicating the evacuation of an acute/subacute supratentorial subdural haematoma in a 83-year-old woman. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms of haemorrhage discussed. PMID:10562849

Kaplan, S S; Lauryssen, C

1999-06-01

51

Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

1972-01-01

52

Name: dhr. prof. dr. G.J.E. Rinkel Neurology, in particular haemorrhagic stroke  

E-print Network

-mail address g.j.e.rinkel@umcutrecht.nl Research Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage and cardiologists. Another line within the research is genetics of intracranial aneurysms. Most of the research has and benefits of screening for intracranial aneurysms in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic

Utrecht, Universiteit

53

Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus diseases All information on Ebola virus disease Technical information, publications, situation assessments, feature ...

54

Early events after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The first 72 h after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a critical period for the patient. Most of the deaths in the SAH patient population occur during this time, and a number of key events activate and trigger mechanisms that not only contribute to early brain injury but evolve over time and participate in the delayed complications. This review highlights the contribution of key events to the early brain injury and to overall outcome after SAH. PMID:25366594

Sehba, Fatima A; Friedrich, Victor

2015-01-01

55

[Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

The diagnosis, management and long-term implications of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage continue to be a multidisciplinary challenge. Often, the patients present to emergency or primary care physicians not particularly experienced in the differential diagnosis of headache. In most cases of a proven hemorrhage (aneurysm rupture in 85%), further treatment will require the discussion between experienced neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists whether to "clip or coil". Thus, subarachnoid hemorrhage is the first cerebrovascular disorder where a multidisciplinary approach has become the evidence-based standard of care. Patients with this condition are relatively young, and the survivors have a good life expectancy. Their neurologic, cognitive and psychiatric morbidity, risk of recurrent bleeding and elevated risk of other vascular diseases remain underestimated tasks for long-term care. PMID:22349626

Steinmetz, H

2012-06-01

56

Intracranial Extension of Spinal Subarachnoid Hematoma Causing Severe Cerebral Vasospasm  

PubMed Central

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) can extend into the intracranial subarachnoid space, but, severe cerebral vasospasm is rare complication of the extension of intracranial SAH from a spinal subarachnoid hematoma. A 67-year-old woman started anticoagulant therapy for unstable angina. The next day, she developed severe back pain and paraplegia. MRI showed intradural and extramedullar low signal intensity at the T2-3, consistent with intradural hematoma. High signal intensity was also noted in the spinal cord from C5 to T4. We removed subarachnoid hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The following day, the patient complained of severe headache. Brain CT revealed SAH around both parietal lobes. Three days later, her consciousness decreased and left hemiplegia also developed. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple cerebral infarctions, mainly in the right posterior cerebral artery territory, left parietal lobe and right watershed area. Conventional cerebral angiography confirmed diffuse severe vasospasm of the cerebral arteries. After intensive care for a month, the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation department. After 6 months, neurologic deterioration improved partially. We speculate that surgeons should anticipate possible delayed neurological complications due to cerebral vasospasm if intracranial SAH is detected after spinal subarachnoid hematoma.

Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Byung Kwan

2014-01-01

57

[Persistent subarachnoid-pleural cerebrospinal fluid fistula following excision of a thoracic ganglioneuroma. Case report].  

PubMed

During extirpation of a thoracic ganglioneuroma, haemostasis of venous haemorrhage by application of bone wax close to the costovertebral junction at Th 4/5 resulted in plegia of the lower extremities on the fourth postoperative day. Compression of the myelon due to the applied bone wax was relieved directly after CT scan diagnosis. In the postoperative course, a persisting subarachnoidal pleural fistula was closed by means of muscle flap plasty and fibrin adhesive. PMID:2360366

Trammer, A

1990-04-01

58

Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

2014-01-01

59

Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. PMID:25257737

Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

2014-10-01

60

Antithrombotic medicines following intracerebral haemorrhage: where's the evidence?  

PubMed Central

The use of antithrombotic medicines in patients who have a history of intracerebral haemorrhage is widely perceived as being contraindicated. However, many patients with intracerebral haemorrhage may suffer from conditions for which antithrombotic medicines are indicated. Such scenarios represent a therapeutic dilemma whereby treating infers an increased risk of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage, but not treating infers an increase of thrombotic complications. Despite the importance of this dilemma, there is very little guidance for prescribers. This perspective review considered previous systematic reviews that addressed this issue, together with recently published research findings from the Tayside Stroke Cohort. Systematic reviews of experimental and observational studies have concluded that there is a marked lack of data on which to judge the safety of oral anticoagulant agents following intracerebral haemorrhage. In addition, the limited data available regarding the use of antiplatelet medicines following intracerebral haemorrhage provide no evidence that they are harmful, and again further data are required. In the absence of such data, a decision analysis approach has been proposed. This considers the findings of other studies to infer the likely impact of using antithrombotic agents in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. The success of this approach is contingent on the availability of reliable data that describe the rate of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage; however, published data on this varies widely. There are a number of factors that conspire against researchers addressing this issue. The current paucity of evidence to guide prescribers faced with this therapeutic dilemma seems likely to remain for some time. PMID:25083213

Doney, Alexander

2011-01-01

61

Antithrombotic medicines following intracerebral haemorrhage: where's the evidence?  

PubMed

The use of antithrombotic medicines in patients who have a history of intracerebral haemorrhage is widely perceived as being contraindicated. However, many patients with intracerebral haemorrhage may suffer from conditions for which antithrombotic medicines are indicated. Such scenarios represent a therapeutic dilemma whereby treating infers an increased risk of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage, but not treating infers an increase of thrombotic complications. Despite the importance of this dilemma, there is very little guidance for prescribers. This perspective review considered previous systematic reviews that addressed this issue, together with recently published research findings from the Tayside Stroke Cohort. Systematic reviews of experimental and observational studies have concluded that there is a marked lack of data on which to judge the safety of oral anticoagulant agents following intracerebral haemorrhage. In addition, the limited data available regarding the use of antiplatelet medicines following intracerebral haemorrhage provide no evidence that they are harmful, and again further data are required. In the absence of such data, a decision analysis approach has been proposed. This considers the findings of other studies to infer the likely impact of using antithrombotic agents in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. The success of this approach is contingent on the availability of reliable data that describe the rate of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage; however, published data on this varies widely. There are a number of factors that conspire against researchers addressing this issue. The current paucity of evidence to guide prescribers faced with this therapeutic dilemma seems likely to remain for some time. PMID:25083213

Flynn, Robert; Doney, Alexander

2011-10-01

62

Neuroprotection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in aneurysm ablation and the initial management of patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed cerebral ischemia remains a significant source of morbidity. Traditionally, delayed cerebral ischemia was felt to be a result of vasospasm of the proximal intracranial vessels, and clinical trials have relied largely on radiographic evidence of vasospasm as a surrogate for functional outcome. However, a number of trials have demonstrated a dissociation between angiographic vasospasm and outcome, and more recent data suggests that other mechanisms of injury, such as microvascular dysfunction and complex neuronal-glial interactions may influence the development of delayed ischemic deficit following aSAH. Our evolving understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischemia may offer the opportunity to test new therapeutic strategies in this area and improve clinical trial design. PMID:20876512

Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Kolls, Brad J.

2010-01-01

63

Viral haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a range of viral infections with potential to cause life-threatening illness in humans. Apart from Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), they are largely confined to Africa, distribution being dependent on the ecology of reservoir hosts. At present, the largest ever epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD or Ebola) is occurring in West Africa, raising the possibility that cases could be imported into non-endemic countries. Diagnosis and management is challenging due to the non-specificity of early symptoms, limited laboratory facilities in endemic areas, severity of disease, lack of effective therapy, strict infection control requirements and propensity to cause epidemics with secondary cases in healthcare workers. PMID:25650201

Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe Nic; Aarons, Emma

2015-02-01

64

Subarachnoid-subarachnoid bypass for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) and arachnoid cyst successfully treated by subarachnoid to subarachnoid bypass (S-S bypass). Arachnoid cysts or syringes sometimes compress the spinal cord and cause compressive myelopathy that requires surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment for AA is challenging. A 57-year-old woman developed leg pain and gait disturbance. A dorsal arachnoid cyst compressed the spinal cord at T7-9, the spinal cord was swollen, and a small syrinx was present at T9-10. An S-S bypass was performed from T6-7 to T11-12. The patient's gait disturbance resolved immediately after surgery. Two years later, a small arachnoid cyst developed. However, there was no neurological deterioration. The myelopathy associated with thoracic spinal AA, subarachnoid cyst, and syrinx improved after S-S bypass. PMID:25170651

Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

2014-11-01

65

Familial perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is characterized by an accumulation of a limited amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage, predominantly around the midbrain, and a lack of blood in the brain parenchyma or ventricular system. It represents 5% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In spite of extensive investigation, understanding of the mechanisms leading to perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains incompletely defined. A growing body of evidence has supported a familial predisposition for non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset headache associated with diplopia. His computed tomography scan revealed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram showed no apparent source of bleeding. He was treated conservatively and discharged after 1 week without any neurological deficits. The older brother of the first case, a 44-year-old Caucasian man, presented 1.5 years later with acute onset of headache and his computed tomography scan also showed perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was discharged home with normal neurological examination 1 week later. Follow-up angiograms did not reveal any source of bleeding in either patient. Conclusions We report the cases of two siblings with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may further suggest a familial predisposition of non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and may also point out the possible higher risk of perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first-degree relatives of patients with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25416614

2014-01-01

66

Haemorrhagic Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst with Ligamentum Flavum Involvement  

PubMed Central

Juxtafacet cysts are an uncommon cause of radiculopathy. They occur most frequently in the lumbar region, and their distribution across the spine correlates with mobility. Haemorrhagic complications are rare and may occur in the absence of any provocation, although there is some association with anticoagulation and trauma. We present a case of acute radiculopathy due to an L5/S1 juxtafacet cyst with unprovoked haemorrhage which was found to extend into ligamentum flavum. The patient underwent uncomplicated microscope assisted decompression with excellent results. The demographics, presentation, aetiology, and management of juxtafacet cysts are discussed.

Ghent, Finn; Davidson, Trent; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

2014-01-01

67

Haemorrhagic disease in newborn and older infants: a study in hospitalized children in Kelantan, Malaysia.  

PubMed

This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of haemorrhagic disease in 42 Kelantanese infants who were admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia during a 2-year period (1987-1988). Classical haemorrhagic disease of the newborn was the commonest presentation (48%), followed by early onset (29%) and late onset (24%) disease. Home deliveries accounted for 81% of the affected infants. Most of these babies were not given vitamin K at birth in contrast to those delivered in hospitals. All except one infant were breastfed. The six commonest presenting clinical features were pallor, jaundice, umbilical cord bleeding, tense fontanelle, convulsions and hepatomegaly. All the infants had prolonged prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times which were corrected by administration of vitamin K. Subdural haemorrhage was the commonest form of intracranial haemorrhage, followed by subarachnoid haemorrhage. The overall case fatality rate was 14%. The results of this study once again emphasize the value of vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn. PMID:7825997

Choo, K E; Tan, K K; Chuah, S P; Ariffin, W A; Gururaj, A

1994-01-01

68

Haemorrhagic Enteropathies in Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir, — I would like to draw your readers’ attention to the occurrence of post-stress haemorrhagic enteropathies in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Haemorrhagic enteropathy has been observed in approximately 75 percent of red deer necropsied at the Invermay Animal Health Laboratory and has also been seen in wapiti (Cervus canadensis). Deer dying with post-stress haemorrhagic enteropathy commonly have splash haemorrhages

H. J. F. McAllum

1982-01-01

69

Massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).  

PubMed

A 76-year-old male suffering from nephrolithiasis developed a shock syndrome 5 days after extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). CT scan of the abdomen showed massive haemorrhage around the right kidney. Although nephrectomy was performed immediately, the haemorrhage could not be controlled. Numerous units of erythrocytes were transfused, but the patient died. The autopsy revealed massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage around the right kidney. The kidney showed a subcapsular haematoma and a rupture of the capsule. The right renal artery was dissected. The inferior vena cava was lacerated. Accordingly, a hemorrhagic shock as the cause of death was determined, which might mainly have resulted from the laceration of the inferior vena cava due to ESWL. ESWL seems to be a relatively non-invasive modality, but one of its severe complications is perirenal hematoma. The injuries of the blood vessels might have been caused by excessive shock waves. Subsequently, anticoagulation therapy had been resumed 3 days after EWSL, which might have triggered the haemorrhage. Physicians should note that a haemorrhage after an ESWL can occur and they should pay attention to the postoperative management in aged individuals especially when they are under anticoagulation therapy. PMID:20623295

Inoue, Hiromasa; Kamphausen, Thomas; Bajanowski, Thomas; Trübner, Kurt

2011-01-01

70

A complicated case of renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

We present a boy with bilateral renal artery stenosis who presented with severe hypertension and haemorrhagic stroke. The diagnostic workup along with a complication of eventual surgical intervention are demonstrated. PMID:22368652

Chetcuti-Ganado, C; Samuel, A; Grech, V

2005-07-01

71

Pathophysiology of haemorrhagic shock.  

PubMed

The immediate effect of sudden blood loss is the activation of a variety of homeostatic responses. These include increased sympathetic activity and increased release or production of renin, angiotensin, anti-diuretic hormone, aldosterone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, beta-endorphins, glucocorticoids, glucagon, erythropoeitin, 2-3 diphosphoglycerate, prostaglandins and complement. This may be followed by the release of many substances, some initially appropriate locally, and some the products of damaged cells, which may go on to cause both local and systemic damage. These include lysosomal enzymes, kinins, histamines, serotonin, lactic acid, free oxygen radicals, neutrophil proteases, fibrinogen degradation products, endotoxins, myocardial depressant polypeptides, and passive transferable lethal factor. The early and late effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and on the blood, brain, kidneys, gut, liver, pancreas, and on overall metabolism and cellular function, are considered in turn. Although an enormous research effort has increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of haemorrhagic shock, no special measures have yet been shown to influence morbidity or mortality in man. Management still hinges on the early recognition and treatment of bleeding, on general supportive measures, and on safeguarding each link in the oxygen delivery chain. PMID:6517266

Runciman, W B; Skowronski, G A

1984-08-01

72

[Oedema and haemorrhagic diathesis in a 50-year-old woman with thyrotoxicosis].  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with tachyarrhythmia, mild fever, peripheral oedema, ascites, epistaxis and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Blood analysis revealed hyperthyroxinaemia. Analysis of thyroid-stimulating antibodies highlighted Graves' disease being the cause of the prevailing thyrotoxic crisis. Remarkable in this case of thyrotoxicosis is a liver affection without elevated transaminases but disturbed serum protein synthesis leading to hypalbuminaemic oedema and haemorrhagic complications. Thyrostatic treatment led to clinical response. PMID:25056734

Kozlov, A; Joeres, R; Braun, U

2014-11-01

73

Good functional recovery following intervention for delayed suprachoroidal haemorrhage post bleb needling: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bleb needling is a recognised procedure in the management of patients with failing trabeculectomies. Suprachoroidal haemorrhage can occur as an unusual complication. We report a pseudophakic man who had early surgical intervention for this complication. This intervention may have contributed to the good recovery of his visual acuity and the minimum changes to his visual fields. Case presentation A 79-year-old pseudophakic man with chronic open angle glaucoma presented with further deterioration of his right visual field despite maximum medical therapy and a previous trabeculectomy. The right visual acuity was 6/9 with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 16 mmHg. Bleb needling with 5-fluouracil was performed in a standard manner. His postoperative IOP was 6 mmHg. Thirty-six hours later the visual acuity was reduced to hand movements and two large choroidal detachments where observed clinically, which progressed to suprachoroidal haemorrhages. Five days after the initial needling, the patient had complex surgery involving anterior chamber reformation, a bleb compression suture and drainage of the haemorrhagic suprachoroidal detachments. Subsequently, the patient had a right vitrectomy with endolaser following a vitreous haemorrhage. The final visual acuity was 6/9 with an intraocular pressure of 8 mmHg on travoprost and brinzolamide. The final visual field showed little change when compared with the pre-suprachoroidal haemorrhage visual field. Conclusion It is important to consider the possibility of delayed suprachoroidal haemorrhage as a complication in bleb needling, and early surgical intervention may be beneficial. PMID:18339199

Cannon, Paul S; Spencer, A Fiona; Lavin, Michael

2008-01-01

74

Rehabilitation following intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).  

PubMed

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was first used in adults with severe respiratory failure in the 1970s. Its use has been steadily increasing since the 1990s after a trial demonstrated improved survival. There are currently seven centres in the UK offering ECMO to adults. Neurological complications are often picked up within the first few days of initiating ECMO. Intracerebral haemorrhage is a well recognised complication and it is the leading cause of death in infants on ECMO and rates of 9-18.9% in adults have been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman admitted in severe type 1 respiratory failure in January 2012. She was transferred to a tertiary centre and suffered bitemporal and right parietal haemorrhages on ECMO in late February. She was repatriated to our unit for rehabilitation in April 2012. Her rehabilitation needs represent the complexity of this patient group with multiple medical, behavioural and physical challenges. PMID:23709548

Kilsby, Amanda; Buddha, Sandeep

2013-01-01

75

Moyamoya disease with repeated intracranial haemorrhage in two consecutive pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 26-year-old woman presented with an intraventricular haemorrhage during the 27th week of gestation in July 1996, and recovered without general or neurological complications after external ventricular drainage. The fetus was delivered spontaneously through the vagina at the 30th week of gestation, but eventually died. Cerebral angiography demonstrated typical appearances of moyamoya disease with occlusion of the supraclinoid portion of

Tae-Sun Kim; Je-Hyuk Lee; In-Young Kim; Jung-Kil Lee; Shin Jung; Jae-Hyoo Kim; Soo-Han Kim; Sam-Suk Kang

2004-01-01

76

Spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case of spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage, in a 28-year-old woman at 36 weeks of a twin pregnancy. Initial symptom was sudden onset chest pain which soon migrated to abdomen, accompanied by hypovolaemic shock and fetal bradycardia. Subsequent caesarean section for suspected placental abruption and resuscitation with nine units of blood, 10 of cryoprecipitate, four of fresh frozen plasma and two of platelets, in order to treat anaemia of Hgb of 3.6 g/dl and disseminated intravascular coagulation, failed to stabilise the woman. A CT scan of abdomen and pelvis then revealed a 15×17×17 cm retroperitoneal haematoma, secondary to right adrenal haemorrhage. Management was with laparotomy drainage and packing of the retroperitoneal haematoma along with the use of activated factor VII. Adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy is an extremely rare, acute, life-threatening condition, presenting with non-specific symptoms. PMID:22679231

A, Anagnostopoulos; S, Sharma

2011-01-01

77

Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura.

Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.

1985-11-01

78

The emergency control of traumatic maxillofacial haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Maxillofacial trauma is common and may lead to haemorrhage that is associated with actual or impending airway compromise. This study briefly discusses the aetiology of midfacial haemorrhage and describes a simple effective technique of midface splintage for haemorrhage control, which may be applied in the prehospital and emergency environments. This technique has been used successfully by the London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. PMID:20603900

Harris, Tim; Rice, Scott; Watts, Beverley; Davies, Gareth

2010-08-01

79

Anemia and transfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be affected by a number of factors, including cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anemia affects about half of patients with SAH and is associated with worse outcome. Anemia also may contribute to the development of or exacerbate delayed cerebral ischemia. This review was designed to examine the prevalence and impact of anemia in patients with SAH and to evaluate the effects of transfusion. A literature search was made to identify original research on anemia and transfusion in SAH patients. A total of 27 articles were identified that addressed the effects of red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) on brain physiology, anemia in SAH, and clinical management with RBCT or erythropoietin. Most studies provided retrospectively analyzed data of very low-quality according to the GRADE criteria. While RBCT can have beneficial effects on brain physiology, RBCT may be associated with medical complications, infection, vasospasm, and poor outcome after SAH. The effects may vary with disease severity or the presence of vasospasm, but it remains unclear whether RBCTs are a marker of disease severity or a cause of worse outcome. Erythropoietin data are limited. The literature review further suggests that the results of the Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Trial and subsequent observational studies on RBCT in general critical care do not apply to SAH patients and that randomized trials to address the role of RBCT in SAH are required. PMID:21769459

Le Roux, Peter D

2011-09-01

80

[Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Prevent Post-tonsillectomy Haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Prevent Post-tonsillectomy Haemorrhage Background: Haemorrhage after tonsillectomy (TE) is a frequent and possibly major complication. The aim of the present study was to examine, if the rate of haemorrhage after tonsillectomy could be reduced by the topical application of Tranexamic acid (TXA) postoperatively. Material and Methods: Between November 2011 and April 2013, all patients (n=246) received TXA postoperatively to prevent haemorrhage after TE. The patients were instructed to dilute 1 ampulla of TXA in 300?ml of tap water (concentration 0.2%) from postoperative day 5-10 and to gargle or spray the tonsillar fossae 5-6 times daily. The study group was compared retrospectively with a control group of patients undergoing TE with-out postoperative application of TXA from December 2010 to November 2011 (n=248). Results: The overall rate of postoperative haemorrhage was 19% and 22% in the study and control group, respectively. The rate of postoperative bleeding that needed surgical intervention was at 8.9% and 11.3% in the study and control group, respectively. Topical application of TXA did not significantly reduce the rate of postoperative haemorrhage after TE. Conclusion: Topically applied TXA did not reduce postoperative haemorrhage after TE. However, a slight tendency to less bleeding which needed surgical intervention was found in pa-tients older than ??12 years. PMID:24967824

Hinder, D; Tschopp, K

2014-06-26

81

MANAGEMENT OF POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE AIM  

E-print Network

The consideration of early interventional radiology in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. BACKGROUND 1 Postpartum haemorrhage remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Confidential enquiries and near miss reports indicate that large numbers of women suffer severe morbidity requiring blood transfusions, hysterectomy and intensive care facilities because of excessive blood loss. This may be predictable where there is known placenta accreta or placenta praevia. However, the majority of postpartum haemorrhage is unpredictable. TECHNIQUE The procedure is performed by an interventional radiologist in an angiography suite. The common femoral artery is punctured and a guide wire is advanced, followed by a catheter into the distal aorta. Pelvic angiograms and selective bilateral internal iliac angiograms identify the internal iliac of interest. Catheterisation of the internal iliac with digital “road mapping ” to subselect the bleeding vessel is performed and this vessel is then occluded by gelfoam pledgets, coils or rings. The contralateral internal iliac is then catheterised. Vascular occlusion is confirmed by repeat angiography. Initial catheterisation of the anterior branch of the internal iliacs can be done with occluding balloon catheters prior to planned surgery and eventual embolotherapy in order to reduce blood loss and control postpartum haemorrhage.

Postpartum Haemorrhage; King Edward; Memorial Hospital

2006-01-01

82

Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A World Health Organization page devoted to the control of dengue. Many excellent informative PDF files are available from this page dealing with vector control, as well as recognition of symptoms, and treatment of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Estimated numbers of at risk people are staggering. A powerful resource for teaching the importance of vector borne diseases.

0000-00-00

83

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze.

Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

2015-01-01

84

Critical care of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: state of the art.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured aneurysm is a very complex disease. The brain can be injured from the immediate effects of the acute bleeding, but can also be threatened by secondary insults hours and days later. Early and delayed systemic complications are common and can be very serious. This brief paper summarizes key practical concepts regarding the neurocritical care of patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH). It proposes as a framework the division of the time course of the disease into a first phase (from aneurysm rupture to aneurysm treatment) of resuscitation and stabilization and a second phase (from aneurysm treatment to the end of the acute hospitalization) of prevention and treatment of secondary insults. The main mechanisms of cerebral injury and the principal systemic complications are discussed and diagnostic and therapeutic advice is provided based on a combination of available evidence and clinical experience. PMID:25366630

Rabinstein, Alejandro A

2015-01-01

85

[Acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy.  

PubMed

This is a case report of acute haemorrhagic oedema of infancy. An 11-month-old boy with a prolonged relapsing course within three weeks with fever and an increase in CRP necessitating antibiotic treatment. This disease is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis sharing features with Schönlein-Henoch purpura, but with a more benign self-limiting course with minimal risk of organ involvement. The characteristic distribution and appearance of the cutaneous symptoms often allows a clinical diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25294333

Knakkergaard, Anna; Thelle, Thomas

2014-09-22

86

Anaesthesia in a patient with subarachanoidal haemorrhage and high oxygen affinity haemoglobinopathy (HB york): case report  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 90 haemoglobinopathies have been identified that result in abnormally high oxygen affinity. One of these is haemoglobinopathy York (HbY), first described in 1976. HbY causes an extreme leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve with the P50 value changing to 12.5 - 15.5 mmHg (normal value 26.7 mmHg), indicating that approximately half of the haemoglobin is not available as oxygen carrier. Patients with haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity could suffer from the risk developing ischaemic complications due to a lack of functional oxygen carriers. This is, to best of our knowledge, the first case report on a patient with HbY published in connection with anesthesia. Case Presentation A 42-year-old female with a severe headache and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 15 was admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit with a ruptured, right sided ICA aneurysm with consecutive subarachnoid haemorrhage [Fisher III, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) I)]. The medical history of the patient included an erythrocytosis (Hb 17.5?g/dl) on the base of a high-oxygen-affinity haemoglobinopathy, called Hb York (HbY). With no time available to take special preoperative precautions, rapid blood loss occurred during the first attempt to clip the aneurysm. General transfusion procedures, according to the guidelines based on haemoglobin and haematocrit values, could not be applied due to the uncertainty in the oxygen carrier reduction. To maintain tissue oxygen supply, clinical indicators of ischaemia were instead utilized to gauge the appropriate required blood products, crystalloids and colloids replacements. Despite this, the patient survived the neurosurgical intervention without any neurological deficit. Conclusions Family members of patients with HbY (and other haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity) should undergo clinical assessment, particularly if they are polycythaemic. If the diagnosis of HbY is confirmed, they should carry an "emergency anaesthesiology card" in order to avert perioperative risks arising from their "hidden" anemia. PMID:22870883

2012-01-01

87

Delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage following failed odontoid screw fixation.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic vascular injury is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spine instrumentation. The authors report on a patient who developed an anterior spinal artery pseudoaneurysm associated with delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage after undergoing odontoid screw placement 14 months earlier. This 86-year-old man presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (Fisher Grade 4) and full motor strength on neurological examination. Imaging demonstrated pseudarthrosis of the odontoid process, extension of the odontoid screw beyond the posterior cortex of the dens, and a pseudoaneurysm arising from an adjacent branch of the anterior spinal artery. Due to the aneurysm's location and lack of active extravasation, endovascular treatment was not attempted. Posterior C1-2 fusion was performed to treat radiographic and clinical instability of the C1-2 joint. Postoperatively, the patient's motor function remained intact. Almost all cases of vascular injury related to cervical spine instrumentation are recognized at surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of delayed vascular injury following an uncomplicated cervical fixation. This case further suggests that the risk of this phenomenon may be elevated in cases of failed fusion. PMID:21395399

Wilson, David A; Fusco, David J; Theodore, Nicholas

2011-06-01

88

Aneurysm Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... describes too much fluid building up within the spaces inside the brain (also known as ventricles). This ... of CSF within the ventricular system or subarachnoid space (noncommunicating hydrocephalus) either due to intraventricular mass lesions ...

89

'Pseudocirrhosis' in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.  

PubMed Central

Telangiectasia-associated hepatic fibrosis (TAHF) in a 68-year-old woman with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is described. The patient died of oat-cell carcinoma of the lung. In addition to the structural alterations which have been described previously in HHT, the liver exhibited focal midlobular hepatocytic necrosis and tumour metastases. The possibility that treatment of HHT was causally related to some of the hepatic abnormalities found in our patient and the differentiation of TAHF from true cirrhosis are discussed. Images PMID:203609

Cooney, T; Sweeney, E C; Coll, R; Greally, M

1977-01-01

90

Haemorrhage associated with silastic dural substitute.  

PubMed Central

Three cases of haemorrhage after the use of a silastic dural substitute are presented. In all cases the implant was removed and further haemorrhage has not occurred. Published work is reviewed and the implications for the continued use of silastic are discussed. Images PMID:8201348

Thompson, D; Taylor, W; Hayward, R

1994-01-01

91

Factors influencing haemorrhagic transformation in ischaemic stroke.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic transformation (HT) of ischaemic infarction occurs when an area of brain infarction is stained with blood products, mainly red blood cells. An abnormally permeable blood-brain barrier resulting from ischaemia of the capillary endothelium allows this extravasation of blood products. HT is part of the natural history of some forms of ischaemic infarction, especially cerebral embolism, but it can be precipitated or enhanced by therapeutic interventions used in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. The old view of HT after cerebral embolism as a generally asymptomatic change in a tissue that is already necrotic has been challenged by observations from therapeutic thrombolysis that suggest that HT can have a negative effect on patients' outcomes. Understanding of the risk factors for and the underlying mechanisms and clinical variability of HT in the context of acute therapeutic interventions in ischaemic stroke could help in the early detection of this complication, in determining the safety of recanalisation approaches, and in setting the stage for future research into the prevention or treatment of HT in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. PMID:23726850

Álvarez-Sabín, José; Maisterra, Olga; Santamarina, Estevo; Kase, Carlos S

2013-07-01

92

A mycotic forearm pseudoaneurym as an unusual complication of infective endocarditis.  

PubMed

Introduction: Mycotic pseudoaneurysms are an infrequent complication of infective endocarditis; most cases are secondary to arterial trauma. The commonest site involved are the intracranial arteries, followed by the abdominal aorta and then the peripheral vessels. Case presentation: We report a case of a 36-year-old man, admitted in our institution for a subarachnoid haemorrhage, who presented with fever of unknown origin during his stay in the neurocritical care unit and whom was diagnosed infective endocarditis due to Meticilin Sensible Staphylococcus Aureus. Almost two weeks after antibiotic therapy was instituted, he presented a large, growing, pulsatile mass of the left forearm. A giant pseudoaneurysm arising from the radial artery was detected with ultrasound and surgical intervention was carried out. A large laceration of the radial artery was detected and an interposition of a vein graft was performed. Discussion: Forearm mycotic pseudoaneurysms are rare. A high index of suspicion is needed and they should always be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of an extremity pain, swelling or motor-sensorial deficit after infective endocarditis. PMID:25177745

Rodrigues, Gonçalo M; Amaral, Carlos Oliveira; Valentim, Hugo Dias; Quintas, Anita; Ferreira, Maria Emília; Castro, João Albuquerque; Capitão, Luís Mota

2013-01-01

93

Fahr's Disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Fahr's disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22754741

Al-Jehani, Hosam; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Sinclair, David

2012-01-01

94

Fahr's Disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Fahr's disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22754741

Al-Jehani, Hosam; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Sinclair, David

2012-01-01

95

Haemostatic management of obstetric haemorrhage.  

PubMed

The haemostatic management of major obstetric haemorrhage remains challenging, and current published guidance relies heavily on experience from the non-pregnant population and expert opinion. In recent years, an interest in the implications of relative hypofibrinogenaemia, point-of-care monitoring of coagulation abnormalities, and the potential to give goal-directed therapy to correct coagulopathies, have created the possibility of significantly challenging and changing guidance. There is evidence that the haemostatic impairment in the pregnant population is different from trauma-induced bleeding, and the type and rate of onset of coagulopathies differ depending on the underlying cause. This review examines areas such as possible intervention points, describes evidence for over-transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in some situations and challenges conventional thinking on formulaic management. It also examines the rationale for other therapeutic options, including fibrinogen concentrate and tranexamic acid. PMID:25440400

Collis, R E; Collins, P W

2015-01-01

96

Pulmonary hypertension in a patient with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia  

PubMed Central

A young male patient reported for evaluation of progressive easy fatigability, accompanied by a recent history of recurrent haemoptysis. His clinical examination was unremarkable except for evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Routine investigations (haemogram, coagulogram, serological tests for connective tissue disorders and a sputum Ziehl Neelsen stain for acid-fast bacilli) were normal. Two-dimensional echocardiography suggested PAH (pulmonary artery systolic pressure—67?mm?Hg), whereas the 64-slice spiral CT pulmonary angiogram showed a dilated main pulmonary artery along with bilateral arteriovenous malformations. Cardiac catheterisation performed subsequently confirmed the presence of PAH. On the basis of the above findings, a diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) complicated with PAH was made, and the patient was started on oral sildenafil therapy to which he responded well. This rare complication of HHT, which requires a high degree of suspicion for diagnosis, is discussed. PMID:23378554

Chadha, Davinder; Handa, Ajay; Kumar, Abhishek

2013-01-01

97

Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Fresh intrapulmonary and oronasal haemorrhages in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might be markers for accidental or intentional smothering inappropriately diagnosed as SIDS.?AIM—To compare the incidence, epidemiological association, and inter-relation of nasal haemorrhage, intrapulmonary haemorrhage, and intrathoracic petechiae in infant deaths certified as SIDS.?METHODS—In SIDS cases from a large nationwide case-control study, a wide range of variables were compared in cases with and without reported nasal haemorrhage and, in a subgroup of cases, in those with and without pathologically significant intrapulmonary haemorrhage.?RESULTS—Nasal haemorrhage was reported in 60 of 385 cases (15%) whose parents were interviewed. Pathologically significant intra-alveolar pulmonary haemorrhage was found in 47% of 115 cases studied, but was severe in only 7%. Infants with nasal haemorrhage had more haemorrhage into alveoli and air passages than age matched cases without nasal haemorrhage. In multivariate analysis, nasal haemorrhage was associated with younger infant age, bed sharing, and the infant being placed non-prone to sleep. Intrapulmonary haemorrhage was associated with the same three factors in univariate analysis, but in multivariate analysis only younger infant age remained statistically significant. There was no significant association between nasal or intra-alveolar haemorrhages and intrathoracic petechiae.?CONCLUSIONS—Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhages have common associations not shared with intrathoracic petechiae. Smothering is a possible common factor, although is unlikely to be the cause in most cases presenting as SIDS.?? PMID:11466185

Becroft, D; Thompson, J; Mitchell, E

2001-01-01

98

Complicated pneumothorax and congenital lung cystic malformation.  

PubMed

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, also named congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), is a congenital lung abnormality which is uncommon in adults. The usual radiological appearance of CPAM is a cystic space-occupying lesion. We present one case of CPAM with unusual clinical and radiological findings, a complicated spontaneous pneumothorax with intracystic haemorrhage with successful conservative initial treatment, despite acute haemodynamic instability. PMID:24694267

Attou, Rachid; Reper, Pascal

2014-04-01

99

Post-operative bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is a rare, but serious, illness carrying an estimated 15% mortality.1,2 The majority of cases occur in patients with acute, stressful illness, however the exact mechanism underlying adrenal haemorrhage remains unclear. This medical emergency carries significant diagnostic difficulty4 with non-specific clinical symptoms and variations in electrolyte abnormalities. Timely treatment is important as it prevents both the acute and long-term sequelae of adrenal failure. PRESENTATION OF CASE This report describes a medical emergency in a surgical patient following emergency surgery for intra-abdominal sepsis. The patient reported non-specific symptoms of confusion, mild pyrexia and vague abdominal pain during the post-operative phase, with subtle electrolyte abnormalities and a low serum cortisol suggestive of adrenal crisis. Timely medical treatment, with intravenous hydrocortisone and intensive monitoring, and appropriate medical follow-up with addition of long-term fludrocortisone resulted in a satisfactory outcome. DISCUSSION This report describes a potentially life-threatening complication of intra-abdominal sepsis with adrenal crisis secondary to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. In particular, this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty in such surgical patients due to vague symptoms and, in this case, the presence of a presentation variant with acute hyponatraemia and normal potassium. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of awareness of both the symptoms and signs and variation in electrolyte profile when assessing surgical patients post-operatively. In addition, this case highlights the benefit of early recognition and initiation of treatment and the importance of follow-up as long-term medical management is often required to prevent further relapse. PMID:25437659

McNicol, R.E.; Bradley, A.; Griffin, J.; Duncan, G.; Eriksen, C.A.; Guthrie, G.J.K.

2014-01-01

100

Maternal and neonatal complications of macrosomia.  

