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Sample records for component separation technique

  1. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  2. Separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Duke, T

    1998-10-01

    The past two years have seen continued development of capillary electrophoresis methods. The separation performance of flowable sieving media now equals, and in some respects exceeds, that provided by gels. The application of microfabrication techniques to separation science is gaining pace. There is a continuing trend towards miniaturization and integration of separation with preparative or analytical steps. Innovative separation methods based on microfabrication technology include electrophoresis in purpose-designed molecular sieves, dielectric, trapping using microelectrodes, and force-free motion in Brownian ratchets. PMID:9818184

  3. Novel Technique for Innervated Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: A Separation of Components Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mavrophilipos, Vasilios D.; Zapora, Jeffrey A.; Berli, Jens; Broyles, Justin; Chopra, Karan; Sabino, Jennifer; Matthews, Jamil; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Maddox, John S.; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Silverman, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Applications for Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation may expand if a functional graft with decreased immunosuppressive requirements can be designed. We hypothesize that it is anatomically feasible to prepare a functional, innervated, and vascularized abdominal composite graft using a multilayered component separation technique. Including vascularized bone in the graft design may decrease the immunosuppressive requirements by inducing immunologic chimerism. Methods: Two cadaver torsos were used. Adipocutaneous flaps were elevated from the midaxillary lines, preserving deep inferior epigastric artery perforators. A 2-layered component separation through the external and internal oblique fasciae was carried out, exposing segmental intercostal thoracolumbar nerves. Superiorly directed muscle release over the subcostal margin provided for a 3-rib segment with attached rectus abdominis muscle. The remainder of the full-thickness allograft was harvested with its vasculature. Flap inset into the recipient cadaver abdomen, with osteosynthesis fixation between donor and recipient ribs, was achieved. Results: The harvested grafts had an average size of 845 ± 205 cm2 with a total procurement time of 110 minutes. On one cadaver, 4 thoracolumbar nerves were isolated bilaterally, while the other cadaver yielded 3 nerves. The nerves were transected with an average length of 5.7 ± 1.2 cm. The graft vasculature was transected with a length of 4.40 ± 0.10 cm. Conclusion: Using the principles of component separation technique, we demonstrated a novel approach to harvest and transfer a neurotized osteomyofasciocutaneous abdominal wall allotransplant as a multipedicled, single functional unit. PMID:25328567

  4. Components separation in complex ventral hernia repair: surgical technique and post-operative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ross, Samuel W; Oommen, Bindhu; Heniford, B Todd; Augenstein, Vedra A

    2014-03-01

    There are over 350,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHR) performed in the United States annually and a variety of laparoscopic and open surgical techniques are described and utilized. Complex ventral hernias such as recurrent hernias, those with infected mesh, open wounds, coexisting enteric fistulas, parastomal hernias, and massive hernias-especially those with loss of abdominal domain-require sophisticated repair techniques. Many of these repairs are performed via an open approach. Ideally, the aim is to place mesh under the fascia with a large overlap of the defect and obtain primary fascial closure. However, it is often impossible to bring together fascial edges in very large hernias. Component separation is an excellent surgical technique in selected patients which involves release of the different layers of the abdominal wall and in turn helps accomplish primary fascial approximation. The posterior rectus sheath, external oblique or the transverse abdominis fascia can be cut and allows for closure of fascia in a tension free manner in a majority of patients. In this chapter we describe the various techniques for component separation, indications for use, how to select an appropriate type of release and post-operative outcomes. PMID:24700223

  5. Comparison of Synthetic and Biologic Mesh in Ventral Hernia Repair Using Components Separation Technique.

    PubMed

    Sandvall, Brinkley K; Suver, Daniel W; Said, Hakim K; Mathes, David W; Neligan, Peter C; Dellinger, E Patchen; Louie, Otway

    2016-06-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) for large abdominal wall defects is challenging. Prior research established that the use of mesh is superior to suture closure alone and that component separation is an effective technique to combat loss of abdominal domain. Studies comparing component separation technique (CST) outcomes utilizing synthetic versus biologic mesh are limited. A retrospective review was conducted of 72 consecutive patients who underwent VHR with CST between 2006 and 2010 at our institution. Surgeon preference and the presence of contamination guided whether synthetic mesh (27 patients) or biologic mesh (45 patients) was used. Mean follow-up interval for all comers was 13.9 months and similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Degree of contamination and severity of premorbid medical conditions were significantly higher in the biologic mesh group, as reflected in the higher Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) score (2.04 versus 2.86). Clinical outcomes, as measured by both minor and major complication rates and recurrence rates, were not significantly different. Minor complication rates were 26% in the synthetic group and 37% in the biologic group and major complication rates 15% in the synthetic group and 22% in the biologic group. There was 1 recurrence (4%) in the synthetic mesh group versus 5 (11%) in the biologic mesh group. Multivariable analysis for major complications revealed no significant difference for either synthetic or biologic mesh while controlling for other variables. Subset analysis of uncontaminated cases revealed recurrence rates of 4% in the synthetic mesh group and 6% in the biologic mesh group. VHR using CST and either synthetic mesh or biologic mesh resulted in low recurrence rates with similar overall complication profiles, despite the higher average VHWG grading score in the biologic mesh group. Our results support the VHWG recommendation for biologic mesh utilization in higher VHWG grade patients. In VHWG grade 2 patients, our clinical

  6. Components separation technique and laparoscopic approach: a review of two evolving strategies for ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Rehnke, Robert D; Ramaswamy, Archana; Smith, C Daniel; Clarke, John M; Ramshaw, Bruce J

    2005-07-01

    When faced with large ventral hernias, surgeons frequently must choose between higher incidence of recurrence after primary repair and higher incidence of wound complications after repair with mesh. The aim of this study is to compare early outcomes between laparoscopic repair (LR) and components separation technique (CST), two evolving strategies for the management of large ventral hernias. We reviewed 42 consecutive patients who underwent CST and 45 consecutive patients who underwent LR of ventral hernia defects of at least 12 cm2. Demographics, hernia characteristics, and short-term outcomes were compared between groups. Patients in the LR group were younger (53 +/- 2 vs 68 +/- 2 years, P < 0.0001), had greater body mass index (34 +/- 2 vs 29 +/- 1 kg/m2, P = 0.02), and had larger hernia defects (318 +/- 49 vs 101 +/- 16 cm2, P < 0.0001) than patients in the CST group. The LR resulted in shorter length of hospital stay (4.9 +/- 0.9 vs 9.6 +/- 1.8 days, P < 0.0001), lower incidence of ileus (7% vs 48%, P < 0.0001), and lower incidence of wound complications (2% vs 33%, P < 0.001) than the CST. Both techniques resulted in similar operative times, transfusion requirements, and mortality. Recurrences occurred in 7 per cent of patients at mean follow-up of 16 months in the CST group and 0 per cent at mean follow-up of 9 months after LR. The LR may have a short-term advantage over the CST in terms of incidence of ileus, wound complications, and hospital stay. Because of their unique advantage over traditional hernia repairs, both techniques may play a significant role in the future treatment of large ventral hernias. Adequate training will be essential for the safe and effective implementation of these techniques within the surgical community. PMID:16089127

  7. A study of heart sound and lung sound separation by independent component analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Chien; Huang, Ming-Chuan; Lin, Yue-Der; Chong, Fok-ching

    2006-01-01

    In the hospital, using percussion and auscultation are the most common ways for physical examination. Recently, in order to develop tele-medicine and home care system and to assist physician getting better auscultation results; electric stethoscope and computer analysis have become an inevitable trend. However, two important physical signals heart sound and lung sound recorded from chest overlap on spectrum chart. Therefore, in order to reduce human factor (ex. misplace or untrained of using) and minimize correlated effect in computer analysis; it's necessary for separated heart sound and lung sound. Independent component analysis can divide these sounds efficiency. In this paper, we use two microphones to collect signals from left and right chest. We have successfully divide heart and lung sounds by fast ICA algorithm. Therefore, it can assist physician examine and also using on tele-medicine and home care by this way. PMID:17945913

  8. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  9. Radioactive-gas separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, R.; King, K. J.; Nellis, D. O.; Nisson, R. S.; Robling, P.; Womack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cryogenic technique recovers gases inexpensively. Method uses differences in vapor pressures, melting points, and boiling points of components in gaseous mixture. Series of temperature and pressure variations converts gases independently to solid and liquid states, thereby simplifying separation. Apparatus uses readily available cryogen and does not require expensive refrigeration equipment.

  10. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  11. Rotatingwall Technique and Centrifugal Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, François

    This chapter describes the "rotating wall" technique which enables essentially unlimited confinement time of 109-1010 charged particles in a Penning trap. The applied rotating wall electric field provides a positive torque that counteracts background drags, resulting in radial compression or steady-state confinement in near-thermal equilibrium states. The last part of the chapter discusses centrifugal separation in a rotating multi-species non-neutral plasma. Separation occurs when the centrifugal energy is larger than the mixing due to thermal energy.

  12. Principle component analysis for radiotracer signal separation.

    PubMed

    Kasban, H; Arafa, H; Elaraby, S M S

    2016-06-01

    Radiotracers can be used in several industrial applications by injecting the radiotracer into the industrial system and monitoring the radiation using radiation detectors for obtaining signals. These signals are analyzed to obtain indications about what is happening within the system or to determine the problems that may be present in the system. For multi-phase system analysis, more than one radiotracer is used and the result is a mixture of radiotracers signals. The problem is in such cases is how to separate these signals from each other. The paper presents a proposed method based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) for separating mixed two radiotracer signals from each other. Two different radiotracers (Technetium-99m (Tc(99m)) and Barium-137m (Ba(137m))) were injected into a physical model for simulation of chemical reactor (PMSCR-MK2) for obtaining the radiotracer signals using radiation detectors and Data Acquisition System (DAS). The radiotracer signals are mixed and signal processing steps are performed include background correction and signal de-noising, then applying the signal separation algorithms. Three separation algorithms have been carried out; time domain based separation algorithm, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based separation algorithm, and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based separation algorithm. The results proved the superiority of the PCA based separation algorithm to the other based separation algorithm, and PCA based separation algorithm and the signal processing steps gives a considerable improvement of the separation process. PMID:26974488

  13. Using Independent Component Analysis to Separate Signals in Climate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K; Kamath, C

    2003-01-28

    Global temperature series have contributions from different sources, such as volcanic eruptions and El Nino Southern Oscillation variations. We investigate independent component analysis as a technique to separate unrelated sources present in such series. We first use artificial data, with known independent components, to study the conditions under which ICA can separate the individual sources. We then illustrate the method with climate data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.

  14. Neural realignment of spatially separated sound components.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Nelli H; Takanen, Marko; Santala, Olli; Alku, Paavo; Pulkki, Ville

    2015-06-01

    Natural auditory scenes often consist of several sound sources overlapping in time, but separated in space. Yet, location is not fully exploited in auditory grouping: spatially separated sounds can get perceptually fused into a single auditory object and this leads to difficulties in the identification and localization of concurrent sounds. Here, the brain mechanisms responsible for grouping across spatial locations were explored in magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. The results show that the cortical representation of a vowel spatially separated into two locations reflects the perceived location of the speech sound rather than the physical locations of the individual components. In other words, the auditory scene is neurally rearranged to bring components into spatial alignment when they were deemed to belong to the same object. This renders the original spatial information unavailable at the level of the auditory cortex and may contribute to difficulties in concurrent sound segregation. PMID:26093425

  15. Polarized cosmic microwave background map recovery with sparse component separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobin, J.; Sureau, F.; Starck, J.-L.

    2015-11-01

    The polarization modes of the cosmological microwave background are an invaluable source of information for cosmology and a unique window to probe the energy scale of inflation. Extracting this information from microwave surveys requires distinguishing between foreground emissions and the cosmological signal, which means solving a component separation problem. Component separation techniques have been widely studied for the recovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, but very rarely for the polarization modes. In this case, most component separation techniques make use of second-order statistics to distinguish between the various components. More recent methods, which instead emphasize the sparsity of the components in the wavelet domain, have been shown to provide low-foreground, full-sky estimates of the CMB temperature anisotropies. Building on sparsity, we here introduce a new component separation technique dubbed the polarized generalized morphological component analysis (PolGMCA), which refines previous work to specifically work on the estimation of the polarized CMB maps: i) it benefits from a recently introduced sparsity-based mechanism to cope with partially correlated components; ii) it builds upon estimator aggregation techniques to further yield a better noise contamination/non-Gaussian foreground residual trade-off. The PolGMCA algorithm is evaluated on simulations of full-sky polarized microwave sky simulations using the Planck Sky Model (PSM). The simulations show that the proposed method achieves a precise recovery of the CMB map in polarization with low-noise and foreground contamination residuals. It provides improvements over standard methods, especially on the Galactic center, where estimating the CMB is challenging.

  16. Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ℓ = 2000. The parameter constraints on ΛCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about β = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (β< -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of β> -2.3 with

  17. Identifying separate components of surround suppression

    PubMed Central

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Murray, Scott O.

    2016-01-01

    Surround suppression is a well-known phenomenon in which the response to a visual stimulus is diminished by the presence of neighboring stimuli. This effect is observed in neural responses in areas such as primary visual cortex, and also manifests in visual contrast perception. Studies in animal models have identified at least two separate mechanisms that may contribute to surround suppression: one that is monocular and resistant to contrast adaptation, and another that is binocular and strongly diminished by adaptation. The current study was designed to investigate whether these two mechanisms exist in humans and if they can be identified psychophysically using eye-of-origin and contrast adaptation manipulations. In addition, we examined the prediction that the monocular suppression component is broadly tuned for orientation, while suppression between eyes is narrowly tuned. Our results confirmed that when center and surrounding stimuli were presented dichoptically (in opposite eyes), suppression was orientation-tuned. Following adaptation in the surrounding region, no dichoptic suppression was observed, and monoptic suppression no longer showed orientation selectivity. These results are consistent with a model of surround suppression that depends on both low-level and higher level components. This work provides a method to assess the separate contributions of these components during spatial context processing in human vision. PMID:26756172

  18. Separation of a mixture of particles into its individual components with the aid of the magneto-Archimedes separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Noriyuki; Chiba, Hayatoshi; Okada, Hidehiko; Ando, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    The magneto-Archimedes separation allows for separating mixtures of feeble magnetic materials into its components based on the difference of their densities and magnetic susceptibilities. So far, this technique was applied for the separation of relatively large particles of several millimeters in diameter. Here we apply this technique experimentally to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple micrometer-sized particles in a fluid. It was confirmed that the magneto-Archimedes separation can be applied for the separation of mixture of microspheres larger than 20 μm. Further high performance separation efficiency is expected with the optimization of separation conditions including the control of the spatial distribution of the magnetic field.

  19. Column-coupling strategies for multidimensional electrophoretic separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kler, Pablo A; Sydes, Daniel; Huhn, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional electrophoretic separations represent one of the most common strategies for dealing with the analysis of complex samples. In recent years we have been witnessing the explosive growth of separation techniques for the analysis of complex samples in applications ranging from life sciences to industry. In this sense, electrophoretic separations offer several strategic advantages such as excellent separation efficiency, different methods with a broad range of separation mechanisms, and low liquid consumption generating less waste effluents and lower costs per analysis, among others. Despite their impressive separation efficiency, multidimensional electrophoretic separations present some drawbacks that have delayed their extensive use: the volumes of the columns, and consequently of the injected sample, are significantly smaller compared to other analytical techniques, thus the coupling interfaces between two separations components must be very efficient in terms of providing geometrical precision with low dead volume. Likewise, very sensitive detection systems are required. Additionally, in electrophoretic separation techniques, the surface properties of the columns play a fundamental role for electroosmosis as well as the unwanted adsorption of proteins or other complex biomolecules. In this sense the requirements for an efficient coupling for electrophoretic separation techniques involve several aspects related to microfluidics and physicochemical interactions of the electrolyte solutions and the solid capillary walls. It is interesting to see how these multidimensional electrophoretic separation techniques have been used jointly with different detection techniques, for intermediate detection as well as for final identification and quantification, particularly important in the case of mass spectrometry. In this work we present a critical review about the different strategies for coupling two or more electrophoretic separation techniques and the

  20. Method for separating disparate components in a fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention provides a method of separating a mixed component waste stream in a centrifugal separator. The mixed component waste stream is introduced into the separator and is centrifugally separated within a spinning rotor. A dual vortex separation occurs due to the phase density differences, with the phases exiting the rotor distinct from one another. In a preferred embodiment, aqueous solutions of organics can be separated with up to 100% efficiency. The relatively more dense water phase is centrifugally separated through a radially outer aperture in the separator, while the relatively less dense organic phase is separated through a radially inner aperture.

  1. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  2. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  3. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  4. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  5. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  6. Method and apparatus for component separation using microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Marvin S.; Schechter, Donald E.; Calhoun, Jr., Clyde L.

    2001-04-03

    A method for separating and recovering components includes the steps of providing at least a first component bonded to a second component by a microwave absorbent adhesive bonding material at a bonding area to form an assembly, the bonding material disposed between the components. Microwave energy is directly and selectively applied to the assembly so that substantially only the bonding material absorbs the microwave energy until the bonding material is at a debonding state. A separation force is applied while the bonding material is at the debonding state to permit disengaging and recovering the components. In addition, an apparatus for practicing the method includes holders for the components.

  7. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  8. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Russell, Steven W.; Holt, Jerrid S.; Brown, John D.

    2011-03-01

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  9. Separation of adsorbed components by variable temperature desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Findley, M.E.

    1990-03-27

    This report covers the activities performed under the Department of Energy grant Separation of Absorbed Components by Variable Temperature Desorption'' to the University of Missouri-Rolla, with Project Director M. E. Findley. This grant is under DOE Energy Related Inventions Program, and originated with the discovery that multicomponent adsorption separations in some cases can be improved by carrying out a thermal desorption at increasing temperatures and separating low temperatures desorbed components from high temperatures desorbed components. The primary objective of this project was to promote the future industrial use of this invention in order to bring about energy savings for the country and if possible profits for the University and the inventors.

  10. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Skjerve, E; Cudjoe, K S; Hornes, E; Ugelstad, J; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    The principles of magnetic separation aided by antibodies or other specific binding molecules have been used for isolation of specific viable whole organisms, antigens, or nucleic acids. Whereas growth on selective media may be helpful in isolation of a certain bacterial species, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technology can isolate strains possessing specific and characteristic surface antigens. Further separation, cultivation, and identification of the isolate can be performed by traditional biochemical, immunologic, or molecular methods. PCR can be used for amplification and identification of genes of diagnostic importance for a target organism. The combination of IMS and PCR reduces the assay time to several hours while increasing both specificity and sensitivity. Use of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for separation of amplified DNA fragments, containing both biotin and a signal molecule, has allowed for the conversion of the traditional PCR into an easy-to-read microtiter plate format. The bead-bound PCR amplicons can also easily be sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. The latter technique makes it possible to obtain sequence data of 300 to 600 bases from 20 to 30 strains, starting with clinical samples, within 12 to 24 h. Sequence data can be used for both diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes. IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful method in diagnostic microbiology. Most recent publications describe IMS as a method for enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of other detection systems, such as PCR, and providing considerable savings in time compared with traditional diagnostic systems. The relevance to clinical diagnosis has, however, not yet been fully established for all of these new test principles. In the case of PCR, for example, the presence of specific DNA in a food sample does not demonstrate the presence of a live organism capable of inducing a disease. However, all tests offering increased sensitivity and specificity of detection

  11. 5 CFR 6001.103 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... separate agency components. (a) Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the... of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and § 2635.807 of this title governing... purposes of determining whether the donor of a gift is a prohibited source under 5 CFR 2635.203(d) and...