PubMed

This case control study, aimed at identifying complications of macrosomia, was conducted in two major hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon over a 6-month period from 1 October 2012. Maternity records were compared of births weighing ?4000?g with those weighing between 3000?g and 3500?g. The main outcome variables were mode of delivery, low genital lacerations, Apgar score, birth injuries, postpartum haemorrhage and early neonatal death. Data were analysed using SPSS 18.0. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and t-test were used for comparison. P?complications observed were poor uterine contractions during labour, second-degree perineal tears, Caesarean section, instrumental delivery and postpartum haemorrhage. Neonatal complications were birth injuries, poor 5-minute Apgar score and early neonatal death. In our setting, macrosomia is associated with increased maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:24958734

Nkwabong, Elie

2014-10-01

101

Recombinant activated factor VII in post partum haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal death. Any bleeding that results in or could result in haemodynamic instability, if untreated, must be considered as PPH. There is no controversy about the need for prevention and treatment of PPH. The keystone of management of PPH entails first, non-invasive and nonsurgical methods and then invasive and surgical methods. However, mortality remains high. Therefore, new advancements in the treatment are most crucial. One such advancement has been the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in PPH. First used 12 years back in PPH, this universal haemostatic agent has been effectively used in controlling PPH. The best available indicator of rFVIIa efficacy is the arrest of haemorrhage, which is judged by visual evidence and haemodynamic stabilization. It also reduces costs of therapy and the use of blood components in massive PPH. In cases of intractable PPH with no other obvious indications for hysterectomy, administration of rFVIIa should be considered before surgery. We share our experience in a series of cases of PPH, successfully managed using rFVIIa. PMID:24403703

Magon, Navneet; Babu, K M; Kapur, Krishan; Chopra, Sanjiv; Joneja, Gurdarshan Singh

2013-09-01

102

Relation between portal pressure response to pharmacotherapy and risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn patients with variceal bleeding as a complication of hepatic cirrhosis, propranolol therapy reduces the risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage. However, the relation between portal pressure response to pharmacological treatment and clinical events has not been well defined. This relation was prospectively investigated in 69 cirrhotic patients receiving continued propranolol therapy after an episode of variceal bleeding. Hepatic venous pressure

F Feu; J. C García-Pagán; J Bosch; A Luca; A Escorsell; J Rodés; J Terés

1995-01-01

103

Airway emergency from spontaneous haemorrhagic thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

Spontaneous thyroid haemorrhages are rare. There are reported cases occurring in thyroid nodules and cysts but none in thyroid malignancies. We describe a 48 year old who presented to the on-call ENT team with a rapidly progressing neck swelling that was interfering with his airway. After resuscitation, the patient underwent a right lobectomy to stop the bleeding. Histology showed a thyroid follicular carcinoma. As per the regional multidisciplinary team discussion, he underwent a completion thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine treatment. We conclude that spontaneous haemorrhages of the thyroid gland can occur in malignancies and stress the importance of early histological diagnosis. PMID:25500848

Vijendren, A; Ladha, N; Hilger, A W

2014-08-01

104

Cauda equina syndrome resulting from lumbar arachnoiditis after intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.  

PubMed

Spinal arachnoiditis is a known but very rare late complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Since 1943, 17 cases of spinal arachnoiditis after intracranial hemorrhage have been reported internationally. The vast majority of these cases were related to aneurysmal SAH. All previously published cases have involved spinal arachnoiditis at the cervical and thoracic levels. In this report, we present an adult woman with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome as a result of posterior circulation aneurysmal SAH. We believe this is the first reported case of this specific condition causing cauda equina syndrome. PMID:23790823

Whetstone, Kirk E; Crane, Deborah A

2013-06-01

105

[Tracheotomy complications in resuscitation patients].  

PubMed

Many statistics on what concerned the tracheotomy complications are old, dating from 1960-1970, and discouraging to practise this kind of gesture. Moreover, it is unfeasible to objectively evaluate this technique from these huge sets where it is often difficult to separate the dramatic complications (massive haemorrhage, suffocating pneumothorax,...) and those more benign. The authors analyze through a retrospective study of 32 tracheotomised patients, the index of these complications in distinguishing those of the early stage and the late stage can occur even after decannulation. In the acute phase, haemorrhages 9.3 p 100) per inadequate haematosis, the pneumothorax (3.1 p 100) and the infection of the stoma (12.5 p 100) are the most frequent. The opening tracheotomy infection can support pulmonary infections (28.1 p 100) which cause serious problems at tracheotomised. After decannulation, the principal complication is the tracheobronchial stenosis (3.1 p 100). Its diagnosis is difficult and should be done by systematic endoscopic control of the trachea and radiological explorations at the time of the decannulation. The authors insist on the use of proper equipments, protocols of rigorous care and strict post-operative monitoring. PMID:19666382

Qamouss, Y; Filali, K; Seddiki, M; Boughalem, M; Chafik, A; Touati, A; Ammar, H; Benariba, F

2009-01-01

106

Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

2015-01-01

107

Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

2015-01-01

108

Application of lumbar drainage in vasospasm after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and prevention of late cerebral infarction.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm, especially delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most important complication that effects mortality and morbidity of patients with intracranial aneurysms. The presence of cerebral vasospasm has been correlated with an increase in mortality in the first 2 weeks after SAH. Despite clinical studies and research, the etiopathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm is not understood exactly and there is not yet an effective therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of application of lumber drainage on vasospasm and delayed cerebral infarction following SAH and to examine the incidence of complications. Patient groups were determined by retrospective screening of 70 patients who underwent a surgical operation at the Osmangazi University Medical Faculty Department of Neurosurgery between 2009 and 2013 after a diagnosis of ruptured aneurysmal SAH. After the application of lumbar drainage, the complications and mortality after aneurysm surgery was significantly decreased and correlated with the amount of hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid drainage. PMID:25366633

Aydin, Hasan Emre; Ozbek, Zühtü; Aydin, Nevin; Bolluk, Ozge; Vural, Murat; Arslantas, Ali; Atasoy, Metin Ant

2015-01-01

109

Basilar Artery Perforation as a Complication of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morbidity and mortality associated with third ventriculostomy has decreased significantly over the past 75 years since its introduction by Walter Dandy. Now more commonly performed using an endoscopic method, the significant morbidity of third ventriculostomy has dropped to approximately 5%; essentially that associated with ventriculoscopy in general. However, the possible complication of massive subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from perforation of

Keyvan Abtin; B. Gregory Thompson; Marion L. Walker

1998-01-01

110

Inflammation, Vasospasm, and Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes, and there are few pharmacologic treatments available for treating this condition. Both animal and human studies provide evidence of inflammation being a driving force behind the pathology of SAH, leading to both direct brain injury and vasospasm, which in turn leads to ischemic brain injury. Several inflammatory mediators that are elevated after SAH have been studied in detail. While there is promising data indicating that blocking these factors might benefit patients after SAH, there has been little success in clinical trials. One of the key factors that complicates clinical trials of SAH is the variability of the initial injury and subsequent inflammatory response. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the variability of patients' post-SAH inflammatory response and that this confounds trials of anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, systemic inflammation from other conditions that affect patients with SAH could contribute to brain injury and vasospasm after SAH. Continuing work on biomarkers of inflammation after SAH may lead to development of patient-specific anti-inflammatory therapies to improve outcome after SAH. PMID:25105123

Miller, Brandon A.

2014-01-01

111

Effect of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Word Generation  

PubMed Central

Background. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors commonly exhibit impairment on phonemic and semantic fluency tests; however, it is unclear which of the contributing cognitive processes are compromised in aSAH patients. One method of disentangling these processes is to compare initial word production, which is a rapid, semiautomatic, frontal-executive process, and late phase word production, which is dependent on more effortful retrieval and lexical size and requires a more distributed neural network. Methods. Seventy-two individuals with aSAH and twenty-five control subjects were tested on a cognitive battery including the phonemic and semantic fluency task. Demographic and clinical information was also collected. Results. Compared to control subjects, patients with aSAH were treated by clipping and those with multiple aneurysms were impaired across the duration of the phonemic test. Among patients treated by coiling, those with anterior communicating artery aneurysms or a neurological complication (intraventricular hemorrhage, vasospasm, and edema) showed worse output only in the last 45 seconds of the phonemic test. Patients performed comparably to control subjects on the semantic test. Conclusions. These results support a “diffuse damage” hypothesis of aSAH, indicated by late phase phonemic fluency impairment. Overall, the phonemic and semantic tests represent a viable, rapid clinical screening tool in the postoperative assessment of patients with aSAH. PMID:24803729

Ladowski, Daniella; Qian, Winnie; Kapadia, Anish N.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

2014-01-01

112

Anterior circulation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains one of the most morbid subtypes of stroke around the world and has been the focus of hemorrhagic stroke research for longer than five decades. Animal models have been instrumental in shaping the progress and advancement of SAH research, particularly models that allow for transgenic manipulation. The anterior circulation mouse model provides the research community with a rodent model that depicts very similar clinical findings of SAH; from the location of the hemorrhages to the secondary complications that arise after the hemorrhagic insult. The model allows for the recreation of clinically relevant findings such as large vessel vasospasm, oxidative stress, microcirculatory spasm and microthrombosis, and delayed neuronal injury - all of which appear in human cases of SAH. The model is also not technically demanding, is highly reproducible, and allows for an array of transgenic manipulation, which is essential for mechanistic investigations of the pathogenesis of SAH. The anterior circulation mouse model of SAH is one of a few models that are currently used in mice, and provides the research community with a relatively easy, reliable, and clinically relevant model of SAH - one that could be effectively be used to test for early brain injury (EBI) and delayed neurological injury after SAH. PMID:25366643

Attia, Mohammed Sabri; Macdonald, R Loch

2015-01-01

113

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?  

PubMed Central

The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

2013-01-01

114

Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

2014-01-01

115

Effect of neonatal periventricular haemorrhage on neurodevelopmental outcome.  

PubMed Central

All 56 infants born between 23 and 28 weeks' gestation admitted to this hospital in 1981 were examined for periventricular haemorrhage with cerebral ultrasonography. Haemorrhage was diagnosed in 34 (61%)-12 (22%) had germinal layer haemorrhage, 18 (32%) had intraventricular haemorrhage, and four (7%) had intracerebral haemorrhage. The two year outcome of survivors with and without periventricular haemorrhage was compared to determine the effect on neurodevelopment. Only three (16%) of 19 infants with normal scans or germinal layer haemorrhages had evidence of major disability but nine (75%) of 12 infants with intraventricular or intracerebral haemorrhage had major disability. The mental and psychomotor performance on the Bayley scales of infant development was also significantly worse in the latter group. All three survivors with intracerebral haemorrhage had major disability. The continuation of life support treatment for extremely preterm infants who are at very high risk of severe handicap is a matter of increasing concern in neonatal intensive care. Our results show that if extensive periventricular haemorrhage, in particular intracerebral haemorrhage, occurs in this gestational group, extreme pessimism is warranted. PMID:2578773

Catto-Smith, A G; Yu, V Y; Bajuk, B; Orgill, A A; Astbury, J

1985-01-01

116

THE ALBUMIN IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE (ALISAH) MULTICENTER PILOT CLINICAL TRIAL: SAFETY AND NEUROLOGIC OUTCOMES  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Human albumin has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia and humans with various intracranial pathologies. We investigated the safety and tolerability of 25% human albumin (ALB) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods The ALISAH (Albumin in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) Pilot Clinical Trial was an open-label, dose-escalation study. We intended to study 4 different dosages of ALB of increasing magnitude (0.625 g/kg: tier 1; 1.25 g/kg: tier 2; 1.875 g/kg: tier 3; and 2.5 g/kg: tier 4). Each dosage was to be given to 20 adult patients. Treatment was administered daily for 7 days. We investigated the maximum tolerated dose of ALB based on the rate of severe-to-life-threatening heart failure and anaphylactic reaction, and functional outcome at 3 months. Results We treated 47 adult subjects: 20 in tier 1; 20 in tier 2; and 7 in tier 3. We found that doses ranging up to 1.25 g/kg/day × 7 days were tolerated by patients without major dose-limiting complications. We also found that outcomes trended towards better responses in those subjects enrolled in tier 2 compared to tier 1 (OR: 3.0513; CI: 0.6586 – 14.1367) and to the International Intra-operative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial cohort (OR: 3.1462; CI: 0.9158 – 10.8089). Conclusions ALB in doses ranging up to 1.25 g/Kg/day × 7 days was tolerated by patients with SAH without major complications and may be neuroprotective. Based on these results, planning of the ALISAH II, a Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of ALB is underway. Clinical Trial Registration Information: NCT00283400 (clinicaltrials.gov) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00283400?term=subarachnoid+hemorrhage+houston&rank=1 PMID:22267829

Suarez, Jose I; Martin, Renee H.; Calvillo, Eusebia; Dillon, Catherine; Bershad, Eric M; MacDonald, R Loch; Wong, John; Harbaugh, Robert

2012-01-01

117

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant posterior communicating artery fenestration.  

PubMed

Fenestrations of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are extremely rare. Associated aneurysms have only been documented three times in the literature, and none associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a 52-year-old female who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured saccular aneurysm at the proximal limb of a fenestrated right PCoA. The patient was also found to have bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Surgical management included surmising the etiology of the subarachnoid hemorrhage with subsequent clipping of both the right PCoA and MCA aneurysm. The potential embryological mechanisms leading to a PCoA fenestration are discussed. PMID:24761761

Weiner, Gregory M; Grandhi, Ramesh; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Agarwal, Nitin; Friedlander, Robert M

2015-02-01

118

Time trends in outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has changed substantially over the last 25 years but there is a lack of reliable population-based data on whether case-fatality or functional outcomes have improved. Methods: We determined changes in the standardized incidence and outcome of SAH in the same population between 1981 and 1986 (Oxford Community Stroke Project) and 2002 and 2008 (Oxford Vascular Study). In a meta-analysis with other population-based studies, we used linear regression to determine time trends in outcome. Results: There were no reductions in incidence of SAH (RR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–1.29, p = 0.34) and in 30-day case-fatality (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p = 0.14) in the Oxford Vascular Study vs Oxford Community Stroke Project, but there was a decrease in overall mortality (RR = 0.47, 0.23–0.97, p = 0.04). Following adjustment for age and baseline SAH severity, patients surviving to hospital had reduced risk of death or dependency (modified Rankin score > 3) at 12 months in the Oxford Vascular Study (RR = 0.51, 0.29–0.88, p = 0.01). Among 32 studies covering 39 study periods from 1980 to 2005, 7 studied time trends within single populations. Unadjusted case-fatality fell by 0.9% per annum (0.3–1.5, p = 0.007) in a meta-analysis of data from all studies, and by 0.9% per annum (0.2–1.6%, p = 0.01) within the 7 population studies. Conclusion: Mortality due to subarachnoid hemorrhage fell by about 50% in our study population over the last 2 decades, due mainly to improved outcomes in cases surviving to reach hospital. This improvement is consistent with a significant decrease in case-fatality over the last 25 years in our pooled analysis of other similar population-based studies. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; mRS = modified Rankin score; OCSP = Oxford Community Stroke Project; OXVASC = Oxford Vascular Study; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; WFNS = World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. PMID:20375310

Lovelock, C.E.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Rothwell, P.M.

2010-01-01

119

Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.  

PubMed

We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11?days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. PMID:25315802

Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

2014-01-01

120

Magnesium sulfate administration in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Magnesium offers theoretic vascular and neuroprotective benefits for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify original research studies describing intravenous magnesium treatment in patients with SAH published in English between January 1990 and October 2010. Seventeen articles were identified and reviewed, including one phase III randomized-controlled clinical trial and six phase II randomized-controlled trials. Study quality was low for most of the included studies, with the phase III trial considered to be of moderate quality. Due to inconsistently reported benefits and the occurrence of side effects, phase II data suggested that intravenous magnesium for SAH provided either no overall net benefit or uncertain trade-offs. Benefit was likewise not supported in the single phase III clinical trial. PMID:21748496

Suarez, Jose I

2011-09-01

121

Principles of neuroanesthesia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with high mortality. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is important as early intervention can improve outcome. Increasing age, altered sensorium and poor Hunt and Hess grade are independent predictors of adverse outcome. Early operative interventions imposes an onus on anesthesiologists to provide brain relaxation. Coiling and clipping are the two treatment options with increasing trends toward coiling. Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade I or II with uneventful intraoperative course are extubated in operation theater, whereas, higher grades are kept electively ventilated. Postoperative management includes attention toward fluid status and early management of vasospasm. PMID:25190938

Kundra, Sandeep; Mahendru, Vidhi; Gupta, Vishnu; Choudhary, Ashwani Kumar

2014-01-01

122

CSF leukotriene C4 following subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Leukotrienes derive from arachidonic acid metabolism via the lipoxygenase pathway and modulate several cellular events. In the central nervous system, leukotrienes are mainly synthesized in the gray matter and in vascular tissues. Their production is enhanced in ischemic conditions and in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous studies have indicated the ability of the leukotrienes C4 and D4 to constrict arterial vessels in vivo and in vitro and have suggested their involvement in the pathogenesis of cerebral arterial spasm. In the present study, the authors measured lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of leukotriene C4 in 48 patients who had suffered aneurysmal SAH. In 12 of the cases, symptomatic and radiological spasm was evident. The mean lumbar CSF level of immunoreactive-like activity of leukotriene C4 (i-LTC4) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than in control cases, while the cisternal CSF level was higher than the lumbar mean concentration (p less than 0.005). Patients presenting with vasospasm had significantly higher levels of i-LTC4 compared to patients without symptomatic vasospasm. This is the first report concerning monitoring of i-LTC4 levels in the CSF after SAH. The results of this study suggest that: 1) metabolism of arachidonic acid via the lipoxygenase pathway is enhanced after SAH; 2) the higher cisternal CSF levels of i-LTC4 may be part of the biological response in the perianeurysmal subarachnoid cisterns after the hemorrhage; and 3) the higher CSF levels of i-LTC4 in patients presenting with vasospasm suggest that a relationship exists between this compound and arterial spasm and/or reflect the development of cerebral ischemic damage. PMID:3418380

Paoletti, P; Gaetani, P; Grignani, G; Pacchiarini, L; Silvani, V; Rodriguez y Baena, R

1988-10-01

123

From germinal matrix to cerebellar haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Abstract For many years cerebellar development after preterm birth has been poorly investigated and has been studied without taking germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage into account. Advanced neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the use of various acoustic windows (mastoid fontanelle, occipital foramen) have allowed for in vivo diagnosis of acquired focal haemorrhagic lesions in the cerebellum of very preterm babies. The vulnerability of the cerebellum also seems to be related to specific gestational ages, i.e., between 23 and 27 weeks, when rapid growth in cerebellar volume occurs and at a much faster rate than mean brain volume increase. In this paper, the contribution of the cerebellum in long-term motor cognitive, learning and behavioural functions, including psychiatric ones, is discussed. PMID:23968333

Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Mosca, Fabio; Sannia, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca A

2013-08-23

124

Timing of neonatal cerebroventricular haemorrhage with ultrasound.  

PubMed Central

Sequential real-time ultrasound examinations were performed in 174 neonates to determine the time of occurrence of cerebroventricular haemorrhage (CVH). Of the 47 infants in whom CVH was detected, in 36 (77%) CVH was present at the first examination. Of the 34 infants with CVH who were examined first within 6 hours of birth, 24 (71%) already had haemorrhage demonstrable at the initial scan. Extension of a CVH after its initial detection occurred in only 3 infants. Of 124 consecutive infants of birthweights less than 1500 g, 38 (31%) developed CVH, 56% of the outborn and 27% of the inborn babies. Our results indicate that most infants who develop CVH have done so within 6 hours of birth. PMID:7073304

de Crespigny, L C; Mackay, R; Murton, L J; Roy, R N; Robinson, P H

1982-01-01

125

Lessons from nosocomial viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.  

PubMed

The outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola in 2004-2005 shows once again the devastating and rapid spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers in medical settings where hygiene practices are poorly applied or ignored. The legacy of years of war and poverty in Angola has resulted in very poor medical education and services. The initial high rate of infection among infants in Angola may have been related to poor hospital practices, possibly administration of vaccines. Though the outbreak in Angola was in a part of Africa not previously known to have filovirus infection, prior ecological modelling had predicted this location and many others. Prevention of future outbreaks will not be easy. The urgent need is dissemination of knowledge and the training, discipline and resources for good clinical practice. Educating the public to demand higher standards could be a powerful tool. Good practices are difficult to establish and maintain on the scale needed. PMID:16373655

Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

2005-01-01

126

[Subarachnoidal hemorrhage and multiple vascular cerebral abnormalities in ?-thalassemia major].  

PubMed

?-thalassemia is a genetic hemoglobinopathy, which can cause hypercoagulability, vessel wall damages and thromboembolic events. Spontaneous subarachnoidal hemorrhages are not commonly described in this affection. We report subarachnoidal hemorrhage, observed during the post-partum period in a 27-year-old woman suffering from ?-thalassemia major. Brain MRI revealed complex vascular abnormalities: intracranial carotid occlusion, carotid micro-aneurisms, abnormally developed deep perforators and cortical arteries. PMID:23394851

Svahn, J; Cho, T-H; Derex, L; Mechtouff, L; Nighoghossian, N

2013-03-01

127

Haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema: post-pulmonary embolectomy.  

PubMed Central

A case of haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema after successful pulmonary embolectomy is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed. Thirteen cases are analysed as well as the four survivors. The aetiology appears to be ischaemic damage of the capillary bed. This had previously been called incomplete infarction by Castleman. The incidence is low after acute pulmonary embolectomies but appears to be much higher after chronic endarterectomies, especially with severe pulmonary hypertension. Therapy is outlined. Images PMID:996824

Garvey, J W; Wisoff, G; Voletti, C; Hartstein, M

1976-01-01

128

Simultaneous hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages: what are the odds?  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous development of two (or more) spontaneous, hypertensive, non-traumatic intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhages is rare and constitutes less than 5.6% of all hypertensive cerebral haemorrhages. In addition to having a high early mortality, these haemorrhages carry a considerable morbidity figure in patients who survive the event. We report a 68-year-old hypertensive and diabetic woman who presented with a sudden onset of headache, vomiting, and dense right-sided weakness. In less than an hour, she became obtunded. An urgent non-contrast CT brain scan revealed two left-sided supratentorial hemispheric haemorrhages; putamenal and thalamic. PMID:23345495

Amin, Osama S M

2013-01-01

129

[Simplfied technique of lumbar subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors have developed a simplified technique of lumbar subarachnoid peritoneal shunt in which the spinal tube is easily introduced through a puncture needle without doing a laminectomy. Seventeen cases of communicating hydrocephalus of various orgin have been treated by this procedure. In this paper, we reported our shunting system and the technique of precedures, and discussed the clinical results and some advantages of this method. The spinal tube is a custom made Silastic tube with small side holes 2 mm apart from each other at slanting tip located within the first 1.0 cm of the end. French No. 5 tube is available for older children and for adults, and French No. 3.6 tube for infants. Total length of the tube measures 30 cm with 4 black markers at 5 cm intervals from the tip for assisting in positioning. The puncture needle is a modified Touhey needle. Two needles different in size are prepared according to the size of the tube. Outer diameter of these needles is 2.1 mn & 1.8 mn. Our operative procedures are divided into following three steps. 1) Puncture of the lumbar subarachnoid space and insertion of the spinal tube through the needle. 2) Introduction and placement of the peritoneal tube into some point of the peritoneal cavity. Concerning to this point, we have the three candidates, namely into the Douglas pouch, the suprahepatic space, and the bursa omental cavity. 3) Connection of the spinal tube and the peritoneal catheter end. We used a kind of flushing device only in some exceptional cases, and recently, we feel that it is not so necessary for this shunting. We have employed this technique in a total of 17 cases. Eleven cases of them are adults and the other 6 cases are children less than 2 years of age. Postoperative follow up period varied from 13 months to 1 month, and all the cases except two had good result, suggesting the shunt system is working well with no evidence of complications such as low pressure syndrome or radicular irritation. Some troubles occurred in two children. One was a disconnection between the spinal and the peritoneal tube, and the other was an obstruction at the peritoneal tube end. The authors believe that our L-P shunt has several advantages as listed below, 1)Procedure is very simple, in other words, there is no need of laminectomy. 2) The entire system is short. 3) No need to pass the catheter into the brain tissue. 4) Obstruction of the spinal catheter end is very unusual. 5) Alteration of communicating hydrocepalus into non communicating one by secondary obstruction of aqueduct of Sylvius is less likely with this shunting system. 6) Siphon effect might be minimal, if present. 7) As compared to V-A shunt, severe complication like septicemia will not occur in the L-P shunt. With this simple method and good material, we hope that this L-P shunt is employed more widely for the patients with communicating hydrocephalus. PMID:557743

Kuwana, N; Kuwabara, T; Nakajima, F; Hosoda, H; Yamaguchi, K

1977-03-01

130

Bilateral renal artery dissections: unusual complication of polyarteritis nodosa.  

PubMed

A case of polyarteritis nodosa with the acute complications of multiple bilateral real artery dissection, perirenal haemorrhage and kidney infarction is described. The diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa was established on the basis of angiographical and clinical findings. Follow-up arteriograms and CT-findings after prednisone therapy are discussed. PMID:6144545

Hekali, P E; Pajari, R I; Kivisaari, M L; Haapanen, E J; Leirisalo, M

1984-02-01

131

Gastrointestinal complications of gastrocystoplasty.  

PubMed Central

The cases are reported of five children with chronic renal failure who underwent gastrocystoplasty for a variety of urological disorders. Gastrocystoplasty comprises the transplantation of a vascularised segment of stomach to the bladder to form an augmented neobladder. The patients had gastrointestinal complications after the operation, including considerable weight loss in all five patients, accompanied by marked failure to thrive in four of the five patients, and food aversion, feeding intolerance, dumping syndrome, delayed gastric emptying, and oesophagitis in two patients. Three of the five patients developed severe abdominal pain and haemorrhagic cystitis secondary to gastric acid secretion in the neobladder from the transplanted gastric pedicle. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions were used to manage the gastrointestinal problems. Explanations are offered for the pathophysiology of the observed complications of gastrocystoplasty. It is believed that the use of this procedure in infants and children, particularly those with chronic renal failure and uraemia, warrants caution until successful long term follow up and experience with this procedure have been reported. PMID:1444527

Gold, B D; Bhoopalam, P S; Reifen, R M; Harvey, E; Marcon, M A

1992-01-01

132

Intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants - Can we improve outcome by addressing coagulation?  

PubMed

Abstract During the last few decades, the survival of preterm infants has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, with the increasing number of very young and extremely low birth weight infants, morbidity is still a major problem. Intraventricular Haemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth, and large haemorrhages or haemorrhages associated with parenchymal brain lesions may yield a high rate of future disability. IVH is a complex, multi-factorial disorder. Prematurity and low birth weight remain as its most important risk factors, affecting vulnerability of the germinal matrix as well as the coagulation system. Approximately 80% of IVHs occur by 72?h after birth, but a considerable proportion of IVH is already visible on the first cranial ultrasound scan within a few hours of birth. The hypothesis that a severe coagulation deficiency in the premature newborn could be a major contributing factor to IVH has been suggested, and small open label interventional studies targeting the premature coagulation system have been conducted with ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII and prothrombin complex concentrate. The outcome of these studies will be reviewed. PMID:23968273

Kuperman, Amir A; Brenner, Benjamin; Kenet, Gili

2013-08-23

133

Introduction of an algorithm for ROTEM-guided fibrinogen concentrate administration in major obstetric haemorrhage.  

PubMed

We compared blood component requirements during major obstetric haemorrhage, following the introduction of fibrinogen concentrate. A prospective study of transfusion requirements and patient outcomes was performed for 12 months to evaluate the major obstetric haemorrhage pathway using shock packs (Shock Pack phase). The study was repeated after the pathway was amended to include fibrinogen concentrate (Fibrinogen phase). The median (IQR [range]) number of blood components given was 8.0 (3.0-14.5 [0-32]) during the Shock Pack phase, and 3.0 (2.0-5.0 [0-26]) during the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.0004). The median (IQR [range]) quantity of fibrinogen administered was significantly greater in the Shock Pack phase, 3.2 (0-7.1 [0-20.4]) g, than in the Fibrinogen phase, 0 (0-3.0 [0-12.4]) g, p = 0.0005. Four (9.5%) of 42 patients in the Shock Pack phase developed transfusion associated circulatory overload compared with none of 51 patients in the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.038). Fibrinogen concentrate allows prompt correction of coagulation deficits associated with major obstetric haemorrhage, reducing the requirement for blood component therapy and the attendant risks of complications. PMID:25289791

Mallaiah, S; Barclay, P; Harrod, I; Chevannes, C; Bhalla, A

2015-02-01

134

Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976  

PubMed Central

A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

1978-01-01

135

Of cascades and perfect storms: the immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic  

E-print Network

REVIEW Of cascades and perfect storms: the immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever-dengue witnessed a consolidation of the original observations made in the 1970s that dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) have an immunological basis. Following reinfection with a dengue virus

Cai, Long

136

Intracranial tumoural haemorrhage – a report of 58 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the computerized tomographic (CT) appearances and clinical characteristics of intracranial tumoural haemorrhage (ITH), we analyzed retrospectively fifty-eight patients with ITH and reviewed the literature. As a result, 91% patients had acute or subacute onset and 26% manifested haemorrhage as their first symptoms. CT scanning indicated that intratumoural bleeding occurred in 23 cases, bleeding into parenchyma 18

Liu Yuguang; Liu Meng; Zhu Shugan; Jiang Yuquan; Li Gang; Li Xingang

2002-01-01

137

Treatment with Ginsenoside Rb1, A Component of Panax Ginseng , Provides Neuroprotection in Rats Subjected to Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Objective: Recent trials have shown Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), an active component of a well known Chinese medicine Panax Ginseng, plays a significant role in improving the complications seen after an ischemic brain event. In the present study, we investigated\\u000a the use of GRb1 as a treatment modality to reduce brain edema, reduce arterial vasospasm, and improve neurobehavioral function\\u000a after subarachnoid

Yingbo Li; Jiping Tang; Nikan H. Khatibi; Mei Zhu; Di Chen; Liu Tu; Li Chen; Shali Wang

138

Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of haemorrhagic fever viruses and bioterrorism-related haemorrhagic fever viruses.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse group of viruses that cause a clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding disorder. HFVs that are associated with a potential biological threat are Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), Lassa fever and New World arenaviruses (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito and Sabia viruses) (Arenaviridae), Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) and yellow fever, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, and Kyanasur Forest disease (Flaviviridae). In terms of biological warfare concerning dengue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Hantaviruses, there is not sufficient knowledge to include them as a major biological threat. Dengue virus is the only one of these that cannot be transmitted via aerosol. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and the agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome appear difficult to weaponise. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment and the prophylaxis of the arenaviruses and the bunyaviruses, but is not effective for the other families. All patients must be isolated and receive intensive supportive therapy. PMID:15677844

Bossi, Philippe; Tegnell, Anders; Baka, Agoritsa; Van Loock, Frank; Hendriks, Jan; Werner, Albrecht; Maidhof, Heinrich; Gouvras, Georgios

2004-12-01

139

Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

2014-01-01

140

Intrauterine balloon tamponade as management of postpartum haemorrhage and prevention of haemorrhage related to low-lying placenta.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Bakri balloon in preventing and treating postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Intrauterine Bakri balloon was used in a total of 16 patients with two different purposes: prophylactic placement of the balloon after cesarean section (CS) in six patients with low-lying placenta and therapeutic placement in ten patients with persistent bleeding from uterine atony, after spontaneous delivery, and administration of uterotonics. Intrauterine Bakri balloon was a successful approach in controlling and preventing PPH in all 16 patients. The median nadir hematocrit was 26.6% in six patients who underwent CS and 25.6% in ten patients with persistent bleeding after spontaneous delivery. The intrauterine balloon was in place for a duration of 24 hours. The median balloon infusion volume was 345 ml (range 250-455). No complications were reported. Bakri balloon tamponade was a useful measure in treating PPH unresponsive to pharmacological therapy in patients who delivered vaginally. Moreover, it was able to prevent persistent bleeding in patients who underwent CS for central placenta previa. PMID:23444752

Patacchiola, F; D'Alfonso, A; Di Fonso, A; Di Febbo, G; Kaliakoudas, D; Carta, G

2012-01-01

141

Simvastatin Re-Couples Dysfunctional Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function has been linked to secondary complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We previously found that there is increased eNOS function after SAH but that it is uncoupled, leading to secondary complications such as vasospasm, microthromboembolism and neuronal apoptosis. Here we test the hypothesis that recoupling eNOS with simvastatin can prevent these complications. SAH was created in mice that were treated with vehicle or simvastatin starting 2 weeks before or 30 minutes after SAH. SAH increased phosphorylated eNOS which was prevented by pre- or post-treatment with simvastatin. Simvastatin pre-treatment also prevented the increase in eNOS monomer formation that was associated with SAH, decreased superoxide anion radical production and increased NO. These changes were associated with decreased vasospasm, microthromboemboli and neuronal injury. The data suggest that simvastatin re-couples eNOS after SAH, leading to decreased secondary complications such as vasospasm, microthromboemboli and neuronal injury. PMID:21373645

Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Marsden, Philip A.; Macdonald, R. Loch

2011-01-01

142

Spreading depolarization: a possible new culprit in the delayed cerebral ischemia of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Gradual improvements have been made in the reduction of mortality rates associated with the disease during the last 30 years. However, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the major delayed complication of SAH, remains a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity despite substantial research and clinical efforts. During the last several years, the predominant role of cerebral vasospasm, the long-accepted etiologic factor behind DCI, has been questioned. It is now becoming increasingly clear that the pathophysiology underlying DCI is multifactorial. Cortical spreading depression is emerging as a likely factor in this complex web of pathologic changes after SAH. Understanding its role after SAH and its relationship with the other pathologic processes such as vasospasm, microcirculatory dysfunction, and microemboli will be vital to the development of new therapeutic approaches to reduce DCI and improve the clinical outcome of the disease. PMID:20837823

Leng, Lewis Z; Fink, Matthew E; Iadecola, Costantino

2011-01-01

143

Prevalence and Determinants of Cognitive Complaints after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To investigate the prevalence of cognitive complaints after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the relationships between cognitive complaints and cognitive impairments, disability and emotional problems. Methods: Cognitive complaints were assessed with the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional Consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) in 111 persons who visited our outpatient clinic 3 months after SAH. Associations between cognitive complaints and cognitive functioning,

P. E. C. A. Passier; J. M. A. Visser-Meily; M. J. E. van Zandvoort; M. W. M. Post; G. J. E. Rinkel; C. van Heugten

2010-01-01

144

Enhanced gastric mucosal haemostasis after upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.  

PubMed Central

An endoscopic technique for the measurement of gastric mucosal bleeding time has been developed to study gastric haemostasis in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The relation of gastric mucosal bleeding time to skin bleeding time and nonsterodial anti-inflammatory drug usage was examined in 61 control patients and in 47 patients presenting with bleeding peptic ulcers or erosions. Gastric mucosal bleeding time was shorter in patients with haemorrhage (median 2 minutes, range 0-5 minutes) than in the control group (median 4 minutes, range 2-8 minutes) (p less than 0.001). Skin bleeding times were similar in the two groups (medians 4 minutes in patients with haemorrhage and 4.5 minutes in controls). In 21 patients with haemorrhage who were taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the median gastric mucosal bleeding time (2.5 minutes, range 1.0-5.0 minutes) was similar to that in 26 patients with haemorrhage not associated with these drugs (2.0 minutes, range 0.0-5.0 minutes). These results show that gastric mucosal haemostasis is accelerated in response to haemorrhage in the upper gastrointestinal tract, even in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This enhanced gastric haemostasis probably reflects a local protective response to minimise blood loss from the bleeding lesion. PMID:1855678

Allison, M C; Fullarton, G M; Brown, I L; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

1991-01-01

145

Epizootic occurrence of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis virus infection of geese.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis in geese flocks of 3 to 10 weeks in age in Hungary were investigated. Mortality varied between 4% and 67%. Affected birds generally died suddenly. Occasional clinical signs included tremors of the head and neck, subcutaneous haemorrhages and excretion of faeces containing partly digested blood. At necropsy the most frequent findings were a turgid wall and reddish mucosa of the intestines and reddish discolouration of the swollen kidneys, but oedema and haemorrhages of the subcutaneous connective tissue, hydropericardium and ascites were also seen. In subacute cases, visceral gout was frequently observed. Histological examination revealed zonal necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells with haemorrhages in the kidney. Other histological findings were serous hepatitis with fatty infiltration, necrotizing haemorrhagic enteritis and haemorrhages in the different organs including the brain. Experimental geese infected parenterally with crude liver and spleen homogenates prepared from diseased birds died after 8 to 20 days without premonitory signs, and had typical gross and histological lesions. Attempts to isolate cytopathic virus on different tissue cultures failed. The presence of polyomavirus was proven by polymerase chain reaction. Five isolates were further investigated by analysing their complete VP1 gene sequence. All tested strains were very closely related to each other on the basis of the nucleotide sequence, and they were identical at the deduced amino acid level. PMID:15276995

Palya, Vilmos; Ivanics, Eva; Glávits, Róbert; Dán, Adám; Mató, Tamás; Zarka, Péter

2004-04-01

146

Emergency reversal of anticoagulation with a three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with intracranial haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial haemorrhage is a serious and potentially fatal complication of oral anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin complex concentrates can substantially shorten the time needed to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a prothrombin complex concentrate for rapid reversal of oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with intracranial haemorrhage. Methods Patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy and suffering from acute intracranial haemorrhage were eligible for this prospective cohort study if their International Normalised Ratio (INR) was higher than or equal to 2.0. The prothrombin complex concentrate was infused at doses of 35–50 IU/kg, stratified according to the initial INR. Results Forty-six patients (25 males; mean age: 75 years; range 38–92 years) were enrolled. The median INR at presentation was 3.5 (range, 2–9). At 30 minutes after administration of the prothrombin complex concentrate, the median INR was 1.3 (range, 0.9–3), and the INR then declined to less than or equal to 1.5 in 75% of patients. The benefit of the prothrombin complex concentrate was maintained for a long time, since the median INR remained lower than or equal to 1.5 (median, 1.16; range, 0.9–2.2) at 96% of all post-infusion time-points up to 96 hours. No thrombotic complications or significant adverse events were observed during hospitalisation; six patients (13%) died, but none of these deaths was judged to be related to administration of the prothrombin complex concentrate. Conclusions Prothrombin complex concentrates are an effective, rapid and safe treatment for the urgent reversal of oral anticoagulation in patients with intracranial haemorrhage. Broader use of prothrombin complex concentrates in this clinical setting appears to be appropriate. PMID:21251465

Imberti, Davide; Barillari, Giovanni; Biasioli, Chiara; Bianchi, Marina; Contino, Laura; Duce, Rita; D’Incà, Marco; Gnani, Maria Cristina; Mari, Elisa; Ageno, Walter

2011-01-01

147

Diabetes Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... the potential complications of type 1 diabetes are: Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease, a range of blood vessel system diseases that ... with diabetes. The two most common types of cardiovascular disease are coronary heart disease, caused by fatty deposits ...