  12. 5 CFR 3601.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components. (a) Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of DoD is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing: (1) Armed Services Board...

  13. 5 CFR 3601.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components. (a) Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of DoD is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing: (1) Armed Services Board...

  14. 5 CFR 3101.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the Department of the Treasury is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations contained in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking...

  15. 5 CFR 3101.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the Department of the Treasury is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations contained in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking...

  16. 5 CFR 3101.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the Department of the Treasury is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations contained in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking...

  17. 5 CFR 6001.103 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separate agency components. (a) Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the... of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and § 2635.807 of this title governing... purposes of determining whether the donor of a gift is a prohibited source under 5 CFR 2635.203(d) and...

  18. 5 CFR 3101.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the Department of the Treasury is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations contained in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking...

  19. 5 CFR 3101.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the following components of the Department of the Treasury is designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations contained in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from outside sources and 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking...

  20. Process for the separation of components from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

    1973-10-01

    A process for the removal, from gaseous mixtures of a desired component selected from oxygen, iodine, methyl iodide, and lower oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is described. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatmospheric pressure to preferentially absorb the desired component in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed constituents of the gaseous mixture are withdrawn from the absorption zone. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in the desired component is withdrawn separately from the zone, following which the desired component is recovered from the fluorocarbon absorbent. (Official Gazette)

  1. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though computationally intensive alternative for model selection. Application of the algorithm is illustrated using Fisher's iris data set and Howells' craniometric data set. Mixed ICA/PCA is of potential interest in any field of scientific investigation where the authenticity of blindly separated non-Gaussian sources might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian. PMID:25811988

  2. Spectral Separation of the Turbofan Engine Coherent Combustion Noise Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2008-01-01

    The core noise components of a dual spool turbofan engine (Honeywell TECH977) were separated by the use of a coherence function. A source location technique based on adjusting the time delay between the combustor pressure sensor signal and the far-field microphone signal to maximize the coherence and remove as much variation of the phase angle with frequency as possible was used. While adjusting the time delay to maximize the coherence and minimize the cross spectrum phase angle variation with frequency, the discovery was made that for the 130 microphone a 90.027 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 0 to 200 Hz while a 86.975 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 200 to 400 Hz. Since the 0 to 200 Hz band signal took more time to travel the same distance, it is slower than the 200 to 400 Hz band signal. This suggests the 0 to 200 Hz coherent cross spectral density band is partly due to indirect combustion noise attributed to hot spots interacting with the turbine. The signal in the 200 to 400 Hz frequency band is attributed mostly to direct combustion noise.

  3. Tomographic separation of composite spectra. The components of Plaskett's Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of Plaskett's Star (HD 47129), a 14.4 day period, double lined O-type spectroscopic binary were analyzed. Archival data from IUE (17 spectra well distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with several techniques. A cross correlation analysis, which showed that the secondary produces significant lines in the UV, indicates that the mass ratio is q = 1.18 + or - 0.12 (secondary slightly more massive). A tomography algorithm was used to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The interpolated spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, 07.3 I and 06.2 I, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. The intensity ratio of the stars in the UV is 0.53 + or - 0.05 (primary brighter). The secondary lines appear rotationally broadened, and the projected rotational velocity V sin i for this star is estimated to be 310 + or - 20 km/s. The possible evolutionary history of this system is discussed through a comparison of the positions of the components and evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

  4. Component separation of a isotropic Gravitational Wave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Abhishek; Mitra, Sanjit; Jhingan, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    A Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) is expected in the universe from the superposition of a large number of unresolved astrophysical sources and phenomena in the early universe. Each component of the background (e.g., from primordial metric perturbations, binary neutron stars, milli-second pulsars etc.) has its own spectral shape. Many ongoing experiments aim to probe GWB at a variety of frequency bands. In the last two decades, using data from ground-based laser interferometric gravitational wave (GW) observatories, upper limits on GWB were placed in the frequency range of 0~ 50‑100 Hz, considering one spectral shape at a time. However, one strong component can significantly enhance the estimated strength of another component. Hence, estimation of the amplitudes of the components with different spectral shapes should be done jointly. Here we propose a method for "component separation" of a statistically isotropic background, that can, for the first time, jointly estimate the amplitudes of many components and place upper limits. The method is rather straightforward and needs negligible amount of computation. It utilises the linear relationship between the measurements and the amplitudes of the actual components, alleviating the need for a sampling based method, e.g., Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or matched filtering, which are computationally intensive and cumbersome in a multi-dimensional parameter space. Using this formalism we could also study how many independent components can be separated using a given dataset from a network of current and upcoming ground based interferometric detectors.

  5. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  6. Planetary Gearbox Fault Detection Using Vibration Separation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; Ehinger, Ryan T.; Fetty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Studies were performed to demonstrate the capability to detect planetary gear and bearing faults in helicopter main-rotor transmissions. The work supported the Operations Support and Sustainment (OSST) program with the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) and Bell Helicopter Textron. Vibration data from the OH-58C planetary system were collected on a healthy transmission as well as with various seeded-fault components. Planetary fault detection algorithms were used with the collected data to evaluate fault detection effectiveness. Planet gear tooth cracks and spalls were detectable using the vibration separation techniques. Sun gear tooth cracks were not discernibly detectable from the vibration separation process. Sun gear tooth spall defects were detectable. Ring gear tooth cracks were only clearly detectable by accelerometers located near the crack location or directly across from the crack. Enveloping provided an effective method for planet bearing inner- and outer-race spalling fault detection.

  7. Spin-SILC: CMB polarisation component separation with spin wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Keir K.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Pontzen, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We present Spin-SILC, a new foreground component separation method that accurately extracts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarisation E and B modes from raw multifrequency Stokes Q and U measurements of the microwave sky. Spin-SILC is an internal linear combination method that uses spin wavelets to analyse the spin-2 polarisation signal P = Q + iU. The wavelets are additionally directional (non-axisymmetric). This allows different morphologies of signals to be separated and therefore the cleaning algorithm is localised using an additional domain of information. The advantage of spin wavelets over standard scalar wavelets is to simultaneously and self-consistently probe scales and directions in the polarisation signal P = Q + iU and in the underlying E and B modes, therefore providing the ability to perform component separation and E-B decomposition concurrently for the first time. We test Spin-SILC on full-mission Planck simulations and data and show the capacity to correctly recover the underlying cosmological E and B modes. We also demonstrate a strong consistency of our CMB maps with those derived from existing component separation methods. Spin-SILC can be combined with the pseudo- and pure E-B spin wavelet estimators presented in a companion paper to reliably extract the cosmological signal in the presence of complicated sky cuts and noise. Therefore, it will provide a computationally-efficient method to accurately extract the CMB E and B modes for future polarisation experiments.

  8. A case series of laparoscopic components separation and rectus medialization with laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Malik, Kashif; Bowers, Steven P; Smith, C Daniel; Asbun, Horacio; Preissler, Susanne

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has been shown to offer improved patient recovery, when compared to open repair. It has also been shown to offer a lower complication rate. However, in patients with high body-mass index and large defects, the intraperitoneal on-lay technique of laparoscopic repair is criticized for an increased incidence of failure. In 1990, a study introduced the technique of open-component separation, hence enabling the medialization of the rectus muscle and decreasing the incidence of recurrence associated with primary repair. Open-component separation is associated with increased wound problems due to extensive dissection. Different laparoscopic and endoscopic modifications to the open-component-separation technique have been tried to minimize wound problems. In this article, we present our case series of 4 patients involving the laparoscopic component-separation technique of rectus medialization and, laparoscopic ventral hernia combined. This is one of the first series ever reported to involve both modalities of hernia repair in using an exclusive laparoscopic technique. PMID:19694565

  9. Multi-class stain separation using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahearn, Nicholas; Snead, David; Cree, Ian; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-03-01

    Stain separation is the process whereby a full colour histology section image is transformed into a series of single channel images, each corresponding to a given stain's expression. Many algorithms in the field of digital pathology are concerned with the expression of a single stain, thus stain separation is a key preprocessing step in these situations. We present a new versatile method of stain separation. The method uses Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to determine a set of statistically independent vectors, corresponding to the individual stain expressions. In comparison to other popular approaches, such as PCA and NNMF, we found that ICA gives a superior projection of the data with respect to each stain. In addition, we introduce a correction step to improve the initial results provided by the ICA coefficients. Many existing approaches only consider separation of two stains, with primary emphasis on Haematoxylin and Eosin. We show that our method is capable of making a good separation when there are more than two stains present. We also demonstrate our method's ability to achieve good separation on a variety of different stain types.

  10. Separating streamflow components to reveal nutrient flowpaths: Toenepi Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Separating streamflow into its components is valuable for understanding the sources and flowpaths of water and solutes in catchments, in particular nutrient flowpaths. Tracers give an objective basis for hydrograph separations, but such tracer data is usually quite limited in time even if available for a catchment. A new separation method (the bump and rise method or BRM, Stewart 2014) gives a filter that can be calibrated by fitting to tracer separations and then applied to the whole streamflow record. Or if no tracer data is available, can be calibrated more approximately by fitting to the recession hydrograph. The value of the procedure is illustrated by applying it to Toenepi Stream, which drains a lowland dairy farming catchment of 15.1 km2 in Waikato, New Zealand. Tracer (chemical and tritium) measurements show that streamflow is made up of three major end-members or components in varying proportions: high-nitrate quickflow, young nitrate-bearing fast groundwater from a shallow aquifer, and old nitrate-free slow groundwater from a deeper aquifer. Hydrographs of these three components were determined by applying the BRM filter twice, once to the streamflow and then again to the baseflow. The results show that (1) quickflow responds rapidly to rainfall but contributes only a minor part of the stream peak, (2) fast groundwater also responds rapidly and contributes most of the stream peak, and (3) slow groundwater shows little immediate response but begins a very gradual rise in contribution after rainfall. By assuming constant nitrate concentrations for the three components, the continuous variation of nitrate in the streamflow was calculated and showed good agreement with spot streamflow measurements. Nitrate concentrations reached very low levels during very low flows when the stream was dominated by the slow groundwater, and increased with flow as the proportions of quickflow and fast groundwater increased. The BRM method was flexible enough to enable

  11. Frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezginov, N.; Vutha, A. C.; Ferchichi, I.; Storry, C. H.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-05-01

    Improved measurements in atomic hydrogen are needed to shed light on the proton radius puzzle. We are measuring the Lamb shift in hydrogen (n = 2 ,S1 / 2 -->P1 / 2) using a frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields (FOSOF) method. The advantages of this method include its insensitivity to atomic beam intensity fluctuations and the microwave-system frequency response. We present experimental results obtained with this method, towards a new measurement of the proton charge radius. We acknowledge funding from NSERC, CFI, CRC, ORF, and NIST.

  12. Technique to separate lidar signal and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R

    2016-06-13

    Sunlight contamination dominates the backscatter noise in space-based lidar measurements during daytime. The background scattered sunlight is highly variable and dependent upon the surface and atmospheric albedo. The scattered sunlight contribution to noise increases over land and snow surfaces where surface albedos are high and thus overwhelm lidar backscatter from optically thin atmospheric constituents like aerosols and thin clouds. In this work, we developed a novel lidar remote sensing concept that potentially can eliminate sunlight induced noise. The new lidar concept requires: (1) a transmitted laser light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM); and (2) a photon sieve (PS) diffractive filter that separates scattered sunlight from laser light backscattered from the atmosphere, ocean and solid surfaces. The method is based on numerical modeling of the focusing of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser beam and plane-wave light by a PS. The model results show that after passing through a PS, laser light that carries the OAM is focused on a ring (called "focal ring" here) on the focal plane of the PS filter, very little energy arrives at the center of the focal plane. However, scattered sunlight, as a plane wave without the OAM, focuses at the center of the focal plane and thus can be effectively blocked or ducted out. We also find that the radius of the "focal ring" increases with the increase of azimuthal mode (L) of LG laser light, thus increasing L can more effectively separate the lidar signal away from the sunlight noise. PMID:27410314

  13. Interacting dark energy collapse with matter components separation

    SciTech Connect

    Delliou, M. Le; Barreiro, T. E-mail: tmbarreiro@ulusofona.pt

    2013-02-01

    We use the spherical collapse model of structure formation to investigate the separation in the collapse of uncoupled matter (essentially baryons) and coupled dark matter in an interacting dark energy scenario. Following the usual assumption of a single radius of collapse for all species, we show that we only need to evolve the uncoupled matter sector to obtain the evolution for all matter components. This gives us more information on the collapse with a simplified set of evolution equations compared with the usual approaches. We then apply these results to four quintessence potentials and show how we can discriminate between different quintessence models.

  14. Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

  15. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  16. Exploring the Components of Dynamic Modeling Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnitsa, Charles Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Upon defining the terms modeling and simulation, it becomes apparent that there is a wide variety of different models, using different techniques, appropriate for different levels of representation for any one system to be modeled. Selecting an appropriate conceptual modeling technique from those available is an open question for the practitioner.…

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Surface Sampling/Ionization Techniques for Direct Coupling of Planar Separations with Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in-situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature.

  18. Separation of the strain components for use in strainrange partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.; Nachtigall, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Two methods are presented for separating the inelastic strain components of a complex hysteresis loop so that strainrange partitioning formulas can be applied to accurately determine cyclic life at elevated temperatures. These methods are required only if lower bounds established by strainrange partitioning concepts have been deemed inadequate in the establishment of expected lifetime. In one method, rapid loading and unloading is applied in the tensile and compressive half to isolate the plastic strain. In the second method, the creep is measured at a discrete number of points along the hysteresis loop by combining load-control tests into the general pattern of strain cycling under arbitrary temperature. Both methods are shown to give good results.

  19. Separating deceptive and orienting components in a Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Wolfgang; Stark, Rudolf; Peper, Martin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) requires the examinee to deceptively deny recognition of known stimuli and to truthfully deny recognition of unknown stimuli. Because deception and orienting are typically coupled, it is unclear how exactly these sub-processes affect the physiological responses measured in the CIT. The present study aimed at separating the effects of deception from those of orienting. In a mock-crime study, using a modified CIT, thirty-six of seventy-two subjects answered truthfully ('truth group'), whereas the other thirty-six concealed their knowledge ('lie group'). Answering was delayed for 4 s after item presentation. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration (RLL), and phasic heart rate (HR) were recorded. A decomposition of EDA responses revealed two response components; the response in the first interval was expected to indicate orienting, stimulus evaluation, and answer preparation, whereas the response in the second interval was assumed to reflect answer-related processes. Inconclusively, both EDA components differentiated between 'probe' and 'irrelevant' items in both groups. Phasic HR and RLL differed between item classes only in the 'lie' group, thus reflecting answer-related processes, possibly deception, rather than merely orienting responses. The findings further support the notion that psychophysiological measures elicited by a modified CIT may reflect different mental processes involved in orienting and deception. PMID:18674573

  20. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. FPGA-based real-time blind source separation with principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular technique in reducing the dimension of a large data set so that more informed conclusions can be made about the relationship between the values in the data set. Blind source separation (BSS) is one of the many applications of PCA, where it is used to separate linearly mixed signals into their source signals. This project attempts to implement a BSS system in hardware. Due to unique characteristics of hardware implementation, the Generalized Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), a learning network model, is used. The FPGA used to compile and test the system is the Altera Cyclone III EP3C120F780I7.

  2. Separation of magnetic susceptibility components from magnetization curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L.; Nourgaliev, D.; Kuzina, D.; Spassov, S.; Fattakhov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern lake sediments are a unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally, because all environmental variations are recorded by these sediments with high resolution. The magnetic properties of Chernyshov Bay (Aral Sea) sediments we investigated from core number 4 (N45o57'04.2''; E59o17'14.3'') are taken at far water depth of 9.5 m. The length of the core is 4.16 m. Samples for measurements were taken to plastic sample boxes with internal dimensions 2x2x2 cm. Remanent magnetization curves were measured by coercivity spectrometer for the separate determination of the different contributions to the total bulk magnetic susceptibility. There was measured also magnetic susceptibility using MS2 susceptibility meter. Those operations were done for data comparison between 2 susceptibilities obtained from different equipment. Our goal is to decipher the magnetic susceptibility signal in lake sediments by decomposing the bulk susceptibility signal of a lake sediment sequence into ferromagnetic (χf), dia-/paramagnetic (χp) and superparamagnetic (χsp) components using data from remanent and indused magnetization curves Each of these component has a different origin: paramagnetic minerals are usually attributed to terrigenous sediment input, ferromagnetics are of biogenic origin, and superparamagnetic minerals may be of either biogenic or terrigenous origin. Comparison between susceptibility measurements of MS2-Bartington susceptometer and of the coercivity spectrometer has shown good correlation. The susceptibility values measured in two different equipment are fairly close and indicate thus the reliability the proposed method. In research also has shown water level changes in Aral Sea based on magnetic susceptibility. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University also by RFBR research projects No. 14-05-31376 - а, 14-05-00785- а.

  3. Joint Bayesian Component Separation and CMB Power Spectrum Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, H. K.; Jewell, J. B.; Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe and implement an exact, flexible, and computationally efficient algorithm for joint component separation and CMB power spectrum estimation, building on a Gibbs sampling framework. Two essential new features are (1) conditional sampling of foreground spectral parameters and (2) joint sampling of all amplitude-type degrees of freedom (e.g., CMB, foreground pixel amplitudes, and global template amplitudes) given spectral parameters. Given a parametric model of the foreground signals, we estimate efficiently and accurately the exact joint foreground- CMB posterior distribution and, therefore, all marginal distributions such as the CMB power spectrum or foreground spectral index posteriors. The main limitation of the current implementation is the requirement of identical beam responses at all frequencies, which restricts the analysis to the lowest resolution of a given experiment. We outline a future generalization to multiresolution observations. To verify the method, we analyze simple models and compare the results to analytical predictions. We then analyze a realistic simulation with properties similar to the 3 yr WMAP data, downgraded to a common resolution of 3 deg FWHM. The results from the actual 3 yr WMAP temperature analysis are presented in a companion Letter.

  4. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  5. 5 CFR 3801.103 - Designation of separate Departmental components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of separate Departmental... OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 3801.103 Designation of separate... designated as a separate agency for purposes of the regulations contained in subpart B of part 2635 of...

  6. Application of chromatography technology in the separation of active components from nature derived drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H-Y; Jiang, J-G

    2010-11-01

    Chromatography technology has been widely applied in various aspects of the pharmacy research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This paper reviews literatures, published in the past decades, on the separation of active component from TCM using chromatography technology. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), affinity chromatography (AC), and bio-chromatography (BC) are introduced in detail. Compared to high performance of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), analysis time and solvent loss are significantly reduced by UPLC with increase in resolution and sensitivity. Some ingredients from nature derived drugs can be separated more completely by HSCCC, which has remarkable characteristics such as low cost, simple operation and no pollution. Trace components from complex systems can be selectively and efficiently separated and purified by AC, This feature makes it effective in isolation and identification of active components of Chinese herbs. Interference of some impurities could be excluded by BC. Active ingredients that are difficult to be separated by normal method can be acquired by SFC. Currently, application of novel chromatography techniques in TCM is still in the exploratory stage and many problems, such as preparation of stationary phase and detection, need to be solved. PMID:20701587

  7. Blind separation of human- and horse-footstep signatures using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Asif; Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2012-06-01

    Seismic footstep detection based systems for homeland security applications are important to perimeter protection and other security systems. This paper reports seismic footstep signal separation for a walking horse and a walking human. The well-known Independent Component Analysis (ICA) approach is employed to accomplish this task. ICA techniques have become widely used in audio analysis and source separation. The concept of lCA may actually be seen as an extension of the principal component analysis (PCA), which can only impose independence up to the second order and, consequently, defines directions that are orthogonal. They can also be used in conjunction with a classification method to achieve a high percentage of correct classification and reduce false alarms. In this paper, an ICA based algorithm is developed and implemented on seismic data of human and horse footsteps. The performance of this method is very promising and is demonstrated by the experimental results.

  8. Separation of multiple scatterers in NEWS experiments using Independent Component Analysis (ICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaverbeke, S.; Van Den Abeele, K.; Nion, D.; De Lathauwer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy combined with imaging techniques such as acoustic time reversal (NEWS-TR) or sparse array tomography is a promising new methodology for detecting microdamage at an early stage. When dealing with structures which could potentially contain many point-like nonlinear scatterers, there is a need to develop techniques for separately imaging the defects using a distributed sensor network which can be used either in time-reversal imaging processes or for tomographic imaging.. In this contribution, we discuss the application of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) methods to solve the problem of separating multiple nonlinear scatterers distributed throughout a sample, either by combining ICA with time reversal or by using ICA in conjunction with a tomographic experiment. We illustrate the procedure for ICA based tomographic imaging of multiple scatterers in an infinite medium.

  9. Filtrates and Residues: Gel Filtration--An Innovative Separation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James

    1985-01-01

    Gel filtration is a form of liquid chromatography that separates molecules primarily on the basis of their size. Advantages of using this technique, theoretical aspects, and experiments (including procedures used) are discussed. Several questions for students to answer (with answers) are also provided. (JN)

  10. Sample detection and analysis techniques for electrophoretic separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falb, R. D.; Hughes, K. E.; Powell, T. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for detecting and analyzing biological agents suitable for space flight operations were studied primarily by literature searches which were conducted of cell separation techniques. Detection methods discussed include: photometrometric, electric, radiometric, micrometry, ultrasonic, microscopic, and photographic. A bibliography, and a directory of vendors are included along with an index of commercial hardware.

  11. Bayesian Semi-blind Component Separation for Foreground Removal in Interferometric 21 cm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Bunn, Emory F.; Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Sutter, P. M.; Timbie, Peter T.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new Bayesian semi-blind approach for foreground removal in observations of the 21 cm signal measured by interferometers. The technique, which we call H i Expectation-Maximization Independent Component Analysis (HIEMICA), is an extension of the Independent Component Analysis technique developed for two-dimensional (2D) cosmic microwave background maps to three-dimensional (3D) 21 cm cosmological signals measured by interferometers. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps and separates the foregrounds from the signal based on the diversity of their power spectra. Relying only on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3D power spectrum of the 21 cm signal, as well as the 2D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about the foregrounds. This approach has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from interferometric 21 cm intensity mapping observations under idealized assumptions of instrumental effects. We also discuss the impact when the noise properties are not known completely. As a first step toward solving the 21 cm power spectrum analysis problem, we compare the semi-blind HIEMICA technique to the commonly used Principal Component Analysis. Under the same idealized circumstances, the proposed technique provides significantly improved recovery of the power spectrum. This technique can be applied in a straightforward manner to all 21 cm interferometric observations, including epoch of reionization measurements, and can be extended to single-dish observations as well.

  12. A new acceleration switch based on separated mass component and elastic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liping; Hu, Jun; Yang, Bo; Shao, Qing; Peng, Gang

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new linear inertial acceleration switch which senses inertial acceleration and gives a signal of switchpoint. It is an entire mechanical device has two particular characters: a simple structure and an environmental interference-free capability. The structure and work principle of the switch is introduced, then the design process to the spring is analyzed and simulated, and finally the rationality of this acceleration switch's design is given according to the sample's testing data. In this acceleration switch, the elastic component is a leaf spring, and the mass component is a standard steel ball. The spring and the ball are separated instead of rigidly connected, which make the whole structure is simple. When the switch is on the work direction the ball and the spring are interact, and the spring is on work; when the switch isn't on the work direction, the ball and the spring are separated; environmental external force is on the mass instead of on the spring. The spring is insusceptible on this condition. This particularity determines that the switch is highly environmental interference-free, and doesn't easily affected by environmental influence. Some parameters of the inertial switch are given as followings: (1) Overall dimension of the inertial switch is about 28mm×12mm×12mm (2) systemic precision of the inertial switch is 1.5%; (3) the inertial switch can endure 0.2g2/Hz stochastic vibration. It is suggested that this inertial switch can be applied in high consequence system.

  13. 5 CFR 3801.103 - Designation of separate Departmental components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Justice.) Federal Bureau of Investigation Foreign Claims Settlement Commission Immigration and... teaching, speaking, and writing: Antitrust Division Bureau of Prisons (including Federal Prison Industries... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of separate...

  14. Metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes separation using an aqueous two-phase separation technique: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Malcolm S. Y.; Ng, Eng-Poh; Juan, Joon Ching; Ooi, Chien Wei; Ling, Tau Chuan; Woon, Kai Lin; Loke Show, Pau

    2016-08-01

    It is known that carbon nanotubes show desirable physical and chemical properties with a wide array of potential applications. Nonetheless, their potential has been hampered by the difficulties in acquiring high purity, chiral-specific tubes. Considerable advancement has been made in terms of the purification of carbon nanotubes, for instance chemical oxidation, physical separation, and myriad combinations of physical and chemical methods. The aqueous two-phase separation technique has recently been demonstrated to be able to sort carbon nanotubes based on their chirality. The technique requires low cost polymers and salt, and is able to sort the tubes based on their diameter as well as metallicity. In this review, we aim to provide a review that could stimulate innovative thought on the progress of a carbon nanotubes sorting method using the aqueous two-phase separation method, and present possible future work and an outlook that could enhance the methodology.

  15. Metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes separation using an aqueous two-phase separation technique: a review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Malcolm S Y; Ng, Eng-Poh; Juan, Joon Ching; Ooi, Chien Wei; Ling, Tau Chuan; Woon, Kai Lin; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-08-19

    It is known that carbon nanotubes show desirable physical and chemical properties with a wide array of potential applications. Nonetheless, their potential has been hampered by the difficulties in acquiring high purity, chiral-specific tubes. Considerable advancement has been made in terms of the purification of carbon nanotubes, for instance chemical oxidation, physical separation, and myriad combinations of physical and chemical methods. The aqueous two-phase separation technique has recently been demonstrated to be able to sort carbon nanotubes based on their chirality. The technique requires low cost polymers and salt, and is able to sort the tubes based on their diameter as well as metallicity. In this review, we aim to provide a review that could stimulate innovative thought on the progress of a carbon nanotubes sorting method using the aqueous two-phase separation method, and present possible future work and an outlook that could enhance the methodology. PMID:27396920

  16. Remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with membrane separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Weng, Huan-xin; Chen, Huan-lin; Gao, Cong-jie

    2002-04-01

    Membrane separation, a new technology for removing VOCs including pervaporation, vapor permeation, membrane contactor, and membrane bioreactor was presented. Comparing with traditional techniques, these special techniques are an efficient and energy-saving technology. Vapor permeation can be applied to recovery of organic solvents from exhaust streams. Membrane contactor could be used for removing or recovering VOCs from air or wastewater. Pervaporation and vapor permeation are viable methods for removing VOCs from wastewater to yield a VOC concentrate which could either be destroyed by conventional means, or be recycled for reuse. PMID:12046285

  17. NOTE: Entropy-based automated classification of independent components separated from fMCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comani, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Alleva, G.; Romani, G. L.

    2007-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a noninvasive technique suitable for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetal heart function. Reliable fetal cardiac signals can be reconstructed from multi-channel fMCG recordings by means of independent component analysis (ICA). However, the identification of the separated components is usually accomplished by visual inspection. This paper discusses a novel automated system based on entropy estimators, namely approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn), for the classification of independent components (ICs). The system was validated on 40 fMCG datasets of normal fetuses with the gestational age ranging from 22 to 37 weeks. Both ApEn and SampEn were able to measure the stability and predictability of the physiological signals separated with ICA, and the entropy values of the three categories were significantly different at p <0.01. The system performances were compared with those of a method based on the analysis of the time and frequency content of the components. The outcomes of this study showed a superior performance of the entropy-based system, in particular for early gestation, with an overall ICs detection rate of 98.75% and 97.92% for ApEn and SampEn respectively, as against a value of 94.50% obtained with the time-frequency-based system.

  18. Separation of piano tones into tonal and broadband components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have proposed simple objective methods to evaluate the quality of piano tones. Recordings of both sound and vibration of six pianos (two grands and four uprights) were analyzed. The results suggest an objective measure for piano tone quality. A method is given for splitting recorded tones into tonal and broadband components. The broadband vibration was found to be more intense in the upright pianos than in the grand pianos, this is due to differences in the construction of the keybed. There was no such difference found in the tonal component. These results suggest the hypothesis that a smaller broadband component correlates with higher quality in piano tones.

  19. Isotopes Separation Method using Physical Vapor Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Akhtar, S. M.; Saleem, M.; Mahmood, Nasir

    2010-02-01

    An isotope separation technique using effusive emission of vapors from the heated molybdenum boat is presented. The technique is applied for the separation of the lithium isotopes. Lithium fluoride with natural isotopic abundance was chosen for evaporation and it was achieved by resistive heating of the molybdenum boat with an exit orifice in the center that provides a point source emission. Glass substrates were placed in a semi-circle around the source of evaporation at different positions of peripheral region to deposit the evaporated material. A non-commercial laboratory developed linear Time of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer was used for isotopic abundance measurements of lithium in the deposited thin films. The dependence of the size of exit orifice on the separation is also studied for the three exit orifices with diameters of 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mm. The separation factors of the isotopes as a function of different peripheral locations are calculated and presented. The abundance of the 6Li isotope has been increased up to 16% on the peripheral positions.

  20. Cell separation technique in dilectrophoretic chip with bulk electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Tay, Francis E. H.; Xu, Guolin; Yu, Liming

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for separation of two cell populations in a dielectrophoretic chip with bulk silicon electrode. A characteristic of the dielectrophoretic chip is its "sandwich" structure: glass/silicon/glass that generates a unique definition of the microfluidic channel with conductive walls (silicon) and isolating floor and ceiling (glass). The structure confers the opportunity to use the electrodes not only to generate a gradient of the electric field but also to generate a gradient of velocity of the fluid inside the channel. This interesting combination gives rise to a new solution for dielectrophoretic separation of two cell populations. The separation method consists of four steps. First, the microchannel is field with the cells mixture. Second, the cells are trapped in different locations of the microfluidic channel, the cell population which exhibits positive dielectrophoresis is trapped in the area where the distance between the electrodes is the minimum whilst, the other population that exhibit negative dielectrophoresis is trapped where the distance between electrodes is the maximum. In the next step, increasing the flow in the microchannel will result in an increased hydrodynamic force that sweeps the cells trapped by positive dielectrophoresis out of the chip. In the last step, the electric field is removed and the second population is sweep out and collected at the outlet. The device was tested for separation of dead yeast cells from live yeast cells. The paper presents analytical aspects of the separation method a comparative study between different electrode profiles and experimental results.

  1. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... same entity, the 18 U.S.C. 207(c) bar will not affect him. Example 2 to paragraph (g): A scientist served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate...

  2. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... same entity, the 18 U.S.C. 207(c) bar will not affect him. Example 2 to paragraph (g): A scientist served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate...

  3. 5 CFR 3601.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Service; (8) Defense Information Systems Agency; (9) Defense Intelligence Agency; (10) Defense Logistics... separate agency for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from... identifying the DoD employee's agency under 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing....

  4. 5 CFR 3601.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Service; (8) Defense Information Systems Agency; (9) Defense Intelligence Agency; (10) Defense Logistics... separate agency for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from... identifying the DoD employee's agency under 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing....

  5. 5 CFR 3601.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Service; (8) Defense Information Systems Agency; (9) Defense Intelligence Agency; (10) Defense Logistics... separate agency for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR part 2635 governing gifts from... identifying the DoD employee's agency under 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing....

  6. 5 CFR 3501.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... distinct from the remainder of the Department, for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR 2635 governing gifts from outside sources, 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing, and § 3501... deemed to be separate agencies for purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part...

  7. 5 CFR 3501.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distinct from the remainder of the Department, for purposes of the regulations in subpart B of 5 CFR 2635 governing gifts from outside sources, 5 CFR 2635.807 governing teaching, speaking and writing, and § 3501... deemed to be separate agencies for purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part...

  8. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... same entity, the 18 U.S.C. 207(c) bar will not affect him. Example 2 to paragraph (g): A scientist served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate...

  9. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... same entity, the 18 U.S.C. 207(c) bar will not affect him. Example 2 to paragraph (g): A scientist served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate...

  10. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... same entity, the 18 U.S.C. 207(c) bar will not affect him. Example 2 to paragraph (g): A scientist served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate...

  11. Charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon capacitors in the presence of hydrogen deactivated dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Witczak, Steven C.; Winokur, Peter S.; Lacoe, Ronald C.; Mayer, Donald C.

    2000-06-01

    An improved charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitors is presented which accounts for the deactivation of substrate dopants by hydrogen at elevated irradiation temperatures or small irradiation biases. Using high-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements, radiation-induced inversion voltage shifts are separated into components due to oxide trapped charge, interface traps, and deactivated dopants, where the latter is computed from a reduction in Si capacitance. In the limit of no radiation-induced dopant deactivation, this approach reduces to the standard midgap charge separation technique used widely for the analysis of room-temperature irradiations. The technique is demonstrated on a p-type MOS capacitor irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays at 100 degree sign C and zero bias, where the dopant deactivation is significant.(c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  12. 5 CFR 3501.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Reclamation and Enforcement; (8) Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians; (9) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; and (10) U.S. Geological Survey. (b) Employees in components not listed in paragraph (a... the U.S. Geological Survey. The company is a prohibited source for the paralegal, since the...

  13. 5 CFR 3501.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Reclamation and Enforcement; (8) Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians; (9) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; and (10) U.S. Geological Survey. (b) Employees in components not listed in paragraph (a... the U.S. Geological Survey. The company is a prohibited source for the paralegal, since the...

  14. Quantifying components of the hydrologic cycle in Virginia using chemical hydrograph separation and multiple regression analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Nelms, David L.; Pope, Jason P.; Selnick, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This study by the U.S. Geological Survey, prepared in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, quantifies the components of the hydrologic cycle across the Commonwealth of Virginia. Long-term, mean fluxes were calculated for precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration, total evapotranspiration (ET), riparian ET, recharge, base flow (or groundwater discharge) and net total outflow. Fluxes of these components were first estimated on a number of real-time-gaged watersheds across Virginia. Specific conductance was used to distinguish and separate surface runoff from base flow. Specific-conductance data were collected every 15 minutes at 75 real-time gages for approximately 18 months between March 2007 and August 2008. Precipitation was estimated for 1971–2000 using PRISM climate data. Precipitation and temperature from the PRISM data were used to develop a regression-based relation to estimate total ET. The proportion of watershed precipitation that becomes surface runoff was related to physiographic province and rock type in a runoff regression equation. Component flux estimates from the watersheds were transferred to flux estimates for counties and independent cities using the ET and runoff regression equations. Only 48 of the 75 watersheds yielded sufficient data, and data from these 48 were used in the final runoff regression equation. The base-flow proportion for the 48 watersheds averaged 72 percent using specific conductance, a value that was substantially higher than the 61 percent average calculated using a graphical-separation technique (the USGS program PART). Final results for the study are presented as component flux estimates for all counties and independent cities in Virginia.

  15. On-Chip Microfluidic Components for In Situ Analysis, Separation, and Detection of Amino Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yun; Getty, Stephanie; Dworkin, Jason; Balvin, Manuel; Kotecki, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory at GSFC has identified amino acids in meteorites and returned cometary samples by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS). These organic species are key markers for life, having the property of chirality that can be used to distinguish biological from non-biological amino acids. One of the critical components in the benchtop instrument is liquid chromatography (LC) analytical column. The commercial LC analytical column is an over- 250-mm-long and 4.6-mm-diameter stainless steel tube filled with functionized microbeads as stationary phase to separate the molecular species based on their chemistry. Miniaturization of this technique for spaceflight is compelling for future payloads for landed missions targeting astrobiology objectives. A commercial liquid chromatography analytical column consists of an inert cylindrical tube filled with a stationary phase, i.e., microbeads, that has been functionalized with a targeted chemistry. When analyte is sent through the column by a pressurized carrier fluid (typically a methanol/ water mixture), compounds are separated in time due to differences in chemical interactions with the stationary phase. Different species of analyte molecules will interact more strongly with the column chemistry, and will therefore take longer to traverse the column. In this way, the column will separate molecular species based on their chemistry. A lab-on-chip liquid analysis tool was developed. The microfluidic analytical column is capable of chromatographically separating biologically relevant classes of molecules based on their chemistry. For this analytical column, fabrication, low leak rate, and stationary phase incorporation of a serpentine microchannel were demonstrated that mimic the dimensions of a commercial LC column within a 5 10 1 mm chip. The microchannel in the chip has a 75- micrometer-diameter oval-shaped cross section. The serpentine

  16. Separating cognitive processes with principal components analysis of EEG time-frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Edward M.; Nelson, Lindsay D.; Holroyd, Clay B.; Gehring, William J.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2008-08-01

    Measurement of EEG event-related potential (ERP) data has been most commonly undertaken in the time-domain, which can be complicated to interpret when separable activity overlaps in time. When the overlapping activity has distinct frequency characteristics, however, time-frequency (TF) signal processing techniques can be useful. The current report utilized ERP data from a cognitive task producing typical feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 ERP components which overlap in time. TF transforms were computed using the binomial reduced interference distribution (RID), and the resulting TF activity was then characterized using principal components analysis (PCA). Consistent with previous work, results indicate that the FRN was more related to theta activity (3-7 Hz) and P300 more to delta activity (below 3 Hz). At the same time, both time-domain measures were shown to be mixtures of TF theta and delta activity, highlighting the difficulties with overlapping activity. The TF theta and delta measures, on the other hand, were largely independent from each other, but also independently indexed the feedback stimulus parameters investigated. Results support the view that TF decomposition can greatly improve separation of overlapping EEG/ERP activity relevant to cognitive models of performance monitoring.