148

Are Complications Less Common in Deep Brain Stimulation than in Ablative Procedures for Movement Disorders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The side effects and complications of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and ablative lesions for tremor and Parkinson’s disease were recorded in 256 procedures (129 DBS and 127 lesions). Perioperative complications (seizures, haemorrhage, confusion) were rare and did not differ between the two groups. The rate of hardware-related complications was 17.8%. In ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamotomies, the rate of side effects

Patric Blomstedt; Marwan I. Hariz

2006-01-01

149

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review  

PubMed Central

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

2012-01-01

150

The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) Repository: advancing clinical research in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Researchers and other stakeholders continue to express concern about the failure of randomized clinical trials (RCT) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to show efficacy of new treatments. Pooled data may be particularly useful to generate hypotheses about causes of poor outcomes and reasons for failure of RCT in SAH, and strategies to improve them. Investigators conducting SAH research collaborated to share data with the intent to develop a large repository of pooled individual patient data for exploratory analysis and testing of new hypotheses relevant to improved trial design and analysis in SAH. This repository currently contains information on 11,443 SAH patients from 14 clinical databases, of which 9 are datasets of recent RCTs and 5 are datasets of prospective observational studies and hospital registries. Most patients were managed in the last 15 years. Data validation and quality checks have been conducted and are satisfactory. Data is available on demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory results and various outcome measures. We have compiled the largest known dataset of patients with SAH. The SAHIT repository may be an important resource for advancing clinical research in SAH and will benefit from contributions of additional datasets. PMID:24865271

Jaja, Blessing N R; Attalla, Daniel; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Johnston, S Claiborne; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Noble, Adam; Quinn, Audrey; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Singh, Jeffrey; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Tseng, Ming; van den Bergh, William; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C

2014-12-01

151

Communicating Hydrocephalus Accompanied by Arachnoid Cyst in Aneurismal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of communicating hydrocephalus accompanied by an arachnoid cyst in an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 69-year-old female was referred to our clinic due to the sudden onset of a headache. A head computed tomography scan demonstrated an arachnoid cyst in the right middle fossa with a mass effect and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography then revealed a left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped successfully and the post-operative period was uneventful. However, two months after discharge, the patient reported that her mental status had declined over previous weeks. A cranial computed tomography scan revealed an interval increase in the size of the ventricle and arachnoid cyst causing a midline shift. Simultaneous navigation guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt and cystoperitoneal shunt placement resulted in remarkable radiological and clinical improvements. PMID:24729958

Choi, Jae Young; Cha, Seung Heon; Cho, Won Ho

2013-01-01

152

The rat endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The rat endovascular perforation model is considered the closest replica of human condition. Since its development, this model has been extensively used to study early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, like any other animal model, it has advantages and limitations. The following is a brief review of the rat endovascular perforation SAH model. One section is dedicated to technical considerations that can be used to overcome the model limitations. PMID:25366645

Sehba, Fatima A

2015-01-01

153

Continuous measurement of subarachnoid pressure in the severely asphyxiated newborn.  

PubMed Central

We describe a method of monitoring continuously subarachnoid pressure in the severely asphyxiated newborn by a percutaneously placed catheter. Five infants were studied for a total of 180 hours and although opening pressures were not appreciably raised in any, maximum pressures were above 20 mmHg in four infants and reached a peak of 48 mmHg in one. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6660885

Levene, M I; Evans, D H

1983-01-01

154

Thromboembolic complications and pharmacological prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery.  

PubMed

Two thousand, three hundred and three patients who had undergone major orthopaedic surgery were statistically analysed for the incidence of complications comparing three regimens of prophylaxis and coexisting diseases; 2090 patients did not present postoperative complications. PTE occurred in 0.65% (one fatal). The mortality rate was 0.34% and the incidence of haemorrhage (haematoma and one gastric haemorrhage) was 3.8%. Patients treated with indobufen had a shorter hospital stay and the need for homologous blood transfusions was lower than for patients treated with calcium heparin. The rate of PTE was notably different in the three groups, being lower in the group treated with enoxaparin, although this result was not found to be statistically significant. PMID:9659069

Montebugnoli, M; Bugamelli, S; Bonfatti, M; Facchini, F; Pignotti, E; Cenacchi, A

1998-05-01

155

The association between cortisol dynamics and the course of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Context: One of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complication is delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND). It is postulated that cortisol dynamics might be associated with the severity of this complication. Aims: The goal of the study is to investigate whether the peak of morning serum cortisol levels are associated with the severity of its complication during the course of the disease. Settings and Design: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from January 2009 to June 2011, at our institution. Materials and Methods: The study follows a consecutive cohort of patients for 14 days after the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Serum cortisols, cortisol binding globulin, adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured pre operatively and then on post operative days (POD) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Blood was drawn to coincide with peak cortisol levels between 08.00-09.00 hours. Neurological examinations were conducted at least twice daily and patient outcome were graded according to modified Ranklin Scale. DIND was defined by a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale of two or more points compared to the status on POD 1. Statistical Analysis: All the results were analyzed using statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v61; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the relationship between the variables. Results: Thirty six consecutive patients are collected, but only 28 patients (12 M and 16 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 50.75 years old (50.75±12.27), and more than 50% (15/28) arrived with World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons grade 3 or better. Elevated total cortisol levels of more than 24 mg/dl on day 2, 4, and 10 were associated with DIND, and the most significant being on day 4 (P=0.011). These patients also had a higher grade on the modified Ranklin scale of disability. Conclusions: This study shows that the elevated levels of morning total cortisol in the serum are associated with the onset of DIND during the disease course, and it's also associated with bad outcomes. PMID:22347329

July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, Budhianto; Islam, Andi Asadul

2011-01-01

156

Effect of nimodipine on arachidonic acid metabolites after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid metabolites are under investigation as possible vasoactive agents involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prostaglandins, as well as other vasoactive compounds, activate contractile proteins through utilization of extracellular bound Ca++ to the intracytoplasmic free fraction. Recently, calcium-antagonists, mainly Nimodipine, have been proposed for the prophylaxis and/or reversal of the ischemic damage caused by vasospasm. Nimodipine failed to reduce vasospasm incidence in a series of 30 patients admitted with diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Nimodipine failed to reduce level of four arachidonate metabolites measured (prostaglandin D2, prostacyclin, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene C4) in lumbar and cisternal CSF. After subarachnoid hemorrhage there is a significant increase of CSF levels of arachidonate metabolites; in perianeurysmic cisterns level of prostaglandin D2, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene C4 are significantly higher than lumbar CSF levels. Moreover, cisternal CSF level of prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4 are significantly higher in patients with symptomatic vasospasm. Nimodipine did not significantly modify CFS level of arachidonate metabolites: this suggests that Nimodipine treatment, which definitely improves long-term results of patients for intracranial aneurysms, could exert its pharmacological action reducing Ca++ intake from the extracellular compartment and preventing a direct toxic effect of calcium, without a direct action against the release of vasoactive compounds. PMID:3120489

Rodriguez, R; Baena, Y; Gaetani, P; Grignani, G; Pacchiarini, L

1987-10-01

157

Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Clinical studies on diagnosis and treatment.  

E-print Network

??abstractComputerized tomography angiography (CTA) can be performed quicker, safer and cheaper than digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, DSA… (more)

M. van der Jagt (Mathieu)

2006-01-01

158

Use of oral tramadol to prevent perianesthetic shivering in patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate under subarachnoid blockade  

PubMed Central

Context: Under regional anesthesia, geriatric patients are prone to shivering induced perioperative complications that Anesthesiologists should prevent rather than treat. Aim: We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of oral tramadol 50 mg to prevent the perioperative shivering after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery under subarachnoid blockade (SAB). Shivering is usually overlooked in patients undergoing urological surgery under spinal anesthesia and may result in morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increased financial burden. Use of prophylactic measures to reduce shivering in geriatric patients who undergo urological procedures could circumvent this. Oral formulation of tramadol is a universally available cost-effective drug with the minimal side-effects. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients and Methods: A total of 80 patients who were scheduled for TURP surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly selected. Group I and II (n = 40 each) received oral tramadol 50 mg and placebo tablet respectively. After achieving subarachnoid block, the shivering, body temperature (tympanic membrane, axillary and forehead), hemodynamic parameters and arterial saturation were recorded at regular intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test, analysis of variance test, Z-test and Fisher exact test were utilized while Statistical Product and Service Solutions, IBM, Chicago (SPSS statistics (version 16.0)), software was used for analysis. Results: Incidence of shivering was significantly less in patients who received tramadol (7.5% vs. 40%; P < 0.01). The use of tramadol was associated with clinically inconsequential side-effects. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of oral tramadol 50 mg is effective as a prophylactic agent to reduce the incidence, severity and duration of perioperative shivering in patients undergoing TURP surgery under SAB. PMID:24665233

Tewari, Anurag; Dhawan, Ira; Mahendru, Vidhi; Katyal, Sunil; Singh, Avtar; Garg, Shuchita

2014-01-01

159

Periventricular haemorrhage and leukomalacia in extremely low birthweight infants.  

PubMed

Forty (49%) of 82 extremely low birthweight (ELBW, less than 1000 g) infants had periventricular haemorrhage (PVH). Ten (12%) had germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) alone, 16 (20%) had intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and 14 (17%) had intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Almost all the cases of PVH had developed by 4 days of age. Small-for-gestational age infants (12% of study population) had a significantly lower incidence and severity of PVH than appropriate-for-gestational age infants. Of 94 infants born between 23 and 28 weeks gestation, 45 (48%) had PVH. The PVH incidence was 60% in those of 23-26 weeks and 38% in those of 27-28 weeks. The hospital survival rate of ELBW infants was 69% in those without PVH and 43% in those with PVH; 70% in GLH alone; 50% in IVH and 14% in ICH. Three survivors developed post-haemorrhage hydrocephalus of whom two required ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Five survivors developed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) evidenced by cysts identified between 3 and 7 weeks of age. A significant decrease in the incidence of PVH occurred over the study period (67% in 1982, 38% in 1983 and 33% in 1984). This decrease was seen for all grades of PVH. The reasons for this decreased incidence are still to be ascertained but this trend suggests that improvements in neonatal intensive care have the potential to improve the neurological outcome of more recent ELBW survivors. PMID:3533024

Szymonowicz, W; Yu, V Y

1986-08-01

160

Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunting for control of acute and recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension.  

PubMed Central

The insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) was evaluated in 22 patients with recurrent upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage related to portal hypertension (bleeding from oesophageal varices 10, gastric varices six, portal hypertensive gastropathy six). TIPSS was successfully performed electively in 15 patients and as an emergency in three patients. Twelve patients have had no further admissions with bleeding after TIPSS. Single episodes of bleeding were noted in six patients after TIPSS associated with shunt thrombosis (two), intimal hyperplasia within the shunt (two), and shunt migration (one). Another patient presented with reaccumulated ascites suggesting poor shunt function but died from massive variceal haemorrhage before further assessment could be performed. There was one death related to the procedure. Two patients developed encephalopathy after TIPSS, in one patient this was controlled by the insertion of a smaller diameter stent within the existing TIPSS. Several complications arose in earlier patients that have not recurred after modification of the initial technique. TIPSS can be life saving and is effective in controlling variceal haemorrhage and rebleeding from oesophageal or gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy. Larger and longer term studies are required, however, to define the role of TIPSS in the overall management of such patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8344585

Simpson, K J; Chalmers, N; Redhead, D N; Finlayson, N D; Bouchier, I A; Hayes, P C

1993-01-01

161

Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976  

PubMed Central

Between 1 September and 24 October 1976, 318 cases of acute viral haemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire. The outbreak was centred in the Bumba Zone of the Equateur Region and most of the cases were recorded within a radius of 70 km of Yambuku, although a few patients sought medical attention in Bumba, Abumombazi, and the capital city of Kinshasa, where individual secondary and tertiary cases occurred. There were 280 deaths, and only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. The index case in this outbreak had onset of symptoms on 1 September 1976, five days after receiving an injection of chloroquine for presumptive malaria at the outpatient clinic at Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). He had a clinical remission of his malaria symptoms. Within one week several other persons who had received injections at YMH also suffered from Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and almost all subsequent cases had either received injections at the hospital or had had close contact with another case. Most of these occurred during the first four weeks of the epidemic, after which time the hospital was closed, 11 of the 17 staff members having died of the disease. All ages and both sexes were affected, but women 15-29 years of age had the highest incidence of disease, a phenomenon strongly related to attendance at prenatal and outpatient clinics at the hospital where they received injections. The overall secondary attack rate was about 5%, although it ranged to 20% among close relatives such as spouses, parent or child, and brother or sister. Active surveillance disclosed that cases occurred in 55 of some 550 villages which were examined house-by-house. The disease was hitherto unknown to the people of the affected region. Intensive search for cases in the area of north-eastern Zaire between the Bumba Zone and the Sudan frontier near Nzara and Maridi failed to detect definite evidence of a link between an epidemic of the disease in that country and the outbreak near Bumba. Nevertheless it was established that people can and do make the trip between Nzara and Bumba in not more than four days: thus it was regarded as quite possible that an infected person had travelled from Sudan to Yambuku and transferred the virus to a needle of the hospital while receiving an injection at the outpatient clinic. Both the incubation period, and the duration of the clinical disease averaged about one week. After 3-4 days of non-specific symptoms and signs, patients typically experienced progressively severe sore throat, developed a maculopapular rash, had intractable abdominal pain, and began to bleed from multiple sites, principally the gastrointestinal tract. Although laboratory determinations were limited and not conclusive, it was concluded that pathogenesis of the disease included non-icteric hepatitis and possibly acute pancreatitis as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. This syndrome was caused by a virus morphologically similar to Marburg virus, but immunologically distinct. It was named Ebola virus. The agent was isolated from the blood of 8 of 10 suspected cases using Vero cell cultures. Titrations of serial specimens obtained from one patient disclosed persistent viraemia of 106.5-104.5 infectious units from the third day of illness until death on the eighth day. Ebola virus particles were found in formalin- PMID:307456

1978-01-01

162

[Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage after venous bypass in cirrhotics (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In a series of 76 patients who had undergone venous bypass for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, the authors noted 13 recurrences of bleeding, six resulting in death directly or secondary to hepatic failure. Repeated rupture of esophageal varices after thrombosis of an anastomosis is well known but in one out of two cases a second bypass involving another part of the portal territory resulted in cure. The important problem remains that of the precise aetiological diagnosis of the haemorrhage, there often being a doubt between esophageal varices and haemorrhagic gastritis. In certain cases there is no good indication for a bypass, as indicated by the absence of further bleeding after certain anastomotic thromboses. Ulcers due to venous bypass are rare. Secondary medical or surgical treatment in patients with a patent anastomosis should be undertaken with caution, in particular in the case of splenectomy for residual hypersplenism. PMID:303354

Lataste, J; Carlier, M

1977-10-01

163

Acute scrotal swelling: a sign of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Two neonates presented with acute scrotal swelling suggestive of testicular torsion. Surgical exploration in one patient revealed an infected haematoma. Subsequent investigations including ultrasonography and urinary catecholamine determination disclosed adrenal haemorrhage as the cause of the scrotal haematoma. A second patient in whom a purplish discolouration of the right hemiscrotum was noted was also investigated with ultrasonography, which revealed a normal right testis and a right adrenal haematoma. Both cases of adrenal haemorrhage resolved spontaneously on conservative treatment. Adrenal haemorrhage should be considered as a possible cause of acute scrotal swelling in neonates. Ultrasonography assessment should be performed in such cases to examine the intra-abdominal organs especially the adrenal glands. PMID:7946555

Liu, K W; Ku, K W; Cheung, K L; Chan, Y L

1994-08-01

164

Bilobed Wide Neck Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Associated with Fusiform Basilar Aneurysm, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Chronic Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Summary A 56 year-old woman presented with a ruptured bilobed wide neck aneurysm of the P2 segment of the PCA, atherosclerotic fusiform basilar artery aneurysm, subarachnoid bleeding with negative CT scan and chronic renal failure. She was managed by a cooperative approach involving neurosurgeons, neuroradiologist, neurointensivist, emergency room physicians, nurses and technicians. She underwent operation by proximal clipping for the aneurysm of the PCA. Postoperative neurological deficits include homonymous hemianopsia and ipsilateral third nerve palsy. The operation was performed through asubtemporal approach. At surgery, the aneurysm was located in the distal of the P2 segment of PCA, bilobed up and down, no definitive neck with small distal branches, and was treated by proximal clipping of the PCA aneurysm. The fusiform basilar artery aneurysm was severely atherosclerotic and left untouched. This is a rare case which required a high index of suspicion to detect subarachnoid bleeding from ruptured posterior fossa aneurysm, accurate prediction of the site of bleeding and the location of aneurysm location by conventional angiogram, MRI and MRA, and careful planned surgical strategy with the right approach for the P2 segment of the PCA aneurysm, complicated post operative care with airway management, triple H therapy, nutrition, additional measures and multiple hemodialysis. PMID:20591269

Siauw Koan, Tan

2003-01-01

165

Selection of rainbow trout resistant to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and transmission  

E-print Network

Selection of rainbow trout resistant to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and transmission a programme of selection for resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout poorly as compared with the fins of susceptible fish. rainbow trout / selection / viral haemorrhagic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Neonatal intracranial haemorrhage: the cause of the ultrasound appearances.  

PubMed

We report experimental studies showing the relationship of the reflectivity of blood clot to both the red cell mass and the fibrin mesh. The highest amplitude echoes are returned by the fibrin mesh. These studies are compared with clinical examples of the different types of neonatal intracranial haemorrhage, as demonstrated by ultrasound. We conclude that the typical high-amplitude echoes characteristic of intracerebral haemorrhage are primarily due to the amount of fibrin mesh present, and not to the intact red cell mass, as has been previously suggested. PMID:6626868

Dewbury, K C; Bates, R I

1983-11-01

167

Spread of subarachnoid block, intraoperative local anaesthetic requirements and postoperative analgesic requirements in Caesarean section and total abdominal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Pregnancy is associated with a higher spread of subarachnoid anaesthesia and increased pain threshold. The study was designed to assess the spread of subarachnoid block and the intra- and postoperative analgesic requirements in pregnant vs non-pregnant women. Methods. We assessed the level of subarachnoid anaesthesia after 1.8 ml of hyperbaric lidocaine 5% and the postoperative analgesic requirements in women

A. Fassoulaki; V. Gatzou; G. Petropoulos; I. Siafaka

2004-01-01

168

Plasma gelsolin levels and outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower gelsolin levels have been associated with the severity and poor outcome of critical illness. Nevertheless, their link with clinical outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma gelsolin levels and clinical outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 262 consecutive patients and 150 healthy subjects were included. Plasma gelsolin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mortality and poor long-term outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at 6 months were recorded. Results Plasma gelsolin levels on admission were substantially lower in patients than in healthy controls (66.9 (26.4) mg/L vs. 126.4 (35.4) mg/L, P < 0.001), and negatively associated with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score (r = -0.554, P < 0.001) and Fisher score (r = -0.538, P < 0.001), and identified as an independent predictor of poor functional outcome (odds ratio, 0.957; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.933-0.983; P = 0.001) and death (odds ratio, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.917-0.990; P = 0.003) after 6 months. The areas under the ROC curve of gelsolin for functional outcome and mortality were similar to those of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score and Fisher score (all P > 0.05). Gelsolin improved the predictive values of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score and Fisher score for functional outcome (both P < 0.05), but not for mortality (both P > 0.05). Conclusions Gelsolin levels are a useful, complementary tool to predict functional outcome and mortality 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23880145

2013-01-01

169

[Dental and buccal complications of lip and tongue piercing].  

PubMed

Oral and facial piercing with different kinds of body art are being observed more frequently in medical and dental practices. Principally, piercing is not a new form of body art and is traditional in different geographical areas. In this review, the possible risks and complications are described. Postprocedural complications are oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Other adverse outcomes include mucosal or gingival trauma, chipped or fractured teeth, increased salivary flow, calculus build-up, and interference with speech, mastication and swallowing. Dentists, and oral- and maxillofacial surgeons should be in the position to advise patients with orofocial piercings or those who plan to have this type of body art performed. PMID:18506959

De Moor, Roeland; De Witte, An; Delmé, Katleen; De Bruyne, Mieke; Hommez, Geert

2007-01-01

170

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is infrequent. We present a man with CVT of right transverse sinus who presented a SAH in right parietal sinus. In the study we found a hyperhomocysteinemia in a heterozygous patient for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T mutation. Our report highlights the value of an early diagnosis of CVT, the importance to identify possible causes that could be reversed with an appropriate treatment and the controversy about the moment of starting anticoagulant therapy in such cases. PMID:25380613

Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana

2014-11-01

171

A rabbit cisterna magna double-injection subarachnoid hemorrhage model.  

PubMed

In recent years, the shift of research interest in the pathological condition after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from delayed cerebral vasospasm to early brain injury and the development of molecular genetic approaches in animal experiments has resulted in a diversification of animal SAH models. The properties of each animal SAH model thus need to be validated and the purpose of using each animal model should be clarified. This study presents the settings and technical procedures for a rabbit cisterna magna double-injection SAH model and discusses the advantages and limitations of using this model. PMID:25366647

Kikkawa, Yuichiro

2015-01-01

172

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage secondary to propylthiouracil-induced vasculitis.  

PubMed

Propylthiouracil is a drug used to treat hyperthyroidism. It can cause several side effects including pulmonary disorders that, although rare, can be severe. The authors describe the case of a woman treated with propylthiouracil who developed diffuse alveolar haemorrhage with severe respiratory failure and anaemia, which improved with discontinuation of the antithyroid drug and on starting systemic corticosteroid therapy. PMID:25661751

Ferreira, Catarina; Costa, Teresa; Marques, Ana Vieira

2015-01-01

173

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage associated with aerosol propellant use.  

PubMed

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome resulting from injury to the alveolar microcirculation, most commonly associated with not only autoimmune disorders or connective tissue disease, but also a variety of infections, neoplasms and toxins. We report here a case of an otherwise healthy young man with DAH attributable to an inhalation injury resulting from use of aerosol spray paint. PMID:23955981

Kelchen, Phillip; Jamous, Fady; Huntington, Mark K

2013-01-01

174

REVIEW Open Access Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit  

E-print Network

5. Virus life cycle 6. Mechanisms of resistance to RHD 7. Genetic diversity/RHDV evolution 7 haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Bilateral basal ganglion haemorrhage in diabetic ketoacidotic coma: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report bilateral oedema and haemorrhagic transformation in the basal ganglia of a 59-year old woman with severe diabetic\\u000a ketoacidosis. Lack of cerebral vascular autoregulation, followed by blood-brain barrier disruption due to the so-called breakthrough\\u000a mechanism is presumed to be the cause.

B. Ertl-Wagner; O. Jansen; S. Schwab; K. Sartor

1999-01-01

176

Eighteen years of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in France  

E-print Network

Eighteen years of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in France P de Kinkelin M. This provided the impetus for immuno- prophylaxis development that resulted in 3 successive types of vaccines: inactivated, live attenuated and recombinant vaccines. When delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Breathing-Impaired Speech after Brain Haemorrhage: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are presented from an auditory and acoustic analysis of the speech of an adult male with impaired prosody and articulation due to brain haemorrhage. They show marked effects on phonation, speech rate and articulator velocity, and a speech rhythm disrupted by "intrusive" stresses. These effects are discussed in relation to the speaker's…

Heselwood, Barry

2007-01-01

178

Partly reversible central auditory dysfunction induced by cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The authors describe a rare case of central auditory dysfunction induced by cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 55-year-old woman who was admitted after aneurysmal SAH developed cerebral vasospasm on Day 3 affecting mainly the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and partly the left MCA. The vasospasm became refractory to conventional therapy and was ultimately improved by intraarterial infusion of nimodipine in the right MCA and angioplasty. Severe auditory dysfunction was apparent from Day 10 as the patient was not reactive to speech or environmental sounds. Brain MRI on Day 17 demonstrated infarcted areas mainly in the right hippocampus, medial occipital lobe, and thalamus. The patient underwent further examination using audiometry, speech testing, auditory evoked potentials, functional MRI, and cerebral PET. The initial diagnosis was extended nonverbal agnosia and total pure word deafness. The central auditory dysfunction improved over 6 months, with persisting hyperacusis, tinnitus, and amusia. Central auditory dysfunction is a rare complication after SAH. While cortical deafness may be associated with bilateral lesions of the temporal cortex, partly reversible central auditory dysfunction was observed in this patient after prominently unilateral right temporal lesions. The role of the interthalamic connections can be discussed, as well as the possibility that a less severe vasospasm on the left MCA could have transiently impaired the left thalamocortical auditory pathways. PMID:23971951

Ponzetto, Ester; Vinetti, Marco; Grandin, Cécile; Duprez, Thierry; van Pesch, Vincent; Deggouj, Naïma; Lhommel, Renaud; Hantson, Philippe

2013-11-01

179

Significance of apolipoprotein E in subarachnoid hemorrhage: neuronal injury, repair, and therapeutic perspectives--a review.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) strikes individuals at a young age with devastating neurologic consequences. Classic formulations that correlate complications and outcome with clinical variables do not explain all the heterogeneity that is usually found in clinical practice. The role of genetic predisposition has recently been investigated. Particular attention has been paid to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype that encodes for a polymorphic protein existing as 3 isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, apoE4), products of alleles E2, E3, and E4 at a single gene locus. ApoE is produced by astrocytes and exerts complex neuroprotective functions that make it a hub of the biochemical network of SAH. The neuroprotective effectiveness of the apoE4 isoform is reduced with respect to the others and this has made the E4 allele a risk factor candidate. Recently published observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that the APOE genotype may strongly improve the usual predictive model with the possibility of optimizing clinical decisions according to the individual's needs. Furthermore, the clinical results, together with new biological insights, suggest that SAH may be a possible candidate for the ongoing research on apoE-based neuroprotective therapy. This article reviews the clinical studies, analyzes their methodology, and surveys the biological links between the physiopathology of SAH and apoE and the possible prospects. PMID:19251187

Lanterna, Luigi A L; Biroli, F

2009-01-01

180

Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2014-01-01

181

Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2014-01-01

182

Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

We studied whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is upregulated and uncoupled in large cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and also whether this causes cerebral vasospasm in a mouse model of anterior circulation SAH. Control animals underwent injection of saline instead of blood (n=16 SAH and n=16 controls). There was significant vasospasm of the middle cerebral artery 2 days after SAH (lumen radius/wall thickness ratio 4.3 ± 1.3 for SAH, 23.2 ± 2.1 for saline, P<0.001). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, cleaved caspase-3, and Fluoro-Jade-positive neurons in the cortex and with CA1 and dentate regions in the hippocampus. There were multiple fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli in the cortex and hippocampus after SAH. Transgenic mice expressing lacZ under control of the eNOS promoter had increased X-gal staining in large arteries after SAH, and this was confirmed by the increased eNOS protein on western blotting. Evidence that eNOS was uncoupled was found in that nitric oxide availability was decreased, and superoxide and peroxynitrite concentrations were increased in the brains of mice with SAH. This study suggests that artery constriction by SAH upregulates eNOS but that it is uncoupled and produces peroxynitrite that may generate microemboli that travel distally and contribute to brain injury. PMID:20517322

Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Knight, Britta; Tariq, Asma; Jeon, Hyojin; Shang, Xueyuan; Marsden, Philip Anthony; Loch Macdonald, Robert

2011-01-01

183

Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Radiographic vasospasm usually develops between 5 and 15 days after the initial hemorrhage, and is associated with clinically apparent delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DID) in one-third of patients. The pathophysiology of this reversible vasculopathy is not fully understood but appears to involve structural changes and biochemical alterations at the levels of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Blood in the subarachnoid space is believed to trigger these changes. In addition, cerebral perfusion may be concurrently impaired by hypovolemia and impaired cerebral autoregulatory function. The combined effects of these processes can lead to reduction in cerebral blood flow so severe as to cause ischemia leading to infarction. Diagnosis is made by some combination of clinical, cerebral angiographic, and transcranial doppler ultrasonographic factors. Nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is so far the only available therapy with proven benefit for reducing the impact of DID. Aggressive therapy combining hemodynamic augmentation, transluminal balloon angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator drugs is, to varying degrees, usually implemented. A panoply of drugs, with different mechanisms of action, has been studied in SAH related vasospasm. Currently, the most promising are magnesium sulfate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors and endothelin-1 antagonists. This paper reviews established and emerging therapies for vasospasm. PMID:17705883

Keyrouz, Salah G; Diringer, Michael N

2007-01-01

184

Acute complications of spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

Hagen, Ellen Merete

2015-01-18

185

Acute complications of spinal cord injuries  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

Hagen, Ellen Merete

2015-01-01

186

Expression of synaptosomal-associated protein-25 in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Synaptosomal-associated protein-25 is an important factor for synaptic functions and cognition. In this study, subarachnoid hemorrhage models with spatial learning disorder were established through a blood injection into the chiasmatic cistern. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis results showed that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum significantly lower at days 1 and 3 following subarachnoid morrhage. Our findings indicate that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression was down-regulated in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25206580

Chen, Gang; Hu, Tong; Li, Qi; Li, Jianke; Jia, Yang; Wang, Zhong

2013-01-01

187

[Diagnosis of stroke due to cocaine and its complications].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Cocaine is an independent cerebrovascular risk factor both for ischaemic and haemorrhagic events, above all among persons under 55 years of age. CASE REPORT. A case report of stroke due to the consumption of cocaine is used to review its pathophysiology and the complexity involved in the management and diagnosis of the associated complications. One of these complications reported in relation to the consumption of cocaine is vasospasm. This condition shares findings observed in ultrasound imaging studies with other conditions, such as early-onset post ischaemic hyperperfusion. Yet, there are important differences between the two as regards their treatment and prognosis. CONCLUSIONS. The consumption of cocaine is associated with cerebrovascular disease through a number of different mechanisms, which each give rise to different complications. By identifying these complications, correct management can be implemented. PMID:23884871

Larrosa-Campo, D; Ramon-Carbajo, C; Benavente-Fernandez, L; Alvarez-Escudero, R; Zeidan-Ramon, N; Calleja-Puerta, S; Pascual, J

2013-08-16

188

Management of traumatic haemorrhage - the European perspective.  

PubMed

Trauma-induced coagulopathy represents a life-threatening complication in severely injured patients. To avoid exsanguination, rapid surgical bleeding control coupled with immediate and aggressive haemostatic treatment is mandatory. In most trauma centres, coagulation therapy is established with transfusion of high volumes of fresh frozen plasma. Due to logistic issues, only busy trauma facilities store pre-thawed plasma ready for immediate transfusion. Thus, substantial time delays have been reported between the first unit of red blood cells transfused and the administration of fresh frozen plasma. An alternative for rapid improvement of haemostatic capacity is purified coagulation factor concentrates. They contain a well-defined concentration of coagulation proteins, carry a low risk for transfusion-related lung injury and virus transmission, and are available for immediate use without the need for blood group matching. In some European trauma centres, treatment algorithms have been developed for the administration of coagulation factor concentrates based on visco-elastic test results. PMID:25440403

Schöchl, H; Voelckel, W; Schlimp, C J

2015-01-01

189

Detection and localization of internal haemorrhaging using electrical bioimpedance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical bioimpedance is an effective measuring tool to provide quick, non-invasive, real-time results which will be applied to the detection of internal haemorrhaging. Experiments were performed on female Fancy Rats weighing 333±44g, and 10mL of porcine blood was injected abdominally over 3 minutes. Data was collected using an 8×8 needle electrode array at 5 kHz, and 95 kHz and sent to the BioParHom Z-Flow. A strong correlation was found between the electrode paths crossing directly through the blood injection site, showing a decrease of about -0.17±0.1?/mL for the 5 kHz frequency. This correlation allows us to quickly detect internal haemorrhaging and also localize it with the current path set-up in the electrode array.

Morse, J.; Fenech, M.

2013-04-01

190

Bilateral adrenal haemorrhagic infarction in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome presented with a 3-day history of bilateral loin pain, vomiting, fever and confusion. On examination she was febrile, hypotensive and tachycardic. Investigations revealed raised inflammatory markers, renal impairment and hyponatraemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed two well-defined heterogeneous areas bilaterally in the region of the adrenal glands. This prompted serum cortisol measurement and a CT of the abdomen. Cortisol was low in the context of sepsis at 48?nmol/L, and CT confirmed bilateral heterogeneous adrenal pathology. The patient was managed for septic shock and adrenal insufficiency. She was recognised to have several risk factors for haemorrhagic infarction of the adrenals: antiphospholipid syndrome, sepsis, postoperative state and anticoagulant therapy. She was discharged well on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid therapy and a repeat CT at 4?weeks confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral adrenal infarct and haemorrhage. PMID:25410037

Godfrey, Rebecca Louise; Clark, James; Field, Benjamin

2014-01-01

191

Resuscitation in massive obstetric haemorrhage using an intraosseous needle.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old woman experienced a massive postpartum haemorrhage 30 minutes after emergency caesarean delivery. The patient became severely haemodynamically compromised with an unrecordable blood pressure. Rapid fluid resuscitation was limited by the capacity of the intravenous cannula in place at the time and inability to establish additional vascular access using conventional routes in a timely manner. An intraosseous needle was inserted in the proximal humerus at the first attempt and administration of resuscitation fluid by this route subsequently enabled successful placement of further intravenous lines. Blood and blood products were deployed in conjunction with intra-operative cell salvage and transoesophageal Doppler cardiac output monitoring was used to assess adequacy of volume replacement. Haemorrhage control was finally achieved with the use of recombinant factor VIIa and hysterectomy. PMID:21401545

Chatterjee, D J; Bukunola, B; Samuels, T L; Induruwage, L; Uncles, D R

2011-04-01

192

Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (?1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume). Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p < 0.05) with 80% power. Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs) of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days). Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:21586127

2011-01-01

193

Interference of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years. PMID:24049554

Palade, C.; Ciurea, Alexandru V.; Nica, D. A.; Savu, R.; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru

2013-01-01

194

Demonstration of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from the Anterior Choroidal Artery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH.

Sim, Ki-Bum; Choi, H. Alex; Kim, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

195

Canine double hemorrhage model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Several animal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models have been proposed for the investigation of cerebral vasospasm. We describe the experimental procedures of a canine double-SAH model and also examine the model based on the canine physiological parameters and occurrence of angiographic delayed cerebral vasospasm using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and digital subtraction angiography. Autologous blood was injected twice on days 1 and 3 in 36 beagles. All animals showed delayed angiographic vasospasm in the vertebrobasilar arteries on day 7. The degree of vasospasm was 29-42 % of the arterial caliber. MR imaging did not show any ischemic change. This animal model can produce definite delayed vasospasm without detectable cerebral infarction on MR imaging. The canine SAH model is suitable for the quantitative and chronological study of delayed angiographic vasospasm, but not for investigating early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25366650

Mori, Kentaro; Fujii, Kazuya; Tomura, Satosi; Ueno, Hideaki; Wada, Kojiro; Otani, Naoki; Osada, Hideo; Tomiyama, Arata

2015-01-01

196

Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... is running out: Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Gonorrhea Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... the United States. Can gonorrhea cause complications during pregnancy and for your baby? Yes. Gonorrhea can lead ...