  17. Open repair of large abdominal wall hernias with and without components separation; an analysis from the ACS-NSQIP database

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nirav K.; Leitman, I. Michael; Mills, Christopher; Lavarias, Valentina; Lucido, David L.; Karpeh, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Components separation technique emerged several years ago as a novel procedure to improve durability of repair for ventral abdominal hernias. Almost twenty-five years since its initial description, little comprehensive risk adjusted data exists on the morbidity of this procedure. This study is the largest analysis to date of short-term outcomes for these cases. Methods The ACS-NSQIP database identified open ventral or incisional hernia repairs with components separation from 2005 to 2012. A data set of cohorts without this technique, matched for preoperative risk factors and operative characteristics, was developed for comparison. A comprehensive risk-adjusted analysis of outcomes and morbidity was performed. Results A total of 68,439 patients underwent open ventral hernia repair during the study period (2245 with components separation performed (3.3%) and 66,194 without). In comparison with risk-adjusted controls, use of components separation increased operative duration (additional 83 min), length of stay (6.4 days vs. 3.8 days, p < 0.001), return to the OR rate (5.9% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001), and 30-day morbidity (10.1% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001) with no increase in mortality (0.0% in each group). Conclusions Components separation technique for large incisional hernias significantly increases length of stay and postoperative morbidity. Novel strategies to improve short-term outcomes are needed with continued use of this technique. PMID:27158489

  18. Ultrasound imaging techniques in density separation of polyolefin waste.

    PubMed

    Sanaee, Seyed Ali; Bakker, M C M

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging techniques are investigated using a multi-element sensor array for purposes of monitoring and measurement ofpolyolefin waste particles inside the black ferrous liquid ofa magnetic density separator (MDS). A medical ultrasound imaging system with real-time capability was adapted first to assess the potential of imaging technology inside the MDS. An image processing routine was developed to determine the depth distribution of the detected particles as they are carried by the flow in the MDS channel. This real-time information is vital for optimizing the splitter position, which directly influences quality and recovery of the MDS polyolefin products. Despite successes in the laboratory, the medical technology proved unsatisfactory for continuous high-quality image forming in the industrial set-up as it requires regular operator intervention. Therefore, research has been initiated into alternative imaging methods, which are also being investigated in other fields such as non-destructive testing and geophysics. The influence of different ultrasound datasets and related image-forming techniques were investigated, for which dedicated algorithms were implemented in Matlab. The main advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are addressed. It is concluded that the alternative imaging methods may be more robust and deliver higher image quality compared to the commercial medical imager. In particular, sizing of polyolefin particles may improve significantly if the method takes into account the correct ultrasound velocities of both the ferrous liquid and the immersed polyolefin particles. PMID:23437658

  19. Advances in blind source separation (BSS) and independent component analysis (ICA) for nonlinear mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jutten, Christian; Karhunen, Juha

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we review recent advances in blind source separation (BSS) and independent component analysis (ICA) for nonlinear mixing models. After a general introduction to BSS and ICA, we discuss in more detail uniqueness and separability issues, presenting some new results. A fundamental difficulty in the nonlinear BSS problem and even more so in the nonlinear ICA problem is that they provide non-unique solutions without extra constraints, which are often implemented by using a suitable regularization. In this paper, we explore two possible approaches. The first one is based on structural constraints. Especially, post-nonlinear mixtures are an important special case, where a nonlinearity is applied to linear mixtures. For such mixtures, the ambiguities are essentially the same as for the linear ICA or BSS problems. The second approach uses Bayesian inference methods for estimating the best statistical parameters, under almost unconstrained models in which priors can be easily added. In the later part of this paper, various separation techniques proposed for post-nonlinear mixtures and general nonlinear mixtures are reviewed. PMID:15593377

  20. Multi-component machine monitoring and fault diagnosis using blind source separation and advanced vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahvash Mohammadi, Ali

    In this dissertation, two approaches are studied for the case of bearing anomaly detection. One approach is to regard it as a blind source separation (cocktail party) problem and take advantage of statistical and mathematical methods developed for this purpose, primarily independent component analysis (ICA), to separate signals coming from different sources. The other approach is to avoid making the effort to 'separate' the signals and relate them to different components (sources) and instead make use of the specification and characteristics of vibration signals produced by the different components in normal and faulty conditions. In the first approach, a common difficulty with applying blind source separation techniques (or, in general any mathematical methods) to separation of vibration sources is that no standard measure exists to assess the quality of separation and validate the results. In fact, for an ideal assessment the true original signals produced by each component must be available as a prerequisite. This requires gathering signals from each component in strict isolation during operation in a lab environment which, if not impossible, is very costly and difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, a novel method is developed that presents the distribution of vibration energy with regard to the respective locations of vibration sources and sensors, and takes into consideration the mechanical attributes of the structure. This method uses some key concepts from statistical energy analysis (SEA) to support the fact that each sensor collects a different version of the oscillations produced in the system with respect to its location in the system. Therefore, by comparing the spectral signature of the vibration signals and making use of a priori knowledge of the spatial distribution of sensors and components, a schematic representation of the spectral signature of the vibration sources are obtained. This method is verified using a series of experiments with

  1. Separation of turkey lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes using isoelectric focusing technique.

    PubMed

    Heinová, Dagmar; Kostecká, Zuzana; Csank, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8 did not allow to separate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes of turkey origin. Five electrophoretically distinguishable forms of the enzyme were detected in serum and tissues of turkey using IEF technique in a pH range of 3-9. Generally, three different groups were seen: (i) those having an anodic domination (heart, kidney, pancreas, and erythrocytes) with mainly LDH-1 fraction, (ii) those having a cathodic domination (breast muscle and serum) with prevalence of LDH-5, and (iii) those with a more uniform distribution (liver, spleen, lung, and brain). The specific enzyme activity was the highest in the breast muscle, followed by heart muscle, and brain. Low activities were detected in serum, kidney, and liver. PMID:26471476

  2. Separating complex compound patient motion tracking data using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C.; Johnson, K.; King, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, motion from respiration and body motion can reduce image quality by introducing motion-related artifacts. A minimally-invasive way to track patient motion is to attach external markers to the patient's body and record their location throughout the imaging study. If a patient exhibits multiple movements simultaneously, such as respiration and body-movement, each marker location data will contain a mixture of these motions. Decomposing this complex compound motion into separate simplified motions can have the benefit of applying a more robust motion correction to the specific type of motion. Most motion tracking and correction techniques target a single type of motion and either ignore compound motion or treat it as noise. Few methods account for compound motion exist, but they fail to disambiguate super-position in the compound motion (i.e. inspiration in addition to body movement in the positive anterior/posterior direction). We propose a new method for decomposing the complex compound patient motion using an unsupervised learning technique called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Our method can automatically detect and separate different motions while preserving nuanced features of the motion without the drawbacks of previous methods. Our main contributions are the development of a method for addressing multiple compound motions, the novel use of ICA in detecting and separating mixed independent motions, and generating motion transform with 12 DOFs to account for twisting and shearing. We show that our method works with clinical datasets and can be employed to improve motion correction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.

  3. Verification of component mode techniques for flexible multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Gloria J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the modeling aspects of flexible multibodies undergoing large angular displacements. Models were to be generated and analyzed through application of computer simulation packages employing the 'component mode synthesis' techniques. Multibody Modeling, Verification and Control Laboratory (MMVC) plan was implemented, which includes running experimental tests on flexible multibody test articles. From these tests, data was to be collected for later correlation and verification of the theoretical results predicted by the modeling and simulation process.

  4. Blind Source Separation of Seismic Events with Independent Component Analysis: CTBT related exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Kitov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods used in signal recovery applications are attractive for they use minimal a priori information about the signals they are dealing with. Homomorphic deconvolution and cepstrum estimation are probably the only methods used in certain extent in CTBT applications that can be attributed to the given branch of technology. However Expert Technical Analysis (ETA) conducted in CTBTO to improve the estimated values for the standard signal and event parameters according to the Protocol to the CTBT may face problems which cannot be resolved with certified CTBTO applications and may demand specific techniques not presently used. The problem to be considered within the ETA framework is the unambiguous separation of signals with close arrival times. Here, we examine two scenarios of interest: (1) separation of two almost co-located explosions conducted within fractions of seconds, and (2) extraction of explosion signals merged with wavetrains from strong earthquake. The importance of resolving the problem related to case 1 is connected with the correct explosion yield estimation. Case 2 is a well-known scenario of conducting clandestine nuclear tests. While the first case can be approached somehow with the means of cepstral methods, the second case can hardly be resolved with the conventional methods implemented at the International Data Centre, especially if the signals have close slowness and azimuth. Independent Component Analysis (in its FastICA implementation) implying non-Gaussianity of the underlying processes signal's mixture is a blind source separation method that we apply to resolve the mentioned above problems. We have tested this technique with synthetic waveforms, seismic data from DPRK explosions and mining blasts conducted within East-European platform as well as with signals from strong teleseismic events (Sumatra, April 2012 Mw=8.6, and Tohoku, March 2011 Mw=9.0 earthquakes). The data was recorded by seismic arrays of the

  5. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  6. Nonnegative least-correlated component analysis for separation of dependent sources by volume maximization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa-Yu; Chi, Chong-Yung; Chan, Tsung-Han; Wang, Yue

    2010-05-01

    Although significant efforts have been made in developing nonnegative blind source separation techniques, accurate separation of positive yet dependent sources remains a challenging task. In this paper, a joint correlation function of multiple signals is proposed to reveal and confirm that the observations after nonnegative mixing would have higher joint correlation than the original unknown sources. Accordingly, a new nonnegative least-correlated component analysis (n/LCA) method is proposed to design the unmixing matrix by minimizing the joint correlation function among the estimated nonnegative sources. In addition to a closed-form solution for unmixing two mixtures of two sources, the general algorithm of n/LCA for the multisource case is developed based on an iterative volume maximization (IVM) principle and linear programming. The source identifiability and required conditions are discussed and proven. The proposed n/LCA algorithm, denoted by n/LCA-IVM, is evaluated with both simulation data and real biomedical data to demonstrate its superior performance over several existing benchmark methods. PMID:20299711

  7. Use of Chromatography Techniques to Separate a Mixture of Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, W.

    1976-01-01

    Explains the separation of the constituents of mixtures on one piece of chromatography paper. The example presented involves a vitamin C tablet, a disprin tablet, and a glucose tablet. Outlined are two methods for separating the constituents. (GS)

  8. The use of micellar solutions for novel separation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, B.L.

    1993-12-31

    Surfactant based separation techniques based on the solubilization of organic compounds into the nonpolar interior of a micelle or electrostatic attraction of ionized metals and metal complexes to the charged surface of a micelle were studied in this work. Micellar solutions were used to recover two model volatile organic compounds emitted by the printing and painting industries (toluene and amyl acetate) and to investigate the effect of the most important variables in the surfactant enhanced carbon regeneration (SECR) process. SECR for liquid phase applications was also investigated in which the equilibrium adsorption of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on activated carbon were measured. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) was investigated using spiral wound membranes for the simultaneous removal of organic compounds, metals and metal complexes dissolved in water, with emphasis on pollution control applications. Investigations of MEUF to remove 99+ per cent of trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated groundwater using criteria such as: membrane flux, solubilization equilibrium constant, surfactant molecular weight, and Krafft temperature led to the selection of an anionic disulfonate with a molecular weight of 642 (DOWFAX 8390). These data and results from supporting experiments were used to design a system which could clean-up water in a 100,000 gallon/day operation. A four stage process was found to be an effective design and estimated cost for such an operation were found to be in the range of the cost of mature competitive technologies.

  9. Separation of similar yeast strains by IEF techniques.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2009-06-01

    Rapid and reliable identification of the etiological agents of infectious diseases, especially species that are hardly distinguishable by routinely used laboratory methods, e.g. Candida albicans from C. dubliniensis, is necessary for early administration of an appropriate therapy. Similarly, the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative yeast strains is necessary for the choice of a therapeutic strategy due to higher resistance of the biofilm-positive strains to antifungals. In this study rapid separation and identification of similar strains of Candida, cells and/or their lysates, based on IEF are outlined. The isoelectric points of the monitored "similar pairs" of Candidas, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and the biofilm-positive C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and their biofilm-negative strains were determined by CIEF with UV detection in the acidic pH gradient. The differences between their isoelectric points were up to 0.3 units of pI. Simultaneously, a fast and a simple technique was developed for the lysis of the outer membrane cell and characteristic fingerprints were found in lysate electrophoreograms and in gels from the capillary or the gel IEF, respectively. PMID:19526536

  10. An analysis method for multi-component airfoils in separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. M.; Duorak, F. A.; Maskew, B.

    1980-01-01

    The multi-component airfoil program (Langley-MCARF) for attached flow is modified to accept the free vortex sheet separation-flow model program (Analytical Methods, Inc.-CLMAX). The viscous effects are incorporated into the calculation by representing the boundary layer displacement thickness with an appropriate source distribution. The separation flow model incorporated into MCARF was applied to single component airfoils. Calculated pressure distributions for angles of attack up to the stall are in close agreement with experimental measurements. Even at higher angles of attack beyond the stall, correct trends of separation, decrease in lift coefficients, and increase in pitching moment coefficients are predicted.

  11. Enhancement and individual stress component separation of thermoelastically measured isopachic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Brian Joseph

    1993-01-01

    This research combines computational methods with an experimental technique, thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA), to produce an enhanced hybrid method which addresses and overcomes the limitations of the experimental technique for effective quantitative stress analysis of isotropic materials. For plane-stress isotropy, TSA measures full-field isopachic data, S = alpha(sub 1) + alpha(sub 2) = alpha(sub x) + alpha(sub y). Methods are developed for smoothing the measured isopachics, obtaining reliable boundary information, and separating the data into the individual in-plane stress components, alpha(sub x), alpha(sub y), and tau(sub xy). The computational methods are based upon governing differential equations from elasticity, including isotropic compatibility and equilibrium. Many of the numerical procedures utilize finite element-type formulations. Illustrative examples using actual thermoelastic data demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms. The numerically processed experimental stress information is compared with strain gage data, handbook information, theory, and traditional finite element results. This approach, composed of three steps in processing the thermoelastic data, demonstrates a synergistic combination of experimental and computational mechanics which yields an engineering quality full-field quantitative stress analyzing tool.

  12. Is There an Association between Component Separation and Venous Thromboembolism? Analysis of the NSQIP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kuylhee; Mella, Juan Rodolfo; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Koolen, Pieter G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair are at risk of developing several postoperative complications particularly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair and to determine the association between component separation and VTE. Methods: We reviewed the 2005–2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases to identify patients undergoing incisional/ventral hernia repair. Preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes were compared between a component separation group and a non–component separation group. The χ2 tests and Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine preoperative predictors for complications in both groups. Results: Thirty-four thousand five hundred forty-one patients were included in our study; 501 patients underwent a component separation procedure. A higher rate of wound complications, minor/major morbidity, mortality, and return to the operating room occurred in the component separation group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in deep vein thrombosis/thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolism rates between the 2 groups (P = 0.780 and P = 0.591, respectively). Several risk factors were significantly associated with postoperative complications in both groups. Conclusions: Component separation is used for large and complex incisional/ventral hernia repairs to achieve tension-free midline closure. Although component separation hernia repair is associated with higher incidence of wound complication, morbidity, and mortality, perhaps because of the complexity of the defects, it does not seem to be associated with increased VTE rates. PMID:26180730

  13. Reliability analysis of laminated CMC components through shell subelement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starlinger, Alois; Duffy, Stephen F.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1992-01-01

    An updated version of the integrated design program Composite Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (C/CARES) was developed for the reliability evaluation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) laminated shell components. The algorithm is now split into two modules: a finite-element data interface program and a reliability evaluation algorithm. More flexibility is achieved, allowing for easy implementation with various finite-element programs. The interface program creates a neutral data base which is then read by the reliability module. This neutral data base concept allows easy data transfer between different computer systems. The new interface program from the finite-element code Matrix Automated Reduction and Coupling (MARC) also includes the option of using hybrid laminates (a combination of plies of different materials or different layups) and allows for variations in temperature fields throughout the component. In the current version of C/CARES, a subelement technique was implemented, enabling stress gradients within an element to be taken into account. The noninteractive reliability function is now evaluated at each Gaussian integration point instead of using averaging techniques. As a result of the increased number of stress evaluation points, considerable improvements in the accuracy of reliability analyses were realized.

  14. Glass, Plastic and Semiconductors: Packaging Techniques for Miniature Optoelectric Components

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Garrett, H.E.; Patel, R.R.; Jones II, L.M.; Larson, M.C.; Emanuel, M.A.; Bond, S.W.; Deri, R.J.; Drayton, R.F.; Peterson, H.E.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-12-20

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, they have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years they have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. They have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. They have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. They have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, they have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and the custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

  15. Passive alignment and soldering technique for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faidel, Heinrich; Gronloh, Bastian; Winzen, Matthias; Liermann, Erik; Esser, Dominik; Morasch, Valentin; Luttmann, Jörg; Leers, Michael; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    The passive-alignment-packaging technique presented in this work provides a method for mounting tolerance-insensitive optical components e.g. non-linear crystals by means of mechanical stops. The requested tolerances for the angle deviation are +/-100 μrad and for the position tolerance +/-100 μm. Only the angle tolerances were investigated, because they are more critical. The measurements were carried out with an autocollimator. Fused silica components were used for test series. A solder investigation was carried out. Different types of solder were tested. Due to good solderability on air and low induced stress in optical components, Sn based solders were indicated as the most suitable solders. In addition several concepts of reflow soldering configuration were realized. In the first iteration a system with only the alignment of the yaw angle was implemented. The deviation for all materials after the thermal and mechanical cycling was within the tolerances. The solderability of BBO and LBO crystals was investigated and concepts for mounting were developed.

  16. Spatial pattern separation of chemicals and frequency-independent components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Kawase, Kodo; Ikari, Tomofumi; Ito, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Youichi; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2003-10-01

    We separated the component spatial patterns of frequency-dependent absorption in chemicals and frequency-independent components such as plastic, paper, and measurement noise in terahertz (THz) spectroscopic images, using known spectral curves. Our measurement system, which uses a widely tunable coherent THz-wave parametric oscillator source, can image at a specific frequency in the range 1-2 THz. The component patterns of chemicals can easily be extracted by use of the frequency-independent components. This method could be successfully used for nondestructive inspection for the detection of illegal drugs and devices of bioterrorism concealed, e.g., inside mail and packages.

  17. Analysis on unevenness of skin color using the melanin and hemoglobin components separated by independent component analysis of skin color image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Nobutoshi; Fujiwara, Izumi; Inoue, Yayoi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Iwata, Kayoko

    2011-03-01

    Uneven distribution of skin color is one of the biggest concerns about facial skin appearance. Recently several techniques to analyze skin color have been introduced by separating skin color information into chromophore components, such as melanin and hemoglobin. However, there are not many reports on quantitative analysis of unevenness of skin color by considering type of chromophore, clusters of different sizes and concentration of the each chromophore. We propose a new image analysis and simulation method based on chromophore analysis and spatial frequency analysis. This method is mainly composed of three techniques: independent component analysis (ICA) to extract hemoglobin and melanin chromophores from a single skin color image, an image pyramid technique which decomposes each chromophore into multi-resolution images, which can be used for identifying different sizes of clusters or spatial frequencies, and analysis of the histogram obtained from each multi-resolution image to extract unevenness parameters. As the application of the method, we also introduce an image processing technique to change unevenness of melanin component. As the result, the method showed high capabilities to analyze unevenness of each skin chromophore: 1) Vague unevenness on skin could be discriminated from noticeable pigmentation such as freckles or acne. 2) By analyzing the unevenness parameters obtained from each multi-resolution image for Japanese ladies, agerelated changes were observed in the parameters of middle spatial frequency. 3) An image processing system modulating the parameters was proposed to change unevenness of skin images along the axis of the obtained age-related change in real time.

  18. Development of a Technique for Separating Raman Scattering Signals from Background Emission with Single-Shot Measurement Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Dobson, Chris; Eskridge, Richard; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.

    1997-01-01

    A novel technique for extracting Q-branch Raman signals scattered by a diatomic species from the emission spectrum resulting from the irradiation of combustion products using a broadband excimer laser has been developed. This technique is based on the polarization characteristics of vibrational Raman scattering and can be used for both single-shot Raman extraction and time-averaged data collection. The Q-branch Raman signal has a unique set of polarization characteristics which depend on the direction of the scattering while fluorescence signals are unpolarized. For the present work, a calcite crystal is used to separate the horizonal component of a collected signal from the vertical component. The two components are then sent through a UV spectrometer and imaged onto an intensified CCD camera separately. The vertical component contains both the Raman signal and the interfering fluorescence signal. The horizontal component contains the fluorescence signal and a very weak component of the Raman signal; hence, the Raman scatter can be extracted by taking the difference between the two signals. The separation of the Raman scatter from interfering fluorescence signals is critically important to the interpretation of the Raman for cases in which a broadband ultraviolet (UV) laser is used as an excitation source in a hydrogen-oxygen flame and in all hydrocarbon flames. The present work provides a demonstration of the separation of the Raman scatter from the fluorescence background in real time.

  19. Component and state separation in DMPC/DSPC lipid bilayers: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina I; Sugár, István P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a two-state, two-component, Ising-type model is used to simulate the lateral distribution of the components and gel/fluid state acyl chains in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DSPC) lipid bilayers. The same model has been successful in calculating the excess heat capacity curves, the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) threshold temperatures, the most frequent center-to-center distances between DSPC clusters, and the fractal dimensions of gel clusters (Sugar, I. P., T. E. Thompson, and R. L. Biltonen, 1999. Biophys. J. 76:2099-2110). Depending on the temperature and mole fraction the population of the cluster size is either homogeneous or inhomogeneous. In the inhomogeneous population the size of the largest cluster scales with the size of the system, while the rest of the clusters remain small with increasing system size. In a homogeneous population, however, every cluster remains small with increasing system size. For both compositional and fluid/gel state clusters, threshold temperatures-the so-called percolation threshold temperatures-are determined where change in the type of the population takes place. At a given mole fraction, the number of percolation threshold temperatures can be 0, 1, 2, or 3. By plotting these percolation threshold temperatures on the temperature/mole fraction plane, the diagrams of component and state separation of DMPC/DSPC bilayers are constructed. In agreement with the small-angle neutron scattering measurements, the component separation diagram shows nonrandom lateral distribution of the components not only in the gel-fluid mixed phase region, but also in the pure gel and pure fluid regions. A combined diagram of component and state separation is constructed to characterize the lateral distribution of lipid components and gel/fluid state acyl chains in DMPC/DSPC mixtures. While theoretical phase diagrams of two component mixtures can be constructed only in the case of

  20. On the spin separation of algebraic two-component relativistic Hamiltonians: Molecular properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhendong; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-08-01

    The idea for separating the algebraic exact two-component (X2C) relativistic Hamiltonians into spin-free (sf) and spin-dependent terms [Z. Li, Y. Xiao, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 154114 (2012)] is extended to both electric and magnetic molecular properties. Taking the spin-free terms (which are correct to infinite order in α ≈ 1/137) as zeroth order, the spin-dependent terms can be treated to any desired order via analytic derivative technique. This is further facilitated by unified Sylvester equations for the response of the decoupling and renormalization matrices to single or multiple perturbations. For practical purposes, explicit expressions of order α2 in spin are also given for electric and magnetic properties, as well as two-electron spin-orbit couplings. At this order, the response of the decoupling and renormalization matrices is not required, such that the expressions are very compact and completely parallel to those based on the Breit-Pauli (BP) Hamiltonian. However, the former employ sf-X2C wave functions, whereas the latter can only use nonrelativistic wave functions. As the sf-X2C terms can readily be interfaced with any nonrelativistic program, the implementation of the O(α ^2) spin-orbit corrections to sf-X2C properties requires only marginal revisions of the routines for evaluating the BP type of corrections.

  1. Tomographic separation of composite spectra. I - The components of Plaskett's Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of Plaskett's Star (HD 47129), a 14.4 day period, double lined O-type spectroscopic binary were analyzed. Archival data from IUE (17 spectra well distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with several techniques. A cross correlation analysis, which showed that the secondary produces significant lines in the UV, indicates that the mass ratio is q = 1.18 +/- 0.12 (secondary slightly more massive). A tomography algorithm was used to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The interpolated spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, 07.3 I and 06.2 I, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. The intensity ratio of the stars in the UV is 0.53 +/- 0.05 (primary brighter). The secondary lines appear rotationally broadened, and the projected rotational velocity V sin i for this star is estimated to be 310 +/- 20 km/s. The possible evolutionary history of this system is discussed through a comparison of the positions of the components and evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

  2. Parametric study of complex distillation flowsheets for the separations of five-component mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, B.G.; Zheng, S.Q.; Zhou, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    Twenty two distillation flowsheets are studied for the separations of five-component mixtures based on the energy consumption and the annual costs. Fourteen flowsheets with simple columns and eight flowsheets with complex columns of side strippers and/or side rectifiers are included. Several five-component mixtures are selected, for various cases of feed composition distribution, the costs of the flowsheets are calculated and compared. Several heuristics are produced for the synthesis of distillation flowsheets with complex columns.

  3. Separation Technique for Raisins and Stems Utilizing Characteristics of Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Takashi; Hosotani, Akira; Ohmiya, Tadashi; Horikoshi, Minoru; Kanazawa, Masao; Katto, Masahito; Kaku, Masanori; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2010-09-01

    We have improved the accuracy of the laser separation of stems from raisin samples on the basis of the degree of polarization of scattered light from raisins and stems. The specular reflection from wet raisins was minimized by regulating the degree of polarization of their scattered emissions. Wet and dry raisins were therefore judged as the same samples. Using these polarization characteristics, wet or dry raisins were separated from their stems in our laser inspection system. The detection error was reduced from 25 to 7% in our system.

  4. Nutrient Database improvement project: Separable components and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and nutrient values of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Ultimately, these data will be used in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory’s (NDL) National Nutrient Da...

  5. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  6. Revisiting the Separation of Ferrocene and Acetylferrocene by Adsorption Chromatography: Adding a Third Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa, Rebecca; Weizman, Haim

    2007-01-01

    The separation of ferrocene and acetylferrocene by column chromatography is a widely used experiment in undergraduate organic labs. The experiment was expanded into a three-component mixture to increase the challenge of the experiment and to make TLC analysis necessary. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.O.

    1995-05-01

    A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Thermal gravitational separation of ternary mixture n-dodecane/isobutylbenzene/tetralin components in a porous medium.

    PubMed

    Larabi, Mohamed Aziz; Mutschler, Dimitri; Mojtabi, Abdelkader

    2016-06-28

    Our present work focuses on the coupling between thermal diffusion and convection in order to improve the thermal gravitational separation of mixture components. The separation phenomenon was studied in a porous medium contained in vertical columns. We performed analytical and numerical simulations to corroborate the experimental measurements of the thermal diffusion coefficients of ternary mixture n-dodecane, isobutylbenzene, and tetralin obtained in microgravity in the international space station. Our approach corroborates the existing data published in the literature. The authors show that it is possible to quantify and to optimize the species separation for ternary mixtures. The authors checked, for ternary mixtures, the validity of the "forgotten effect hypothesis" established for binary mixtures by Furry, Jones, and Onsager. Two complete and different analytical resolution methods were used in order to describe the separation in terms of Lewis numbers, the separation ratios, the cross-diffusion coefficients, and the Rayleigh number. The analytical model is based on the parallel flow approximation. In order to validate this model, a numerical simulation was performed using the finite element method. From our new approach to vertical separation columns, new relations for mass fraction gradients and the optimal Rayleigh number for each component of the ternary mixture were obtained. PMID:27369539

  9. Thermal gravitational separation of ternary mixture n-dodecane/isobutylbenzene/tetralin components in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larabi, Mohamed Aziz; Mutschler, Dimitri; Mojtabi, Abdelkader

    2016-06-01

    Our present work focuses on the coupling between thermal diffusion and convection in order to improve the thermal gravitational separation of mixture components. The separation phenomenon was studied in a porous medium contained in vertical columns. We performed analytical and numerical simulations to corroborate the experimental measurements of the thermal diffusion coefficients of ternary mixture n-dodecane, isobutylbenzene, and tetralin obtained in microgravity in the international space station. Our approach corroborates the existing data published in the literature. The authors show that it is possible to quantify and to optimize the species separation for ternary mixtures. The authors checked, for ternary mixtures, the validity of the "forgotten effect hypothesis" established for binary mixtures by Furry, Jones, and Onsager. Two complete and different analytical resolution methods were used in order to describe the separation in terms of Lewis numbers, the separation ratios, the cross-diffusion coefficients, and the Rayleigh number. The analytical model is based on the parallel flow approximation. In order to validate this model, a numerical simulation was performed using the finite element method. From our new approach to vertical separation columns, new relations for mass fraction gradients and the optimal Rayleigh number for each component of the ternary mixture were obtained.

  10. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Yu-chen

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent.

  11. Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

    1999-06-29

    The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

  12. Seismic body wave separation in volcano-tectonic activity inferred by the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenge in volcano-seismological literature is to locate and characterize the source of volcano/tectonic seismic activity. This passes through the identification at least of the onset of the main phases, i.e. the body waves. Many efforts have been made to solve the problem of a clear separation of P and S phases both from a theoretical point of view and developing numerical algorithms suitable for specific cases (see, e.g., Küperkoch et al., 2012). Recently, a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for extracting the prominent seismic waveforms from continuously recorded signals and thus allowing for picking the main phases. The intuitive notion of maximum non-gaussianity is achieved adopting techniques which involve higher-order statistics in frequency domain., i.e, the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis (CICA). This technique is successful in the case of the blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. In seismological framework, indeed, seismic signals are thought as the convolution of a source function with path, site and the instrument response. In addition, time-delayed versions of the same source exist, due to multipath propagation typically caused by reverberations from some obstacle. In this work, we focus on the Volcano Tectonic (VT) activity at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al., 2011). The activity was characterized approximately by 300 low-magnitude VT earthquakes (Md < 2; for the definition of duration magnitude, see Petrosino et al. 2008). Most of them were concentrated in distinct seismic sequences with hypocenters mainly clustered beneath the Solfatara-Accademia area, at depths ranging between 1 and 4 km b.s.l.. The obtained results show the clear separation of P and S phases: the technique not only allows the identification of the S-P time delay giving the timing of both phases but also provides the independent waveforms of the P and S phases. This is an enormous

  13. Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heumann, Lars V.

    2008-01-01

    A classroom demonstration detailing the procedure for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography is described. The audience can follow the compounds during their passage through the column as individual, colored bands while learning about different tools and techniques used…

  14. Bacterial adherence to separated modular components in joint prosthesis: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Esteban, Jaime; Medel, Francisco; Molina-Manso, Diana; Ortiz-Pérez, Alberto; Cordero-Ampuero, Jose; Puértolas, José A

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial adherence on total joint replacement implants may lead to biofilm formation and implant-related osteoarticular infection. It is unclear if different biomaterials in the prosthetic components are more prone to facilitate this bacterial adherence, although ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component exchange in modular systems has been clinically utilized in the early management of these infections. To clarify if the amount of clinically adhered microorganisms was related to the material or the component, we investigated retrieved implants from infected joint replacements. Thirty-two patients were revised after confirmed implant-related infection through positive cultures. Eighty-seven total joint components (hip and knee) were obtained and separately sonicated following a previously published protocol. Cultures were quantified, and detected colony forming units (CFU) were adjusted according to the component surface and compared based on the component material and location. Variable adherence of bacteria to chrome cobalt alloys, UHMWPE, hydroxyapatite coated components, and titanium alloys. The commonest isolated organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23 of 87 components) and Staphylococcus aureus (10 of 87). Twelve components did not show any microorganism adhered despite location in an infected joint, with positive cultures in other components. A mixed linear model adjusted for random effects (the random effect being the infected patient) obtained convergence for the CFU/mm(2) variable, but could not confirm a significantly higher adherence to a particular component or to a particular biomaterial. Therefore, the bacterial adherence primarily depends on the infective microorganism and the response of each individual patient, rather than materials or components. PMID:22467526

  15. Bibliography of articles and reports on mineral-separation techniques, processes, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    A bibliography of published articles and reports on mineral-separation techniques, processes, and applications is presented along with an author and subject index. This information is intended for use in the mineral-separation facility of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center and as an aid and reference to persons involved or interested in mineral separation.

  16. Image-based separation of reflective and fluorescent components using illumination variant and invariant color.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cherry; Sato, Imari

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, researchers tend to exclude fluorescence from color appearance algorithms in computer vision and image processing because of its complexity. In reality, fluorescence is a very common phenomenon observed in many objects, from gems and corals, to different kinds of writing paper, and to our clothes. In this paper, we provide detailed theories of fluorescence phenomenon. In particular, we show that the color appearance of fluorescence is unaffected by illumination in which it differs from ordinary reflectance. Moreover, we show that the color appearance of objects with reflective and fluorescent components can be represented as a linear combination of the two components. A linear model allows us to separate the two components using images taken under unknown illuminants using independent component analysis (ICA). The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using digital images of various fluorescent objects. PMID:24136427

  17. Complementary home mechanical ventilation techniques. SEPAR Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Sancho-Chust, José N; Landete, Pedro; Senent, Cristina; Gómez-Merino, Elia

    2014-12-01

    This is a review of the different complementary techniques that are useful for optimizing home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Airway clearance is very important in patients with HMV and many patients, particularly those with reduced peak cough flow, require airway clearance (manual or assisted) or assisted cough techniques (manual or mechanical) and suctioning procedures, in addition to ventilation. In the case of invasive HMV, good tracheostomy cannula management is essential for success. HMV patients may have sleep disturbances that must be taken into account. Sleep studies including complete polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy are helpful for identifying patient-ventilator asynchrony. Other techniques, such as bronchoscopy or nutritional support, may be required in patients on HMV, particularly if percutaneous gastrostomy is required. Information on treatment efficacy can be obtained from HMV monitoring, using methods such as pulse oximetry, capnography or the internal programs of the ventilators themselves. Finally, the importance of the patient's subjective perception is reviewed, as this may potentially affect the success of the HMV. PMID:25138799

  18. Separation of TFIIIC into two functional components by sequence specific DNA affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, N; Berk, A J

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that mammalian transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) activity can be separated by anion exchange FPLC chromatography into two functional components (1), both of which are required for transcription of tRNA and the adenovirus VA RNA genes. Here we show that these two functional components, designated TFIIIC1 and TFIIIC2, can also be separated by sequence specific DNA affinity chromatography. These results confirm the observation that TFIIIC can be fractionated into two components, which are both required for transcription of VA I and tRNA genes in vitro. Thus in the mammalian reconstituted system, a minimum of three proteins, in addition to RNA polymerase III, are required for the transcription of the VA and tRNA genes in vitro. The DNA binding component, TFIIIC2, binds specifically to the 3' segment of the internal promoter (the B block), demonstrated by its ability to protect this region from digestion by DNase I. TFIIIC2 is the limiting, titratable component in the phosphocellulose C fraction required for the formation of a stable pre-initiation complex on the VAI RNA gene in vitro, as demonstrated with a template competition and rescue assay. Images PMID:3697084

  19. Porous multi-component material for the capture and separation of species of interest

    DOEpatents

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Li, Xiaohong S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A

    2016-06-21

    A method and porous multi-component material for the capture, separation or chemical reaction of a species of interest is disclosed. The porous multi-component material includes a substrate and a composite thin film. The composite thin film is formed by combining a porous polymer with a nanostructured material. The nanostructured material may include a surface chemistry for the capture of chemicals or particles. The composite thin film is coupled to the support or device surface. The method and material provides a simple, fast, and chemically and physically benign way to integrate nanostructured materials into devices while preserving their chemical activity.

  20. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  1. Apparatus and methods for high resolution separation of sample components on microfabricated channel devices

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Paegel, Brian; Simpson, Peter C.; Hutt, Lester

    2005-07-05

    Sample component separation apparatus and methods are described. An exemplary sample component separation apparatus includes a separation channel having a turn portion configured to reduce band-broadening caused by passage of a sample through the turn portion. To reduce band broadening caused by passage of a sample through a turn portion, the turn portion may be constructed and arranged to have a sample transport characteristic that is different from the corresponding sample transport characteristic of a substantially straight portion of the separation channel. For example, the turn portion may be configured with an effective channel width that is smaller than the effective channel widths of the substantially straight portion of the separation channel. The actual channel width of the turn portion may be smaller than the channel widths of the substantially straight portion; the effective channel width of the turn portion may be reduced by placing one or more sample transport barriers or constrictions in the turn portion of the channel. Alternatively, the sample velocity through the turn portion may be controlled so as to reduce band broadening. For example, sample transport barriers may be disposed in the turn portion so that sample components of a given band travel through the turn portion at substantially the same effective rate, whereby the band orientation remains substantially aligned along radial directions characteristic of the turn portion. Other a sample transport characteristics, such as electrical resistance or fluid flow resistance, of the turn portion may be adapted to reduce band broadening caused by passage of the sample through the turn portion.

  2. Independent component analysis algorithm FPGA design to perform real-time blind source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Odom, Crispin; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2015-05-01

    The conditions that arise in the Cocktail Party Problem prevail across many fields creating a need for of Blind Source Separation. The need for BSS has become prevalent in several fields of work. These fields include array processing, communications, medical signal processing, and speech processing, wireless communication, audio, acoustics and biomedical engineering. The concept of the cocktail party problem and BSS led to the development of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms. ICA proves useful for applications needing real time signal processing. The goal of this research was to perform an extensive study on ability and efficiency of Independent Component Analysis algorithms to perform blind source separation on mixed signals in software and implementation in hardware with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The Algebraic ICA (A-ICA), Fast ICA, and Equivariant Adaptive Separation via Independence (EASI) ICA were examined and compared. The best algorithm required the least complexity and fewest resources while effectively separating mixed sources. The best algorithm was the EASI algorithm. The EASI ICA was implemented on hardware with Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) to perform and analyze its performance in real time.