197

Natural history of adrenal haemorrhage in the newborn  

PubMed Central

5 cases of unilateral and 3 cases of bilateral haemorrhage are described. Only 1 infant died, from venous thromboses elsewhere. Apart from this case, all had an above average birthweight. Probable predisposing causes apart from large size were fetal hypoxia, septicaemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation defect, and disseminated thromboembolic disease. The condition must be distinguished from renal vein thrombosis. In the acute stage pyelography shows depression of the kidney on the affected side, with flattening of the upper calyces. Calcification develops rapidly round the periphery of the mass, then slowly contracts into an area of the size and shape of the original gland. Treatment is with antibiotics and blood transfusion, with intravenous corticosteroids in severely shocked or bilateral cases. Adrenal insufficiency is rarely found on follow-up even in bilateral cases, but renal hypertension should be looked for. No single cause for the haemorrhage could be discovered, but the preponderance of haemorrhage into the right adrenal gland is probably due to anatomical differences between the venous drainage of the two sides. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4735041

Black, John; Williams, David Innes

1973-01-01

198

Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

2014-01-01

199

Insights into the mechanism of haemorrhage caused by snake venom metalloproteinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local and systemic haemorrhage are common consequences of crotaline and viperine envenoming. Several studies carried out using purified toxins have indicated that local haemorrhage can be attributed to a distinct class of venom metalloproteinases. Analyses of their cDNAs predict multi-domain enzymes, with an N-terminal metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a Cys-rich C-terminus. Haemorrhagic metalloproteinases are responsible for degrading proteins

Aura S. Kamiguti; Charles R. M. Hay; R. David G. Theakston; Mirko Zuzel

1996-01-01

200

Long-term outcome and quality of life after nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an uncommon form of SAH. As nonaneurysmal SAH is often concentrated around\\u000a the pons and midbrain, the term perimesencephalic SAH (pmSAH) is widely accepted to describe this entity, though there are\\u000a patients with a more widespread distribution of subarachnoid blood (non-pmSAH). The outcome of pmSAH is commonly regarded\\u000a as good, although often outcome is not

Kerim Beseoglu; Silke Pannes; Hans J. Steiger; Daniel Hänggi

2010-01-01

201

Arachidonic acid metabolism and pathophysiologic aspects of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

We studied the ex vivo production of prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin E2, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, and leukotriene C4 in the brain tissue of rats subjected to experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. The ex vivo method allows the study of arachidonic acid metabolites released from brain slices at different times after subarachnoid hemorrhage induction and reflects the residual capacity for arachidonic acid metabolism after the pathologic event. The rats were sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 and 6 hours, and 2 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced by the injection of 0.30 ml autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna. Concentration of prostaglandin D2 and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha was increased significantly relative to control 2 days after induction. The concentration of prostaglandin E2 was increased significantly 6 hours after induction, while ex vivo production of leukotriene C4 was increased significantly at 1 and 6 hours and 2 days. The correlation between these results and the occurrence of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is discussed. The results obtained from the ex vivo incubation of brain tissue slices after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage suggest that after the hemorrhage there is a significant modification of brain eicosanoid metabolism, which could be of great importance in interpreting the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage-related neuronal impairment. PMID:2106176

Gaetani, P; Marzatico, F; Rodriguez y Baena, R; Pacchiarini, L; Viganò, T; Grignani, G; Crivellari, M T; Benzi, G

1990-02-01

202

Pre-Eclampsia Increases the Risk of Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Nationwide Cohort Study in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identifying risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage is crucial to predict this life threatening condition. Another major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality is pre-eclampsia. Previous studies show conflicting results in the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Our secondary objective was to identify other risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands. Methods A nationwide cohort was used, containing prospectively collected data of women giving birth after 19 completed weeks of gestation from January 2000 until January 2008 (n?=? 1 457 576). Data were extracted from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry, covering 96% of all deliveries in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure, postpartum haemorrhage, was defined as blood loss of ?1000 ml in the 24 hours following delivery. The association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage was investigated with uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 4.3% and of pre-eclampsia 2.2%. From the 31 560 women with pre-eclampsia 2 347 (7.4%) developed postpartum haemorrhage, compared to 60 517 (4.2%) from the 1 426 016 women without pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.74 to 1.89). Risk of postpartum haemorrhage in women with pre-eclampsia remained increased after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.46 to 1.60). Conclusion Women with pre-eclampsia have a 1.53 fold increased risk for postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians should be aware of this and use this knowledge in the management of pre-eclampsia and the third stage of labour in order to reach the fifth Millenium Developmental Goal of reducing maternal mortality ratios with 75% by 2015. PMID:24367496

von Schmidt auf Altenstadt, Joost F.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W. P. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.

2013-01-01

203

Sudden death due to rupture of the arteria pancreatica magna: a complication of an immature pseudocyst in chronic pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive haemorrhage due to rupture of single pancreatic or peripancreatic vessels is a very rare but potentially lethal complication\\u000a of acute and chronic pancreatitis. The splenic, gastroduodenal, and pancreatoduodenal arteries are the more commonly involved\\u000a vessels, and rupture occurs mostly as a complication of large mature pseudocysts. We report a sudden death due to massive\\u000a bleeding caused by rupture of

P. Lunetta; A. Penttilä; R. Salovaara; A. Sajantila

2002-01-01

204

Impairment of cardiac metabolism and sympathetic innervation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a nuclear medicine imaging study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often complicated by myocardial injury, whether this neurogenic cardiomyopathy is associated with the modification of cardiac metabolism is unknown. This study sought to explore, by positron emission tomography/computed tomography, the presence of altered cardiac glucose metabolism after SAH. Methods During a 16-month period, 30 SAH acute phase patients underwent myocardial 18?F- fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDGPET), 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy, respectively, assessing glucose metabolism, cardiac perfusion, and sympathetic innervation. Patients with initial abnormalities were followed monthly for two months for 18F-FDG, and six months later for 123I-mIBG. Results In this SAH population, acute cardiac metabolic disturbance was observed in 83% of patients (n?=?25), and sympathetic innervation disturbance affected 90% (n?=?27). Myocardial perfusion was normal for all patients. The topography and extent of metabolic defects and innervation abnormalities largely overlapped. Follow-up showed rapid improvement of glucose metabolism in one or two months. Normalization of sympathetic innervation was slower; only 27% of patients (n?=?8) exhibited normal 123I-mIBG scintigraphy after six months. Presence of initial altered cardiac metabolism was not associated with more unfavorable cardiac or neurological outcomes. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis of neurogenic myocardial stunning after SAH. In hemodynamically stable acute phase SAH patients, cardiomyopathy is characterized by diffuse and heterogeneous 18F-FDG and 123I-mIBG uptake defect. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01218191. Registered 6 October 2010. PMID:24964817

2014-01-01

205

Ischemia modified albumin increase indicating cardiac damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac complications are often developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may cause sudden death of the patient. There are reports in the literature addressing ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an early and useful marker in the diagnosis of ischemic heart events. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum IMA by using the albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test in the first, second, and seventh days of experimental SAH in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of seven animals. These were classified as control group, 1st, 2nd and 7th day SAH groups. SAH was done by transclival basilar artery puncture. Blood samples were collected under anesthesia from the left ventricles of the heart using the cardiac puncture method for IMA measurement. Histopathological examinations were performed on the heart and lung tissues. Albumin with by colorimetric, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined on an automatic analyser using the enzymatic method. IMA using by ACB test was detected with spectrophotometer. Results Serum IMA (p?=?0.044) in seventh day of SAH were higher compared to the control group. Total injury scores of heart and lung tissue, also myocytolysis at day 7 were significantly higher than control group (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001), day 1 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001) and day 2 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.007, p?=?0.001). A positive correlation between IMA - myocytolysis (r?=?0.48, p?=?0.008), and between IMA – heart tissue total injury score (r?=?0.41, p?=?0.029) was found. Conclusion The results revealed that increased serum IMA may be related to myocardial stress after SAH. PMID:24564759

2014-01-01

206

Dental and oral complications of lip and tongue piercings.  

PubMed

Piercing of the tongue and perioral regions is an increasingly popular expression of body art, with more patients coming in for a routine check-up with tongue and/or lip piercings. Several complications of oral piercing have been reported, some of which are life-threatening. In the present clinical survey the prevalence of both tongue and lip piercing complications in oral health was assessed in a group of 50 patients. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of the teeth, especially in association with tongue piercing. Gingival recession was seen as a result of lip piercing with studs. Post-procedural complications included oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be given more authority to advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art. PMID:16244618

De Moor, R J G; De Witte, A M J C; Delmé, K I M; De Bruyne, M A A; Hommez, G M G; Goyvaerts, D

2005-10-22

207

Gastric volvulus following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a rare complication.  

PubMed

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management. PMID:24515235

Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

2014-01-01

208

[Jeiuno-ileal diverticula complicated by perforation. Clinical case].  

PubMed

The diverticular disease is rarely located in the small intestine (0.1-1.4%). The most important feature is due to the lack of a typical symptomatology which may appear only on the occasion of the complications it may incur (perforation, haemorrhage and so on). It isn't also infrequent that the surgeon may observe intestinal diverticula accidentally, on the occasion of laparotomies carried out in emergency or for other pathologies. The literature on intestinal diverticula is reviewed and personal experience in a clinical case presenting as acute abdomen is described. PMID:12692506

Bianco, A; Ivaldi, L; Perino, M; Gambetta, G; Ferro, A; Colombini, M; Gennaro, M; Mura, G; Carrozza, V; Boetti, M; Revetria, P

2003-02-01

209

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Kashmir: Causes, risk factors, and outcome  

PubMed Central

Context: Kashmir, a snow bound and mountain locked valley, is populated by about 7 million ethnic and non-migratory Kashmiris who have specific dietary and social habits than rest of the world. The neurological disorders are common in Kashmiri population. Aims: To study the prevalence and outcome of spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Kashmir compared withother parts of the world. Settings and Design: A retrospective and hospital based study from 1982 to 2010 in the single and only Neurosurgical Centre of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and Methods: A hospital based study, in which, information concerning all Kashmiri patients was collected from the case sheets, patient files, discharge certificates, death certificates, and telephonic conversations with the help of Medical Records Department and Central Admission Register of Sher–i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir India. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and students T-test were used at occasions. Results: Incidence of SAH in Kashmiris is about 13/100,000 persons per year. SAH comprises 31.02% of total strokes and aneurysmal ruptures are cause of 54.35% SAHs. The female suffers 1.78 times more than the male. Total mortality of 36.60% was recorded against a good recovery of 14.99%. The familial SAHs and multiple aneurysms were also common. Intra-operative finding of larger aneurysmal size than recorded on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) angiogram of same patients was noteworthy. In 493 patients of SAH, the angiography revealed 705 aneurysms. Conclusion: Spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to aneurysmal rupture, is common in Kashmir, with worst outcome. Food habits like “salt-tea twice a day”, group-smoking of wet tobacco like “Jejeer”, winter season, female gender, hypertension, and inhalation of “Kangri” smoke are special risk factorsof SAH, in Kashmiris. The plain CT brain and CT angiography are best diagnostic tools. The preventive measures for aneurysmal formation and rupture seems most promising management of future. The detachable endovascular aneurysmal occupying video assisted micro-camera capsules or plugs may be future treatment. PMID:22347326

Bhat, Abdul Rashid; AfzalWani, Mohammed; Kirmani, Altaf R.

2011-01-01

210

[Leptospirosis with necro-haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a Boxer puppy].  

PubMed

A Boxer puppy from the island of Rügen, which was properly vaccinated according to its age, was presented with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis with acute renal failure, hepatic damage, and jaundice was confirmed by seroconversion (increased titre to 1?:?800 in a non-vaccine serogroup 4 weeks after disease onset). Cholecystitis was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and sonographic results. After an initial improvement, the puppy's condition deteriorated and cholecystectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis indicated a haemorrhagic necrotizing cholecystitis. PMID:25423604

Steil, D; Quandt, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Sie, J M; Löhr, C V; Teifke, J P

2014-12-10

211

Neurodevelopmental outcome of periventricular haemorrhage and leukomalacia in infants 1250 g or less at birth.  

PubMed

The brains of 50 consecutively admitted infants weighing 1250 g or less at birth were serially examined beyond the neonatal period for periventricular haemorrhage and for periventricular leukomalacia with real-time ultrasound. There was significant correlation between the presence or absence and the severity of haemorrhage with survival. A prospective neurodevelopmental assessment was completed at 2 years of age, corrected for prematurity, on all survivors. None of the 20 survivors with normal scans or germinal layer haemorrhages had evidence of major disability and all four survivors with intracerebral haemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia had major disability. The mental performance on the Bayley scales of infant development was also significantly worse in the latter group. Six of the eight survivors with intraventricular haemorrhage had no major disability, including three who had post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Our results showed that cerebral ultrasound detection of brain pathology is a good predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome in such extremely low birthweight infants. However, as the maximum extent of periventricular haemorrhage may develop beyond one week of age and cystic periventricular leukomalacia commonly develops after the neonatal period, serial scanning is mandatory to ensure diagnostic accuracy for both periventricular haemorrhage and leukomalacia. PMID:3525094

Szymonowicz, W; Yu, V Y; Bajuk, B; Astbury, J

1986-07-01

212

Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles: two year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn in the British Isles, study risk factors, and examine the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis. DESIGN--Prospective survey of all possible cases of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn as reported by consultant paediatricians using the monthly notification cards of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and a follow up questionnaire for each

A W McNinch; J H Tripp

1991-01-01

213

Clinical features of the haemorrhage type moyamoya disease based on 31 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We evaluated and analysed our own 31 cases of the haemorrhagic type of moyamoya disease to clarify the clinical features of this disease. The cases were divided into three groups. Group A consisted of 12 cases with aneurysms. Aneurysms on the circle of Willis were treated as ordinary saccular aneurysms. Group B consisted of 14 cases with intracerebral haemorrhage

S. Kawaguchi; T. Sakaki; T. Kakizaki; K. Kamada; T. Shimomura; H. Iwanaga

1996-01-01

214

Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... is running out: Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Chlamydia Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... younger than 25. Can chlamydia cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If you get it before or during ...

215

Acute management of poor condition subarachnoid hemorrhage patients  

PubMed Central

Poor condition subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients present a high mortality and morbidity. In this study, we reviewed the acute interventional (surgical and endovascular) management of 109 SAH-poor condition patients, who were treated as early as logistically possible after confirming stable circulation parameters. Patients over the age of 70 years, without clinical response to painful stimulation were excluded. We recognized at least 3 different postinterventional therapeutic approaches: (1) Norm- or hypovolemic, normotensive hemodilution in 30 patients with space-occupying intracranial hematomas as well as in 31 cases with acute cerebro-spinal-fluid obstruction. (2) Normovolemic, hypertensive hemodilution after unilateral decompressive craniotomy in 23 surgical- and 2 endovascular-treated patients with focalized space occupying lesions and reduced cerebral perfusion. (3) Hypovolemic, normo-, or hypertensive hemodilution after bilateral decompressive craniotomy in 23 cases with massive brain-swelling. We observed a reduced mortality (21%). The overall late outcome was favorable in 56% and unfavorable in 23%. Selective aggressive treatment adapted to increase the cerebral perfusion, seems to be an effective therapy to improve the survival and outcome of several poor condition SAH-patients. PMID:18200827

Eleftherios, Archavlis; Carvi y Nievas, Mario Nazareno

2007-01-01

216

[The mechanism of cardiorespiratory arrest due to subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

This report describes the clinical course of patients with sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have seen fifteen patients of SAH that presented initially as CRA. All of them were diagnosed as SAH by CT scan. The patients were divided into two groups; one group (early DOA group) included 11 patients, who had been recognized as CRA within 60 minutes from the onset of SAH, the other group (late DOA group) consisted of 4 patients, who developed CRA more than 60 minutes after the initial onset. The major mechanism leading to delayed CRA in the late DOA group appeared to have been from brain stem herniation, but another mechanism appeared to be involved in sudden CRA in the early DOA group. Sixty percent of our patients with CRA due to SAH had a low serum potassium concentration, though hypokalemia was observed in only 4 out of 100 patients with CRA due to diseases other than SAH. These facts suggest that sympathetic hyperstimulation might result not only from stress but also from a disorder of the central autonomic nervous system. We speculate that the mechanism leading to early CRA after SAH appears to result from a disorder of the central autonomic nerve system. PMID:7637838

Kanemoto, Y; Kamada, K; Sasaoka, Y; Nishimura, A; Sakitani, H

1995-07-01

217

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography  

PubMed Central

We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days. PMID:22493615

Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook

2012-01-01

218

Everyday Memory in Microsurgically Treated Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Memory declines measured by traditional tests in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well documented. Classic examinations of memory problems sometimes do not significantly correlate with memory functions in everyday life. The objective of the study was to assess the specific type of everyday memory loss in patients after microsurgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm causing SAH. Methods The prospective controlled, randomized study was conducted using the specific tests for everyday memory measure with high ecological validity. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon (KD). Preoperatively, patients were in a good grade (Hunt-Hess I or II), with no neurological deficit and no hydrocephalus postoperatively. Patients were tested at two phases: 15 and 45 days after microsurgery with the Rivermead behavioral memory test (RBMT) and the cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ). Results We compared the results of the tests administered in subjects that underwent microdiscectomy surgery for SAH to a control group that underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation (DH). Conclusion Neuropsychological assessment of operated patients who sustained SAH showed a decline, compared to the DH group, in everyday memory function. Also, we found failures in perception and motor function in operated SAH patients with a trend of cognitive recovery as time progresses.

Koso, Maida; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Sose-Selimotic, Jasmina

2015-01-01

219

Neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage: focusing on subcellular organelles.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy-lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles. PMID:25366597

Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

2015-01-01

220

Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC) preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC) was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25133183

Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

2014-01-01

221

Early Brain Injury, an Evolving Frontier in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research  

PubMed Central

Summary Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), predominantly caused by a ruptured aneurysm, is a devastating neurological disease that has a morbidity and mortality rate higher than 50%. Most of the traditional in vivo research has focused on the pathophysiological or morphological changes of large-arteries after intracisternal blood injection. This was due to a widely held assumption that delayed vasospasm following SAH was the major cause of delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. However, the results of the CONSCIOUS-1 trial implicated some other pathophysiological factors, independent of angiographic vasospasm, in contributing to the poor clinical outcome. The term early brain injury (EBI) has been coined and describes the immediate injury to the brain after SAH, before onset of delayed vasospasm. During the EBI period, a ruptured aneurysm brings on many physiological derangements such as increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and global cerebral ischemia. These events initiate secondary injuries such as blood-brain barrier disruption, inflammation, and oxidative cascades that all ultimately lead to cell death. Given the fact that the reversal of vasospasm does not appear to improve patient outcome, it could be argued that the treatment of EBI may successfully attenuate some of the devastating secondary injuries and improve the outcome of patients with SAH. In this review, we provide an overview of the major advances in EBI after SAH research. PMID:23894255

Fujii, Mutsumi; Yan, Junhao; Rolland, William B.; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Caner, Basak; Zhang, John H.

2013-01-01

222

Migrating lumbar intrathecal catheter fragment associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Intrathecal catheter placement into the lumbar cistern has varied indications, including drug delivery and CSF diversion. These Silastic catheters are elastic and durable; however, catheter-associated malfunctions are well reported in the literature. Fractured catheters are managed with some variability, but entirely intradural retained fragments are often managed conservatively with observation. The authors describe a case of a 70-year-old man with an implanted intrathecal morphine pump for failed back surgery syndrome who presented to an outside hospital with a history of headache, neck pain, nausea, and photophobia of 3 days' duration. He also described mild weakness and intermittent numbness of both legs. Unenhanced head CT demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A right C-5 hemilaminectomy was performed. This case is unique in that there was no indication that the lumbar intrathecal catheter had fractured prior to the patient's presentation with SAH. This case demonstrates that intrathecal catheter fragments are mobile and can precipitate intracranial morbidity. Extrication of known fragments is safe and should be attempted to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity. PMID:25360531

Hnenny, Luke; Sabry, Hatem A; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Liu, Jesse J; Roundy, Neil E; Dogan, Aclan

2015-01-01

223

Brain abscess as an initial presentation in a patient of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia caused by a novel ENG mutation.  

PubMed

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare inherited autosomal-dominant vascular dysplasia involving multiple organs. Brain abscess is an uncommon and potential fatal complication. We report a case of HHT caused by a novel ENG mutation who initially presented as brain abscess. The patient, with a family history of epistaxis, presented with fever, headache and right-sided haemiparesis. Upon examination, brain MRI showed a contrast-enhanced abscess on the left fronto-parietal region. Open brain drainage was performed and pus culture yielded Actinomyces meyeri. The chest image revealed multiple pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas. HHT was diagnosed according to Curacao criteria. Genetic analysis revealed a novel duplication on exon 6 of ENG gene, which segregates with symptomatic subjects in her family. Clinicians should be cautiously aware of HHT as a differential diagnosis if patients presented with an unknown entry source of intracerebral infections. PMID:23440993

Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Hsien

2013-01-01

224

Original surgical treatment of thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts in six chondrodystrophic dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid cysts are rare conditions in veterinary medicine, associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Most of the 100 cases of subarachnoid cysts described since the first report in 1968 were apparently not true cysts. Reported cysts are usually situated in the cervical area and occur in predisposed breeds such as the Rottweiler. The purpose of this retrospective study, from May 2003 to April 2012, was to describe the distinctive features of thoracolumbar spinal subarachnoid cysts, together with their surgical treatment and outcome in 6 chondrodystrophic dogs. Results Five Pugs and 1 French Bulldog were examined. Images suggestive of a subarachnoid cyst were obtained by myelography (2/6) and computed tomography myelography (4/6), and associated disc herniation was observed in 3/6 dogs. A hemilaminectomy was performed. The protruding disc eventually found in 5/6 dogs was treated by lateral corpectomy. The ventral leptomeningeal adhesions observed in all dogs after durotomy were dissected. No or only mild post-operative neurological degradation was observed. Follow-up studies (7 months to 4 years) indicated good outcome and no recurrence. Conclusions All the thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts described in these 6 chondrodystrophic dogs were associated with leptomeningeal adhesions. Good results seemed to be obtained by dissecting and removing these adhesions. A protruding disc, found here in 5/6 dogs, needs to be ruled out and can be treated by lateral corpectomy. PMID:24884635

2014-01-01

225

A case of airway obstruction secondary to acute haemorrhage into a benign thyroid cyst.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old female, with a history of progressive dyspnoea, was admitted to the critical care unit after successful resuscitation following a witnessed, out of hospital cardiorespiratory arrest. A presumptive diagnosis of cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was made. However, on more detailed examination a large anterior, midline neck mass was noted. Following tracheal intubation, a computerised tomography scan of the patient's neck and thorax revealed a seven-centimetre, well-defined, nonenhancing, rounded homogeneous opacity at the thoracic inlet, consistent with a large midline thyroid cyst. Needle aspiration of the cyst was performed and yielded approximately 50?mL of frank blood. After an uncomplicated tracheal extubation and recovery, an elective subtotal thyroidectomy was performed prior to hospital discharge. Histology of the specimen revealed a benign thyroid cyst within a multinodular goitre. Euthyroid multinodular goitres are more likely to be managed conservatively due to an asymptomatic clinical course in most patients. However, the risk of respiratory distress and acute airway obstruction from tracheal compression or acute haemorrhage should be kept in mind. Patients at risk of this life threatening complication should be managed with elective thyroidectomy to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:25215246

Vijapurapu, Ravi; Kaur, Kamal; Crooks, Neil H

2014-01-01

226

w RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic  

E-print Network

Main conclusions and recommendations An outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever is currently ongoing in Uganda with 38 cases reported, including 16 deaths. Two similar outbreaks have been seen in the past in Uganda. Through these, Uganda has developed a solid experience in dealing with such outbreaks, with the support currently of the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and specialised non-governmental organisations. As the incubation period can be up to three weeks, it is likely that additional cases will be identified in the coming weeks. However, control measures currently implemented in Uganda with the support of international partners, such as isolation of cases and active monitoring of contacts, should prevent further spread of the disease. It is unlikely, but not impossible, that travellers infected in Uganda could arrive in the EU while incubating the disease and develop symptoms while in the EU. However, such cases should seek medical attention and be isolated, therefore preventing further transmission. EU citizens in Uganda are not at risk of becoming infected unless they are in direct contact with bodily fluids of dead or living infected persons or animals. Avoiding such contact would effectively mitigate this risk. Public health issue To assess the risk at EU level associated with the current Ebola haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda. Source and date of request ECDC internal decision on 1 August 2012. Consulted experts ECDC experts.

unknown authors

2012-01-01

227

Ocular significance of intraventricular haemorrhage in premature infants  

PubMed Central

AIM—To document ocular outcome in premature infants with intraventricular haemorrhages (IVH).?METHODS—68 preterm infants with IVH were examined.?RESULTS—Mean gestational age was 28.1 weeks (range 24-35). Mean birth weight was 1045.9 g (630-2240). Mean follow up was 54.6 months (6-150). IVH is graded from 1 to 4 based on the severity of haemorrhages. The incidence of ocular abnormalities was compared between low grade IVH (grade 1 and 2) and high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4). Of the 68 infants with IVH, ROP occurred in 33 infants (48.5%); 13 (43.3%) had low grade IVH; 20 (52.6%) had high grade IVH. Strabismus developed in 30 infants (44.1%); 14 (46.6%) had low grade IVH; 16 (42.1%) had high grade IVH. Infants with high grade IVH were at significant greater risk than infants with low grade IVH for the development of optic atrophy (31.5% v 16.6%), hydrocephalus (57.8% v 10%).?CONCLUSION—This study highlights the serious significance of all grades of IVH with the higher incidence of optic atrophy and hydrocephalus with high grade IVH.?? PMID:11222347

O'Keefe, M.; Kafil-Hussain, N.; Flitcroft, I.; Lanigan, B.

2001-01-01

228

Submacular haemorrhages associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

The exact incidence of submacular haemorrhage (SMH) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is unknown, and risk factors for its occurrence ill defined. It is known, however, to be a relatively common problem and important because the visual prognosis of these patients is poor. Unfortunately, patients with significant SMH were excluded from all the recent major randomised control trials for nAMD with antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents and photodynamic therapy, and as such, the optimum management of patients is uncertain. SMH can present initially or during treatment of nAMD. The location, size, thickness and duration of SMH have an important bearing on treatment and outcomes. Thin or extrafoveal SMH are probably best treated with anti-VEGF agents alone. It has been proposed that patients with moderate-sized SMH, particularly thick haemorrhages, have an improved prognosis with surgical SMH displacement combined with treatment of CNVM if present. SMH drainage, macular translocation and RPE patch grafting are reserved for more severe extensive cases of SMH. Using these techniques, outcomes better than the natural history have been achieved. This review aims to summarise what is known about SMH in nAMD and will discuss a variety of therapeutic interventions. PMID:20813746

Steel, David Henry William; Sandhu, Sukhpal Singh

2011-08-01

229

Complications of colostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A review of 200 colostomies showed that the incidence of complications was 11 per cent. Prolapse was the most common complication.\\u000a Indications for colostomy and factors resulting in complications are mentioned. Technics that may prevent or reduce the incidence\\u000a of complications are briefly discussed.

Sibu Pada Saha; Narasihma Rao; Sam E. Stephenson

1973-01-01

230

Calcium and Potassium Channels in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Transient Global Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Healthy cerebrovascular myocytes express members of several different ion channel families which regulate resting membrane potential, vascular diameter, and vascular tone and are involved in cerebral autoregulation. In animal models, in response to subarachnoid blood, a dynamic transition of ion channel expression and function is initiated, with acute and long-term effects differing from each other. Initial hypoperfusion after exposure of cerebral vessels to oxyhemoglobin correlates with a suppression of voltage-gated potassium channel activity, whereas delayed cerebral vasospasm involves changes in other potassium channel and voltage-gated calcium channels expression and function. Furthermore, expression patterns and function of ion channels appear to differ between main and small peripheral vessels, which may be key in understanding mechanisms behind subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm. Here, changes in calcium and potassium channel expression and function in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage and transient global ischemia are systematically reviewed and their clinical significance discussed. PMID:23251831

Kamp, Marcel A.; Dibué, Maxine; Schneider, Toni; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

2012-01-01

231

Blood Clot Placement Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Non-human Primates.  

PubMed

Despite ongoing extensive and promising research to prevent and treat cerebrovascular vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), clinical outcomes remain unsatisfying. Neuroprotective strategies developed in basic science research laboratories need to be translated from bench-to-bedside using appropriate animal models. While a primate model is widely accepted as the best animal model mimicking development of delayed cerebral vasospasm after aSAH, its worldwide usage has dramatically decreased because of ethical and financial limitations. However, the use of primate models of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a recommended bridge for translation of early preclinical studies in rodents to human clinical trials. This paper discusses the technical aspects as well as advantages and disadvantages of a blood clot placement model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in non-human primates. PMID:25366649

Fathi, Ali Reza; Bakhtian, Kamran D; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Pluta, Ryszard M

2015-01-01

232

The Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Youngdong District, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Youngdong district for 10 years. Methods From Jan. 1997 to Dec. 2006, 732 patients (327 males, 405 females, mean age: 54.8±13.1 years) with spontaneous SAH were admitted to our hospital. We reviewed the medical records and radiological findings regarding to the ictus of SAH, location and size of the ruptured aneurysms, Hunt-Hess grade and Fisher grade on admission, personal details such as address, age, and sex, and previous history of medical diseases. Results In these 732 patients, 672 cases were confirmed as aneurysmal SAH. Among them, 611 patients (262 males, 349 females, mean age: 54.9±13.2 years) came from Youngdong district. The average crude annual incidence of aneurysmal SAH for men, women, and both sexes combined in Youngdong district was 7.8±1.7, 10.5±2.7, and 9.1±2.1 per 100,000 population, respectively. Because of the problems related to the observation period and geographical confinement, it was suspected that the representative incidence of aneurysmal SAH in Youngdong district should be made during the later eight years in six coastal regions. Therefore, the average age-adjusted annual incidence for men, women, and both sexes combined was 8.8±1.4, 11.2±1.3 and 10.0±1.0, respectively in the coastal regions of Youngdong district from 1999 to 2006. Conclusion In overall, our results on the incidence of aneurysmal SAH was not very different from previous observations from other studies. PMID:19096553

Lee, Hyoung Soo; Kim, Young June; Jang, Yeon Gyu; Rhee, Woo Tack; Lee, Sang Youl

2007-01-01

233

Life satisfaction and return to work after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141) living at home 2-4 years after the SAH responded to a mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were life satisfaction, as measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire 9 (LiSat-9), and employment status. Determinants in multiple regression analysis were demographic and SAH characteristics, subjective complaints (eg, mood disorder, fatigue, cognitive complaints), and personality characteristics (eg, neuroticism, passive coping style). Of the 141 subjects, 64 (46.7%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of V (good outcome) at discharge. Mean subject age was 51.4 ± 12.3 years, and mean time after SAH was 36.1 ± 7.9 months. Of the 88 subjects who were working at the time of the SAH, 54 (61.4%) returned to work, but only 31 (35.2%) resumed their work completely. The subjects were least satisfied with their vocational situation (51.9% satisfied) and sexual life (51.7%) and were most satisfied with their relationships (75.2%-88.7%) and self-care ability (88.6%). Age (? value = 0.17), return to work after SAH (0.19), disability at hospital discharge (0.25), worsened mood (-0.37), and passive coping (-0.25) together accounted for 47.2% of the life satisfaction scores. Our data indicate that return to work is a major issue for individuals who survive an SAH. Not returning to work, disability, depression, and passive coping are associated with reduced life satisfaction. Thus, vocational reintegration after SAH merits more attention during rehabilitation. PMID:20656515

Passier, Patricia E C A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W M

2011-01-01

234

Vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Thrombocytopenia a marker  

PubMed Central

Background: Symptomatic vasospasm (SV) is often seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The pathophysiology suggests that platelets initiate the process and are consumed. This is likely to result in thrombocytopenia. The objective of this study was to find out if thrombocytopenia preceded or followed SV and to analyze the relationship between the two. Materials and Methods: The platelet counts of 74 patients were studied on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 following aSAH. Clinical symptoms and raised velocities on transcranial Doppler were studied on the same days to determine SV. The relationship of platelet counts and SV were analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine (52.7%) patients developed SV. Platelet counts dropped on postictal day (PID) 3-7 and SV was commonly seen on PID 5-9. The median platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with SV when compared to those without SV. Platelet count <150,000/mm3 on PID 1 and 7 had statistically significant association (P < 0.001) with SV. The odds ratio was 5.1, 6.9, and 5.1 on PID 5, 7, and 9, respectively, for patients with relative thrombocytopenia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: There is a strong correlation between thrombocytopenia and SV. A platelet count < 150,000/mm3 on PID 1 and 7 predicts presence of SV. The relative risk of developing SV is >5 times for a patient with relative thrombocytopenia especially on PID 5-9. Additionally, it appears that thrombocytopenia precedes vasospasm and may be an independent predictor. However, this requires further studies for validation. PMID:24250155

Aggarwal, Ashish; Salunke, Pravin; Singh, Harnarayan; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Chhabra, Rajesh; Singla, Navneet; Sachdeva, Ashwani Kumar

2013-01-01

235

The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

2012-01-01

236

Subarachnoid Space: New Tricks by an Old Dog  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study was to: (1) evaluate the subarachnoid space (SAS) width and pial artery pulsation in both hemispheres, and (2) directly compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS) measurements of SAS width changes in healthy volunteers. Methods The study was performed on three separate groups of volunteers, consisting in total of 62 subjects (33 women and 29 men) aged from 16 to 39 years. SAS width was assessed by MRI and NIR-T/BSS, and pial artery pulsation by NIR-T/BSS. Results In NIR-T/BSS, the right frontal SAS was 9.1% wider than the left (p<0.01). The SAS was wider in men (p<0.01), while the pial artery pulsation was higher in women (p<0.01). Correlation and regression analysis of SAS width changes between the back- and abdominal-lying positions measured with MRI and NIRT-B/SS demonstrated high interdependence between both methods (r?=?0.81, p<0.001). Conclusions NIR-T/BSS and MRI were comparable and gave equivalent modalities for the SAS width change measurements. The SAS width and pial artery pulsation results obtained with NIR-T/BSS are consistent with the MRI data in the literature related to sexual dimorphism and morphological asymmetries between the hemispheres. NIR-T/BSS is a potentially cheap and easy-to-use method for early screening in patients with brain tumours, increased intracranial pressures and other abnormalities. Further studies in patients with intracranial pathologies are warranted. PMID:22701518

Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Czaplewski, Bartosz; Winklewski, Pawel J.

2012-01-01

237

Recombinant Osteopontin in Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Osteopontin (OPN), a pleiotropic extracellular matrix glycoprotein, has been reported to be protective against ischemic lesions, but effects of OPN on vascular functions have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether recombinant OPN (r-OPN) could prevent cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. Methods r-OPN was administered intraventricularly to rats undergoing SAH by the endovascular perforation, and its protective effects were evaluated by measuring the diameter of cerebral arteries and neurobehavioral testing. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms. An integrin receptor antagonist GRGDSP or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (MKP)-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was also administered to r-OPN-treated SAH rats, and those effects were evaluated. Results Pre-SAH administration of r-OPN prevented vasospasm and neurological impairments at 24–72 hours post-SAH. r-OPN enhanced an endogenous MAPK inhibitor, MKP-1, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs, caldesmon and heat shock protein 27 in the spastic cerebral arteries at 24 hours post-SAH. Immunofluorescence revealed that MKP-1 was induced in the arterial smooth muscle layer. GRGDSP prevented r-OPN-induced MKP-1 upregulation, and MKP-1 siRNA abolished both MAPK inactivation and anti-vasospastic effects by r-OPN. Post-SAH r-OPN treatment also prevented vasospasm. Interpretation r-OPN induced MKP-1 in the spastic cerebral arteries via binding to L-arginyl-glycyl-L-aspartate-dependent integrin receptors and prevented vasospasm after SAH. Therapeutic induction of MKP-1 may be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:21031580

Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Chen, Wanqiu; Kanamaru, Kenji; Zhang, John H.