  3. Simulated moving bed separation of agarose-hydrolyzate components for biofuel production from marine biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pung-Ho; Nam, Hee-Geun; Park, Chanhun; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda; Chang, Yong Keun; Mun, Sungyong

    2015-08-01

    The economically-efficient separation of galactose, levulinic acid (LA), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in acid hydrolyzate of agarose has been a key issue in the area of biofuel production from marine biomass. To address this issue, an optimal simulated moving bed (SMB) process for continuous separation of the three agarose-hydrolyzate components with high purities, high yields, and high throughput was developed in this study. As a first step for this task, the adsorption isotherm and mass-transfer parameters of each component on the qualified adsorbent were determined through a series of multiple frontal experiments. The determined parameters were then used in optimizing the SMB process for the considered separation. Finally, the optimized SMB process was tested experimentally using a self-assembled SMB unit with four zones. The SMB experimental results and the relevant computer simulations verified that the developed process in this study was quite successful in the economically-efficient separation of galactose, LA, and 5-HMF in a continuous mode with high purities and high yields. It is thus expected that the developed SMB process in this study will be able to serve as one of the trustworthy ways of improving the economic feasibility of biofuel production from marine biomass. PMID:26141276

  4. Pyrochemical separation of radioactive components from inert materials in ICPP high-level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Since 1963, calcination of aqueous wastes from reprocessing of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels has resulted in the accumulation of approximately 3800 m{sup 3} of high-level waste (HLW) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The waste is in the form of a granular solid called calcine and is stored on site in stainless steel bins which are encased in concrete. Due to the leachability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and possibly other radioactive components, the calcine is not suitable for final disposal. Hence, a process to immobilize calcine in glass is being developed. Since radioactive components represent less than 1 wt % of the calcine, separation of actinides and fission products from inert components is being considered to reduce the volume of HLW requiring final disposal. Current estimates indicate that compared to direct vitrification, a volume reduction factor of 10 could result in significant cost savings. Aqueous processes, which involve calcine dissolution in nitric acid followed by separation of actinide and fission products by solvent extraction and ion exchange methods, are being developed. Pyrochemical separation methods, which generate small volumes of aqueous wastes and do not require calcine dissolution, have been evaluated as alternatives to aqueous processes. This report describes three proposed pyrochemical flowsheets and presents the results of experimental studies conducted to evaluate their feasibility. The information presented is a consolidation of three reports, which should be consulted for experimental details.

  5. Experimental and Mathematical Models for Small Aqueous Closed Ecosystems with Spatially Separated Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T. I.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Babkin, A. V.; Somova, L. A.; Sarangova, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical models of closed ``autotroph-heteretroph'' (chlorella-yeast, chlorella- protozoa) ecosystems with spatially separated components have been created and studied. The chart of flows and interaction of components of gas-closed ``chlorella-yeast'' system have formed the basis describe mathematically the functioning of the given system, experimental results have been found to agree with computer solution of the problem in terms of quality. Investigation of the experimental model of the ``producer-consumer'' trophic chain demonstrated the role of protozoa in nitrogen turnover. ``Production-decomposition'' and ``production-grazing-decomposition'' cycle models has been theoretically analyzed and compared. The predator has been shown to be a more intensive mineralizer than the reducer component.

  6. Separation of ferromagnetic components by analyzing the hysteresis loops of remanent magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L. R.; Utemov, E. V.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Kosarev, V. E.; Yasonov, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    The new method is suggested for separating ferromagnetic components in sediments through analyzing the coercivity spectra of the samples by the continuous wavelet transform with the Gaussian-based wavelet (MHAT). A total of 1056 samples of Lake Khuvsgul's sediments (Mongolia) are studied. At least four groups of magnetic components are identified based on the analysis of their magnetization and remagnetization curves. Almost all samples are found to contain two components of bacterial origin which are represented by the assemblages of the interacting single-domain grains and differ by the grain compositions (magnetite and greigite). The applicability of the magnetic data for diagnosing magnetotactic bacteria in sediments and building paleoecological and paleoclimatic reconstructions is demonstrated.

  7. Comparison of digestion methods for total elemental analysis of peat and separation of its organic and inorganic components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, C.S.E.; Harms, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the most efficient digestion method for the total elemental recovery in peat, ten samples were subjected to different techniques and analysed for Ca, Mg, Fe, AI, Na, K, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Li, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb and Si using atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The most satisfactory procedures were dry ashing followed by hydrofluoric acid treatment and wet digestion using a mixture of hot nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids. The wet digestion offers the advantage of a single decomposition method for the determination of Ca, Mg, Fe, AI, K, Na, Mn, Cu, Li, Zn and P. An alkaline fusion technique was required for the determination of Si. Hydrogen peroxide was used to separate the peat into its organic and inorganic components, leading to the total recovery of the elements for both fractions.

  8. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Lucia; Zendrini, Andrea; Noto, Giuseppe Di; Busatto, Sara; Lottini, Elisabetta; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Dossi, Alessandra; Caneschi, Andrea; Ricotta, Doris; Bergese, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques - including Western Blot, colloidal nanoplasmonics, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). The preparations obtained by iodixanol and sucrose gradients were highly pure. To the contrary, those achieved with limited processing (serial centrifugation or one step precipitation kit) resulted contaminated by a residual matrix, embedding the exosomes. The contaminated preparations showed lower ability to induce NfkB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells with respect to the pure ones, probably because the matrix prevents the interaction and fusion of the exosomes with the cell membrane. These findings suggest that exosome preparation purity must be carefully assessed since it may interfere with exosome biological activity. Contaminants can be reliably probed only by an integrated characterization approach aimed at both the molecular and the colloidal length scales. PMID:27009329

  9. Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Lars V.

    2008-04-01

    A classroom demonstration detailing the procedure for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography is described. The audience can follow the compounds during their passage through the column as individual, colored bands while learning about different tools and techniques used in conjunction with column chromatography. Detailed instructions for column preparation and the elution and collection process are provided and permit the easy replication of this demonstration.

  10. The Effectiveness of Blind Source Separation Using Independent Component Analysis for GNSS Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of GNSS technology and the improvement of its positioning accuracy, observational data obtained by GNSS is widely used in Earth space geodesy and geodynamics research. Whereas the GNSS time series data of observation stations contains a plenty of information. This includes geographical space changes, deformation of the Earth, the migration of subsurface material, instantaneous deformation of the Earth, weak deformation and other blind signals. In order to decompose some instantaneous deformation underground, weak deformation and other blind signals hided in GNSS time series, we apply Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to daily station coordinate time series of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network. As ICA is based on the statistical characteristics of the observed signal. It uses non-Gaussian and independence character to process time series to obtain the source signal of the basic geophysical events. In term of the post-processing procedure of precise time-series data by GNSS, this paper examines GNSS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA) module of QOCA and ICA algorithm to separate the source signal. Then we focus on taking into account of these two signal separation technologies, PCA and ICA, for separating original signal that related geophysical disturbance changes from the observed signals. After analyzing these separation process approaches, we demonstrate that in the case of multiple factors, PCA exists ambiguity in the separation of source signals, that is the result related is not clear, and ICA will be better than PCA, which means that dealing with GNSS time series that the combination of signal source is unknown is suitable to use ICA.

  11. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-11-19

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  12. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R.; Torczynski, John R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F.

    2014-06-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  13. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-09-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  14. Effects of minor components in carbon dioxide capture using polymeric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Scholes, C.; Kentish, S.; Stevens, G.

    2009-07-01

    The capture of carbon dioxide by membrane gas separation has been identified as one potential solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, the application of membranes to CO{sub 2} capture from both pre- and post-combustion strategies is of interest. For membrane technology to become commercially viable in CO{sub 2} capture, a number of factors need to be overcome, one being the role of minor components in the process on membrane performance. This review considers the effects of minor components in both pre- and post-combustion use of polymeric membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. In particular, gases such as SOx, NOx, CO, H{sub 2}S, NH3, as well as condensable water and hydrocarbons are reviewed in terms of their permeability through polymeric membranes relative to CO{sub 2}, as well as their plasticization and aging effects on membrane separation performance. A major conclusion of the review is that while many minor components can affect performance both through competitive sorption and plasticization, much remains unknown. This limits the selection process for membranes in this application.

  15. Separation of visibly-excited fluorescent components in fingerprint residue by thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jones, N E; Davies, L M; Brennan, J S; Bramble, S K

    2000-11-01

    The use of lasers for the detection of fingermarks is widespread in the forensic field. Despite this, and the fact that many studies have been conducted into the composition of fingermark residue, the components responsible for the inherent visible fluorescence remain unidentified. Traditionally compositional studies have been performed on sweat, sebum, or skin surface washes, none of which are truly representative of the situation when a fingerprint is deposited on a surface. In this paper thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has been performed on sebum-rich fingermarks laid directly onto TLC plates and an argon ion laser used to visualize the separated components. It has been found to be a robust and reproducible method for studying the fluorescent components in fingermark residue and is considered to be more realistic than other methods of sample preparation as it eliminates the chances of extraneous matter being extracted from the skin surface. Investigations into the nature of the separated compounds have also been made and the results are reported. PMID:11110184

  16. Comparison of NDE techniques for sintered-SiC components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Lawler, D.; Inglehart, L. J.; Thomas, R. L.; Yuhas, D.

    1982-01-01

    High frequency, bulk-wave ultrasonics detected defects in manufactured SiC components. In addition, gas-turbine blades and vanes were examined by scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Comparative results obtained on simple shapes such as disks and bars by microfocus X-ray radiography, ultrasonics, scanning photoacoustic spectroscopy, and SLAM are discussed.

  17. SOLITONS: Stimulated decay of N-soliton pulses and optimal separation of one-soliton components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkevich, Viktor A.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Zhukarev, A. S.; Kartashev, Ya V.; Sinilo, P. V.

    2003-05-01

    The decay of an N-soliton optical pulse in optical fibres induced by the nonlinear interaction with a perturbing pulse is analysed numerically. The main attention is paid to the analysis of conditions under which the separation of soliton components occurs over a minimal distance. The analysis was performed by varying the carrier frequency of the perturbing pulse, its shift in time, and the phase difference. The numerical calculations are confirmed for the zero time shift by analytic calculations performed by the method of inverse scattering problem.

  18. Discovery of active components in herbs using chromatographic separation coupled with online bioassay.

    PubMed

    De-Qiang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Dong; Shao-Ping, Li

    2016-05-15

    Discovery of bioactive compounds from complex mixtures is a challenge. In past decades, several strategies were developed and implemented for rapid and effective screening and characterization of bioactive components in complex matrices. This review mainly focused on the online strategies, which integrated the separation science, mass spectrometry, and bioactivity screening in a single platform, allowing simultaneous screening and characterization of active compounds from complex matrices, especially from the herbs. The online screening methodologies, including pre-column affinity-based screening and post-column bioassay, were discussed and their applied examples were also presented to illustrate the strengths and limitations of these approaches. PMID:26896311

  19. Contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood: solubility in plasma and distribution in blood components following separation

    SciTech Connect

    Skjonsberg, O.H.; Kierulf, P.; Gravem, K.; Fagerhol, M.K.; Godal, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to estimate the solubility of contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood, thrombin induced fibrin polymerzation in CPD-plasma was examined by light scattering and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) determinations. In addition, I-125 fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood was used to investigate fibrin monomer retention in blood bags and transfusion filters (170 microns) and fibrin distribution in blood components derived from CPD-blood. Initial fibrin polymerization in CPD-blood occurred after conversion of 15 per cent of the fibrinogen to fibrin, implying that substantial amounts of fibrin may be kept solubilized in CPD-blood bags. Only minor amounts of I-125 fibrin monomers were retained in blood bags (2.4 per cent) and in transfusion filters (2.9 per cent) after sham transfusions. After separating I-125-fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood into its constituent components, the major part of fibrin (75.0 per cent) could be traced in the cryoprecipitate.

  20. Algorithms for Blind Components Separation and Extraction from the Time-Frequency Distribution of Their Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkat, B.; Abed-Meraim, K.

    2004-12-01

    We propose novel algorithms to select and extract separately all the components, using the time-frequency distribution (TFD), of a given multicomponent frequency-modulated (FM) signal. These algorithms do not use any a priori information about the various components. However, their performances highly depend on the cross-terms suppression ability and high time-frequency resolution of the considered TFD. To illustrate the usefulness of the proposed algorithms, we applied them for the estimation of the instantaneous frequency coefficients of a multicomponent signal and the results are compared with those of the higher-order ambiguity function (HAF) algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation results show the superiority of the proposed algorithms over the HAF.

  1. Exploring NIR technique in rapid prediction of cotton trash components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a useful technique due to the speed, ease of use, and adaptability to on-line or off-line implementation, has been applied to perform the qualitative classification and quantitative prediction on a number of cotton quality indices, including cotton trash from HVI, S...

  2. Perceptual separation of transparent motion components: the interaction of motion, luminance and shape cues.

    PubMed

    Meso, Andrew Isaac; Durant, Szonya; Zanker, Johannes M

    2013-09-01

    Transparency is perceived when two or more objects or surfaces can be separated by the visual system whilst they are presented in the same region of the visual field at the same time. This segmentation of distinct entities on the basis of overlapping local visual cues poses an interesting challenge for the understanding of cortical information processing. In psychophysical experiments, we studied stimuli that contained randomly positioned disc elements, moving at two different speeds in the same direction, to analyse the interaction of cues during the perception of motion transparency. The current work extends findings from previous experiments with sine wave luminance gratings which only vary in one spatial dimension. The reported experiments manipulate low-level cues, like differences in speed or luminance, and what are likely to be higher level cues such as the relative size of the elements or the superposition rules that govern overlapping regions. The mechanism responsible for separation appears to be mediated by combination of the relevant and available cues. Where perceived transparency is stronger, the neural representations of components are inferred to be more distinguishable from each other across what appear to be multiple cue dimensions. The disproportionally large effect on transparency strength of the type of superposition of disc suggests that with this manipulation, there may be enhanced separation above what might be expected from the linear combination of low-level cues in a process we term labelling. A mechanism for transparency perception consistent with the current results would require a minimum of three stages; in addition to the local motion detection and global pooling and separation of motion signals, findings suggest a powerful additional role of higher level separation cues. PMID:23831850

  3. A new blind fault component separation algorithm for a single-channel mechanical signal mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W.

    2012-10-01

    A vibration signal collected from a complex machine consists of multiple vibration components, which are system responses excited by several sources. This paper reports a new blind component separation (BCS) method for extracting different mechanical fault features. By applying the proposed method, a single-channel mixed signal can be decomposed into two parts: the periodic and transient subsets. The periodic subset is related to the imbalance, misalignment and eccentricity of a machine. The transient subset refers to abnormal impulsive phenomena, such as those caused by localized bearing faults. The proposed method includes two individual strategies to deal with these different characteristics. The first extracts the sub-Gaussian periodic signal by minimizing the kurtosis of the equalized signals. The second detects the super-Gaussian transient signal by minimizing the smoothness index of the equalized signals. Here, the equalized signals are derived by an eigenvector algorithm that is a successful solution to the blind equalization problem. To reduce the computing time needed to select the equalizer length, a simple optimization method is introduced to minimize the kurtosis and smoothness index, respectively. Finally, simulated multiple-fault signals and a real multiple-fault signal collected from an industrial machine are used to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to effectively decompose the multiple-fault vibration mixture into periodic components and random non-stationary transient components. In addition, the equalizer length can be intelligently determined using the proposed method.

  4. Mass spectrometric characterization of gentamicin components separated by the new European Pharmacopoeia method.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Van Schepdael, A; Hoogmartens, J; Adams, E

    2011-04-28

    Liquid chromatography combined with pulsed electrochemical detection (LC-PED) is the method of choice in the European Pharmacopoeia for the determination of gentamicin and its related substances. A recently approved improved LC-PED method, with a reversed-phase C(18) column and a mobile phase consisting of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA), sodium hydroxide and acetonitrile, showed better separation and more sensitive detection of the gentamicin components than the previous method using a polymer column. More unknown peaks can be separated from the main components and from each other. As the LC-PED method cannot be directly coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS), the unknown substances were collected after the LC column, desalted and analyzed by MS. The structures of the unknown compounds were deduced based on comparison of their fragmentation patterns with those of reference substances investigated by MS(n) experiments using an electrospray ion trap mass spectrometer. A comparison was also made with an already previously published LC-MS method using a volatile mobile phase. PMID:21316176

  5. Complex ventral hernia repair with a human acellular dermal matrix and component separation: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alvaro; Baldoni, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We present a case series of 19 patients requiring complex abdominal hernia repairs. Patients presented with challenging clinical histories with 95% having multiple significant comorbidities including overweight or obesity (84%), hypertension (53%), diabetes (42%), cancer (26%), and pulmonary disease (16%). The majority of patients (68%) had prior abdominal infections and 53% had at least one failed prior hernia repair. Upon examination, fascial defects averaged 282 cm2. Anterior and posterior component separation was performed with placement of a human acellular dermal mesh. Midline abdominal closure under minimal tension was achieved primarily in all cases. Post-operative complications included 2 adverse events (11%) – one pulmonary embolism and one post-operative hemorrhage requiring transfusion; 6 wound-related complications (32%), 1 seroma (5%) and 1 patient with post-operative ileus (5%). Operative intervention was not required in any of the cases and most patients made an uneventful recovery. Increased patient age and longer OR time were independently predictive of early post-operative complications. At a median 2-year follow-up, three patients had a documented hernia recurrence (16%) and one patient was deceased due to unrelated causes. Conclusion Patients at high risk for post-operative events due to comorbidities, prior abdominal infection and failed mesh repairs do well following component separation reinforced with a human bioprosthetic mesh. Anticipated post-operative complications were managed conservatively and at a median 2-year follow-up, a low rate of hernia recurrence was observed with this approach. PMID:26288732

  6. AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AND TRACKING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. SEPARATION OF DYNAMIC AND QUIESCENT COMPONENTS IN CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Byrne, Jason P.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    2012-06-20

    Automated techniques for detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data are of ever increasing importance for space weather monitoring and forecasting. They serve to remove the biases and tedium of human interpretation, and provide the robust analysis necessary for statistical studies across large numbers of observations. An important requirement in their operation is that they satisfactorily distinguish the CME structure from the background quiescent coronal structure (streamers, coronal holes). Many studies resort to some form of time differencing to achieve this, despite the errors inherent in such an approach-notably spatiotemporal crosstalk. This article describes a new deconvolution technique that separates coronagraph images into quiescent and dynamic components. A set of synthetic observations made from a sophisticated model corona and CME demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the technique in isolating the CME signal. Applied to observations by the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs, the structure of a faint CME is revealed in detail despite the presence of background streamers that are several times brighter than the CME. The technique is also demonstrated to work on SECCHI/COR2 data, and new possibilities for estimating the three-dimensional structure of CMEs using the multiple viewing angles are discussed. Although quiescent coronal structures and CMEs are intrinsically linked, and although their interaction is an unavoidable source of error in any separation process, we show in a companion paper that the deconvolution approach outlined here is a robust and accurate method for rigorous CME analysis. Such an approach is a prerequisite to the higher-level detection and classification of CME structure and kinematics.

  7. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOEpatents

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  8. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  9. On the spin separation of algebraic two-component relativistic Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhendong; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian

    2012-10-01

    The separation of the spin-free and spin-dependent terms of a given relativistic Hamiltonian is usually facilitated by the Dirac identity. However, this is no longer possible for the recently developed exact two-component relativistic Hamiltonians derived from the matrix representation of the Dirac equation in a kinetically balanced basis. This stems from the fact that the decoupling matrix does not have an explicit form. To resolve this formal difficulty, we first define the spin-dependent term as the difference between a two-component Hamiltonian corresponding to the full Dirac equation and its one-component counterpart corresponding to the spin-free Dirac equation. The series expansion of the spin-dependent term is then developed in two different ways. One is in the spirit of the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) transformation and the other is based on the perturbative expansion of a two-component Hamiltonian of fixed structure, either the two-step Barysz-Sadlej-Snijders (BSS) or the one-step exact two-component (X2C) form. The algorithms for constructing arbitrary order terms are proposed for both schemes and their convergence patterns are assessed numerically. Truncating the expansions to finite orders leads naturally to a sequence of novel spin-dependent Hamiltonians. In particular, the order-by-order distinctions among the DKH, BSS, and X2C approaches can nicely be revealed. The well-known Pauli, zeroth-order regular approximation, and DKH1 spin-dependent Hamiltonians can also be recovered naturally by appropriately approximating the decoupling and renormalization matrices. On the practical side, the sf-X2C+so-DKH3 Hamiltonian, together with appropriately constructed generally contracted basis sets, is most promising for accounting for relativistic effects in two steps, first spin-free and then spin-dependent, with the latter applied either perturbatively or variationally.

  10. On the spin separation of algebraic two-component relativistic Hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhendong; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian

    2012-10-21

    The separation of the spin-free and spin-dependent terms of a given relativistic Hamiltonian is usually facilitated by the Dirac identity. However, this is no longer possible for the recently developed exact two-component relativistic Hamiltonians derived from the matrix representation of the Dirac equation in a kinetically balanced basis. This stems from the fact that the decoupling matrix does not have an explicit form. To resolve this formal difficulty, we first define the spin-dependent term as the difference between a two-component Hamiltonian corresponding to the full Dirac equation and its one-component counterpart corresponding to the spin-free Dirac equation. The series expansion of the spin-dependent term is then developed in two different ways. One is in the spirit of the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) transformation and the other is based on the perturbative expansion of a two-component Hamiltonian of fixed structure, either the two-step Barysz-Sadlej-Snijders (BSS) or the one-step exact two-component (X2C) form. The algorithms for constructing arbitrary order terms are proposed for both schemes and their convergence patterns are assessed numerically. Truncating the expansions to finite orders leads naturally to a sequence of novel spin-dependent Hamiltonians. In particular, the order-by-order distinctions among the DKH, BSS, and X2C approaches can nicely be revealed. The well-known Pauli, zeroth-order regular approximation, and DKH1 spin-dependent Hamiltonians can also be recovered naturally by appropriately approximating the decoupling and renormalization matrices. On the practical side, the sf-X2C+so-DKH3 Hamiltonian, together with appropriately constructed generally contracted basis sets, is most promising for accounting for relativistic effects in two steps, first spin-free and then spin-dependent, with the latter applied either perturbatively or variationally. PMID:23083155

  11. Separation of supercritical slab-fluids to form aqueous fluid and melt components in subduction zone magmatism

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Kanzaki, Masami; Mibe, Kenji; Ono, Shigeaki

    2012-01-01

    Subduction-zone magmatism is triggered by the addition of H2O-rich slab-derived components: aqueous fluid, hydrous partial melts, or supercritical fluids from the subducting slab. Geochemical analyses of island arc basalts suggest two slab-derived signatures of a melt and a fluid. These two liquids unite to a supercritical fluid under pressure and temperature conditions beyond a critical endpoint. We ascertain critical endpoints between aqueous fluids and sediment or high-Mg andesite (HMA) melts located, respectively, at 83-km and 92-km depths by using an in situ observation technique. These depths are within the mantle wedge underlying volcanic fronts, which are formed 90 to 200 km above subducting slabs. These data suggest that sediment-derived supercritical fluids, which are fed to the mantle wedge from the subducting slab, react with mantle peridotite to form HMA supercritical fluids. Such HMA supercritical fluids separate into aqueous fluids and HMA melts at 92 km depth during ascent. The aqueous fluids are fluxed into the asthenospheric mantle to form arc basalts, which are locally associated with HMAs in hot subduction zones. The separated HMA melts retain their composition in limited equilibrium with the surrounding mantle. Alternatively, they equilibrate with the surrounding mantle and change the major element chemistry to basaltic composition. However, trace element signatures of sediment-derived supercritical fluids remain more in the melt-derived magma than in the fluid-induced magma, which inherits only fluid-mobile elements from the sediment-derived supercritical fluids. Separation of slab-derived supercritical fluids into melts and aqueous fluids can elucidate the two slab-derived components observed in subduction zone magma chemistry. PMID:23112158

  12. Separation of supercritical slab-fluids to form aqueous fluid and melt components in subduction zone magmatism.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Kanzaki, Masami; Mibe, Kenji; Matsukage, Kyoko N; Ono, Shigeaki

    2012-11-13

    Subduction-zone magmatism is triggered by the addition of H(2)O-rich slab-derived components: aqueous fluid, hydrous partial melts, or supercritical fluids from the subducting slab. Geochemical analyses of island arc basalts suggest two slab-derived signatures of a melt and a fluid. These two liquids unite to a supercritical fluid under pressure and temperature conditions beyond a critical endpoint. We ascertain critical endpoints between aqueous fluids and sediment or high-Mg andesite (HMA) melts located, respectively, at 83-km and 92-km depths by using an in situ observation technique. These depths are within the mantle wedge underlying volcanic fronts, which are formed 90 to 200 km above subducting slabs. These data suggest that sediment-derived supercritical fluids, which are fed to the mantle wedge from the subducting slab, react with mantle peridotite to form HMA supercritical fluids. Such HMA supercritical fluids separate into aqueous fluids and HMA melts at 92 km depth during ascent. The aqueous fluids are fluxed into the asthenospheric mantle to form arc basalts, which are locally associated with HMAs in hot subduction zones. The separated HMA melts retain their composition in limited equilibrium with the surrounding mantle. Alternatively, they equilibrate with the surrounding mantle and change the major element chemistry to basaltic composition. However, trace element signatures of sediment-derived supercritical fluids remain more in the melt-derived magma than in the fluid-induced magma, which inherits only fluid-mobile elements from the sediment-derived supercritical fluids. Separation of slab-derived supercritical fluids into melts and aqueous fluids can elucidate the two slab-derived components observed in subduction zone magma chemistry. PMID:23112158

  13. Computational study on the progressive factorization of composite polymer knots into separated prime components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations and advanced knot localization methods, we analyze the length and distribution of prime components in composite knots tied on freely jointed rings. For increasing contour length, we observe the progressive factorization of composite knots into separated prime components. However, we observe that a complete factorization, equivalent to the "decorated ring" picture, is not obtained even for rings of contour lengths N ≃3N0, about tens of times the most probable length of the prime knots tied on the rings. The decorated ring hypothesis has been used in the literature to justify the factorization of composite knot probabilities into the knotting probabilities of their prime components. Following our results, we suggest that such a hypothesis may not be necessary to explain the factorization of the knotting probabilities, at least when polymers excluding volume is not relevant. We rationalize the behavior of the system through a simple one-dimensional model in which prime knots are replaced by slip links randomly placed on a circle, with the only constraint being that the length of the loops has the same distribution as that of the length of the corresponding prime knots.

  14. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jeff L; Morey, A Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg–Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models. PMID:26788888

  15. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  16. Extensive Abdominal Wall Incisional Heterotopic Ossification Reconstructed with Component Separation and Strattice Inlay

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Nergis Nina

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Symptomatic heterotopic ossification of abdominal surgical incisions is a rare occurrence. We present a 67-year-old man with severe discomfort caused by heterotopic ossification extending from the xiphoid to the umbilicus. The patient underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 3 years before our treatment. A 13 × 3.5 cm ossified lesion was excised. The resulting midline defect was closed using component separation and inlay Strattice. Tension-free midline adaptation of the recti muscles was achieved. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen 6 months after the surgery showed no recurrence or hernias. Heterotopic ossification in symptomatic patients has previously been treated with excision and primary closure. We believe that tension-free repair is important to prevent recurrence. Acellular dermal matrix may add to this effect and also compartmentalize the process. PMID:27536495

  17. Extensive Abdominal Wall Incisional Heterotopic Ossification Reconstructed with Component Separation and Strattice Inlay.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Nergis Nina; Sandberg, Lars Johan Marcus

    2016-07-01

    Symptomatic heterotopic ossification of abdominal surgical incisions is a rare occurrence. We present a 67-year-old man with severe discomfort caused by heterotopic ossification extending from the xiphoid to the umbilicus. The patient underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 3 years before our treatment. A 13 × 3.5 cm ossified lesion was excised. The resulting midline defect was closed using component separation and inlay Strattice. Tension-free midline adaptation of the recti muscles was achieved. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen 6 months after the surgery showed no recurrence or hernias. Heterotopic ossification in symptomatic patients has previously been treated with excision and primary closure. We believe that tension-free repair is important to prevent recurrence. Acellular dermal matrix may add to this effect and also compartmentalize the process. PMID:27536495

  18. Separating Reflective and Fluorescent Components Using High Frequency Illumination in the Spectral Domain.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Lam, Antony; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is beneficial to many applications but most traditional methods do not consider fluorescent effects which are present in everyday items ranging from paper to even our food. Furthermore, everyday fluorescent items exhibit a mix of reflection and fluorescence so proper separation of these components is necessary for analyzing them. In recent years, effective imaging methods have been proposed but most require capturing the scene under multiple illuminants. In this paper, we demonstrate efficient separation and recovery of reflectance and fluorescence emission spectra through the use of two high frequency illuminations in the spectral domain. With the obtained fluorescence emission spectra from our high frequency illuminants, we then describe how to estimate the fluorescence absorption spectrum of a material given its emission spectrum. In addition, we provide an in depth analysis of our method and also show that filters can be used in conjunction with standard light sources to generate the required high frequency illuminants. We also test our method under ambient light and demonstrate an application of our method to synthetic relighting of real scenes. PMID:26336113

  19. Infrared small target and background separation via column-wise weighted robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yimian; Wu, Yiquan; Song, Yu

    2016-07-01

    When facing extremely complex infrared background, due to the defect of l1 norm based sparsity measure, the state-of-the-art infrared patch-image (IPI) model would be in a dilemma where either the dim targets are over-shrinked in the separation or the strong cloud edges remains in the target image. In order to suppress the strong edges while preserving the dim targets, a weighted infrared patch-image (WIPI) model is proposed, incorporating structural prior information into the process of infrared small target and background separation. Instead of adopting a global weight, we allocate adaptive weight to each column of the target patch-image according to its patch structure. Then the proposed WIPI model is converted to a column-wise weighted robust principal component analysis (CWRPCA) problem. In addition, a target unlikelihood coefficient is designed based on the steering kernel, serving as the adaptive weight for each column. Finally, in order to solve the CWPRCA problem, a solution algorithm is developed based on Alternating Direction Method (ADM). Detailed experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method has a significant improvement over the other nine classical or state-of-the-art methods in terms of subjective visual quality, quantitative evaluation indexes and convergence rate.

  20. Research of beam control system component simulation and separation method of the kinematics coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yufang; Xie, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jianzhu; An, Jianzhu; Zhang, Feizhou

    2015-02-01

    EasyLaser is component-based laser system simulation software. Beam control system simulation is a main part of EasyLaser, which can be used for systems with multi-optical paths, multi-wavelength beams, and multi-controllers. A new numerical method about general kinematics separation is proposed for beam control system simulation. It provides axis rotation conversion relationships due to orientation data of apparatus of system, such as gimal, sensor and optical mirror. It gives their coupling and uncoupling matrixes in kinematics and controller model. The matrixes could change every iterative time automatically during the dynamic tracking process. The main advantage of the method is more suitable to solve the problems that the gimbal movement and geometry optical transmission are considered simultaneously. By using the method, sensor images and undershoot data are updated automatically. And further the kinematic driver or controller signals are separated automatically. Therefore the tracking and beam control can be designed without consideration of the system kinematical composition. Then the beam control system simulation has the virtues of generality, flexibility, and usability. No matter what kinds of gimbal and optical path, designer needs only to consider tracking and beam control aspects. In addition, a union beam control example for atmosphere transmission correction is given. It includes tracking tilt mirror and adaptive optics system. Simulation results show that the low-frequency fluctuation is restrained effectively and the high-frequency fluctuation is corrected obviously.

  1. Development of Underwater Laser Cladding and Underwater Laser Seal Welding Techniques for Reactor Components (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Masataka Tamura; Shohei Kawano; Wataru Kouno; Yasushi Kanazawa

    2006-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major reasons to reduce the reliability of aged reactor components. Toshiba has been developing underwater laser welding onto surface of the aged components as maintenance and repair techniques. Because most of the reactor internal components to apply this underwater laser welding technique have 3-dimensional shape, effect of welding positions and welded shapes are examined and presented in this report. (authors)

  2. Clusius-Dickel Separations (CDS): A new look at an old technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The history, applications, and theoretical basis of the CDS technique are reviewed. The advantage to be realized by conduction of CDSs in low-g, space environments are deduced. The results are reported of investigations aimed at further improving CDS efficiencies by altering convective flow patterns. The question of whether multicellular flow or turbulence can introduce a new separation mechanism which would boost separation efficiencies at least an order of magnitude is considered. Results are presented and discussed.

  3. The use of extrapolation concepts to augment the Frequency Separation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiou, Spiros

    2015-03-01

    The Frequency Separation Technique (FST) is a general method formulated to improve the speed and/or accuracy of lineshape calculations, including strong overlapping collisions, as is the case for ion dynamics. It should be most useful when combined with ultrafast methods, that, however have significant difficulties when the impact regime is approached. These difficulties are addressed by the Frequency Separation Technique, in which the impact limit is correctly recovered. The present work examines the possibility of combining the Frequency Separation Technique with the addition of extrapolation to improve results and minimize errors resulting from the neglect of fast-slow coupling and thus obtain the exact result with a minimum of extra effort. To this end the adequacy of one such ultrafast method, the Frequency Fluctuation Method (FFM) for treating the nonimpact part is examined. It is found that although the FFM is unable to reproduce the nonimpact profile correctly, its coupling with the FST correctly reproduces the total profile.

  4. Temporal analysis of the chromatic flash VEP--separate colour and luminance contrast components.

    PubMed

    Klistorner, A; Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

    1998-12-01

    Temporal analysis of the chromatic flash visual evoked potential (VEP) was studied in human subjects with normal and anomalous colour vision using a deterministic pseudo-random binary stimulus (VERIS). Five experiments were carried out on four normal subjects investigating heterochromatic red-green exchange and single colour/achromatic (either red/grey or green/grey) exchange over a wide range of luminance ratios for the two stimuli, the effects of lowered mean luminance on the chromatic VEP and the effects of colour desaturation at constant mean luminance and constant luminance contrast. Finally, the performance of three dichromats, a protanope and two deuteranopes, on heterochromatic exchange VEP and on colour desaturation were investigated. In contrast to the chromatic electroretinogram, which shows great symmetry with respect to luminance ratio on opposite sides of the isoluminant point, the chromatic VEP demonstrated a distinct asymmetry when the colours exchanged included red. On the red side of isoluminance (red more luminant than green), a wave with longer latency and altered waveform became dominant. The effects of green stimulation were indistinguishable from those of achromatic stimulation at the same luminance contrast over the whole range of chromatic contrast and for all levels of desaturation studied. Desaturation of red with constant luminance contrast (desaturated red/grey stimulation) resulted in a systematic alteration in the evoked waveform. Subtraction of the achromatic first- and second-order responses from responses recorded in the red desaturation series resulted in remarkably uniform waveforms, with peak amplitudes growing linearly with saturation. The absence of interaction between achromatic and coloured components for all (including the most intense colour) stimulus parameters used suggests that the generators of these components are separate. Recordings from the dichromats showed that the contrast response minimum shifted from the point

  5. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  6. Development of separation techniques for a direct contact thermal energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Min, T.C.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    In direct contact ice-making processes, the refrigerant will pick up water vapor through direct percolation and oil from the compressor. The purpose of this project is to investigate methods for separating water vapor and oil from a mixture to complete a refrigeration cycle. In this paper, we report critical review on two separation techniques. From a literature search, we have identified a third technique; and plan to evaluate this method by bench-scale experiments. A recommendation for future work is included.

  7. Developing synthesis techniques for zeolitic-imidazolate framework membranes for high resolution propylene/propane separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk Taek

    Propylene/propane separation is one of the most challenging separations, currently achieved by energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. Despite the great potentials for energy-efficient membrane-based propylene/propane separation processes, no commercial membranes are available due to the limitations (i.e., low selectivity) of current polymeric materials. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are promising membrane materials primarily due to their well-defined ultra-micropores with controllable surface chemistry along with their relatively high thermal/chemical stabilities. In particular, ZIF-8 with the effective aperture size of ~ 4.0 A has been shown very promising for propylene/propane separation. Despite the extensive research on ZIF-8 membranes, only a few of ZIF-8 membranes have displayed good propylene/propane separation performances presumably due to the challenges of controlling the microstructures of polycrystalline membranes. Since the membrane microstructures are greatly influenced by processing techniques, it is critically important to develop new techniques. In this dissertation, three state-of-the-art ZIF membrane synthesis techniques are developed. The first is a one-step in-situ synthesis technique based on the concept of counter diffusion. The technique enabled us to obtain highly propylene selective ZIF-8 membranes in less than a couple of hours with exceptional mechanical strength. Most importantly, due to the nature of the counter-diffusion concept, the new method offered unique opportunities such as healing defective membranes (i.e., poorly-intergrown) as well as significantly reducing the consumption of costly ligands and organic solvents. The second is a microwave-assisted seeding technique. Using this new seeding technique, we were able to prepare seeded supports with a high packing density in a couple of minutes, which subsequently grown into highly propylene-selective ZIF-8 membranes with an average propylene/propane selectivity of ~40

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  9. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-03-15

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to <10 mm were milled using a stamp mill to liberate the various metallic components, and then the milled printed circuit boards were classified into fractions of <0.6, 0.6-1.2, 1.2-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and >5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size <5.0 mm were separated into a light fraction of mostly non-metallic components and a heavy fraction of the metallic components by gravity separation using a zig-zag classifier. The >5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards.

  10. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  11. A Practical Introduction to Separation and Purification Techniques for the Beginning Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a sequence of experiments developed at Texas A&M University for use in one-semester and two-semester (nonmajors) organic chemistry courses to teach a maximum number of separation and purification techniques such as distillations, recrystallization, liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatography. (SK)

  12. Twentieth international symposium on electro- and liquid-phase separation techniques (ITP2013): highlights.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Alejandro; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The 20th edition of the International Symposium on Electro- and Liquid-Phase Separation Techniques (ITP2013) took place on October 6-9, 2013, at Puerto de la Cruz in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). This article reviews the highlights of this new edition of the symposia, also including the different activities that took place as well as the awards presented. PMID:24339404

  13. Denial of separation anxiety as measured by a serial tachistoscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Rubino, I A; Grasso, S; Pezzarossa, B

    1990-12-01

    A mother-child separation stimulus was repeatedly presented by standard Defense Mechanism Test procedure, at increasing durations of tachistoscopic exposure to 60 clinical and nonclinical subjects. Subjective verbal reports were coded blindly for evidence of perceptual distortions presumably indicative of denial of separation anxiety. Low scores on two items measuring sensitivity to separation anxiety and intolerance of aloneness were, as predicted, significantly more often characterized by codings of denial on the tachistoscopic exposures than subjects with high sensitivity to separation anxiety. Stability of effect became stronger when only very low and very high scores were compared for perceptual denial on the last four presentations of the series. This technique, employing other types of anxiety-evoking stimuli, may represent a reliable instrument to reveal the presence of defences toward each of the most relevant conflictual areas of the personality. PMID:2087385

  14. Separation of components from a scale mixture of Gaussian white noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamoş, Călin; Crăciun, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The time evolution of a physical quantity associated with a thermodynamic system whose equilibrium fluctuations are modulated in amplitude by a slowly varying phenomenon can be modeled as the product of a Gaussian white noise {Zt} and a stochastic process with strictly positive values {Vt} referred to as volatility. The probability density function (pdf) of the process Xt=VtZt is a scale mixture of Gaussian white noises expressed as a time average of Gaussian distributions weighted by the pdf of the volatility. The separation of the two components of {Xt} can be achieved by imposing the condition that the absolute values of the estimated white noise be uncorrelated. We apply this method to the time series of the returns of the daily S&P500 index, which has also been analyzed by means of the superstatistics method that imposes the condition that the estimated white noise be Gaussian. The advantage of our method is that this financial time series is processed without partitioning or removal of the extreme events and the estimated white noise becomes almost Gaussian only as result of the uncorrelation condition.