2010-01-01

238

Use of portal pressure studies in the management of variceal haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Portal hypertension occurs as a complication of liver cirrhosis and complications such as variceal bleeding lead to significant demands on resources. Endoscopy is the gold standard method for screening cirrhotic patients however universal endoscopic screening may mean a lot of unnecessary procedures as the presence of oesophageal varices is variable hence a large time and cost burden on endoscopy units to carry out both screening and subsequent follow up of variceal bleeds. A less invasive method to identify those at high risk of bleeding would allow earlier prophylactic measures to be applied. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an acceptable indirect measurement of portal hypertension and predictor of the complications of portal hypertension in adult cirrhotics. Varices develop at a HVPG of 10-12 mmHg with the appearance of other complications with HPVG > 12 mmHg. Variceal bleeding does not occur in pressures under 12 mmHg. HPVG > 20 mmHg measured early after admission is a significant prognostic indicator of failure to control bleeding varices, indeed early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in such circumstances reduces mortality significantly. HVPG can be used to identify responders to medical therapy. Patients who do not achieve the suggested reduction targets in HVPG have a high risk of rebleeding despite endoscopic ligation and may not derive significant overall mortality benefit from endoscopic intervention alone, ultimately requiring TIPS or liver transplantation. Early HVPG measurements following a variceal bleed can help to identify those at risk of treatment failure who may benefit from early intervention with TIPS. Therefore, we suggest using HVPG measurement as the investigation of choice in those with confirmed cirrhosis in place of endoscopy for intitial variceal screening and, where indicated, a trial of B-blockade, either intravenously during the initial pressure study with assessment of response or oral therapy with repeat HVPG six weeks later. In those with elevated pressures, primary medical prophylaxis could be commenced with subsequent close monitoring of HVPG thus negating the need for endoscopy at this point. All patients presenting with variceal haemorrhage should undergo HVPG measurement and those with a gradient greater than 20 mmHg should be considered for early TIPS. By introducing portal pressure studies into a management algorithm for variceal bleeding, the number of endoscopies required for further intervention and follow up can be reduced leading to significant savings in terms of cost and demand on resources. PMID:22816007

Addley, Jennifer; Tham, Tony CK; Cash, William Jonathan

2012-01-01

239

Rodent control programmes in areas affected by Bolivian haemorrhagic fever  

PubMed Central

Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (BHF) caused by Machupo virus is acquired by contact with the excretions and secretions of Calomys callosus, an indigenous cricetine rodent which is preadapted to peridomestic habitats. It competes successfully with Mus musculus, but not with Rattus rattus. A successful disease control programme has functioned in Beni Department since 1964. It is based on trapping surveys and the detection of splenomegaly in Calomys rodents as an index of chronic virus infection. Mass trapping and poisoning are used initially, and regular trapping is employed to control Calomys populations in towns where disease has occurred. More than 1000 cases of BHF were recorded from 1960-1964, but less than 200 in the past 10 years. The cost of this programme is approximately $30 000 annually. PMID:182405

Mercado R., Rodolfo

1975-01-01

240

The Bulgarian vaccine Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus strain.  

PubMed

The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a 3-segmented RNA virus, which causes disease with a high fatality rate in humans. An inactivated suckling mouse brain-derived vaccine is used in Bulgaria for protection against CCHF. Strain V42/81 is currently used for the vaccine preparation. As the M-RNA segment plays a major role in the immune response, the full-length M segment sequence of the V42/81 strain was characterized. A great genetic diversity was observed among CCHFV strains. In order to gain an insight into the topology of the strain in the CCHFV phylogenetic trees, the full-length S and partial L segments were additionally sequenced and analyzed. PMID:21142621

Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Christova, Iva

2011-03-01

241

Haemorrhage after home birth: audit of decision making and referral.  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, 20 per cent of women give birth at home. In 0.7 per cent, referral to secondary care because of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is indicated. Midwives are regularly trained in managing obstetric emergencies. A postgraduate training programme developed for Dutch community-based midwives called 'CAVE' (pre-hospital obstetric emergency course) focuses on the identification and management of obstetric emergencies, including timely and adequate referral to hospital. This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of PPH reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of which seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor and major substandard care. PMID:24371910

Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos

2013-11-01

242

Haemorrhage, hyponatraemia and more than just a hack.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old previously healthy solicitor presented with a 9-day history of cough productive of yellow sputum with a prodrome of sore throat and myalgia. The cough was paroxysmal in nature and severe enough to cause extensive bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhages and cough syncopes multiple times a day, with one bout of associated haematemesis on the day of admission. He was isolated, treated for a presumed atypical chest infection with tazocin and clarithromycin, and monitored carefully until the hyponatraemia on presentation was resolved. Atypical screen and blood cultures were sent off, though unexciting at first, eventually confirmed the unlikely; Bordetella pertussis, much to the surprise of many who had Legionella as the top differential. PMID:24943139

Shah, Mitsu; Kandil, Hala

2014-01-01

243

Ultra-early tranexamic acid after subarachnoid hemorrhage (ULTRA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A frequent complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is recurrent bleeding from the aneurysm. The risk is highest within the first 6 hours after the initial hemorrhage. Securing the aneurysm within this timeframe is difficult owing to logistical delays. The rate of recurrent bleeding can also be reduced by ultra-early administration of antifibrinolytics, which probably improves functional outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ultra-early and short-term administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA), as add-on to standard SAH management, leads to better functional outcome. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoint (PROBE) assessment. Adult patients with the diagnosis of non-traumatic SAH, as proven by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after the onset of headache, will be randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group. Patients in the treatment group will receive standard treatment with the addition of a bolus of TXA (1 g intravenously) immediately after randomization, followed by continuous infusion of 1 g per 8 hours until the start of aneurysm treatment, or a maximum of 24 hours after the start of medication. Patients in the control group will receive standard treatment without TXA. The primary outcome measure is favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months after SAH. Primary outcome will be determined by a trial nurse blinded for treatment allocation. We aim to include 950 patients in 3 years. Discussion The strengths of this study are: 1. the ultra-early and short-term administration of TXA, resulting in a lower dose as compared to previous studies, which should reduce the risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), an important risk factor in the long-term treatment with antifibrinolytics; 2. the power calculation is based on functional outcome and calculated with use of recent study results of our own population, supported by data from prominent studies; and 3. the participation of several specialized SAH centers, and their referring hospitals, in the Netherlands with comparative treatment protocols. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register (Dutch Trial Registry) number NTR3272 PMID:23680226

2013-01-01

244

Recurrent hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhages: what should we do when a new hemispheric ischaemic event strikes?  

PubMed Central

Hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage is usually a once in a lifetime event and recurrences are rare. Most recurrences usually develop within 2?years of the first event and the majority usually target the basal ganglia and thalami. Failure of blood pressure control is the most important, potentially preventable, culprit behind the development of primary intracerebral haemorrhages. However, the occurrence of a recurrent bleed in patients with optimally controlled hypertension should always prompt the physician to think of a new co-operating factor. We report on a 60-year-old hypertensive woman who developed right-sided thalamic haemorrhage 5?days after sustaining a lacunar infarct of the left thalamus for which she had been prescribed a dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin and clopidrogrel. She had a history of two bilateral sequential hypertensive deep cerebellar haemorrhages which were developed 2?years ago. PMID:23264163

Amin, Osama S M

2012-01-01

245

Subarachnoid hematoma of the craniocervical junction and upper cervical spine after traumatic cerebral contusion: case report.  

PubMed

Spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) is a rare condition, more commonly occurring after lumbar puncture for diagnostic or anesthesiological procedures. It has also been observed after traumatic events, in patients under anticoagulation therapy or in case of arteriovenous malformation rupture. In a very small number of cases no causative agent can be identified and a diagnosis of spontaneous SSH is established. The lumbar and thoracic spine are the most frequently involved segments and only seven cases of cervical spine SSH have been described until now. Differential diagnosis between subdural and subarachnoid hematoma is complex because the common neuroradiological investigations, including a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not enough sensitive to exactly define clot location. Actually, confirmation of the subarachnoid location of bleeding is obtained at surgery, which is necessary to resolve the fast and sometimes dramatic evolution of clinical symptoms. Nonetheless, there are occasional reports on successful conservative treatment of these lesions. We present a peculiar case of subarachnoid hematoma of the craniocervical junction, developing after the rupture of a right temporal lobe contusion within the adjacent arachnoidal spaces and the following clot migration along the right lateral aspect of the foramen magnum and the upper cervical spine, causing severe neurological impairment. After surgical removal of the hematoma, significant symptom improvement was observed. PMID:24067775

Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Colasanti, Roberto; Moriconi, Elisa; Gladi, Maurizio; Nocchi, Niccolò; Scerrati, Massimo

2013-01-01

246

Nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage causes severe ischemic neurologic deficits leading to permanent neurologic dysfunction or death. Reduced intravascular and perivascular nitric oxide (NO) availability is a primary pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we evaluated NO-loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) for ultrasound-facilitated NO delivery to produce vasodilation for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We investigated the vasodilative effects of NO released from NO-ELIP both ex vivo and in vivo. Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared, and NO was encapsulated. The encapsulation and release of NO from NO-ELIP were determined by the syringe/vacuum method and ultrasound imaging. The ex vivo vasodilative effect of NO-ELIP was investigated using rabbit carotid arteries. Arterial vasodilation was clearly observed with NO-ELIP exposed to Doppler ultrasound whereas there was little vasodilative effect without exposure to Doppler ultrasound in the presence of red blood cells. Penetration of NO into the arterial wall was determined by fluorescent microscopy. The vasodilative effects of intravenously administered NO-ELIP in vivo were determined in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage model. NO-ELIP with ultrasound activation over the carotid artery demonstrated effective arterial vasodilation in vivo resulting in improved neurologic function. This novel methodology for ultrasound-controlled delivery of NO has the potential for therapeutic treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. This ultrasound-controlled release strategy provides a new avenue for targeted bioactive gas and therapeutic delivery for improved stroke treatment. PMID:24379666

Kim, Hyunggun; Britton, George L; Peng, Tao; Holland, Christy K; McPherson, David D; Huang, Shao-Ling

2014-01-01

247

Ventricular assist devices as rescue therapy in cardiogenic shock after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

We review the journey to myocardial and neurologic recovery of a 42-year-old mother with severe acute cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure after extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage, who was salvaged successfully using a CentriMag short-term biventricular assist device. PMID:24694427

Al-Adhami, Ahmed; Macfie, Alistair; Mathieson, Calan; Quasim, Isma; Smith, Robyn; Craig, Stewart; Gardner, Roy; Payne, John; Petrie, Mark; Haj-Yahia, Saleem

2014-04-01

248

Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats  

SciTech Connect

From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

1988-07-01

249

Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction  

PubMed Central

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome.

Choi, Kyu-Sun

2014-01-01

250

Low cerebral blood flow is a risk factor for severe intraventricular haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo investigate the relation between cerebral blood flow on the first day of postnatal life and the severity of any subsequent germinal matrix haemorrhage–intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH–IVH).METHODSCerebral blood flow was measured in 24 babies during the first 24 hours of life using near infrared spectroscopy. Repeated cerebral ultrasound examination was performed to define the maximum extent of GMH–IVH. Infants were classified

Judith H Meek; Lidia Tyszczuk; Clare E Elwell; J S Wyatt

1999-01-01

251

Cerebellar haemorrhage as a cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema-case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurogenic pulmonary edema is a rare clinical situation caused by an imbalance characterized by an excessive sympathetic\\u000a outflow. It is observed mostly in young patients, is associated with brain or spinal cord haemorrhage, trauma, tumours or\\u000a infections and is usually fatal. A case of neurogenic pulmonary edema in a 27-year-old woman is presented, caused by a cerebellar\\u000a haemorrhage due

Victor Gonçalves; Lu’is Silva-Carvalho; Isabel Rocha

2005-01-01

252

Major Haemorrhage during Vitamin K Antagonist Treatment: The Influence of Thyroid Hormone Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Annually, approximately 1-3% of patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) suffer from major haemorrhage. Since high levels of free thyroxine (fT4) are associated with increased thrombosis risk, the aim was to assess whether low levels of fT4 contribute to major haemorrhage in patients under VKA treatment. Methods The FACTORS (Factors in Oral Anticoagulant Safety) study is a case-control study on patients receiving VKA treatment, including 110 cases with major haemorrhage. Controls were 220 matched participants treated with VKA without major haemorrhage. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association of fT4 levels with major haemorrhage were calculated for different fT4 cutoffs by conditional logistic regression. Results In patients with an fT4 level below 13 pmol/l, the risk of major haemorrhage was 5-fold increased (OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 0.9-28.6) compared with patients with an fT4 level above 13 pmol/l. At a cutoff of 14 pmol/l, the risk was 3-fold increased (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.0-8.5). High levels of fT4 did not affect bleeding risk. No clear effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid peroxidase antibodies was seen on the risk of major haemorrhage. Conclusions These results indicate that fT4 levels below 14 pmol/l play a role in the aetiology of major haemorrhage in VKA users. PMID:24847463

Debeij, Jan; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; van Zaane, Bregje; van Zanten, Anton P.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Gerdes, Victor E.A.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Dekkers, Olaf M.

2014-01-01

253

Factor VIII R:Ag as a prognostic parameter in intracranial haemorrhage.  

PubMed Central

Factor VIII R:Ag was measured serially in 42 patients who had intracranial haemorrhage. It was found that the factor decreased or remained static in the 24 patients who improved (p less than 0.025), while it increased in the 18 who died (p less than 0.0005). It is suggested that this factor can be used as a prognostic parameter to predict the outcome after intracranial haemorrhage. PMID:3106577

Almaani, W S; Awidi, A S; Karmi, M Z

1987-01-01

254

Clinical features of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever in the united arab emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (C-CHF) re-emerged recently in the United Arab Emirates. The clinical outcome of 11 cases of viral haemorrhagic fever patients admitted to hospital between June 1994 and January 1995 is described. Four cases were laboratory confirmed retrospectively as C-CHF, the other patients were diagnosed likely to have the same disease on epidemiological and clinical grounds. In 72.7%

T. F. Schwarz; H. Nsanze; A. M. Ameen

1997-01-01

255

Orbital cerebrospinal fluid accumulation after complicated pterional-orbitozygomatic craniotomy.  

PubMed

We describe 2 patients who developed postoperative orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection after orbitozygomatic pterional craniotomy. An 18-year-old woman underwent exploratory pterional-orbitozygomatic craniotomy. Five days postoperatively, after removal of a lumbar drain, proptosis and a compressive optic neuropathy developed. Computed tomography demonstrated a CSF collection contiguous with the craniotomy site. Resolution followed percutaneous aspiration and replacement of the lumbar drain. A 57-year-old woman underwent a pterional-orbitozygomatic craniotomy for removal of a left anterior clinoid meningioma, complicated by a large left hemorrhagic stroke requiring decompressive hemicraniectomy. Extracranial CSF collections accumulated in both the orbit and subgaleal spaces. Resolution followed placement of an external ventricular drain. Based on these cases, the mechanism seems to be the combination of iatrogenic formation of a communication with the subarachnoid space and elevated intracranial pressure. Resolution was achieved by normalizing intracranial pressure. PMID:24699141

Yoon, Michael K; Piluek, Wachirapon Jordan; Ruggiero, Jason P; McDermott, Michael W; McCulley, Timothy J

2014-12-01

256

Historical overview and review of current day treatment in the management of acute variceal haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past. PMID:24914369

Rajoriya, Neil; Tripathi, Dhiraj

2014-01-01

257

Clinical features of the haemorrhage type moyamoya disease based on 31 cases.  

PubMed

We evaluated and analysed our own 31 cases of the haemorrhagic type of moyamoya disease to clarify the clinical features of this disease. The cases were divided into three groups. Group A consisted of 12 cases with aneurysms. Aneurysms on the circle of Willis were treated as ordinary saccular aneurysms. Group B consisted of 14 cases with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) without aneurysms. These were managed almost as spontaneous ICH. Group C consisted of 5 cases with intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) without aneurysms or ICH. Twenty-two surgical procedures for aneurysms, ICH and IVH were done in 19 cases (62%). Nineteen procedures for preventing future strokes were undertaken in 11 cases (35%). The overall initial outcome was excellent in 12 cases (39%), good in 7 cases (23%), poor in 7 cases (23%), and death in 5 cases (15%). During the follow-up period (mean: 6.5 years), rebleeding occurred in two cases (8%), and ischaemic attacks in two cases (8%). The rate of rebleeding or ischaemic attacks was 1.19% per patient-year during the follow-up period. There was no ischaemic or rebleeding episode in cases treated by STA-MCA bypass with encephalomyosynagiosis (EMS) during the follow-up period. Management of the primary haemorrhage should be according to the clinical condition, type of haemorrhage, and source of haemorrhage. When the patient needs to undergo revascularization surgery to prevent future strokes, we recommend STA-MCA bypass with EMS instead of encephaloduro-arteriosynangiosis (EDAS). PMID:8955440

Kawaguchi, S; Sakaki, T; Kakizaki, T; Kamada, K; Shimomura, T; Iwanaga, H

1996-01-01

258

Dose response study of subarachnoid diamorphine for analgesia after elective caesarean section.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid diamorphine provides excellent analgesia after elective caesarean section but the optimum dose is still uncertain. We therefore investigated the effects of three regimens of subarachnoid diamorphine. Forty parturients were assigned to one of four groups. A control group received no diamorphine in their subarachnoid bupivacaine and three study groups received 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg or 0.3 mg diamorphine added to 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in a semi-blind randomised design study. All women received a 100 mg diclofenac suppository at the end of the caesarean section and were provided with morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. The patients were assessed for pain, morphine usage and side-effects at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the subarachnoid injection. Postoperative visual analogue scores for pain and PCA morphine consumption were significantly lower, and mean time to first use of morphine was significantly longer in the 0.3 mg diamorphine group. The mean (SD) dose of PCA morphine used over 24 h was 39.4 (14.7), 25.6 (16.5), 21.6 (15.9) and 3.1 (3.6) mg, and mean time to first use of morphine was 1.6 (0.5), 3.0 (1.4), 3.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (9.4) h, in the 0, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg groups respectively. Side-effects of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were dependent on the dose of spinal diamorphine but did not require treatment in any patients. We conclude that 0.3 mg subarachnoid diamorphine provides significantly better postoperative pain relief than the smaller doses with an acceptable increase in side-effects. PMID:15321116

Skilton, R W; Kinsella, S M; Smith, A; Thomas, T A

1999-10-01

259

Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges  

PubMed Central

To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

2013-01-01

260

Fibrin glue in initial treatment of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease).  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the haemostatic efficacy of fibrin sealant in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease suffering epistaxis. A retrospective observational study of patients with HHT who were admitted to an emergency room for anterior or posterior epistaxis during May 2000-March 2003. A total of 24 patients were evaluated, of whom 15 were managed with foam nasal packing during May 2000-March 2002 and another nine were treated during March 2002-March 2003 with 0.3 ml fibrin sealant spray (Quixil; Omrix, Belgium). The immediate and the distant results were compared. Immediate haemostasis was achieved in all seven patients treated with fibrin glue, with good healing of bleeding sites, no secondary bleeding, no inflammation, and no plaque or crists. Twelve months of follow-up monitoring (until October 2003) of atrophic changes of nasal mucosa, bleeding frequency and intensity proved absence of atrophy of nasal mucosa and decreased bleeding frequency. In this group, the bleeding episode duration averaged 2 min 35 s since the moment of admittance. In the nasal packing group, we found local swelling, pain, and slow healing of the bleeding site with accidental atrophy of nasal mucosa and no effect on further bleeding frequency and intensity. Removal of nasal packing frequently initiates secondary bleeding. The rates of these side effects were higher in comparison with the fibrin glue group. The bleeding episode duration was also longer. In patients with HHT suffering profuse epistaxis, fibrin glue is more effective and convenient for the patients as compared with foam nasal packing. It is also safer, since it lacks the complications that usually accompany packing as swelling, atrophy of the nasal mucosa, and secondary bleeding provoked by the removal of the pack. PMID:15166924

Vaiman, Michael; Martinovich, Uri; Eviatar, Efraim; Kessler, Alex; Segal, Samuel

2004-06-01

261

Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Lyme Disease - Neurological Complications Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Neurological Complications of ...

262

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia  

PubMed Central

In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

2014-01-01

263

Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

Tantawichien, Terapong

2012-01-01

264

A modified Kleihauer technique for the quantification of foetomaternal haemorrhage.  

PubMed

The Kleihauer technique, based on acid elution of maternal red cells, is the mostly widely used technique in the UK to screen for, and estimate the volume of, foetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) and for determining the need for additional doses of anti-D immunoglobulin to prevent maternal alloimmunization. However, technicians often report difficulties in identifying and accurately counting maternal red cells in the blood film, leading to imprecision in the calculated FMH. In this report, we describe a simple modification of the standard Kleihauer technique, based on performing acid elution of only half of the film. Compared to the standard method, the modified technique showed improved accuracy and reduced interobserver variability across a range of simulated FMH volumes. There was a high degree of correlation between the new technique and FMH estimated by flow cytometry (r2 = 0.916, P < 0.001). Technicians found the new technique easy to incorporate into routine practice in a busy teaching hospital laboratory and were impressed by the relative ease of counting maternal ghost cells. The modified technique has been used routinely in our laboratory for 3 years, during which time our performance in the UK National External Quality Assurance Scheme for FMH has been uniformly satisfactory. PMID:12473154

Howarth, D J; Robinson, F M; Williams, M; Norfolk, D R

2002-12-01

265

National mutation study among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.  

PubMed

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical diagnosis of HHT is based on the Curaçao criteria. About 85% of HHT patients carry mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes. Here, we report on the genetic heterogeneity in the Danish national HHT population and address the prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Probands of 107 apparently unrelated families received genetic testing, including sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of ENG, ACVRL1 and SMAD4. These 107 families included 320 patients confirmed to have HHT either clinically or genetically. In 89% of the probands (n=95), a mutation was identified. We detected 64 unique mutations of which 27 (41%) were novel. Large deletions were identified in ENG and ACVRL1. The prevalence of PAVM was 52.3% in patients with an ENG mutation and 12.9% in the ACVRL1 mutation carriers. We diagnosed 80% of the patients clinically, fulfilling the Curaçao criteria, and those remaining were diagnosed by genetic testing. It is discussed when to assign pathogenicity to missense and splice site mutations. The adding of an extra criterion to the Curaçao criteria is suggested. PMID:24001356

Tørring, P M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B; Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D

2014-08-01

266

Haemostatic monitoring during postpartum haemorrhage and implications for management  

PubMed Central

Summary Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. PPH has numerous causative factors, which makes its occurrence and severity difficult to predict. Underlying haemostatic imbalances such as consumptive and dilutional coagulopathies may develop during PPH, and can exacerbate bleeding and lead to progression to severe PPH. Monitoring coagulation status in patients with PPH may be crucial for effective haemostatic management, goal-directed therapy, and improved outcomes. However, current PPH management guidelines do not account for the altered baseline coagulation status observed in pregnant patients, and the appropriate transfusion triggers to use in PPH are unknown, due to a lack of high-quality studies specific to this area. In this review, we consider the evidence for the use of standard laboratory-based coagulation tests and point-of-care viscoelastic coagulation monitoring in PPH. Many laboratory-based tests are unsuitable for emergency use due to their long turnaround times, so have limited value for the management of PPH. Emerging evidence suggests that viscoelastic monitoring, using thrombelastography- or thromboelastometry-based tests, may be useful for rapid assessment and for guiding haemostatic therapy during PPH. However, further studies are needed to define the ranges of reference values that should be considered ‘normal’ in this setting. Improving awareness of the correct application and interpretation of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring techniques may be critical in realizing their emergency diagnostic potential. PMID:23075633

Solomon, C.; Collis, R. E.; Collins, P. W.

2012-01-01

267

Syringomyelia Associated with Spinal Arachnoiditis Treated by Partial Arachnoid Dissection and Syrinx-Far Distal Subarachnoid Shunt  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

2014-01-01

268

Syringomyelia associated with spinal arachnoiditis treated by partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt.  

PubMed

The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

2014-01-01

269

Intra-alveolar haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome: a cause for concern?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The "Back to Sleep" campaign in 1991 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The proportion of presumed SIDS deaths being actually suspicious deaths from airway obstruction is likely to have become relatively greater. There is usually little pathological evidence to suggest smothering, but intra-alveolar haemorrhage appears to be more prominent in cases where interference with the airway is suspected. AIM: To attempt to quantify intra-alveolar haemorrhage to see whether it could be used as a marker to distinguish between smothering/overlaying and SIDS. METHODS: Intra-alveolar haemorrhage was quantified using digital image analysis on haematoxylin/eosin stained sections taken from the lungs of 62 consecutive infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Cases were initially classified according to the original cause of death. After quantitation, the case histories were critically reviewed. Three pathologists independently made microscopic assessments of the degree of intra-alveolar haemorrhage in the first 24 cases to see whether these accurately reflected the quantitative results. RESULTS: 73% of those infants with a history suggesting possible involuntary overlaying and 45% of those with a history suspicious of smothering had significant intra-alveolar haemorrhage (> 5% of total lung surface area assessed). From the history, the cause of death in 11 cases initially classified as SIDS would better have been given as "Unascertained." Simple microscopic assessments underestimated the true extent of the haemorrhage in 33% (8/24). CONCLUSIONS: If a moderate degree (at least 5%) of pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage is observed, this may be an indicator of airway obstruction for a significant period, either from overlaying or possibly smothering. The diagnosis of SIDS may be being used inappropriately in such cases. Images PMID:10645227

Yukawa, N; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Green, M A

1999-01-01

270

Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466?686 births  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366?350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53?292), fathers with separate partners (n=47?054), sister pairs (n=97?228), brother pairs (n=91?168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177?944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total variation in liability is attributable to factors that are not shared in families. PMID:25121825

Hernandéz-Dia?, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

2014-01-01

271

A long diagnostic delay in patients with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia: a questionnaire-based retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The difficulty in establishing a timely correct diagnosis is a relevant matter of concern for several rare diseases. Many rare-disease-affected patients suffer from considerable diagnostic delay, mainly due to their poor knowledge among healthcare professionals, insufficient disease awareness among patients’ families, and lack of promptly available diagnostic tools. Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited vascular dysplasia, affecting 1:5,000-10,000 patients. HHT is characterized by high variability of clinical manifestations, which show remarkable overlapping with several common diseases. Aim To perform a detailed analysis concerning the diagnostic time lag occurring in patients with HHT, defined as the time period spanning from the first clinical manifestation to the attainment of a definite, correct diagnosis. Methods A questionnaire was administered to the HHT patients previously recruited from 2000 and 2009. Clinical onset, first referral to a physician for disease manifestations, and first correct diagnosis of definite HHT were collected. Eventual misdiagnosis at first referral and serious complications occurring throughout the time elapsing between disease onset and definite diagnosis were also addressed. Results In the 233 respondents, the clinical onset of disease occurred at an age of 14.1 yrs, while the age of first referral and the age of first definite diagnosis of HHT were 29.2 yrs and 40.1 yrs, respectively. Only 88/233 patients received a correct diagnosis at first counseling. Thus, the diagnostic time lag, represented by the time elapsing from disease onset and first definite diagnosis of HHT, proved to be 25.7 yrs. Twenty-two patients suffered from severe complications during this time interval. The diagnostic delay was significantly longer (p?

2012-01-01

272

[Relaparoscopy as an alternative to laparotomy for laparoscopic complications].  

PubMed

In the field of visceral surgery, complications requiring reintervention following laparoscopy are currently most likely to be approached with conventional laparotomy. However, relaparoscopy has the theoretical advantage of maintaining the reduced morbidity allowed by the first procedure. Essential to the success of relaparoscopy is a clear understanding of the various specific complications. Should the surgeon decide on relaparoscopy, then prompt action is of central importance. Following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, it is fundamentally technically possible through renewed laparoscopy to treat not only subhepatic abscesses but also smaller lesions of the bile duct, for example from the gall bladder fossa. Revision of complications following fundoplication is technically very demanding and should be performed only by those most experienced in the techniques of laparoscopy. In contrast to interventional drainage, relaparoscopy of abscesses following laparoscopic appendectomy has the theoretical advantage of allowing recognition and treatment of the causes, for example in the case of appendicular stump insufficiency. Relapses very shortly after endoscopic surgery of inguinal herniae result from erroneous technique and may be corrected endoscopically in most cases. Complications following colon surgery have so far been dealt with using open surgery for technical reasons and also for patient safety. Given the uncertainty in the literature, patient safety must be paramount, when deciding on which technique is best to employ, particularly in cases of haemorrhage. PMID:17036247

Leister, I; Becker, H

2006-11-01

273

Gastro-intestinal haemorrhage risks of selective serotonin receptor antagonist therapy: a new look  

PubMed Central

AIMS (i) To determine the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other classes of antidepressants on upper gastro-intestinal (GI) haemorrhage and (ii) to assess the drug–drug interaction effects of antidepressants and warfarin or clopidogrel on the risk of GI haemorrhage. METHODS This was a population-based case control study in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Cases with a first episode of upper GI haemorrhage between 2000 and 2005 were matched with up to 10 controls. Exposure to the study drugs was defined by a prescription issued in the 90 days before the index date. Rate ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Four thousand and twenty-eight cases of GI haemorrhage and 40 171 controls were identified. The excess risk of GI haemorrhage with SSRI use was small (Rate Ratio [RR]: 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 1.6) and null with exposure to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (RR 1.0; 95% CI: 0.8, 1.3). The risk of GI haemorrhage was highest with venlafaxine use (RR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.6). There was no drug–drug interaction between warfarin anticoagulation and antidepressant use. CONCLUSIONS This study supports a small increased risk of upper GI haemorrhage with the use of SSRI antidepressants compared with the older TCA drugs, but to a lesser extent than previously reported due to confounding by alcohol use. The small elevation in risk of GI haemorrhage with SSRI and venlafaxine should be weighed against the therapeutic benefit of their use. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The known biological effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on platelets are consistent with an increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients on SSRI therapy.Previous research supports this increased risk among SSRI users with a large increase in bleeding risk observed. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This large study was able to compare the effects of different classes of antidepressant as well as to test for drug–drug interactions with warfarin.The discovery of alcohol abuse as a strong confounder may partially explain the very high risks of bleed seen in previous studies that did not adjust for this confounder. PMID:18460039

Opatrny, Lucie; Delaney, J A ‘Chris’; Suissa, Samy

2008-01-01

274

Complications of colostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a series of 307 colostomies established in 296 patients, there were complications in 53 patients (16 per cent), of whom\\u000a 41 had reoperations to correct the complications. One patient died of sepsis following operation for a perforation caused\\u000a by an irrigating catheter.

Francis J. Burns; SainZ Louis

1970-01-01

275

[Complications in pediatric anesthesia].  

PubMed

As in adult anesthesia, morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced in pediatric anesthesia in recent decades. This fact cannot conceal the fact that the incidence of anesthetic complications in children is still much more common than in adults and sometimes with a severe outcome. Newborns and infants in particular but also children with emergency interventions and severe comorbidities are at increased risk of potential complications. Typical complications in pediatric anesthesia are respiratory problems, medication errors, difficulties with the intravenous puncture and pulmonal aspiration. In the postoperative setting, nausea and vomiting, pain, and emergence delirium can be mentioned as typical complications. In addition to the systematic prevention of complications in pediatric anesthesia, it is important to quickly recognize disturbances of homeostasis and treat them promptly and appropriately. In addition to the expertise of the performing anesthesia team, the institutional structure in particular can improve quality and safety in pediatric anesthesia. PMID:25004872

Becke, K

2014-07-01

276

Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered\\u000a the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic\\u000a injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have\\u000a so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced

Fatima A. Sehba; Ryszard M. Pluta; John H. Zhang

2011-01-01

277

Postoperative intraspinal opioid analgesia after caesarean section; a randomised comparison of subarachnoid morphine and epidural pethidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomised, blinded clinical trial was performed to evaluate intraspinal opioid analgesic techniques after caesarean section. Healthy term parturients having elective caesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia were allocated to one of three groups. Postoperative analgesia, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was provided using either pethidine patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA) or subarachnoid morphine 200 ?g, the latter supplemented as required

M. J. Paech; T. J. G. Pavy; C. E. P. Orlikowski; J. Kuh; S. T. Yeo; K. Lim; S. F. Evans

2000-01-01

278

Risk of Recurrent Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Complete Obliteration of Cerebral Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The neck clipping of cerebral aneurysms is a well-established treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by aneurysmal rupture. However, it is still unclear how great a risk of recurrence patients with a successfully treated aneurysm carry over a long-term period. Methods—Of 425 patients with SAH surgically treated in Aizu Chuou Hospital from 1976 to 1994, 220 cases meeting

K. Tsutsumi; K. Ueki; M. Usui; S. Kwak; T. Kirino

279

Unfractionated Heparin: Multitargeted Therapy for Delayed Neurological Deficits Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with numerous “delayed neurological deficits” (DNDs) that have been\\u000a attributed to multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including ischemia, microthrombosis, free radical damage, inflammation,\\u000a and vascular remodeling. To date, effective prophylactic therapy for SAH-induced DNDs has been elusive, due perhaps to the\\u000a multiplicity of mechanisms involved that render typical, single-agent therapy seemingly futile. We hypothesized that heparin,

J. Marc SimardDavid Schreibman; David Schreibman; E. Francois Aldrich; Bernadette Stallmeyer; Brian Le; Robert F. James; Narlin Beaty

2010-01-01

280

Simvastatin Reduces Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Results of a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We demonstrate that simvastatin reduces serum markers of brain injury and attenuates vasospasm after SAH. Methods—Patients with angiographically documented aneurysmal SAH were randomized within 48 hours of symptom onset to receive either simvastatin (80 mg daily; n19) or placebo (n20) for 14 days. Plasma alanine

John R. Lynch; Haichen Wang; Matthew J. McGirt; James Floyd; Allan H. Friedman; Alexander L. Coon; Robert Blessing; Michael J. Alexander; Carmelo Graffagnino; David S. Warner; Daniel T. Laskowitz

2005-01-01

281

Spontaneous intradural disc herniation with focal distension of the subarachnoid space in a dog.  

PubMed

Myelo-computed tomography of a paraparetic 14-year-old dog revealed subarachnoid distension with an intradural filling defect above the T13-L1 disc space. T12-L1 hemilaminectomy followed by durotomy allowed removal of a large piece of degenerated disc material that compressed the spinal parenchyma. Full return to function was achieved 10 days post-surgery. The distension was likely secondary to the intradural herniation, and is a rare and distinct finding. PMID:23633713

Barnoon, Itai; Chai, Orit; Srugo, Itai; Peeri, Dana; Konstantin, Lilach; Brenner, Ori; Shamir, Merav H

2012-11-01

282

Gene Transfer of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Prevents Vasoconstriction After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vivo of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator, ameliorates cerebral vasoconstriction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Arterial blood was injected into the cisterna magna of rabbits to mimic SAH 5 days after injection of AdRSVCGRP (83108 pfu), AdRSVbgal (control virus), or vehicle. After injection of AdRSVCGRP, there was a 400-fold

Kazunori Toyoda; Frank M. Faraci; Yoshimasa Watanabe; Toshihiro Ueda; Jon J. Andresen; Yi Chu; Shoichiro Otake; Donald D. Heistad

283

Early Brain Injury: A Common Mechanism in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Global Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Early brain injury (EBI) has become an area of extreme interest in the recent years and seems to be a common denominator in the pathophysiology of global transient ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this paper, we highlight the importance of cerebral hypoperfusion and other mechanisms that occur in tandem in both pathologies and underline their possible roles in triggering brain injury after hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. PMID:23533958

Macdonald, R. Loch

2013-01-01

284

Effect of anatomical fine structure on the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal subarachnoid space.  

SciTech Connect

The lattice Boltzmann method is used to model oscillatory flow in the spinal subarachnoid space. The effect of obstacles such as trabeculae, nerve bundles, and ligaments on fluid velocity profiles appears to be small, when the flow is averaged over the length of a vertebra. Averaged fluid flow in complex models is little different from flow in corresponding elliptical annular cavities. However, the obstacles stir the flow locally and may be more significant in studies of tracer dispersion.

Stockman, Harlan Wheelock

2005-01-01

285

Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever: history and current status.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) is an old disease; the first record of a clinically compatible disease being recorded in a Chinese medical encyclopaedia in 992. As the global shipping industry expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, port cities grew and became more urbanized, creating ideal conditions for the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Both the mosquitoes and the viruses were thus spread to new geographic areas causing major epidemics. Because dispersal was by sailing ship, however, there were long intervals (10-40 years) between epidemics. In the aftermath of World War II, rapid urbanization in Southeast Asia led to increased transmission and hyperendemicity. The first major epidemics of the severe and fatal form of disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), occurred in Southeast Asia as a direct result of this changing ecology. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, a dramatic global geographic expansion of epidemic DF/DHF occurred, facilitated by unplanned urbanization in tropical developing countries, modern transportation, lack of effective mosquito control and globalization. As we go into the 21st century, epidemic DF/DHF is one of the most important infectious diseases affecting tropical urban areas. Each year there are an estimated 50-100 million dengue infections, 500000 cases of DHF that must be hospitalized and 20000-25 000 deaths, mainly in children. Epidemic DF/DHF has an economic impact on the community of the same order of magnitude as malaria and other important infectious diseases. There are currently no vaccines nor antiviral drugs available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic DF/DHF is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. PMID:17319151

Gubler, Duane J

2006-01-01

286

Possible role of Eptifibatide drip in-patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in vasospasm prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective Approximately 18,000 patients suffer from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States annually. SAH is a form of stroke and comprises 1%–5% of all strokes. Nearly 50% of all SAH cases end in fatality within 30 days of presentation; one of eight patients die before reaching a hospital. Those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment. Methods This case report describes the course of two patients who presented to the emergency department with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage and received external ventricular drainage and endovascular treatment of their aneurysm. Results Both patients required treatment with Eptifibatide drip after endovascular approach and their SAH in the basal cisterns resolved by day 5. Neither patient developed signs of clinical or subclinical vasospasm. Comments Eptifibatide drip facilitated resolution of the thick clot in the subarachnoid space early enough to eliminate the direct toxicity of oxyhemoglobin on the cerebral arteries and arachnoid granulations, thus preventing vasospasm and eliminating the necessity for a long-term shunt. PMID:25298852

Dababneh, Haitham; Guerrero, Waldo; Mehta, Siddhart; Moussavi, Mohammad; Kirmani, Jawad F

2014-01-01

287

Theoretical foundations for non-invasive measurement of variations in the width of the subarachnoid space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical modeling was used for the theoretical analysis of the propagation of optical radiation in the tissues of the human head, generated by a single source placed on the surface of the scalp. Of special interest and importance is the propagation of radiation within the layer of cerebrospinal fluid contained in the subarachnoid space (SAS), which is the only low absorption/high transmittance medium whose width can vary rapidly. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes in propagation of radiation within the SAS could become a source of information on changes in the geometry of this anatomical compartment playing a crucial role in cranio-spinal physiology and pathology. Essential for the idea of the possible noninvasive assessment of changes in width of the SAS by an optical method is the dependence of intensity of radiation reaching a photodetector located at a certain distance from the source on changes in the width of this fluid layer, which acts like a biological optical waveguide. Monte Carlo modeling and numerical analysis confirmed the feasibility of assessing changes in the width of the subarachnoid space optically. Presented here are details of the Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in the tissues of human head and the results of such simulation as a function of the width of the subarachnoid space, calculated for different distances between the source and detector and for a few selected values of bone thickness. Results of numerical modeling were then compared with those of experiments on a mechanical-optical model.

Plucinski, Jerzy; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Kaczmarek, Jacek; Juzwa, Witold

2000-07-01

288

Endovascular treatment of vasospasm related to acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysms.  

PubMed

In the first 2 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm, 30-35 % of surviving patients treated with conservative nonoperative therapy experience rebleeding. This is fatal in 60-90 % of cases and leads to significant disability in 17-20 % of cases. A major factor for this poor outcome is thought to be the vasospasm that occurs in up to 38.7 % by the third day, 46.3 % by the ninth day, and eventually in up to 70 % of patients. Endovascular treatment of aneurysms associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage has the potential to decrease the occurrence of rebleeding and therefore decrease the high mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Treatment of vasospasm, if it does occur, has the potential to further improve patient outcomes. We describe the outcomes of 174 of our patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm who were treated with endovascular techniques. Overall, the majority of our patients experienced a good or excellent outcome. PMID:25366628

Scheglov, Dmitry V; Polischuk, Mykola E; Scheglov, Viktor I; Mamonova, Maryna Y; Monsein, Lee H

2015-01-01

289

Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

2013-04-01

290

Complications in late pregnancy.  

PubMed

Complications of late pregnancy are managed infrequently in the emergency department and, thus, can pose a challenge when the emergency physician encounters acute presentations. An expert understanding of the anatomic and physiologic changes and possible complications of late pregnancy is vital to ensure proper evaluation and care for both mother and fetus. This article focuses on the late pregnancy issues that the emergency physician will face, from the bleeding and instability of abruptio placentae to the wide spectrum of complications and management strategies encountered with preterm labor. PMID:23137403

Meguerdichian, David

2012-11-01

291

The protective action of allopurinol in an experimental model of haemorrhagic shock and reperfusion.  

PubMed Central

Haemorrhagic shock was induced in anaesthetized, open-chest dogs by controlled arterial bleeding, sufficient to reduce and maintain mean arterial blood pressure at 40 mmHg for 30 min. The blood volume was then restored to the pre-shock level by rapid, intravenous reinfusion of the blood shed during the shock period. Haemorrhagic shock produced significant haemodynamic changes, characterized by a marked depression of myocardial function. Cardiac output (1226 +/- 57 ml min-1), peak aortic blood flow (6030 +/- 383 ml min-1) and maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (2708 +/- 264 mmHg s-1) were all reduced by more than 50%. The haemodynamic profile was markedly improved by reinfusion of shed blood but this improvement was not sustained. There was a gradual decline such that 50% of the untreated animals suffered complete circulatory collapse and death between 60 and 120 min following reinfusion. Neither haemorrhagic shock, nor reinfusion of shed blood produced any consistent or significant changes in the myocardial adenine nucleotide pool. The ATP, ADP and AMP levels were, respectively, 25.9 +/- 4.2; 15.6 +/- 1.0; 4.3 +/- 1.9 nmol g-1 protein, before haemorrhagic shock; 21.6 +/- 3.4; 21.5 +/- 2.5; 10.2 +/- 2.7 nmol g-1 protein, after 30 min haemorrhagic shock; and 29.9 +/- 3.9; 16.5 +/- 1.2; 4.2 +/- 1.1 nmol g-1 protein, 60 min following reinfusion of shed blood. Pretreatment with allopurinol (50.0 mg kg-1 i.v.), 60 min before inducing haemorrhagic shock, had no significant effect upon the haemodynamic response to shock, but did prevent the gradual decline seen following reinfusion in the untreated animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3801769

Allan, G.; Cambridge, D.; Lee-Tsang-Tan, L.; Van Way, C. W.; Whiting, M. V.

1986-01-01

292

[Complications of celiac disease].  

PubMed

Numerous complications can occur in celiac disease, nutritional (growth failure in children, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies), hematologic (anaemia), bone disease (osteoporosis, fracture), gynaecologic (hypo fertility), cardiovascular (coronaropathy, venous thrombosis), neurological (peripheral neuropathy), hepatic (cytolysis, cirrhosis). Celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis), and cancer (upper digestive tract, hepatocellular carcinoma, lymphoma). The main digestive complications are microscopic colitis and refractory sprue, which are resistant to gluten-free diet. It can be associated with a monoclonal proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (type 2 refractory sprue), which may be considered as a cryptic lymphoma and can lead to invasive T lymphoma, which occurs in one celiac patient in 1000. Gluten-free diet protects from the occurrence of most complications and correct the over-mortality related to these complications. PMID:21621350

Cosnes, J; Nion-Larmurier, I

2013-04-01

293

Infection and Other Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... and improve your overall health. Other Complications of Lymphedema The sudden onset of swelling anywhere in the ... can block lymphatic flow, causing a worsening of lymphedema or other forms of swelling. Patients with a ...

294

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... page It's been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

295

Complications of Measles (Rubeola)  

MedlinePLUS

... Travelers Lab Tools Serology Specimens for Detection by RT-PCR or Virus Isolation Measles Lab Manual Vero/ ... Measles chapter of the Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine Preventable Diseases (Pink Book) describes measles complications in ...

296

[Neurological complications in uremia].  

PubMed

Neurological complications due to the uremic state or hemodialysis, contribute to the important cause of mortality in patients with uremia. Despite continuous advances in uremic treatment, many neurological complications of uremia, like uremic encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy and myopathy fail to fully respond to hemodialysis. Moreover, hemodialysis or kidney transplantation may even induce neurological complications. Hemodialysis can directly or indirectly be associated with Wernicke's encephalopathy, dialytic dementia, dysequilibrium syndrome, cerebrovascular accidents, osmotic myelinolysis and mononeuropathy. Renal transplantation can give rise to rejection encephalopathy and acute femoral neuropathy. The use of immunosuppressive drugs after renal transplantation can cause reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy encephalopathy. The clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutical aspects of central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and myopathy complications in uremia are reviewed. PMID:18686653

Fong, Chin-Shih

2008-06-01

297

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Kid-friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

298

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... and appropriate treatment can help prevent complications of PID. Without treatment, PID can cause permanent damage to ...

299

Scientific foundation and possible implications for practice of the Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site andSystemic Implementation of AngioX (MATRIX) trial.  

PubMed

Early invasive management and the use of combined antithrombotic therapies have decreased the risk of recurrent ischaemia in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but have also increased the bleeding risk. Transradial intervention (TRI) and bivalirudin infusion compared to transfemoral intervention (TFI) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) decrease bleeding complications in patients with ACS. To what extent, a bleeding preventive strategy incorporating at least one of these two treatment options translates into improved outcomes is a matter of debate. The Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of AngioX study is a large-scale, multicenter, prospective, open-label trial, conducted at approximately 100 sites in Europe aiming to primarily assess whether TRI and bivalirudin infusion, as compared to TFI and UFH plus provisional GPI, decrease the 30-day incidence of death, myocardial infarction or stroke across the whole spectrum of ACS patients. PMID:24395497

Valgimigli, Marco; Calabrò, Paolo; Cortese, Bernardo; Frigoli, Enrico; Garducci, Stefano; Rubartelli, Paolo; Andò, Giuseppe; Santarelli, Andrea; Galli, Mario; Garbo, Roberto; Repetto, Alessandra; Ierna, Salvatore; Briguori, Carlo; Limbruno, Ugo; Violini, Roberto; Gagnor, Andrea

2014-02-01

300

Complications of colostomy closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 126 colostomy closures was analyzed to evaluate factors contributing to morbidity. There were no deaths, but there\\u000a was a 33 percent complication rate. Patients with penetrating abdominal trauma and foreign-body rectal perforations had fewer\\u000a serious complications following colostomy closures than patients with diverticulitis or cancer. No significant difference\\u000a was found in the anastomotic leak rate, length of

Donna M. Pittman; Lee E. Smith

1985-01-01

301

Complications of auricular correction  

PubMed Central

The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction. PMID:22073079

Staindl, Otto; Siedek, Vanessa

2008-01-01

302

Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterise pregnancies where the fetus or neonate was diagnosed with fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and suffered from intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), with special focus on time of bleeding onset. Design Observational cohort study of all recorded cases of ICH caused by FNAIT from the international No IntraCranial Haemorrhage (NOICH) registry during the period 2001–2010. Setting 13 tertiary referral centres from nine countries across the world. Participants 37 mothers and 43 children of FNAIT pregnancies complicated by fetal or neonatal ICH identified from the NOICH registry was included if FNAIT diagnosis and ICH was confirmed. Primary and secondary outcome measures Gestational age at onset of ICH, type of ICH and clinical outcome of ICH were the primary outcome measures. General maternal and neonatal characteristics of pregnancies complicated by fetal/neonatal ICH were secondary outcome measures. Results From a total of 592 FNAIT cases in the registry, 43 confirmed cases of ICH due to FNAIT were included in the study. The majority of bleedings (23/43, 54%) occurred before 28 gestational weeks and often affected the first born child (27/43, 63%). One-third (35%) of the children died within 4?days after delivery. 23 (53%) children survived with severe neurological disabilities and only 5 (12%) were alive and well at time of discharge. Antenatal treatment was not given in most (91%) cases of fetal/neonatal ICH. Conclusions ICH caused by FNAIT often occurs during second trimester and the clinical outcome is poor. In order to prevent ICH caused by FNAIT, at-risk pregnancies must be identified and prevention and/or interventions should start early in the second trimester. PMID:23524102

Tiller, Heidi; Kamphuis, Marije M; Flodmark, Olof; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; David, Anna L; Sainio, Susanna; Koskinen, Sinikka; Javela, Kaija; Wikman, Agneta Taune; Kekomaki, Riitta; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Oepkes, Dick; Husebekk, Anne; Westgren, Magnus

2013-01-01

303

Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

2003-01-01

304

Specific cancer rates may differ in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia compared to controls  

PubMed Central

Background Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, affects ~1 in 5,000, and causes multi-systemic vascular lesions and life-limiting complications. Life expectancy is surprisingly good, particularly for patients over 60ys. We hypothesised that individuals with HHT may be protected against life-limiting cancers. Methods To compare specific cancer rates in HHT patients and controls, we developed a questionnaire capturing data on multiple relatives per respondent, powered to detect differences in the four most common solid non skin cancers (breast, colorectal, lung and prostate), each associated with significant mortality. Blinded to cancer responses, reports of HHT-specific features allowed assignment of participants and relatives as HHT-subjects, unknowns, or controls. Logistic and quadratic regressions were used to compare rates of specific cancer types between HHT subjects and controls. Results 1,307 participants completed the questionnaire including 1,007 HHT-subjects and 142 controls. The rigorous HHT diagnostic algorithm meant that 158 (12%) completed datasets were not assignable either to HHT or control status. For cancers predominantly recognised as primary cancers, the rates in the controls generally matched age-standardised rates for the general population. HHT subjects recruited through the survey had similar demographics to controls, although the HHT group reported a significantly greater smoking habit. Combining data of participants and uniquely-reported relatives resulted in an HHT-arm of 2,161 (58% female), and control-arm of 2,817 (52% female), with median ages of 66ys [IQR 53–77] and 77ys [IQR 65–82] respectively. In both crude and age-adjusted regression, lung cancers were significantly less frequent in the HHT arm than controls (age-adjusted odds ratio 0.48 [0.30, 0.70], p?=?0.0012). Breast cancer prevalence was higher in HHT than controls (age-adjusted OR 1.52 [1.07, 2.14], p?=?0.018). Overall, prostate and colorectal cancer rates were equivalent, but the pattern of colorectal cancer was modified, with a higher prevalence in younger HHT patients than controls. Conclusions These preliminary survey data suggest clinically significant differences in the rates of lung, breast and colorectal cancer in HHT patients compared to controls. For rare diseases in which longitudinal studies take decades to recruit equivalent datasets, this type of methodology provides a good first-step method for data collection. PMID:24354965

2013-01-01

305

HIV and the Risk of Direct Obstetric Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Women of reproductive age in parts of sub-Saharan Africa are faced both with high levels of HIV and the threat of dying from the direct complications of pregnancy. Clinicians practicing in such settings have reported a high incidence of direct obstetric complications among HIV-infected women, but the evidence supporting this is unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether HIV-infected women are at increased risk of direct obstetric complications. Methods and findings Studies comparing the frequency of obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, dystocia and intrauterine infections in HIV-infected and uninfected women were identified. Summary estimates of the odds ratio (OR) for the association between HIV and each obstetric complication were calculated through meta-analyses. In total, 44 studies were included providing 66 data sets; 17 on haemorrhage, 19 on hypertensive disorders, five on dystocia and 25 on intrauterine infections. Meta-analysis of the OR from studies including vaginal deliveries indicated that HIV-infected women had over three times the risk of a puerperal sepsis compared with HIV-uninfected women [pooled OR: 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00–5.85]; this figure increased to nearly six amongst studies only including women who delivered by caesarean (pooled OR: 5.81, 95% CI: 2.42–13.97). For other obstetric complications the evidence was weak and inconsistent. Conclusions The higher risk of intrauterine infections in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women may require targeted strategies involving the prophylactic use of antibiotics during labour. However, as the huge excess of pregnancy-related mortality in HIV-infected women is unlikely to be due to a higher risk of direct obstetric complications, reducing this mortality will require non obstetric interventions involving access to ART in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:24124458

Calvert, Clara; Ronsmans, Carine

2013-01-01

306

Low superior vena cava flow and intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo document the incidence, timing, degree, and associations of systemic hypoperfusion in the preterm infant and to explore the temporal relation between low systemic blood flow and the development of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).STUDY DESIGN126 babies born before 30 weeks' gestation (mean 27 weeks, mean body weight 991 g) were studied with Doppler echocardiography and cerebral ultrasound at 5, 12, 24,

Martin Kluckow; Nick Evans

2000-01-01

307

Nosocomial infection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever occurred in the county of Birjand in eastern Iran in November 2011. Four cases were involved in this outbreak. Two patients died after admission to hospital, one of whom was a nurse who acquired the infection nosocomially, and the others were treated successfully. PMID:23266037

Chinikar, Sadegh; Shayesteh, Majid; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Rasi Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman

2013-01-01

308

The response of the Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo ) to an outbreak of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) is a generalist predator that in Mediterranean areas feeds mainly on Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) At the end of 1997, a local outbreak of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) decimated Rabbit populations in the area of Alicante (eastern Spain) so that Rabbit numbers in 1998 crashed to almost nil. Prior to the outbreak we had

Jose Antonio Martínez; Ifiigo Zuberogoitia

2001-01-01

309

Hyaline membrane disease and intraventricular haemorrhage in small for gestational age infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

19 small for gestational age (SGA) infants with gestational ages less than or equal to 32 weeks were matched with 19 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm neonates with similar risk factors for intraventricular haemorrhage and hyaline membrane disease. Gestational age, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, type of delivery, survival rate, use of corticosteroids before delivery, sex, twinning, presence of

R S Procianoy; J A Garcia-Prats; J M Adams; A Silvers; A J Rudolph

1980-01-01

310

[Specific epidemiologic features of Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Stavropol' region in 1999-2000].  

PubMed

The results of the epidemiological analysis of morbidity in Crimean haemorrhagic fever in the Stavropol Territory in 1999-2000 are presented. The epidemiological features, specifically characteristic of the manifestations of this infection in the territory, have been determined. PMID:12718188

Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I; Kovalev, N G; Shibkov, N A; Fedorov, Iu M; Zhilina, N Ia; Fedosova, G N; Sysoliatina, G V; Evchenko, Iu M; Be?er, A P; Popov, V A; Shenetts, K V; Marchukova, L N; Afanas'ev, E N; Vasilenko, N V

2001-01-01

311

Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. PMID:25380792

Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

2015-02-01

312

Risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage with calcium antagonists in hypertensive persons over 67 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Calcium antagonists are used frequently in management of hypertension. In addition to their cardiovascular effects, these drugs inhibit platelet aggregation. Therefore we examined whether the use of calcium antagonists was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage (GIH).Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from 1985 through 1992 on 1636 hypertensive persons aged ?68 years living in three

M Pahor; P Carbonin; J. M Guralnik; R. J Havlik; C. D Furberg

1996-01-01

313

Application of transcranial Doppler sonography in surgical aspects of hypertensive putaminal haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary From May 1992 to February 1993, 22 cases of hypertensive putaminal haemorrhage (HPH) treated at our hospital were serially measured with transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography. Among them, 13 patients underwent surgical intervention (3 stereotaxic surgery and 10 craniotomies), and 9 were conservatively treated. Most of the patients of the two operative groups had larger haematomas and developed clinical and\\/or

E.-J. Lee; Ch.-Ch. Chio; H.-J. Lin; L.-H. Yang; H.-H. Chen

1996-01-01

314

Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

2013-01-01

315

Bilateral subhyaloid haemorrhage in a conscious patient: a new spectrum of ocular involvement by Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old woman presented with a history of high-grade fever with rigours since 3?days and bilateral sudden loss of vision since 6?h. She was conscious, oriented and her vitals were stable. She had a temperature of 101°F, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, normal white cell count and moderate splenomegaly. On testing visual activity, she could only perceive hand movements although her pupils were bilaterally equal, and normal in size and reaction. On indirect ophthalmoscopy, optic discs were normal bilaterally; however, fovea of both eyes was masked by subhyaloid haemorrhage. Peripheral smear showed gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The patient was started on arteminsinin-combined therapy and advised to be in propped-up position to help resolution of the haemorrhage. The patient was afebrile in 4?days and follow-up fundus examination showed gradual resolution of the haemorrhage. After two months, the patient regained normal visual acuity in both eyes; however, it took nearly 3?months for complete resolution of the haemorrhage. PMID:24862605

Abdali, Nasar; Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali

2014-01-01

316

Arrest of Liver Haemorrhage Secondary to Percutaneous Liver Biopsy of a Haemangioma with Fibrin Glue  

PubMed Central

Background Haemorrhage resulting from blunt and penetrating injury to the liver remains a difficult therapeutic problem, often resulting in massive intraperitoneal blood loss. Perihepatic liver packing and inflow occlusive techniques in combination with finger fracture exploration of injuries to allow vessel ligation are the mainstays if treatment with normal liver parenchyma. More recently fibrin glue haemostatic agents have been used to arrest traumatic haemorrhage from the liver. We report a case of the use of fibrin glue to arrest the bleeding caused by the percutaneous biopsy of a liver haemangioma. Case Outline A 42 year-old woman underwent percutaneous diagnostic biopsy of a liver lesion and subsequently experienced shock secondary to massive bleeding from the biopsy site. At laparotomy there was massive bleeding from the puncture site of the liver lesion. Control of haemorrhage was obtained by injecting fibrin glue down the biopsy site tract. This manoeuvre resulted in complete arrest of haemorrhage with no adverse effect. Discussion The use of fibrin glue as a haemostatic agent in trauma is an important adjunct to perihepatic liver packing and finger fracture exploration of injuries. It may have exceptional utility in patients with penetrating trauma to the liver by direct intraparenchymal injection. This case illustrates that fibrin glue can be used to arrest bleeding from vascular tumours such as haemangiomas. It may help to minimise bleeding for all percutaneous liver biopsies. PMID:18332950

Dixon, Elijah

2002-01-01

317

Observations on the impacts of rabbit haemorrhagic disease on agricultural production values in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) may be the most important rabbit control agent to be made available to graziers in Australia since the advent of myxomatosis. Documenting the benefits of RHD to agricultural production values is an important process in determining best-practice strategies for the use of the disease in controlling rabbit populations. In this paper we review previous studies on

Glen SaundersA; David ChoquenotA

318

Observations on the impacts of rabbit haemorrhagic disease on agricultural production values in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Rabbit haemorrhagic ,disease (RHD) may ,be the ,most important rabbit control agent to be ,made available to graziers in Australia since the advent of myxomatosis. Documenting the benefits of RHD to agricultural production values is an important process in determining best-practice strategies for the use of the ,disease in controlling rabbit populations. In this paper we review previous studies

Glen Saunders; Barry Kay; Greg Mutze; David Choquenot

2002-01-01

319

The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein

Vicente Micol; Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Vicente Más; Luis Pérez; Amparo Estepa

2005-01-01

320

Intestinal protein loss in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

and characterized by vascular dysfunction (5-8). Clinically, retroperitoneal oedema and free fluid accu- Background. In haemorrhagic fever with renal syn- drome (HFRS ) vascular dysfunction has been mulations in the body cavities with haemoconcentra- tion reflect the vascular leak present in HFRS. observed in various organs, but the involvement of the intestine has not yet been reported. This study was

Young Ok Kim; Chul Woo Yang; Sun Ae Yoon; Ho Cheol Song; Yong Soo Kim; Suk Young Kim

321

Computational Intelligence Method for Early Diagnosis Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Using Fuzzy on Mobile Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality from Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still increasing in Indonesia particularly in Jakarta. Diagnosis of the dengue shall be made as early as possible so that first aid can be given in expectation of decreasing death risk. The Study will be conducted by developing expert system based on Computational Intelligence Method. On the first year, study will use the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) Method to diagnose Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever particularly in Mobile Device consist of smart phone. Expert system application which particularly using fuzzy system can be applied in mobile device and it is useful to make early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever that produce outcome faster than laboratory test. The evaluation of this application is conducted by performing accuracy test before and after validation using data of patient who has the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. This expert system application is easy, convenient, and practical to use, also capable of making the early diagnosis of Dengue Haemorraghic to avoid mortality in the first stage.

Salman, Afan; Lina, Yen; Simon, Christian

2014-03-01

322

Medical complications of obesity.  

PubMed Central

Obesity leads to several complications that affect many body systems. This paper focuses mainly on the cardiovascular complications, which include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and stroke, and congestive heart failure; the last may be secondary not only to advanced coronary atherosclerosis, but also to other pathogenetic factors. The increased frequency of coronary heart disease in the obese is largely attributable to the commonly associated hypertension, diabetes mellitus and lipoprotein abnormalities, rather than the adiposity. The lipoprotein disorders that have a role in atherogenesis are decreased plasma concentrations of high-density lipoproteins and elevated plasma concentrations of low-density lipoproteins. Abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism are responsible for the increased frequency of cholelithiasis in obese persons. The factors that mediate the development of cardiovascular and gallbladder complications are correctable by an appropriate program of meal planning and physical activity. PMID:737618

Angel, A.; Roncari, D. A.

1978-01-01

323

Complications of body piercing.  

PubMed

The trend of body piercing at sites other than the earlobe has grown in popularity in the past decade. The tongue, lips, nose, eyebrows, nipples, navel, and genitals may be pierced. Complications of body piercing include local and systemic infections, poor cosmesis, and foreign body rejection. Swelling and tooth fracture are common problems after tongue piercing. Minor infections, allergic contact dermatitis, keloid formation, and traumatic tearing may occur after piercing of the earlobe. "High" ear piercing through the ear cartilage is associated with more serious infections and disfigurement. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are advised for treatment of auricular perichondritis because of their antipseudomonal activity. Many complications from piercing are body-site-specific or related to the piercing technique used. Navel, nipple, and genital piercings often have prolonged healing times. Family physicians should be prepared to address complications of body piercing and provide accurate information to patients. PMID:16342832

Meltzer, Donna I

2005-11-15

324

Glycyrrhizic acid confers neuroprotection after subarachnoid hemorrhage via inhibition of high mobility group box-1 protein: a hypothesis for novel therapy of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage usually results in poor clinical outcome and devastating neurological deficits. The early brain injury and delayed vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are involved in the poor prognosis to the patients, while the mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Previous studies found an up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), inflammatory factors and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the cortex after SAH. Increased inflammatory response contributes to the early brain injury and delayed vasospasm after SAH. Moreover, we found that the inflammatory response could be induced and amplified following recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) addition in cultured neurons. Based on the latest researches in this field, we raised a hypothesis that HMGB1, a prototypical member of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) family, could be passively released from the damaged neuroglia cells and hemotocyte lysis after SAH. Extracellular HMGB1 initiated the inflammation through its receptors. The inflammatory mediators then acted on the neurocytes to make them actively release HMGB1 continuously, manifesting an double phases. HMGB1 might be the key factor to induce sterile inflammation, and thus be one of the origin of early brain injury and delayed vasospasm after SAH. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 activities might be a novel therapeutic target for SAH to reduce the damaging inflammatory response. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) which was extracted from liquorice and confirmed as a nature inhibitor of HMGB1 with little side-effects could inhibit extracellular HMGB1 cytokine activities and reduce the level of inflammatory response, thus alleviating early brain injury and cerebrovasospasm. GA might be a new novel therapy of SAH for better outcomes. PMID:23932051

Sun, Qing; Wang, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Weide; Hu, Yang-chun; Li, Song; Zhu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Mengliang; Hang, Chun-hua

2013-10-01

325

Vasectomy without complication.  

PubMed

In a four-year period 500 outpatient vasectomies were performed by the author. Bilateral scrotal incisions were used in all cases as were metal clips to occlude the vas deferens. Operating time rarely exceeded fifteen minutes. No failures and no sperm granulomas were encountered. Complications were rare and included a single scrotal hematoma and six minor infections. Unilateral absence of the vas deferens was noted in 2 patients. The technique to be described is a simple, complication-free method of vasectomy. PMID:1246787

Bennett, A H

1976-02-01

326

Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options. PMID:25013348

Abel, Taylor J; Howard, Matthew A; Menezes, Arnold

2014-01-01

327

Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options. PMID:25013348

Abel, Taylor J.; Howard, Matthew A.; Menezes, Arnold

2014-01-01

328

The Contribution of Chemoreceptor-Network Injury to the Development of Respiratory Arrest Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Respiratory arrest following brainstem herniation has been attributed to injuries resulting from compression of the respiratory centers. While it is widely perceived that the chemoreceptor network, consisting of the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body (GPN-CB), is essential for the modulation of respiration, its contribution to the development of respiratory arrest has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether injury to the GPN-CB occurs in animals with respiratory arrest caused by experimentally-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Eighteen hybrid rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (n=4) were used to determine the normal structure of the GPN-CB. The remaining rabbits (n=14) received an autologous blood injection into the cisterna magna to produce a subarachnoid hemorrhage, after which they were observed for 20 days. The number of axons and the neuron density in the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body, respectively, were counted by stereological methods. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results. Results: Six of 14 rabbits died within the first week, likely due to brain swelling and crushing injuries that were observed in the brain stem and related structures. In control rabbits, the average neuronal density of the carotid body was 4250 ±1250/mm3, while the axonal density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 18000±5100 mm2. Conversely, in the dead rabbits, the degenerated neuron density of the carotid body was 2100±500/mm3, while the degenerated axon density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 8500±2550 mm2. In addition, histopathological lesions were more severe in the dead rabbits in terms of their glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body. Conclusion: There is an important relationship between neurodegeneration in the GPN-CB and mortality rates following experimentally-induced hemorrhage. This relationship suggests that injury to the GPN-CB network disrupts the breathing reflex and results in respiratory arrest following a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Eroglu, Atilla; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Al?c?, Hac? Ahmet; Aydin, Nazan; Altas, Sare; Unal, Bunyami

2010-01-01

329

Ocular Ultrasound as an Easy Applicable Tool for Detection of Terson's Syndrome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intraocular hemorrhage in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is known as Terson's syndrome and is an underestimated but common pathology. We therefore designed a prospective single-blinded study to evaluate the validity of ocular ultrasound compared to the gold standard indirect funduscopy in the diagnosis of Terson's syndrome. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients (104 eyes in total) suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in this study. Two investigators independently performed a single-blinded ocular ultrasound using a standard intensive care ultrasound system to detect an intraocular hemorrhage. Indirect funduscopy following iatrogenic mydriasis served as the gold standard for confirmation or exclusion of an intraocular hemorrhage. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the method as well as the learning curve of ocular ultrasound. Results Indirect funduscopy detected Terson's syndrome in 11 of 52 (21.2%) respectively in 21 of 104 (20.2%) eyes in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sensitivity and specificity increased with the number of ocular ultrasound examinations for both investigators, reaching 81.8% and 100% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were different for both investigators (63.6% vs. 100% positive and 100% vs. 95.7% negative) but were both correlated to the amount of intraocular hemorrhage. A low Glasgow Coma scale (p?=?0.015) and high Hunt & Hess grade (p?=?0.003) was associated with a higher rate of Terson's syndrome. Conclusions Ocular ultrasound using standard ultrasound equipment has been confirmed as a reliable, easy-to-handle bedside screening tool for detecting Terson's syndrome. Nevertheless funduscopy remains the gold standard to detect Terson's syndrome. PMID:25502695

Knospe, Volker; Richard, Gisbert; Vettorazzi, Eik; Wagenfeld, Lars; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan; Skevas, Christos

2014-01-01

330

Cell proliferation in human ganglionic eminence and suppression after prematurity-associated haemorrhage.  

PubMed

In premature infants, germinal matrix haemorrhage in the brain is a common occurrence. However, cell proliferation and fate determination in the normal human germinal matrix is poorly understood. Human ganglionic eminence samples were collected prospectively from autopsies of premature and term infants with no evidence of pathological process (n=78; dying at post-menstrual age 14-88 weeks). The ganglionic eminence was thickest at 20-26 weeks and involuted by 34-36 weeks. Proliferating cells, detected by Ki67 immunoreactivity, were abundant throughout the ganglionic eminence prior to 18 weeks, after which a sharp boundary between the dorsal and ventral ganglionic eminence appeared with reduced cell proliferation in the dorsal region. Ki67 immunoreactivity persisted in the majority of ventral cells until ?28 weeks, after which time the proportion of proliferating cells dropped quickly. The expression of cell lineage markers (such as Olig2, SOX2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha) showed partitioning at the microscopic level. The hypothesis that germinal matrix haemorrhage suppresses cell proliferation was then addressed. In comparison to controls, germinal matrix haemorrhage (n=47; born at post-menstrual age 18-34 weeks followed by survival of 0?h to 98 days) was associated with significantly decreased cell proliferation if survival was >12?h. The cell cycle arrest transcription factor p53 was transiently increased and the oligodendroglial lineage markers Olig2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha were decreased. Cell death was negligible. A low level of microglial activation was detected. Haemorrhage-associated suppression of cell proliferation in premature human infants could partially explain the reduced brain size and clinical effects in children who suffer germinal matrix haemorrhage after premature birth. PMID:21478186

Del Bigio, Marc R

2011-05-01

331

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus after perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: initial experience in three patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To review the outcome after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for symptomatic, persistent hydrocephalus in three patients\\u000a with perimesencephalic angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNH) who were dependent on an external ventricular\\u000a drain (EVD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All patients initially presented with severe headache, nuchal rigidity, confusion and lethargy (Hunt-Hess Grade II or III),\\u000a and persistent, EVD-dependent hydrocephalus. Cranial CT images in each revealed acute

Walter Grand; Andrea J. Chamczuk; Jody Leonardo; Kenneth V. Snyder

332

Mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage: technical note on the filament perforation model.  

PubMed

Experiments using genetically engineered mice are regarded as indispensable to gaining a better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology in neuronal injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, mouse SAH models are becoming increasingly important. The circle of Willis perforation (cWp) model is the most frequently used mouse SAH model. We report and discuss the technical surgical approach, results, and difficulties associated with the cWp model, with reference to the existing literature. Our results largely confirmed previously published results. This model may be the first choice at present, because important pathologies can be reproduced in this model and most findings in the literature are based on it. PMID:25366644

Muroi, Carl; Fujioka, Masayuki; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Keller, Emanuela; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Mishima, Kenichi

2015-01-01

333

Ischemic optic neuropathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of anterior communicating artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Two clinical cases in which ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) occurred after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are reported. Hemorrhage in the proximity of the optic chiasm was confirmed in 2 cases following rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Optic disk atrophy with excavation and permanent visual field defect (altitudinal superior hemianopia) occurred in both cases. ION seems to occur in association with the optic nerve coincidental with the hyperdensity side of SAH on head CT scan. The incidence of ION appears to be attributable to an insufficient blood supply to arteries distributed in the posterior part of the optic nerve as a result of SAH. PMID:12566879

Hara, Naoto; Mukuno, Kazuo; Ohtaka, Hironori; Shimizu, Kimiya

2003-01-01

334

Cerebral venous thrombosis as a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

We report a 48-year-old woman presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as the first manifestation of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. In a literature review of 73 cases, SAH associated with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) was usually seen at the cerebral convexities. SAH was adjacent to thrombosed venous structures; therefore, the most possible explanation seems to be the rupture of cortical veins due to extension of thrombosis. Computed tomography (CT) was effective for diagnosis of CVT in only 32% of the cases. CVT should be considered when SAH is limited to cerebral convexities and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR venography should be performed. PMID:24746346

Sahin, Neslin; Solak, Aynur; Genc, Berhan; Bilgic, Nalan

2014-01-01

335

Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication  

PubMed Central

Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

2013-01-01

336

Neurological Complications of AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... of certain brain structures involved in learning and information processing. Other nervous system complications that occur as a result of the ... resistant to drug combination therapy0 in the nervous system. Where can I get more information? For more information on neurological disorders or research ...

337

Neurological Complications of Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the preferred treatment for an expanding range of neoplastic and nonmalignant conditions. Increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOTs) add an additional population of immunosuppressed patients with multiple potential neurological problems. While the spectrum of neurological complications varies with conditioning procedure and hematopoietic cell or solid organ source, major neurological complications occur with all transplantation procedures. This 2 part review emphasizes a practical consultative approach to central and peripheral nervous system problems related to HCT or SOT with clinical and neuroimaging examples from the authors’ institutional experience with the following conditions: the diversity of manifestations of common infections such as varicella zoster virus, Aspergillus, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), drug therapy-related complications, stroke mechanisms, the spectrum of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and neurologically important syndromes of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). These complications preferentially occur at specific intervals after HCT and SOT, and neurological consultants must recognize an extensive spectrum of syndromes in order to effect timely diagnosis and expedite appropriate treatment. PMID:23983885

Pruitt, Amy A.; Graus, Francesc; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

2013-01-01

338

Behavioral complications of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BEHAVIORAL COMPLICATIONS of dementia, a major source of morbidity associated with diseases marked by cognitive impairment, are usually very distressing to both demented patients and their caregivers, v3 Since general internists often manage these debilitating problems, we have structured this overview for the primary care physician. The existing literature in this new area of study is not yet sufficient for

Timothy Howell; David T. Watts

1990-01-01

339

Complications of Ventricular Shunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular shunting is the most widely accepted form of treatment of hydrocephalus. The placement of cerebrospinal fluid shunts has become on eo f the most common procedures in modern neurologic surgery. Despite significant improve- ments in shunt procedures, shunt complications remain common. These troubles are associated with significant adverse consequences, both medical and economic. At- tempts to limit their incidence

Bradley E. Weprin; Dale M. Swift

2002-01-01

340

An autopsy case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with polycystic kidney disease caused by a novel PKD1 mutation.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic disorders and is characterized by the development and progressive enlargement of cysts in the kidneys. ADPKD is caused by mutations of either PKD1 or PKD2. The prevalence of brain aneurysm in patients with ADPKD is increased, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is one of the frequent complications. We describe an autopsy case of death of a 31-year-old woman by aneurysmal SAH. ADPKD as an underlining disease was suggested by the autopsy findings. Sequence analysis of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes revealed deletion of a guanine at position 8019 in PKD1 (8019delG) in a heterozygous state resulting in a shift in the reading frame and generation of a premature termination codon at amino acid 2684 (G2673fs12X). This mutation is novel and highly suspected as the causal mutation of ADPKD of this case. PMID:25022697

Soejima, Mikiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Koda, Yoshiro

2014-09-01

341

Phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle in vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMC) control vasoconstriction and vasodilation, but they can undergo transformation, proliferate, secret cytokines, and migrate into the subendotherial layer with adverse consequences. In this review, we discuss the phenotypic transformation of SMC in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Phenotypic transformation starts with an insult as caused by aneurysm rupture: Elevation of intracranial and blood pressure, secretion of norepinephrine, and mechanical force on an artery are factors that can cause aneurysm. The phenotypic transformation of SMC is accelerated by inflammation, thrombin, and growth factors. A wide variety of cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-33, matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxidase synthases, endothelins, thromboxane A2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, platelet-derived vascular growth factors, and vascular endothelial factor) all play roles in cerebral vasospasm (CVS). We summarize the correlations between various factors and the phenotypic transformation of SMC. A new target of this study is the transient receptor potential channel in CVS. Statin together with fasdil prevents phenotypic transformation of SMC in an animal model. Clazosentan prevents CVS and improves outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical trials of cilostazol for the prevention of phenotypic transformation of SMC have been reported, along with requisite experimental evidence. To conquer CVS in its complexity, we will ultimately need to elucidate its general, underlying mechanism. PMID:24323729

Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki

2014-06-01

342

Copeptin as a Marker for Severity and Prognosis of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Grading of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is often confounded by seizure, hydrocephalus or sedation and the prediction of prognosis remains difficult. Recently, copeptin has been identified as a serum marker for outcomes in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated whether copeptin might serve as a marker for severity and prognosis in aSAH. Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with aSAH had plasma copeptin levels measured with a validated chemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was the association of copeptin levels at admission with the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade score after resuscitation. Levels of copeptin were compared across clinical and radiological scores as well as between patients with ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm and ischemia. Results Copeptin levels were significantly associated with the severity of aSAH measured by WFNS grade (P?=?0.006), the amount of subarachnoid blood (P?=?0.03) and the occurrence of ICH (P?=?0.02). There was also a trend between copeptin levels and functional clinical outcome at 6-months (P?=?0.054). No other clinical outcomes showed any statistically significant association. Conclusions Copeptin may indicate clinical severity of the initial bleeding and may therefore help in guiding treatment decisions in the setting of aSAH. These initial results show that copeptin might also have prognostic value for clinical outcome in aSAH. PMID:23326397

Fung, Christian; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Katan, Mira; Seiler, Marleen; Arnold, Marcel; Gralla, Jan; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

2013-01-01

343

Bereavement and Complicated Grief  

PubMed Central

Bereavement is a common experience in adults age 60 and older. Loss of a loved one usually leads to acute grief characterized by yearning and longing, decreased interest in ongoing activities, and frequent thoughts of the deceased. For most, acute grief naturally evolves into a state of integrated grief, where the bereaved is able to reengage with everyday activities and find interest or pleasure. About 7% of bereaved older adults, however, will develop the mental health condition of Complicated Grief (CG). In CG, the movement from acute to integrated grief is derailed, and grief symptoms remain severe and impairing. This article reviews recent publications on the diagnosis of CG, risk factors for the condition, and evidenced-based treatments for CG. Greater attention to complicated grief detection and treatment in older adults is needed. PMID:24068457

Ghesquiere, Angela; Glickman, Kim

2013-01-01

344

Complications and limitations of injection sclerotherapy in portal hypertension.  

PubMed

Injection sclerotherapy is now the accepted first line treatment for bleeding oesophageal varices, although it is associated with an impressive list of rare complications. The main problem concerns the strategy for uncontrollable or recurrent bleeding. Patients with uncontrolled bleeding may be referred for surgery after considerable blood loss and are then extremely difficult to assess. The effects of blood loss on liver function can lead to an unduly pessimistic assessment of liver status. An effective choice of emergency surgical procedure may require considerable surgical expertise. Oesophageal transection and devascularisation are satisfactory for many patients with oesophageal varices secondary to cirrhosis and should nearly always control bleeding. Difficulties arise in patients who are grossly obese and in those who have undergone extensive surgery in the upper abdomen. Problems may also be encountered in those treated by repeated sclerotherapy, which may have caused severe inflammatory change and thickening around the lower oesophagus and upper stomach. We believe that an emergency mesocaval shunt using either a vein graft or a synthetic material such as polytetrafluoroethylene is the procedure of choice for this difficult group of very sick patients. The surgical exposure is satisfactory and not unduly prolonged in even the largest patients and the technique does not interfere with any subsequent transplant operation. There is a greater choice in the management of the patient with less urgent bleeding from recurrent varices after sclerotherapy. Repeat sclerotherapy may be effective for small oesophageal varices while liver transplantation may be indicated in the patient with deteriorating liver function. A selective distal splenorenal shunt should be considered for patients with intact splenic and left renal veins and a mesocaval vein graft for the remainder. We would therefore suggest that surgery should still be considered for the management of portal hypertension, particularly in the following circumstances: (1) Uncontrollable bleeding during the initial course of sclerotherapy; (2) Life threatening haemorrhage from recurrent varices; (3) Bleeding from ectopic varices not accessible to sclerotherapy; (4) Uncontrollable bleeding from oesophageal ulceration secondary to injection sclerotherapy; (5) Severe, symptomatic hypersplenism; (6) For patients who live in communities remote from blood transfusion facilities and adequate medical care. The management of the complications of portal hypertension continues to pose problems. We believe that the best results should come from a combined management approach using injection sclerotherapy as primary treatment and surgery for complications and for haemorrhage from unusual anatomical sites. PMID:8432456

Heaton, N D; Howard, E R

1993-01-01

345

Complications following cava catheterization.  

PubMed

The employment of cava catheterization in intensive care and emergency-treatment has dramatically increased. On the basis of our patients in the Surgical Clinics of the RWTH Aachen risks and complications of the central venous catheterization are explained. Six hundred and eighty-four cases have been examined--categorized according to the method of insertion and according to the technique. In a small randomized study, 60 cava catheters were individually examined bacteriologically. PMID:899567

Raguse, T; Lynen, F K; Schröder, W

1977-01-01

346

[Complications of ileal lymphoma].  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the ileum accounts for some 3% of all extranodal onset lymphoma and 20% of gastrointestinal lymphoma given that the ileum is more frequently affected than the jejunum and duodenum. The large majority of primary extranodal lymphomas present a diffuse histological structure and in particular involve the cervico-fascial and gastrointestinal regions. Moreover, it is not uncommon to find an association between gastroenteric involvement and Waldeyer's ring (cervico-fascial region). Primary intestinal involvement may not present specific symptoms and remain silent for some time. It is manifested by the onset of complications caused by occlusion and perforation. Two cases of ileal lymphoma were treated at the Institute of Emergency Surgery of Catania University between 1992 and 1993. They were complicated by intestinal perforation and occlusion respectively. Both patients underwent emergency intestinal resection. Surgery represents the elective treatment for primary forms, followed by polychemotherapy and radiotherapy. Prognosis depends on the spread of disease and the hystotype. The administration of NTP and somatopstatin resulted in a shorter postoperative period with fewer surgical complications. PMID:8710149

Vadalà, G; Salice, M; L'Anfusa, G; Caragliano, P; Vadalà, F; Mangiameli, A

1995-11-01

347

Pleuropulmonary complications of pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Pancreatitis, in common with many other upper abdominal diseases, often leads to pleuropulmonary complications. Radiological evidence of pleuropulmonary abnormality was found in 55% of 58 cases examined retrospectively. The majority of such abnormalities are not specific for pancreatitis; but a particular category of pleural effusions, rich in pancreatic enzymes, is a notable exception. A patient with this type of effusion, complicated by a spontaneous bronchopleural fistula and then by an empyema, is reported. The literature relating to pancreatic enzyme-rich pleural effusions (pathognomonic of pancreatitis) is reviewed. Of several possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, transdiaphragmatic lymphatic transfer of pancreatic enzymes, intrapleural rupture of mediastinal extensions of pseudocysts, and diaphragmatic perforation are the most important. The measurement of pleural fluid amylase, at present little employed in this country, has considerable diagnostic value. Enzyme-rich effusions are more commonly left-sided, are often blood-stained, are frequently associated with pancreatic pseudocysts, and—if long standing—may be complicated by a bronchopleural fistula. Images PMID:4872925

Kaye, Michael D.

1968-01-01

348

Brain sonography in African infants with complicated sporadic bacterial meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background: To determine the structural findings in brain sonography of African infants with complicated sporadic bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective assessment of medical records of patients who underwent brain sonography on account of complicated bacterial meningitis. The brain sonography was carried out over a 4-year period (between September 15, 2004 and September 14, 2008). Result: A total of 86 infants were studied (40 boys and 46 girls in a ratio of 1:1.1); more than 70% of the patients were aged below 6 months. Presenting complaint included convulsion with fever in 34 (39.53%), persistent fever 20 (23.26%), bulging fontanelles 8 (9.30%), coma 7 (8.14%) and sepsis with convulsion 6 (6.98%), among others. Patients’ place of previous treatment included specialist hospitals 33 (38.37%), private hospitals 21 (24.42%), herbal home centres 12 (13.95%), nursing homes 8 (9.30%), patent medicine stores 7 (8.14%) and other non-doctor attended clinics 5 (5.81%) infants. The sonographic findings included hydrocephalus 36 (41.86%), cerebral infarction 12 (13.95%), encephalocoele 9 (10.49%) and intracerebral abscess 7 (8.14%) infants. Cerebritis 5 (5.81%), intracerebral hemorrhage 3 (3.49%), porocephalic cysts 2 (2.33%), cerebral oedema 2 (2.33%), intraventricular haemorrhage 1 (1.16%) and subdural collection 1 (1.16%) infants; 8 patients (9.30%) had normal findings. Conclusion: Hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction and intracerebral abscess were the most common complications elicited by sonography in this study. Early and adequate treatment with antibiotics in patients with persistent fever and convulsion with fever will reduce the complications of meningitis and its long-term neurological sequelae. PMID:24403710

Eze, Kenneth C.; Enukegwu, Sam U.; Odike, Angela I.

2013-01-01

349

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A rare complication of acute cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Haemobilia is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis and may present as upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe two patients with acute cholecystitis presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to haemobilia. Bleeding from the duodenal papilla was seen at endoscopy in one case but none in the other. CT demonstrated acute cholecystitis with a pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery in both cases. Definitive control of intracholecystic bleeding was achieved in both cases by embolisation of the cystic artery. Both patients remain symptom free. One had subsequent laparoscopic cholecystostomy and the other no surgery. DISCUSSION Pseudoaneurysms of the cystic artery are uncommon in the setting of acute cholecystitis. OGD and CT angiography play a key role in diagnosis. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) is effective in controlling bleeding. TAE followed by interval cholecystectomy remains the treatment of choice in surgically fit patients. CONCLUSION We highlight an unusual cause of upper GI haemorrhage. Surgeons need to be aware of this rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Immediate non-surgical management in these cases proved to be safe and effective. PMID:23856254

Nana, Gael R.; Gibson, Matthew; Speirs, Archie; Ramus, James R.

2013-01-01

350

Artifact quantification and tractography from 3T MRI after placement of aneurysm clips in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients  

PubMed Central

Background The application of advanced 3T MRI imaging techniques to study recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complicated by the presence of image artifacts produced by implanted aneurysm clips. To characterize the effect of these artifacts on image quality, we sought to: 1) quantify extent of image artifact in SAH patients with implanted aneurysm clips across a range of MR sequences typically used in studies of volumetry, blood oxygen level dependent signal change (BOLD-fMRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and 2) to explore the ability to reconstruct white matter pathways in these patients. Methods T1- and T2-weighted structural, BOLD-fMRI, and DW-MRI scans were acquired at 3T in two patients with titanium alloy clips in ACOM and left ACA respectively. Intensity-based planimetric contouring was performed on aligned image volumes to define each artifact. Artifact volumes were quantified by artifact/clip length and artifact/brain volume ratios and analyzed by two-way (scan-by-rater) ANOVAs. Tractography pathways were reconstructed from DW-MRI at varying distances from the artifacts using deterministic methods. Results Artifact volume varied by MR sequence for length (p = 0.007) and volume (p < 0.001) ratios: it was smallest for structural images, larger for DW-MRI acquisitions, and largest on fMRI images. Inter-rater reliability was high (r = 0.9626, p < 0.0001), and reconstruction of white matter connectivity characteristics increased with distance from the artifact border. In both patients, reconstructed white matter pathways of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were clearly visible within 2 mm of the artifact border. Conclusions Advanced 3T MR can successfully image brain tissue around implanted titanium aneurysm clips at different spatial ranges depending on sequence type. White matter pathways near clip artifacts can be reconstructed and visualized. These findings provide a reference for designing functional and structural neuroimaging studies of recovery in aSAH patients after clip placement. PMID:21970560

2011-01-01

351

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage may be associated with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in a patient with systemic risk factors  

PubMed Central

The authors present a rare case where acute respiratory failure occurred after the intravitreal bevacizumab injection for a branch retinal vein occlusion. Chest CT scan showed ground-glass opacity in the bilateral lung fields. The finding of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed alveolar haemorrhage. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in a rapid improvement of respiratory failure. This report suggests that intravitreal injection of bevacizumab may be associated with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and acute lung injury. PMID:22714606

Seto, Ruriko; Yamada, Hideto; Wada, Hiroshi; Osawa, Makoto; Nagao, Taishi; Nakano, Yasutaka

2011-01-01

352

Belgrade and Hantaan hantaviruses — the causative agents of severe haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in children in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in 1989, five children (3 girls, 2 boys, aged 6.8–16 years) with a severe form of the disease were treated; four of these were followed for 22–28 months. The main clinical features in all five patients were: fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal and back pain and vomiting; haemorrhagic syndrome was present

Radovan Bogdanovic; Ana Gligic; Vesna Nikolic; Miloš Ognjanovi?; Milanka Markovi?; Ljudmila Sarjanovi?

1994-01-01

353

Emergency cholecystectomy and hepatic arterial repair in a patient presenting with haemobilia and massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to a spontaneous cystic artery gallbladder fistula masquerading as a pseudoaneurysm  

PubMed Central

Background Haemobilia usually occurs secondary to accidental or iatrogenic hepatobiliary trauma. It can occasionally present with cataclysmal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage posing as a life threatening emergency. Haemobilia can very rarely be a complication of acute cholecystitis. Here we report a case of haemobilia manifesting as massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient without any prior history of biliary surgery or intervention and present a brief review of literature. Case presentation A 22 year old male admitted with history suggestive of acute cholecystitis subsequently developed waxing waning jaundice and recurrent episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Endoscopy showed an ulcer in the first part of duodenum with a clot, no active bleed was visible. Angiography was suggestive of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm in the vicinity of the right hepatic artery probably originating from the cystic artery. Coil embolization was tried but the coil dislodged into the right branch of hepatic artery distal to the site of pseudoaneurysm. Review of angiographic video in light of operative findings demonstrated a fistulous communication between cystic artery and gallbladder as the cause, a simultaneous cholecystoduodenal fistula was also noted. Retrograde cholecystectomy, closure of cholecystoduodenal fistula and right hepatic arteriotomy with retrieval of the endo-coil and hepatic arterial repair was performed. Conclusion Fistula between the cystic artery and gallbladder has been commonly reported to occur after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Spontaneous fistulous communication, i.e. in the absence of any prior trauma or intervention, between cystic artery and gallbladder is rare with very few reports in literature. Aetiopathogenesis of the disease, in the context of current literature is reviewed. The diagnostic dilemma posed by the confounding finding of an ulcer in the duodenum, the iconic video angiographic depiction as also the therapeutic challenge of a failed embolization with consequent microcoil migration and primary hepatic arterial repair in the emergency situation is discussed. PMID:23452779

2013-01-01

354

Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The

Martin Lauritzen; Jens Peter Dreier; Martin Fabricius; Jed A Hartings; Rudolf Graf; Anthony John Strong

2011-01-01

355

The utility of cone beam volume CT in the evaluation of thrombosed intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Thrombosed aneurysms are difficult to visualize with digital subtraction angiography. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thrombosed ruptured aneurysm which was undetected on digital subtraction angiography but was visualized with cone beam volume CT. To our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the utility of cone beam volume CT in identifying such aneurysms. PMID:23314882

Shah, Shreyansh; Murthy, Santosh B; Hannawi, Yousef; Rao, Chethan P Venkatasubba

2013-01-01

356

The utility of cone beam volume CT in the evaluation of thrombosed intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Thrombosed aneurysms are difficult to visualize with digital subtraction angiography. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thrombosed ruptured aneurysm which was undetected on digital subtraction angiography but was visualized with cone beam volume CT. To our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the utility of cone beam volume CT in identifying such aneurysms. PMID:23314882

Shah, Shreyansh; Murthy, Santosh B; Hannawi, Yousef; Rao, Chethan P Venkatasubba

2013-01-01

357

The utility of cone beam volume CT in the evaluation of thrombosed intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Thrombosed aneurysms are difficult to visualize with digital subtraction angiography. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thrombosed ruptured aneurysm which was undetected on digital subtraction angiography but was visualized with cone beam volume CT. To our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the utility of cone beam volume CT in identifying such aneurysms. PMID:23345628

Shah, Shreyansh; Murthy, Santosh B; Hannawi, Yousef; Rao, Chethan P Venkatasubba

2013-11-01

358

Use of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study the Effect of Cortical Magnesium and Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flow metabolism coupling ensures adequate cerebral oxygenation. When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs, the flow metabolism coupling lost its balance and results in cerebral ischemia and infarction second to cortical magnesium and energy metabolism alternation. During chronic vasospasm, change in cortical energy metabolism is coupled with change in cerebral blood flow after SAH. Methods: What kind of noninvasive technique can

Heping Yang; Xiangqi Tang; Lihua Tan; Liuwang Zeng; Zhiping Hu

2008-01-01

359

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade 4 or 5: Treatment Using the Guglielmi Detachable Coil System  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients in poor clinical condition (Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have historically fared poorly and many often were excluded from aggressive treatment. Early aggressive surgical treatment of SAH can produce good-quality survival for a higher percentage of patients than previously reported. We assessed the outcome of patients with Hunt and Hess

Raymond U. Weir; Mary L. Marcellus; Huy M. Do; Gary K. Steinberg; Michael P. Marks

360

Acute cerebral artery constriction in the spontaneously hypertensive rat following blood and plasma administration into the subarachnoid space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate, using a vascular casting technique, acute vasoconstrictive changes in the cerebral vasculature 1 h following whole-blood or plasma infusion into the subarachnoid space of conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats. Vascular casts from animals infused (over 20 min) with 0.45 ml of heparinized autologous arterial blood or plasma exhibited incomplete filling, while casts

Cory G. Acuff; Glenn Hoskins; N. Anthon Moore; Robin W. Rockhold

1996-01-01

361

Femoral nerve palsy after mandibular reconstruction with microvascular iliac flap: a complication under anticoagulation therapy.  

PubMed

Pharmacological prophylaxis and intervention are used extensively in head and neck reconstructions with microvascular flaps. There is no universally accepted protocol, but the microvascular surgery literature recommends intraoperative anticoagulation with heparin. Here is reported a case of iliacus haematoma with subsequent femoral nerve palsy after the harvest of a microvascular iliac flap for mandibular reconstruction in a patient who had been treated with heparin. The association between femoral nerve palsy and anticoagulant therapy has been well described. It remains unclear as to why the iliacus muscle is particularly vulnerable to intramuscular haemorrhage. Femoral nerve neuropathy is also an uncommon but recognized complication after abdominopelvic surgery. Iliacus haematoma secondary to microvascular surgery has not been previously reported. This case illustrates the need to be aware of this type of complication and its clinical manifestations for patients under anticoagulant therapy in the perioperative period during microvascular reconstructions. PMID:17079115

Toro, C; Millesi, W; Zerman, N; Robiony, M; Politi, M

2007-03-01

362

Haemorrhage after home birth: audit of decision making and referral. Part 2: Results and discussion.  

PubMed

This descriptive study aims to identify substandard care (SSC) in PPH after home birth in the Netherlands. Sixty seven cases of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) reported by community-based midwives were collected. After applying selection criteria, seven cases were submitted to audit. The audit panel consisted of 12 midwives (of whom seven contributed a case), 10 obstetricians, an educational expert and an ambulance paramedic. First, an individual assessment was performed by all members. Subsequently, at a plenary audit meeting, SSC factors were determined and assigned incidental, minor or major status. Major SSC was identified in two out of seven cases. We conclude that communication between different healthcare providers should be optimised and a proactive attitude taken to select women who plan to give birth at home, taking into account the possibility of timely referral in case of PPH or retained placenta. National multidisciplinary guidelines on managing obstetric haemorrhage in home birth are urgently needed. PMID:24386705

Smit, Marrit; Dijkman, Anneke; Rijnders, Marlies; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Dillen, Jeroen; Middeldorp, Johanna; Havenith, Barbara; van Roosmalen, Jos

2013-12-01

363

Complete tamponade system for management of severe postpartum vaginal haemorrhage due to uterine atony.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old, 39?weeks pregnant, multiparous woman with single fetus, attended our obstetric clinic with complete cervical dilation in intractable mentum anterior presentation. The fetus was delivered by caesarean section with vertical uterine incision under general anaesthesia and lithotomy position. After surgery, examination of the vagina revealed multiple, serious tears with severe haemorrhage. Vaginal bleeding could not be controlled by sutures and concurrently uterine atony developed, which could not be controlled with medical treatment. Owing to intractable bleeding from uterus and vagina, a complete tamponade system was used. After the instillation of the uterine balloon with 500?mL and vaginal balloon with 300?mL liquid, the bleeding was controlled. The estimated blood loss was 3200?mL. The vaginal wound healed well during the postoperative 2?weeks. A complete tamponade system may be an effective treatment method for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage owing to vaginal lacerations and uterine atony. PMID:25452297

Atilgan, Remzi; Ozkan, Zehra Sema; Orak, Ugur; Baspinar, Melike

2014-01-01

364

Christmas disease: diagnosis and management of a haemorrhagic diathesis following dentofacial trauma.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic diathesis has been of much concern to health professionals including dentists. It is not infrequent that a dentist becomes the first person to diagnose a bleeding disorder while performing dental treatment. Haemophilia is an X linked disorder with a frequency of about 1:10?000 births. Haemophilia B is much less common than haemophilia A, and affects only 1:300?000 males born alive. The clinical features of haemophilia B are very similar to those of haemophilia A with a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time. This case report describes the dental management of a patient with an uncommon haematological disorder, namely, factor IX deficiency, which remained undiagnosed until the patient had to undergo dentofacial trauma with unexpected severe haemorrhage. Preventive dentistry remains vital to young haemophiliacs. Surgical dental procedures may be performed for haemophiliacs but they must be judiciously coordinated by dental and medical health professionals. PMID:25568261

Tamagond, Sridevi B; Hugar, Santosh I; Patil, Anil; Huddar, SandhyaRani

2015-01-01

365

Protein S Deficiency and an Adult Case with Moyamoya Syndrome that Presented with Primary Intraventricular Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Moyamoya syndrome associated with protein S deficiency is rarely encountered and is usually reported in paediatric cases with cerebral ischaemia. Case Report: A 32-year-old woman had symptoms of sudden-onset severe headache, projectile vomiting, impaired consciousness, and slight neck stiffness. The computed tomography scan of her brain showed primary intraventricular haemorrhage, and the subsequent four vessel cerebral angiographies revealed stage 3 to 4 Moyamoya disease according to Suzuki and Takaku’s angiographic classification. The coagulation profile showed the presence of protein S deficiency. The patient was treated with external ventricular drainage and conservative management until blood clot resolution. The patient was discharged with normal neurological examination findings after her initial impaired consciousness and orientation defect gradually recovered. Conclusion: This case report would alert physicians to the possible coexistence of Moyamoya syndrome and protein S deficiency, even in adult cases presenting with primary intraventricular haemorrhage. PMID:25207193

Çevik, Betül; Acu, Berat; Aksoy, Dürdane; Kurt, Semiha

2014-01-01

366

Histological verification of microaneurysms as a cause of cerebral haemorrhage in surgical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Surgical specimens taken from 14 patients with lobar intracerebral haemorrhage or cerebellar haemorrhage without vascular abnormalities on angiograms were examined histologically. In seven of the 14 patients, arteriovenous malformation or amyloid angiopathy were found by ordinary pathological examinations. Among the remaining seven patients, definite microaneurysms were verified in five and possible ones in two patients by using the technique of serial sectioning of the solid nodular tissues removed from the presumed bleeding site, where an arterial connection between the tissues and the surrounding brain was noted. Four of these seven patients had no history of hypertension and showed normal blood pressure before and after surgery. To verify microaneurysms in surgical specimens, it seems important to search the presumed bleeding site properly by a meticulous microsurgical technique and to section the tissues serially for the histological examination. Images PMID:2732728

Wakai, S; Nagai, M

1989-01-01

367

[EHEC-associated colon stenosis after ulcerous-chronic haemorrhagic colitis and consecutive resulting ileus].  

PubMed

We report on the case of a segmentally emphasised, ulcerous chronic haemorrhagic colitis with the development of granulation tissue und scarred fibrosis with consecutive resulting stenosis of the colon. A 49-year-old male patient was infected with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli bacteria during the EHEC-epidemic in northern Germany in early summer 2011. In the course of the infection the patient suffered from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) with acute renal failure and neurological symptoms. Haemodialysis and plasmapheresis had become mandatory. A simultaneous ileus was estimated to be of paralytic origin. One month after treatment of the acute phase of the infection a CT scan of the abdomen was performed and discovered a symptomatic stenosis of the proximal colon transversum. This obstruction needed to be treated by performing a right hemicolectomy with an ileo-transverso anastomosis. After surgery the patient recovered continuously. The histopathological examination verified an ulcerous-chronic haemorrhagic colitis on the background of an EHEC infection. PMID:22581700

Lipp, M J; Schirmer, J; Feyerabend, B; Stavrou, G A; Cordruwisch, W; Faiss, S; Oldhafer, K J

2012-05-01

368

Delayed tension pneumocephalus complicating orbital exenteration.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old woman with a recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland was treated by orbital exenteration and reconstruction. Eight days later she developed symptoms of cerebral irritation and a computed tomogram showed intracerebral and subarachnoid air. She recovered with conservative treatment. PMID:15749212

Esson, M D; Blanco-Guzman, M; Douglas, P S

2005-04-01

369

Dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the UK Women's Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Background:Stroke risk is modifiable through many risk factors, one being healthy dietary habits. Fibre intake was associated with a reduced stroke risk in recent meta-analyses; however, data were contributed by relatively few studies, and few examined different stroke types.Methods:A total of 27?373 disease-free women were followed up for 14.4 years. Diet was assessed with a 217-item food frequency questionnaire and stroke cases were identified using English Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality records. Survival analysis was applied to assess the risk of total, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in relation to fibre intake.Results:A total of 135 haemorrhagic and 184 ischaemic stroke cases were identified in addition to 138 cases where the stroke type was unknown or not recorded. Greater intake of total fibre, higher fibre density and greater soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and fibre from cereals were associated with a significantly lower risk for total stroke. For total stroke, the hazard ratio per 6?g/day total fibre intake was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals: 0.81-0.99). Different findings were observed for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in healthy-weight or overweight women. Total fibre, insoluble fibre and cereal fibre were inversely associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk in overweight/obese participants, and in healthy-weight women greater cereal fibre was associated with a lower ischaemic stroke risk. In non-hypertensive women, higher fibre density was associated with lower ischaemic stroke risk.Conclusions:Greater total fibre and fibre from cereals are associated with a lower stroke risk, and associations were more consistent with ischaemic stroke. The different observations by stroke type, body mass index group or hypertensive status indicates potentially different mechanisms.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.260. PMID:25469464

Threapleton, D E; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

2014-12-01

370

Cimetidine prevents suppression of delayed hypersensitivity in an animal model of haemorrhagic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cimetidine reverses immunosuppression following trauma, however, its effect on pure haemorrhagic shock is unknown. Methods: Mice sensitized by injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), were subjected to cardiac puncture and randomized to a control group-A (n=11) and three shock groups (35% of blood volume extracted): group-S had no treatment (n=16), group-CP received cimetidine 50mg\\/kg intraperitoneally (n=16), group-CW received

Peter MacD Hewitt; Neil Armstrong; Patricia Bowrey; Maya Cherian; David Lawson Morris

2002-01-01

371

Spontaneous mediastinal haemorrhage linked with thymic carcinoma and myelodysplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual sequence of clinico-pathological manifestations of myelodysplastic syndrome and thymic squamous cell carcinoma. A 77-year-old man with a two-month history of myelodysplastic syndrome was admitted with acute chest pain and shortness of breath. Radiological investigations revealed an anterior mediastinal mass, associated with mediastinal haemorrhage. The mass was excised via a standard median sternotomy and was found to be an infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma, which arose from a multilocular thymic cyst. PMID:19830017

Van Tornout, Filip; Ball, Richard Y; Wimperis, Jennie Z

2009-01-01

372

[Digestive haemorrhage in a patient with oropharyngeal cancer. A case study].  

PubMed

Gastric metastases from solid tumours are very infrequent and in most cases appear simultaneously with other metastases. The most frequent primary tumors are lung and breast. Clinical data and symptoms are non-specific, and can range from abdominal discomfort to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnoses must be established by gastroscopy and biopsy. We present an unusual case of digestive haemorrhage secondary to gastric metastases from oropharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:20094105

Rico, M; Arias de la Vega, F; Vila, M T; Chicata, V; Asín, G; Gómez Dorronsoro, M I

2009-01-01

373

Primary Supratentorial Haemorrhage – Surgery or no Surgery in an Indian Setup  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rise of hypertension among younger age group has increased the prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage. Conflicting reviews regarding the mode of treatment has been a concern to the treating physicians especially in a developing country like India. This study was undertaken to underline the importance of management and propose a local protocol for primary supra-tentorial haemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with primary supratentorial (ST) haemorrhage fulfilling inclusion criteria are included in the study. Decompression craniotomy done in all the patients and the patient particulars noted. The primary outcome of death is correlated with various particulars and statistical analysis done with SPSS version 16. Results: Mean age of presentation was 54.2 years, ranging from 38-71years. Male comprised 82.1% (23 patients). Seven out of eight patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) ?7 (87.5%) expired whereas only 3 out of 20 (15%) patients with GCS >7 expired. 50% of the patients with intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in temporo-pari et al., (2/4) or in basal ganglia with cortical extension (5/10) expired whereas the mortality in cases of ICH in parietal lobe and frontal lobes were 25% (1/4) and 20% (2/10) respectively. Clot volume ?100ml had a mortality of 19% (4/21) whereas the mortality was as high as 85.7% (6/7) with clot volume >100ml. Conclusion: Emergency Craniotomy and Evacuation of the Hematoma could be a feasible option in between 40 ml to 100ml of Primary ST ICH without intra-ventricular extension. In cases of intra-ventricular extension of haematoma surgery is less helpful. Midline shift of 5 mm or more might be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:25386479

Singh, Th Gojendra; Ghalige, Hemanth S; S, Abhilash; Singh, Motilal; Berma, Subrata Kishore Deb; N, Prasanna Kumar

2014-01-01

374

Disposition and pharmacodynamics of propofol during isovolaemic haemorrhage followed by crystalloid resuscitation in humans  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this study was to estimate the changes in unbound propofol concentration and pharmacodynamics of propofol during isovolaemic haemorrhage followed by crystalloid resuscitation. Methods Ten patients undergoing measure elective surgery were enrolled in this study. Anaesthesia was maintained by 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen, fentanyl 10–20 µg kg?1 and an infusion of propofol at 8 mg kg?1 h?1 until the end of the operation. Radial arterial samples were collected for measurement of propofol concentration just before the start of the operation, and at the point when blood loss was > 10 ml kg?1, 20 ml kg?1 and 30 ml kg?1. Cardiac output (CO), haemoglobin values and plasma concentrations of albumin were also determined. Patients were resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution to maintain a mean arterial blood pressure (± 20% of prehaemorrhage). Bispectral index (BIS) was measured continuously. Results Mean blood pressure, heart rate and CO were well maintained during the operation in all patients. Haemoglobin values and plasma albumin concentrations decreased significantly during surgery. There were no significant differences in total propofol concentrations across the time points. The unbound propofol concentration was increased from 0.10 ± 0.040 µg ml?1 to 0.17 ± 0.041 µg ml?1 after the haemorrhage of 30 ml kg?1 (P < 0.05). BIS was significantly decreased from 47 ± 5.9 to 39 ± 3.7 (P < 0.05) after the haemorrhage of 30 ml kg?1. Conclusions The hypnotic potency of propofol is increased during isovolaemic haemorrhage in crystalloid resuscitated patients even if CO is maintained. PMID:16487218

Takizawa, Eri; Takizawa, Daisuke; Hiraoka, Haruhiko; Saito, Shigeru; Goto, Fumio

2006-01-01

375

[Pulmonary complications in chemotherapy].  

PubMed

Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct or indirect toxic effect on the lungs and airways which can lead to potentially fatal complications. It is a diagnostic challenge to identify such changes by imaging early as they are often unspecific and can be misinterpreted as pulmonary edema, infections, radiation pneumonitis or progression of an underlying disease. In this review the morphological changes of the lungs and airways are summarized according to anatomical location and some of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents and their adverse effects are listed. PMID:25316105

Becker, A; Frauenfelder, T

2014-10-01

376

Managing esthetic implant complications.  

PubMed

Dental implant success today is judged not only by osseointegration but also by esthetic results. Cosmetic predictability can often be difficult to attain, and esthetic implant failures can be multifactorial. Once esthetic implant failures occur, many cannot be fully corrected. Some complications must be addressed by an interdisciplinary dental team. In this summary of case reports, surgical considerations are provided, including cases of facial asymmetry/recession due to facial implant placement or bone loss resulting from technique/treatment failures, as well as papillary deficiencies. Restorative considerations for correcting failures are also discussed. PMID:22908600

Butler, Bobby; Kinzer, Greggory A

2012-01-01

377

Extra-cerebral severe infections associated with haemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease): five cases and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders and is characterized by genetically determined abnormalities of vascular structure. People affected by HHT are predisposed to severe infections such as cerebral abscesses, typical of patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and extra-cerebral infections such as bacteraemia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, hepatic abscesses, skin infections and infective endocarditis. We present a retrospective series of severe bacterial extra-cerebral infections in five patients affected by HHT, admitted to our Institute from January 2007 to June 2013. We also reviewed the literature of the last five years concerning infectious complications in people affected by HHT. Our study shows that HHT patients with infectious complications exclusively localized in extra-cerebral sites are usually fragile, old and affected by comorbidities. Moreover, we recognized a trend of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) severe infection recurrence in such patients, both in our series and in the literature. In our opinion these results suggest the need to evaluate the possible benefits of SA nasal colonization screening and decolonization in such patients. PMID:24651092

Musso, Maria; Capone, Alessandro; Chinello, Pierangelo; Di Bella, Stefano; Galati, Vincenzo; Noto, Pasquale; Taglietti, Fabrizio; Topino, Simone; Petrosillo, Nicola

2014-03-01

378

Update on the Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II): statistical analysis plan  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies had suggested that the outcome for patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and no intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) might be improved with early evacuation of the haematoma. The Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II) set out to establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients with spontaneous lobar ICH would improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It is an international, multi-centre, prospective randomised parallel group trial of early surgery in patients with spontaneous lobar ICH. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire. Results Recruitment to the study began on 27 November 2006 and closed on 15 August 2012 by which time 601 patients had been recruited. The protocol was published in Trials (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/124/). This update presents the analysis plan for the study without reference to the unblinded data. The trial data will not be unblinded until after follow-up is completed in early 2013. The main trial results will be presented in spring 2013 with the aim to publish in a peer-reviewed journal at the same time. Conclusion The data from the trial will provide evidence on the benefits and risks of early surgery in patients with lobar ICH. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967 PMID:23171588

2012-01-01

379

New Prognostic Score for the Prediction of 30-Day Outcome in Spontaneous Supratentorial Cerebral Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aims. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate predictors of outcome in primary supratentorial cerebral haemorrhage. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a prognostic model to predict 30-day fatality. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a database of 156 patients with spontaneous supratentorial haemorrhage to explore the relationship between clinical and CT characteristics and fatal outcome within 30 days using multiple logistic regression analysis. The analyzed factors included volumetric data assessed by neuropathological and CT volumetry. A second CT scan in survivors or neuropathological ABC/2 volumetry in nonsurvivors was used along with the baseline CT to assess the growth index of haematoma. Results. Systolic blood pressure, serum potassium and glucose levels, platelet count, absolute and relative haematoma volumes, and presence and size of intraventricular haemorrhage statistically significantly predicted the fatal outcome within 30 days. Based on our results we formulated a six-factor scoring algorithm named SUSPEKT to predict outcome. Conclusions. After validation the SUSPEKT score may be applicable in general clinical practice for early patient selection to optimize individual management or for assessment of eligibility for treatment trials. PMID:25648158

Szepesi, Rita; Széll, Ibolya Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kardos, László; Nagy, Katalin; Lánczi, Levente István; Berényi, Ervin; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

2015-01-01

380

Relationship of tumour necrosis factor and endotoxin to macrophage cytotoxicity, haemorrhagic necrosis and lethal shock.  

PubMed

In this communication we discuss preliminary evidence suggesting a very strong synergism between tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or between TNF and other bacteria in causing haemorrhagic necrosis and lethal shock. We found that TNF by itself does not cause haemorrhagic necrosis when injected into normal skin. TNF also had a rather low systemic toxicity when injected into disease-free, germfree-derived, defined-flora animals. On the other hand the addition of small amounts of LPS markedly raised the lethality of intravenous TNF treatments, and LPS injected into normal skin 'prepared' the site of injection for subsequent induction of haemorrhagic necrosis by locally injected TNF. Similar synergism was observed between TNF and mycoplasma. We suggest that the synergism between TNF and bacterial endotoxin (or other bacteria or bacterial products) may be part of an important defence mechanism against infections which is independent of specific immunity mediated by B and T cells. This synergism may be useful in increasing the therapeutic effects of TNF on tumours if the development of systemic toxicity in this treatment can be prevented. PMID:3330008

Rothstein, J L; Schreiber, H

1987-01-01

381

Contribution of neovascularization and intraplaque haemorrhage to atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a continuous pathological process that starts early in life and progresses frequently to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke and atherothrombosis. The vulnerable lesion has several structural and functional hallmarks that distinguish it from the stable plaque. The unstable plaque has large necrotic core (over 40% plaque volume) composed of cholesterol crystals, cholesterol esters, oxidized lipids, fibrin, erythrocytes and their remnants (haeme, iron, haemoglobin), and dying macrophages. The fibrous cap is thin, depleted of smooth muscle cells and collagen, and is infiltrated with proinflammatory cells. In unstable lesion, formation of neomicrovessels is increased. These neovessels have weak integrity and leak thereby leading to recurrent haemorrhages. Haemorrhages deliver erythrocytes to the necrotic core where they degrade promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammatory cells mostly presented by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells extravagate from bleeding neovessels and infiltrate adventitia where they support chronic inflammation. Plaque destabilization is an evolutionary process that could start at early atherosclerotic stages and whose progression is influenced by many factors including neovascularization, intraplaque haemorrhages, formation of cholesterol crystals, inflammation, oxidative stress and intraplaque protease activity. PMID:25515699

Chistiakov, D A; Orekhov, A N; Bobryshev, Y V

2015-03-01

382

Haemorrhagic effect of enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin. Comparison with unfractionated heparin in humans.  

PubMed

The haemorrhagic effects of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and the low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin were investigated and compared in the gastric mucosa (haemorrhage induced by biopsy) and skin (haemorrhage induced by Simplate) of 12 healthy volunteers. Administration of UFH and LMWH (given in a dose of 75 anti-Xa U/kg intravenously) increased median gastric bleeding time (3.5 min) and geometric mean blood loss (11.5 microliters) to 19 min (p = 0.00003) and 54.1 microliters (p = 0.0021) after UFH and to 13 min (p = 0.008) and 29.0 microliters (p = 0.275) after LMWH. Median skin bleeding time (4.25 min) increased to 6.0 min after UFH (p = 0.003) and to 6.75 min after LMWH (p = 0.0008). Mean heparin activity in plasma was 20% higher after LMWH than after UFH. The calculated gastric bleeding time to heparin activity ratio was significantly lower for LMWH than for UFH (p < 0.05). PMID:1333639

Bang, C J; Riedel, B; Talstad, I; Berstad, A

1992-11-01

383

N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Is Very Effective for Massive Haemorrhage during the Perinatal Period  

PubMed Central

Objective The liquid embolic agent n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a tissue adhesive used as an immediate and permanent embolic agent when mixed with oil-based contrast medium. In this study, the preservation of fertility with TAE using NBCA for massive haemorrhage during pregnancy or the peripartum period and the utility of this therapy were investigated. Methods Cases from January 2005 to October 2010 in which TAE was performed for massive haemorrhage in pregnant women, particularly during the peripartum period, were investigated. Results TAE was performed in 27 pregnant women. The embolic agent used was GS only in five cases, NBCA only in 19 cases, and additional embolization with NBCA when the effect with GS was insufficient in three cases, one each of abruptio placentae, cervical pregnancy, and uterine atony.A comparison of mean blood loss when each embolic agent was used for haemostasis showed a significant difference between cases in which GS only was used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a comparison of mean transfusion volume, a significant difference was seen between cases in which both GS and NBCA were used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a postoperative follow-up survey, menses resumed in eight patients, including four patients who later became pregnant and three who delivered. Conclusions TAE with NBCA, which has an embolic effect unrelated to clotting dysfunction for massive haemorrhage during the peripartum period, is a minimally invasive and very effective treatment method for patients with severe DIC. PMID:24223099

Igarashi, Suguru; Izuchi, Shinichirou; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Yoshimathu, Misako; Takizawa, Kenji; Nakajima, Yasuo; Tanaka, Mamoru; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Suzuki, Nao

2013-01-01

384

[Acute hepatic vascular complications].  

PubMed

Acute hepatic vascular complications are rare. Acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BSC) are the leading causes. Coagulopathy and local factors are present in up to 80% of cases. Diagnosis is established by colour-coded Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute PVT present with abdominal pain and disturbed intestinal motility. In the absence of cirrhosis anticoagulation with heparin is established followed by oral anticoagulation. In severe cases, surgical thrombectomy or transjugular thrombolysis with stent shunt may be necessary. Acute or fulminant BCS may require emergency liver transplantation or a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt, if patients present with acute liver failure. Milder cases receive anticoagulation for thrombolysis of occluded hepatic veins. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is diagnosed after total body irradiation or chemotherapy, the term SOS replacing the former veno-occlusive disease. The treatment of congenital vascular malformations, complications in the setting of OLTX as well as patients with hepatic involvement of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia requires significant expertise in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:21667100

Ochs, A

2011-07-01

385

Complications in periocular rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Thorough preoperative evaluation with meticulous surgical planning to achieve facial aesthetic balance between the forehead, eyelids, and midface is imperative to avoid or decrease potential functional and/or cosmetic complications in cosmetic periocular surgery. Before performing surgery, the physician should be aware of the patient's history of dry eyes, previous facial trauma, previous injection of Botox Cosmetic, history of previous laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, and past facial surgery. A full evaluation should be performed on the upper eyelid/brow region to assess for the presence of brow ptosis, brow/eyelid asymmetry, dermatochalasis/pseudodermatochalasis, eyelid ptosis, and deep superior sulcus. On the lower eyelid/cheek examination, special attention should be directed to the diagnosis of underlying negative vector, dry eyes, prominent eyes, lower lid retraction, ectropion, lateral canthal dystopia, lower eyelid laxity, scleral show, and lagophthalmos, with a rejuvenation goal that focuses on obtaining a youthful fullness through repositioning and reinforcing efforts to avoid the negative effects of hollowness. Intraoperative and postoperative medical and surgical management of cosmetic periocular surgery complications focus on decreasing the risk of postoperative ptosis, lagophthalmos, lid retraction, and lid asymmetry, with special attention to limiting the risk of visual loss secondary to orbital hemorrhage. PMID:20659676

Mack, William P

2010-08-01

386

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... left with physical limitations or problems with their thinking. In those cases, long periods of rehabilitation are ... one dedicated to the care of patients with critical brain disease. Patients with SAH may need a ...

387

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms ...

388

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2015 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

389

Spontaneous resolution of an isolated cervical anterior spinal artery aneurysm after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Isolated cervical anterior spinal artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to such lesions have been described only in six cases to the best of our knowledge. Case Description: We describe an unusual clinical picture of SAH due to rupture of anterior spinal artery aneurysm in a patient with previous normal angiogram. Due to the location of the aneurysm and clinical status of the patient, conservative management was proposed, and she was discharged to further follow-up. Monthly routine angiograms revealed resolution of the aneurysm 90 days after bleeding, which was highly suggestive of vascular dissection. Conclusion: We highlight the need to consider these aneurysms in the differential diagnosis of SAH, especially when occurring in the posterior fossa and when angiography findings are inconclusive. PMID:25317354

Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Marcus Alexandre Cavalcanti; Dias, Guilherme Marcos Soares; Rezende, André Luiz; Rotta, José Marcus

2014-01-01

390

A Hypothesis: Hydrogen Sulfide Might Be Neuroprotective against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) play important roles both in normal physiology and in disease. Recent studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects neurons against oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced neuroinflammation in microglia, exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. The gas H2S is emerging as a novel regulator of important physiologic functions such as arterial diameter, blood flow, and leukocyte adhesion. It has been known that multiple factors, including oxidative stress, free radicals, and neuronal nitric oxide synthesis as well as abnormal inflammatory responses, are involved in the mechanism underlying the brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the multiple physiologic functions of H2S, we speculate that it might be a promising, effective, and specific therapy for brain injury after SAH. PMID:24707204

Yu, Yong-Peng; Chi, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Li-Jun

2014-01-01

391

[Electrocardiographic and arterial pressure changes in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A prospective study was made of 30 patients, admitted to the neurology ward with subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH), at its onset. The diagnosis was established on the basis of anamnesis, clinical examination, spinal puncture, anatomopathological examination. The patients with other cerebrovascular affections or with antecedents of ischaemic cardiac affections were excluded. ECG tracings, serum ionogram, AT and VA at the onset and in evolution, and their modifications were followed and assessed in all the patients. The conclusion is reached that SAH in acute phase is associated with transitory ECG and pressure anomalies which become elements of unfavourable prognosis when persistent and deeply altered. They are valuable, at hand, elements in the differential diagnosis, and in the opportune therapeutical intervention. PMID:2575277

Popescu, M; Nu??, G; Toma, D

1989-01-01

392

Solitary ruptured aneurysm of the spinal artery of adamkiewicz with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to solitary spinal aneurysm is extremely rare. A 45-year-old female patient visited the emergency department with severe headache and back pain. Imaging studies showed cerebral SAH in parietal lobe and spinal SAH in thoracolumbar level. Spinal angiography revealed a small pearl and string-like aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery at the T12 level. One month after onset, her back pain aggravated, and follow-up imaging study showed arachnoiditis. Two months after onset, her symptoms improved, and follow-up imaging study showed resolution of SAH. The present case of spinal SAH due to rupture of dissecting aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery underwent subsequent spontaneous resolution, indicating that the wait-and-see strategy may provide adequate treatment option. PMID:24044082

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang-Gu; Park, Cheol-Wan

2013-07-01

393

Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes. PMID:25083391

Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

2014-08-01

394

Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes. PMID:25083391

Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

2014-01-01

395

Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:24990846

Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

2014-01-01

396

Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:25006042

Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

2014-07-01

397

Insurance Status Is Associated with Treatment Allocation and Outcomes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes. Design We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population. Patients We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008. Measurements Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes. Main Results Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment. Conclusions Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study. PMID:25141303

Hobson, Charles; Dortch, John; Ozrazgat Baslanti, Tezcan; Layon, Daniel R.; Roche, Alina; Rioux, Alison; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Fahy, Brenda; Bihorac, Azra

2014-01-01

398

Inhibition of the Sur1-Trpm4 Channel Reduces Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can leave patients with memory impairments that may not recover fully. Molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and no treatment is available. The sulfonylurea receptor 1–transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Sur1-Trpm4) channel plays an important role in acute central nervous system injury. We evaluated upregulation of Sur1-Trpm4 in humans with SAH and, in rat models of SAH, we examined Sur1- Trpm4 upregulation, its role in barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and its consequences on spatial learning. Methods We used Förster resonance energy transfer to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4 in human autopsy brains with SAH. We studied rat models of SAH involving filament puncture of the internal carotid artery or injection of blood into the subarachnoid space of the entorhinal cortex. In rats, we used Förster resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4, we measured immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression as measures of barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and we assessed spatial learning and memory on days 7 to 19. Results Sur1-Trpm4 channels were upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. In rats, inhibiting Sur1 using antisense or the selective Sur1 inhibitor glibenclamide reduced SAH-induced immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression. In models with entorhinal SAH, rats treated with glibenclamide for 7 days after SAH exhibited better platform search strategies and better performance on incremental and rapid spatial learning than vehicle-treated controls. Conclusions Sur1-Trpm4 channels are upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. Channel inhibition with glibenclamide may reduce neuroinflammation and the severity of cognitive deficits after SAH. PMID:24114458

Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Mehta, Rupal; Castellani, Rudy J.; deJong, Joyce L.; Kwon, Min Seong; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

2013-01-01

399

Loss of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often suffer from cognitive impairment such as memory loss. However, the underlying mechanisms of these impairments are not known. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the hippocampus is generally regarded as a molecular substrate of memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of SAH on LTP in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (CA3-CA1) pathway in a rat model of SAH. We found SAH caused significant vasospasm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) compared to saline injected or sham controls (P<0.001). Basic neurotransmission quantified as excitatory post synaptic and spike response from animals with SAH were significantly decreased as compared to naive controls (P<0.05). However, sham operated and saline injected controls showed similar amplitude as naive controls. This suggests that reduction in basic neurotransmission is due to blood in the subarachnoid space. Similarly, analysis of LTP demonstrated that naive, sham and saline controls have a 92+/-16%, 69+/-27% and 71+/-14% increase over the baseline in the average spike amplitude following high frequency stimulation (HFS), respectively. This indicates the presence of LTP (P<0.05). In contrast, the spike amplitude in animals of SAH returned to baseline level within 60 min post HFS indicating the absence of LTP. We conclude that SAH caused vasospasm of the MCA that was associated with disrupted basic neurotransmission and plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses. These changes might be accountable for the memory loss in humans with SAH. PMID:19854243

Tariq, A; Ai, J; Chen, G; Sabri, M; Jeon, H; Shang, X; Macdonald, R L

2010-01-20

400

Intracranial vascular calcification is protective from vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted in some studies to be less frequent and less severe in older age. One hypothesis is that atherosclerosis makes arteries too stiff to spasm. The objective of this study was to assess the association between intracranial calcification, a marker for atherosclerosis, and vasospasm. Charts and nonenhanced computed tomography scans of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Transcranial Doppler studies were used to categorize vasospasm using mean flow velocity: mild vasospasm 120-199 cm/second and severe ? 200 cm/second. Calcification of the intracranial internal carotid artery was quantified by calculating the volume and density of the calcified lesions. A total of 172 patients met study criteria (mean age, 54 ± 13 years; 88 women). Patients who had calcification (n = 90; 52%) were significantly older (61 ± 12 years vs. 46 ± 10 years; P < .0001). Mean calcification score was 532 ± 853. Calcification score was directly associated with age (P < .0001) and inversely associated with mean flow velocity (P = .0027). Only the highest tertile was independently associated with less vasospasm (odds ratio, .34; 95% confidence interval, .12-.93). There was an interaction between calcification score and age in which age greater than 65 years was only protective of vasospasm when combined with the highest calcification tertile. We conclude that intracranial calcification is associated with lower rates of vasospasm. The amount of visualized calcification inversely influences the severity of vasospasm. Calcification, and the underlying presumed atherosclerosis, maybe 1 mechanism by which vasospasm has lower frequency and severity in older age. PMID:25307431

Hussein, Haitham M; Zacharatos, Haralabos; Cordina, Steve; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A

2014-01-01

401

Postoperative pulmonary complications updating.  

PubMed

Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are a major contributor to the overall risk of surgery. PPCs affect the length of hospital stay and are associated with a higher in-hospital mortality. PPCs are even the leading cause of death either in cardiothoracic surgery but also in non-cardiothoracic surgery. Thus, reliable PPCs risk stratification tools are the key issue of clinical decision making in the perioperative period. When the risk is clearly identified related to the patient according the ARISCAT score and/or the type of surgery (mainly thoracic and abdominal), low-cost preemptive interventions improve outcomes and new strategies can be developed to prevent this risk. The EuSOS, PERISCOPE and IMPROVE studies demonstrated this care optimization by risk identification first, then risk stratification and new care (multifaceted) strategies implementation allowing a decrease in PPCs mortality by optimizing the clinical path of the patient and the care resources. PMID:25168300

Langeron, O; Carreira, S; le Saché, F; Raux, M

2014-01-01

402

Rupture of a spinal dermoid cyst may lead to dissemination and progress of Fatty tissue in the central spinal canal and intracranial subarachnoid space. A case report.  

PubMed

Intradural dermoid cysts may rupture and subsequent subarachnoid dissemination of lipid droplets has been described before. However, the rupture of a spinal dermoid cyst into the central spinal canal is a rare entity. In this context, dissemination of fat into the intracranial subarachnoid space with local progression is a peculiar finding that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been published so far. We describe the case of a 28-year-old man with a dermoid cyst at the upper lumbar level as part of a complex congenital craniospinal malformation, presenting with new unspecific neurologic symptoms. CT and MRI revealed disseminated intraventricular and subarachnoid lipid droplets intracranially and in the spine not present on previous CT and MRI scans obtained eight years earlier. Thus, repeated rupture of a spinal dermoid cyst with subarachnoid spread and/or secondary proliferation should be suspected. PMID:25489901

Kabbasch, Christoph; Dorn, Franziska; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Weber, Christoph; Liebig, Thomas

2014-12-01

403

Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This review provides an overview of five main ocular complications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathy and papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surface diseases.

Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan

2015-01-01

404

Gastrointestinal complications after ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Ischemic stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Stroke is associated with various non-neurological medical complications, including infections and thrombosis. Gastrointestinal complications after stroke are also common, with over half of all stroke patients presenting with dysphagia, constipation, fecal incontinence or gastrointestinal bleeding. These complications are associated with increased hospital length of stay, the development of further complications and even increased mortality. In this article we review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of the most common gastrointestinal complications associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:25214444

Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Ibarra-Yruegas, Beatriz E; Gongora-Rivera, Fernando

2014-11-15

405

Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world's most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This review provides an overview of five main ocular complications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathy and papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surface diseases. PMID:25685281

Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan

2015-02-15

406

Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases  

SciTech Connect

We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Houdart, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Moret, Jacques [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France)], E-mail: jmoret@fo-rothschild.fr

2007-02-15

407

A complicated case of anticoagulation  

PubMed Central

In this case of complex anticoagulation, a 60-year-old woman was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin for pulmonary embolism. As a result of anticoagulation, she then developed an acute subdural haemorrhage identified on CT brain scan requiring craniectomy. Subsequently, while continuing anticoagulation for treatment for pulmonary embolism, she additionally had a large intra-abdominal bleed within and around the psoas muscle identified on abdominal CT scan. Although the increased risk of bleeding is known with anticoagulation therapy, the case of both an intracerebral and intra-abdominal bleed is rare. However, the case does highlight how each individual has a unique physiological response to anticoagulation, in some cases more severe than others. PMID:23307461

Nathwani, Rooshi

2013-01-01

408

Dermatological complications of obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is a health problem of considerable magnitude in the Western world. Dermatological changes have been reported in patients with obesity, including: acanthosis nigricans and skin tags (due to insulin resistance); hyperandrogenism; striae due to over extension; stasis pigmentation due to peripheral vascular disease; lymphedema; pathologies associated with augmented folds; morphologic changes in the foot anatomy due to excess load; and complications that may arise from hospitalization. Acanthosis nigricans plaques can be managed by improved control of hyperinsulinemia; the vitamin D3 analog calcipitriol has also been shown to be effective. Skin tags can be removed by snipping with curved scissors, by cryotherapy or by electrodesiccation. Hyperandrogenism, a result of increased production of endogenous androgens due to increased volumes of adipose tissue (which synthesizes testosterone) and hyperinsulinemia (which increases the production of ovarian androgens) needs to be carefully assessed to ensure disorders such as virilizing tumors and congenital adrenal hyperplasia are treated appropriately. Treatment of hyperandrogenism should be centred on controlling insulin levels; weight loss, oral contraceptive and antiandrogenic therapies are also possible treatment options. The etiology of striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, is yet to be defined and treatment options are unsatisfactory at present; striae rubra and alba have been treated with a pulsed dye laser with marginal success. The relationship between obesity and varicose veins is controversial; symptoms are best prevented by the use of elastic stockings. Itching and inflammation associated with stasis pigmentation, the result of red blood cells escaping into the tissues, can be treated with corticosteroids. Lymphedema is associated with dilatation of tissue channels, reduced tissue oxygenation and provides a culture medium for bacterial growth. Lymphedema treatment is directed towards reducing the limb girth and weight, and the prevention of infection. Intertrigo is caused by friction between skin surfaces, combined with moisture and warmth, resulting in infection. This infection, most commonly candidiasis, is best treated with topical antifungal agents; systemic antifungal therapy may be required in some patients. Excess load on the feet can result in morphological changes that require careful diagnosis; insoles may offer some symptom relief while control of obesity is achieved. Obesity-related dermatoses associated with hospitalization, such as pressure ulcers, diminished wound healing, dermatoses secondary to respiratory conditions, and incontinence, must all be carefully managed with an emphasis on prevention where possible. Recognition and control of the dermatological complications of obesity play an important role in diminishing the morbidity of obesity. PMID:12180897

García Hidalgo, Linda

2002-01-01

409

Hematologic Complications of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy induces a number of physiologic changes that affect the hematologic indices, either directly or indirectly. Recognizing and treating hematologic disorders that occur during pregnancy is difficult owing to the paucity of evidence available to guide consultants. This paper specifically reviews the diagnosis and management of benign hematologic disorders occurring during pregnancy. Anemia secondary to iron deficiency is the most frequent hematologic complication and is easily treated with oral iron formulations,; however care must be taken not to miss other causes of anemia, such as sickle cell disease. Thrombocytopenia is also a common reason for consulting the hematologist and distinguishing gestational thrombocytopenia from immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is essential since the treatment differs widely. Occasionally the management of mother and infant involves the expeditious recognition of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), a condition that is responsible for severe life-threatening bleeding of the newborn. Additionally, inherited and acquired bleeding disorders affect pregnant women disproportionately and often require careful monitoring of coagulation parameters in order to prevent bleeding in the puerperium. Finally, venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is still largely responsible for mortality during pregnancy and the diagnosis, treatment options and guidelines for prevention of VTE during pregnancy are explored. PMID:23953339

Townsley, Danielle M.

2013-01-01

410

Rat cisterna magna double-injection model of subarachnoid hemorrhage - background, advantages/limitations, technical considerations, modifications, and outcome measures.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological changes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are commonly divided into early consequences (developing shortly after the bleeding) and delayed consequences of the bleeding. The development of delayed injury mechanisms, e.g., reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by cerebral vasospasm (CVS) or development of delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND), seem mainly to depend on the amount and duration of the subarachnoid blood clot. CVS may progress to cerebral ischemia and infarction, and therefore lead to delayed neurological deterioration. The rat double-hemorrhage model reproduces the time course of the delayed pathophysiological consequences of CVS, which imitates the clinical setting more precisely than other rodent models. Furthermore, this model is adjustable via various technical considerations or modifications. Therefore, the double-hemorrhage model is predisposed to be used to mimic the delayed effects of SAH and to investigate the use of drugs on morphological ischemic, functional, and vasospastic effects. PMID:25366646

Güresir, Erdem; Schuss, Patrick; Borger, Valeri; Vatter, Hartmut

2015-01-01

411

Crohns disease with central nervous system vasculitis causing subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm and cerebral ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasculitis secondary to Crohn's disease (CD) seems to be a very rare phenomenon. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with headache, vomiting, and left-sided weakness in the known case of CD. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging,) showed right gangliocapsular acute infarct with supraclinoid cistern subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral digital substraction angiography (DSA) showed dilatation and narrowing of right distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Left ICA was chronically occluded. His inflammatory markers were significantly raised. Imaging features are suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. Arterial and venous infarcts due to thrombosis are known in CD. Our case presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in supraclinoid cistern due to rupture of tiny aneurysm of perforator arteries causing SAH and infarction in right basal ganglia. Patient was treated conservatively with immunosuppression along with medical management of SAH. PMID:25506170

Garge, Shaileshkumar S; Vyas, Pooja D; Modi, Pranav D; Ghatge, Sharad

2014-10-01

412

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

413

Activation of NF-?B after chronic ethanol intake and haemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chronic ethanol abuse and haemorrhagic shock are major causes of global mortality and, separately, induce profound hepato- and immune-toxic effects via activation of NF-?B. Here, we assessed the effects of chronic ethanol intake upon the pathophysiological derangements after haemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R), with particular attention to the contribution of NF-?B. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Transgenic NF-?BEGFP mice, expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of NF-?B cis-elements were fed a Lieber-DeCarli diet containing ethanol (EtOH-diet) or an isocaloric control diet for 4 weeks and were then pairwise subjected to H/R. Liver tissues and peripheral blood were sampled at 2 or 24 h after H/R. Cytokines in blood and tissue and leukocyte activation (as CD11b expression) were measured, along with EGFP as a marker of NF-?B activation. KEY RESULTS The EtOH-diet increased mortality at 24 h after H/R and elevated liver injury, associated with an up-regulation of NF-?B-dependent genes and IL-6 release; it also increased production of NF-?B-driven intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and EGFP in liver tissue. At 2h after the H/R procedure in ethanol-fed mice we observed the highest proportion of NF-?B activated non-parenchymal cells and an NF-?B-dependent increase in polymorphonuclear leukocyte CD11b expression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The EtOH-diet exacerbated liver injury after H/R, accompanying an overwhelming hepatic and systemic immune response. Our findings contribute to evidence implicating NF-?B as a key player in the orchestration of the immune response in haemorrhagic shock patients with a history of chronic ethanol abuse. PMID:23646923

Maraslioglu, M; Weber, R; Korff, S; Blattner, C; Nauck, C; Henrich, D; Jobin, C; Marzi, I; Lehnert, M

2013-01-01

414

Gastrointestinal complications of oncologic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal complications are common in patients undergoing various forms of cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and molecular-targeted therapies. Many of these complications are life-threatening and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. Complications of oncologic therapy can occur in the esophagus (esophagitis, strictures, bacterial, viral and fungal infections), upper gastrointestinal tract (mucositis, bleeding, nausea and vomiting), colon (diarrhea, graft–versus–host disease, colitis

Marta Davila; Robert S Bresalier

2008-01-01

415

[Hyponatremia - carbamazepine medication complications].  

PubMed

Hyponatremia can be defined like the low sodium concentration, lower that 135 mmol/l. It becomes really serious when the concentration is lower than 120 mmol/l. The most frequent causes of hyponatremia are: the extrarenal loss (GIT, skin, bleeding, sequestration), the renal loss (diuretics, nephritis with the salt loss, osmotical diuresis, the Addison disease), hypothyroidism, the lack of glucocorticoids, emotional stress, pain, pseudohyponatremia (incorrect taking, dyslipoproteinemia). There is fatigue, exhaustion, headache and vertigoes dominating in the clinical record file. By the deficit increasing a patient becomes delirious, comatose even with the shock development. It is necessary to separate sufficient supply of sodium from much more often reason, which is loss of sodium which can be caused by: excessive sweating, vomitting with the metabolical alkalosis development, diarrhoea with the metabolical acidosis development, renal losses (a phase of renal failure). Treatment of hyponatremia: intensive treatment starts at the level of plasmatic concentration of sodium under 120 mmol/l or when neurological symptoms of brain oedema are present. In the therapy it is necessary to avoid fast infusions of hypertonic saline solutions (3-5% NaCl solutions) because of the danger of the development of serious CNS complications (intracranial bleeding, etc.). It is recommended to adjust the plasmatic concentration of sodium up to 120 mmol/l during the first four hours and a subsequent correction should not be higher than 2 mmol per an hour. Treatment of the basic illness is very important. We present 2 case histories: a 74-year old female patient and a 69-year old female patient both with the hyponatremia caused by taking of carbamazepine. We want to inform and warn about not only a well known side effect during long-term treatment but about hyponatremia that arose within 48 hours after the start of taking medicine as well. PMID:22448705

Dedinská, I; Ma?ka, V; Ságová, I; Klimentová, A; Makovický, P; Polko, J; Sadlo?ová, J; Moká?, M

2012-01-01

416

[Medical complications of extracorporeal lithotripsy].  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most frequently applied procedures for the treatment of urolithiasis. ESWL breaks and splits stones by the means of repeated acoustic shock waves. Despite its non invasive nature, ESWL has been intuitively associated with potential complications, mostly related to residual stone fragments. While non stone-related complications are rare (< 1 %), awareness and identification of these complications could help clinicians to prevent and manage them safely and effectively. The current study reviews the pathophysiology, predicting factors and possible preventive measures of non stone-related medical complications after ESWL. PMID:23951856

Legrand, F; Idrissi Kaitouni, M; Roumeguère, T

2013-01-01

417

Complications in Ankle Fracture Surgery.  

E-print Network

??Mikko Ovaska. Complications in Ankle Fracture Surgery. Helsinki Bone and Joint Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki,… (more)

Ovaska, Mikko

2014-01-01

418

Bilateral macular haemorrhages secondary to hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia, treated with Nd:YAG laser posterior hyaloidotomy  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anaemia in which pancytopenia and bone marrow failure appears 2–3 months after an acute attack of hepatitis. Although bilateral vision loss may rarely be the initial presentation of aplastic anaemia, no such report is known in HAAA. Here the authors report such a case presenting with large premacular subhyaloid haemorrhages secondary to severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Anaemic hypoxic damage to the vessel wall together with increased cardiac output and low platelet counts are interacting causal factors in the development of bleeding. Though these haemorrhages are benign and usually improve spontaneously, the presence of blood may cause permanent macular changes before it resolves. Posterior hyaloidotomy enabled rapid resolution of premacular subhyaloid haemorrhage thereby restoring vision and preventing need for vitreo-retinal surgery. These patients should be advised to refrain from valsalva manoeuvres, ocular rubbing and vigorous exercise to prevent ocular morbidity. PMID:22674943

Ranganath, Akshatha; Mariatos, George; Thakur, Shakti

2011-01-01

419

Circulating immune complexes in serum from patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed Central

Circulating immune complexes were detectable in 80% of serum from patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever. The immune complexes were detected for the first time on day two after the onset of the fever. The amount of complexes reached the maximum value on day 4 or 5 after onset, or when the patients developed shock or subsidence of fever, after which the complexes decreased in number. The number of complexes also correlated well with the clinical grading (severity) of the disease, i.e. the maximum amount was shown in grade III. These complexes may play a part in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:380857

Ruangjirachuporn, W; Boonpucknavig, S; Nimmanitya, S

1979-01-01

420

SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials.  

PubMed

Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved over the last decades. Yet, case fatality remains nearly 40% and survivors often have permanent neurological, cognitive and/or behavioural sequelae. Other than nimodipine drug or clinical trials have not consistently improved outcome. We formed a collaboration of SAH investigators to create a resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase 3 trials in aneurysmal SAH. We identified investigators with data from randomized, clinical trials of patients with aneurysmal SAH or prospectively collected single- or multicentre databases of aneurysmal SAH patients. Data are being collected and proposals to use the data and to design future phase 3 clinical trials are being discussed. This paper reviews some issues discussed at the first meeting of the SAH international trialists (SAHIT) repository meeting. Investigators contributed or have agreed to contribute data from several phase 3 trials including the tirilazad trials, intraoperative hypothermia for aneurysmal SAH trial, nicardipine clinical trials, international subarachnoid aneurysm trial, intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal SAH, magnesium for aneurysmal SAH and from prospectively-collected data from four institutions. The number of patients should reach 15,000. Some industry investigators refused to provide data and others reported that their institutional research ethics boards would not permit even deidentified or anonymized data to be included. Others reported conflict of interest that prevented them from submitting data. The problems with merging data were related to lack of common definitions and coding of variables, differences in outcome scales used, and times of assessment. Some questions for investigation that arose are discussed. SAHIT demonstrates the possibility of SAH investigators to contribute data for collaborative research. The problems are similar to those already documented in other similar collaborative efforts such as in head injury research. We encourage clinical trial and registry investigators to contact us and participate in SAHIT. Key issues moving forward will be to use common definitions (common data elements), outcomes analysis, and to prioritize research questions, among others. PMID:24323299

Macdonald, R Loch; Jaja, Blessing; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff

2013-06-01

421

The prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: what do we know, and where do we go to next?  

PubMed

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a major cause of maternal deaths worldwide, and is estimated to cause the death of a woman every 10 minutes. This review presents the latest clinical advice, including new evidence on controlled cord traction, misoprostol, and oxytocin. The controversy around the diagnosis of PPH, the limitations of universal prophylaxis, and novel ways to provide obstetric first aid are also presented. It ends with a call to develop high-quality front-line obstetric services that can deal rapidly with unexpected haemorrhages as well as minimising blood loss at critical times: major abruption, placenta praevia, and caesarean for prolonged labour. PMID:25289730

Weeks, A

2015-01-01

422

Lethal, oedema, haemorrhagic activity of spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract and its neutralization by antiserum and pharmacological antagonists.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made in this communication to develop antiserum in rabbit against Scatophagus. argus sting extract. Antiserum did not neutralized the sting extract induced proinflammatory and haemorrhagic activity but successfully neutralized lethality upto 2LD50. Cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW 755C pretreatment significantly reduced sting extract induced proinflammatory activity. The haemorrhagic activity of sting extract was significantly inhibited by temperature, UV-exposure, EDTA, cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW 755C pretreatment. The results conclude that the local effects of S.argus venom is likely to be mediated through release of mediators and may be encountered by pharmacological antagonists better than the antiserum. PMID:15991572

Muhuri, D; Dasgupta, S C; Gomes, A

2005-06-01

423

Effects of current and waveform on the incidence of breast meat haemorrhages in electrically stunned broiler chicken carcases.  

PubMed

The effects of the current and its waveform on the prevalence of broken bones and breast meat haemorrhages in electrically stunned broiler chickens were examined at two poultry processing plants. Increasing the current over the range from 68 to 115 mA per bird had very little effect on the carcase quality, but increased the incidence of broken furculum and coracoid bones in birds stunned with a sinusoidal alternating current (AC). Clipping a sinusoidal AC with a thyristor had a pronounced effect on the carcase quality, and resulted in more broken bones and breast meat haemorrhages. PMID:7502464

Gregory, N G; Wilkins, L J; Wotton, S B; Middleton, A L

1995-09-01

424

[Growth of the graft and astrocytic reaction following transplantation of fetal brain to adult rat's brain. Part II: Cell suspension transplantation into the subarachnoid space].  

PubMed

Suspensions of basal forebrain cells of fetal rats were transplanted into the subarachnoid space of adult rats through a microsyringe needle which was transcortically inserted to the subarachnoid space. Two to 3 months after the transplantation, growth of the graft, neuritic elongation, neovascularization, and astrocytic reaction were examined by Nissl staining, histochemical staining for acethylcholinesterase and Klüver-Barrera's myelin staining, vascular relief images and immunohistochemical staining for laminin, and immunocytochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transplanted fetal neurons survived and grew very well over the brain surface and exhibited facilitated neuritic elongation. Several bundles of myelinated fibers linking the subarachnoid and the subpial grafted cells were noticed, but the myelinated fibers penetrating the intact pia mater were not verified. In the grafted tissue, extracellular matrix was formed and a lot of small vessels and capillaries were noticed. Many GFAP-immunoreactive cells were seen in the graft. They had a tendency to gather perivascularly and near the margin of the graft tissue facing subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid space is thought to be an adequate place for transplanted neuronal and glial cells to grow. The subarachnoid space contains the cerebrospinal fluid and also it contacts with rich pial vessels, so that it seems to be superior to the intraparenchymal area in respects of a supply of oxygen and nutrition and of low tissue pressure. Transplanted tissue may be supposed to work as the exocrine and/or endocrine organ which secretes neurotransmitters and their synthetic enzymes and neurotrophic factors. If this is true, it would impl