  15. BAYESIAN COMPONENT SEPARATION AND COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ESTIMATION FOR THE FIVE-YEAR WMAP TEMPERATURE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Jewell, J. B.; Gorski, K. M.; Huey, G.; Lawrence, C. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2009-11-10

    A well-tested and validated Gibbs sampling code, that performs component separation and cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum estimation, was applied to the WMAP five-year data. Using a simple model consisting of CMB, noise, monopoles, and dipoles, a 'per pixel' low-frequency power-law (fitting for both amplitude and spectral index), and a thermal dust template with a fixed spectral index, we found that the low-l (l < 50) CMB power spectrum is in good agreement with the published WMAP5 results. Residual monopoles and dipoles were found to be small (approx<3 muK) or negligible in the five-year data. We comprehensively tested the assumptions that were made about the foregrounds (e.g., dust spectral index, power-law spectral index prior, templates), and found that the CMB power spectrum was insensitive to these choices. We confirm the asymmetry of power between the north and south ecliptic hemispheres, which appears to be robust against foreground modeling. The map of low-frequency spectral indices indicates a steeper spectrum on average (beta = -2.97 +- 0.21) relative to those found at low (approxGHz) frequencies.

  16. Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils B.; Liu, I.-Kang; Wacker, Lars; Arlt, Jan J.; Proukakis, Nick P.

    2016-07-01

    The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition between mixed and separated phases is fully characterized by a miscibility parameter based on the ratio of intra- to interspecies interaction strengths. Here we show, however, that this parameter is no longer the optimal one for trapped gases, for which the location of the phase boundary depends critically on atom numbers. We demonstrate how monitoring of damping rates and frequencies of dipole oscillations enables the experimental mapping of the phase diagram by numerical implementation of a fully self-consistent finite-temperature kinetic theory for binary condensates. The change in damping rate is explained in terms of surface oscillation in the immiscible regime, and counterflow instability in the miscible regime, with collisions becoming only important in the long time evolution.

  17. Real-Time Adaptive EEG Source Separation Using Online Recursive Independent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou; Mullen, Tim R; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) biosignal processing and brain-computer interfaces. The practical use of ICA, however, is limited by its computational complexity, data requirements for convergence, and assumption of data stationarity, especially for high-density data. Here we study and validate an optimized online recursive ICA algorithm (ORICA) with online recursive least squares (RLS) whitening for blind source separation of high-density EEG data, which offers instantaneous incremental convergence upon presentation of new data. Empirical results of this study demonstrate the algorithm's: 1) suitability for accurate and efficient source identification in high-density (64-channel) realistically-simulated EEG data; 2) capability to detect and adapt to nonstationarity in 64-ch simulated EEG data; and 3) utility for rapidly extracting principal brain and artifact sources in real 61-channel EEG data recorded by a dry and wearable EEG system in a cognitive experiment. ORICA was implemented as functions in BCILAB and EEGLAB and was integrated in an open-source Real-time EEG Source-mapping Toolbox (REST), supporting applications in ICA-based online artifact rejection, feature extraction for real-time biosignal monitoring in clinical environments, and adaptable classifications in brain-computer interfaces. PMID:26685257

  18. Fatigue study of ultra-runners: Presentation of a new approach for the separation of GRF signals components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, F. A.; El Badaoui, M.; Lamraoui, M.; Khalil, M.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, ultra-marathon running has become increasingly popular in many countries around the world. The ability to run for long hours has played a role in human evolution. It is known that the etiology of fatigue depends upon the exercise under consideration. In order to characterize and find a full description of the fatigue and its effects on the human locomotion mechanics, and to extract the relevant parameters and information for diagnosis, we have investigated the changes in running mechanics. More specifically, the ground reaction force (GRF) manifestations of fatigue, have been investigated by using advanced signal processing tools. GRF signals are composed of two parts: an active peak representing the propulsive force and a passive peak that represents the impact force. The impact force is the major factor indicating the reaction of muscle, that may reflects the fatigue state and performance of the muscle. In this article, we focused on the treatment of biomechanical signals for the purpose of GRF components separation where the aim is to separate the contribution of the active components and the passive components. For this reason, we proposed a new algorithm, based on the Gaussian decomposition and non-linear least squares method that will achieve the desired goal. We then compare the results of separation with a proposed BSS based method i.e. "FastICA algorithm". We also compare the results with that obtained by Sabri et al. [1-3] who used different BSS techniques which gave bad and fair results. The separated passive signal is then proved to contain a mixture of a deterministic phenomenon and a stationary random phenomenon, where both phenomena are separated using the cepstral editing procedure (CEP) method. CEP is applied after signal synchronization using method with maximization of the inter-correlation function. The random part is then proved to be cyclostationary of order 2. A real application examined the biomechanical changes occurring in

  19. Principal components technique analysis for vegetation and land use discrimination. [Brazilian cerrados

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Formaggio, A. R.; Dossantos, J. R.; Dias, L. A. V.

    1984-01-01

    Automatic pre-processing technique called Principal Components (PRINCO) in analyzing LANDSAT digitized data, for land use and vegetation cover, on the Brazilian cerrados was evaluated. The chosen pilot area, 223/67 of MSS/LANDSAT 3, was classified on a GE Image-100 System, through a maximum-likehood algorithm (MAXVER). The same procedure was applied to the PRINCO treated image. PRINCO consists of a linear transformation performed on the original bands, in order to eliminate the information redundancy of the LANDSAT channels. After PRINCO only two channels were used thus reducing computer effort. The original channels and the PRINCO channels grey levels for the five identified classes (grassland, "cerrado", burned areas, anthropic areas, and gallery forest) were obtained through the MAXVER algorithm. This algorithm also presented the average performance for both cases. In order to evaluate the results, the Jeffreys-Matusita distance (JM-distance) between classes was computed. The classification matrix, obtained through MAXVER, after a PRINCO pre-processing, showed approximately the same average performance in the classes separability.

  20. Repairing Posteromedial Meniscocapsular Separation: A Technique Using Inside-Out Meniscal Repair Needles

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anant; Usman, Sajeer; Sabnis, Bhushan; Kini, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Posteromedial meniscocapsular separation of the knee has received renewed interest, with many articles describing a high incidence in association with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Various techniques have been described to address these lesions using all-inside meniscal repair sutures or using rotator cuff repair instruments through the posteromedial portal. Most orthopaedic surgeons are accustomed to using the “inside-out” meniscal repair technique with a double-armed suture. This technique is cost-effective and, in our opinion, more efficient in repairing such tears. We present our technique of repairing peripheral meniscocapsular lesions using an inside-out meniscal repair system. We believe that this technique is easily reproducible, is less time-consuming, and ensures a good “bite” of the capsular tissue, producing a robust repair. PMID:27073773

  1. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using adsorptive bubble separation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.D.; Wang, T.F.

    1988-08-01

    Cadmium ion was removed from aqueous solutions using adsorptive bubble separation techniques. The effect of pH, coagulant and activator concentrations and ionic strength on separation efficiency was studied. Adsorbing colloid flotation using ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide as the coprecipitant and sodium lauryl sulfate as the collector and frother was found to be very effective provided that the ionic strength of the solution was no greater than 0.01 M. The residual cadmium concentration was less than 0.02 ppm after foaming for 10 min from a solution containing 20 ppm cadmium initially. Effective separation can be achieved from solutions containing 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ or 0.05 M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ when zinc ion is used as the activator. The results of foam flotation were compared with the zeta potential of the floc. It was found that the zeta potential of the floc decreases with increasing ionic strength of the solution. The zeta potential of the floc is more positive when activators (aluminum and zinc ions) were added, which presumably gives the floc a stronger affinity for anionic surfactant adsorption, resulting in better separation efficiency. Adsorbing colloid flotation becomes less effective with increasing inert salt concentration of the solution; this effect can be compensated for to quite a large extent with the aid of activators, and the applicability of foam separation techniques for heavy metal removal from wastewater is thus greatly extended.

  2. Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

    Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

  3. An effective calculation method in theory of non-LTE stellar atmospheres - linearization separation technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. Q.; Huang, R. Q.

    1994-06-01

    This paper introduces a new calculation method of non-LTE stellar atmospheres. This method is based on the combination of the advantages of the complete linearization method by Auer and Mihalas (1969) and the separated-iteration technique. First, the equation of radiative transfer and constraints are linearized respectively, then the linearized equation of the radiative transfer and the linearized constraints are solved, separately. It overcomes the disadvantages of requiring the simultaneous solution of the corresponding equations by the complete linearization. The applicability of this method by calculating a small sample of H-He atmospheres and H line formations is demonstrated.

  4. Radiochemical separations by the ring-oven technique-IV The system (144)Ce/(144)Pr.

    PubMed

    Klockow, D; Böhmer, R G

    1969-08-01

    By using filter papers impregnated with a manganese oxide hydrate having an average oxidation number of + 3, it is possible to separate (144)Pr from (144)Ce rapidly by the ring-oven technique. With 0.06-0.07M trichloracetic acid as wash-solution, the daughter nuclide can be concentrated in the ring zone with 80-90% yield and decontamination factors > 10(3). The half-life of the separated (144)Pr was found to be 17.60 +/- 0.05 min. The behaviour of other fission nuclides under the same conditions was also investigated. PMID:18960624

  5. Development of novel separation techniques for biological samples in capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.

    1994-07-27

    This dissertation includes three different topics: general introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE); gradient in CE and CE in biological separations; and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for DNA separation. Factors such as temperature, viscosity, pH, and the surface of capillary walls affecting the separation performance are demonstrated. A pH gradient between 3.0 and 5.2 is useful to improve the resolution among eight different organic acids. A flow gradient due to the change in the concentration of surfactant, which is able to coat to the capillary wall to change the flow rate and its direction, is also shown as a good way to improve the resolution for organic compounds. A temperature gradient caused by joule heat is shown by voltage programming to enhance the resolution and shorten the separation time for several phenolic compounds. The author also shows that self-regulating dynamic control of electroosmotic flow in CE by simply running separation in different concentrations of surfactant has less matrix effect on the separation performance. One of the most important demonstrations in this dissertation is that the author proposes on-column reaction which gives several advantages including the use of a small amount of sample, low risk of contamination, and time saving and kinetic features. The author uses this idea with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a detection mode to detect an on-column digestion of sub-ng of protein. This technique also is applied to single cell analysis in the group.

  6. Study on magnetic separation system using high Tc superconducting bulk magnets for water purification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Kanayama, H.; Tanaka, K.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Noto, K.

    2009-03-01

    The application of superconducting bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques has been investigated for the Mn-bearing waste water drained from the university laboratories. The research has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates including Mn element in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with ferromagnetic iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without them. As the magnetic force acting on the particles is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field, and a superconducting bulk magnet shows a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface, the performances of the bulk magnet system were almost equivalent to those of the superconducting solenoid magnet with wide bore with respect to the magnetic separation ratios. The separation ratios for Mn have reached over 80 % for HGMS and 10 % for OGMS under the flow rates less than 3 liter/min.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  8. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  9. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  10. Enhanced protein electrophoresis technique for separating human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Talmadge, R. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Talmadge and Roy (J. Appl. Physiol. 1993, 75, 2337-2340) previously established a sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol for separating all four rat skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb); however, when applied to human muscle, the type II MHC isoforms (Ila, IIx) are not clearly distinguished. In this brief paper we describe a modification of the SDS-PAGE protocol which yields distinct and consistent separation of all three adult human MHC isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx) in a minigel system. MHC specificity of each band was confirmed by Western blot using three monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) immunoreactive against MHCI (mAb MHCs, Novacastra Laboratories), MHCI+IIa (mAb BF-35), and MHCIIa+IIx (mAb SC-71). Results provide a valuable SDS-PAGE minigel technique for separating MHC isoforms in human muscle without the difficult task of casting gradient gels.

  11. Accessing Interior Vector Magnetic Field Components in Neutron EDM Experiments via Boundary Value Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaster, Brad

    2012-10-01

    We propose a new technique for the determination and monitoring of the interior vector magnetic field components during the operation of neutron EDM experiments. If a suitable three-dimensional volume surrounding the fiducial volume of an experiment can be defined which contains no interior currents or magnetization, each of the interior vector field components will satisfy the Laplace Equation within this volume. Therefore, if the field components can be measured on the boundary, the interior vector field components can be determined uniquely via numerical solution of the Laplace Equation. We discuss the applicability of this technique to the determination of the magnetic field components and magnetic field gradients in the fiducial volumes of neutron EDM experiments.

  12. Surface modification of polypropylene battery separator by direct fluorination with different gas components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoyin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Xu; Fan, Cong; Wang, Huina; Liu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in hydrophilicity of polypropylene (PP) separator and its stability is essential for enhancing the comprehensive performance of battery. In this study, the PP separators were surface modified by direct fluorination with F2/N2 and F2/O2/N2 gas atmosphere. The alkali absorption ratios (AARs) of these two kinds of fluorinated separators are 302.7% and 418.4%, respectively, which is about nine and twelve times than that of the virgin PP separator. At the same time, the AARs of the fluorinated separators stored for 90 days at ambient temperature in air environment still remain. The surface energy of PP separators is increased from 37.8 mN/m to 47.7 mN/m and 48.9 mN/m determined by contact angle measurement after direct fluorination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) results indicate that polar groups, such as sbnd Cdbnd O(OH) and sbnd Csbnd Fx, are introduced into the polymeric structures of the two fluorinated separator surfaces. Larger quantity of polar groups, especially sbnd Cdbnd O(OH), are introduced on separator surface by the F2/O2/N2 modified route, which results in the difference of the AARs and behavior of alkali absorption. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrates that the size and shape of micropores of PP separators remain almost unchanged after direct fluorination.

  13. Using Image Processing Techniques for Cluster Analysis, and Droplet Formation in Phase Separating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory; Oprisan, Ana; Hegseth, John; Oprisan, Sorinel; Lecoutre, Carole; Garrabos, Yves; Beysens, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    A series of experiments were performed using the Alice II apparatus in microgravity to study phase separation near critical temperature. Using image analysis techniques, we were able to obtain quantitative information regarding the morphology of gas-liquid interface near critical point of pure SF6 fluid in microgravity. Growth laws for liquid and gas clusters were extracted based on image segmentation both with thresholding and k-means clustering. By measuring the image features we analyzed the formation of spherical droplets during late stage of phase separation for a series of full view images. The growth of a wetting layer around the border of the cell containing the fluid was also investigated using image processing techniques.

  14. Recent advances in coupling capillary electrophoresis based separation techniques to ESI and MALDI MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuefei; Zhang, Zichuan; Jiang, Shan; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) based separation techniques to mass spectrometry creates a powerful platform for analysis of a wide range of biomolecules from complex samples because it combines the high separation efficiency of CE and the sensitivity and selectivity of MS detection. ESI and MALDI, as the most common soft ionization techniques employed for CE and MS coupling, offer distinct advantages for biomolecular characterization. This review is focused primarily on technological advances in combining CE and chip-based CE with ESI and MALDI MS detection in the past five years. Selected applications in the analyses of metabolites, peptides, and proteins with the recently developed CE-MS platforms are also highlighted. PMID:24170529

  15. Semen separation technique monitored with greater accuracy by B-body test.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B C; Evans, B M; Shome, P

    1979-01-01

    A fluorescent staining technique, the B-body test, is utilized to ascertain the proportion of male and female spermatozoa in separated semen. This test is also used to monitor progress of Thermal Convection Counterstreaming Sedimentation and Forced Convection Galvanization processes for separating heavier electropositive (female) and lighter electronegative (male) spermatozoa into the two constituent fractions. Biological field tests using separated semen with 1,115 cows resulted in 510 progeny showing close correlation in the percentage of male versus female and B-body positive in the male spermatozoa fractions, while a control group with nonseparated semen, usually 46% B-body positive, yielded 55% male offspring and 72.0% pregnancy. Thus, the accuracy of the separation techniques has been established to the extent of producing more females with heavier and electropositive and more males with the lighter and electronegative spermatozoa fractions. However, the pregnancy rate slopes downward as the positive electropotential and density of the spermatozoa are successively increased. PMID:45095

  16. A review of microfabrication techniques and dielectrophoretic microdevices for particle manipulation and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Li, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Alici, G.; Wen, W.

    2014-02-01

    The development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices over the past decade has attracted growing interest. LOC devices aim to achieve the miniaturization, integration, automation and parallelization of biological and chemical assays. One of the applications, the ability to effectively and accurately manipulate and separate micro- and nano-scale particles in an aqueous solution, is particularly appealing in biological, chemical and medical fields. Among the technologies that have been developed and implemented in microfluidic microsystems for particle manipulation and separation (such as mechanical, inertial, hydrodynamic, acoustic, optical, magnetic and electrical methodologies), dielectrophoresis (DEP) may prove to be the most popular because of its label-free nature, ability to manipulate neutral bioparticles, analyse with high selectivity and sensitivity, compatibility with LOC devices, and easy and direct interface with electronics. The required spatial electric non-uniformities for the DEP effect can be generated by patterning microelectrode arrays within microchannels, or placing insulating obstacles within a microchannel and curving the microchannels. A wide variety of electrode- and insulator-based DEP microdevices have been developed, fabricated, and successfully employed to manipulate and separate bioparticles (i.e. DNA, proteins, bacteria, viruses, mammalian and yeast cells). This review provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of microfabrication techniques and of the structures of dielectrophoretic microdevices aimed towards different applications. The techniques used for particle manipulation and separation based on microfluidics are provided in this paper. In addition, we also present the theoretical background of DEP.

  17. A novel particle separation technique using 20-kHz-order ultrasound irradiation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Hiroya; Yanai, Sayuri; Mizushima, Yuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound techniques such as washing, fine-particle manipulation and mixing have been investigated. MHz-band ultrasound was usually used in the previous work, and studies of kHz-order ultrasound are very rare. In the usual manipulation technique, μm- order particles are targeted due to wavelength limitations. We discovered an interesting phenomenon that holds promise for a novel particle separation technique using kHz-order ultrasound. Here, particles with sub-mm- or mm-order diameters were flocculated into a swarm in water irradiated by 20-kHz ultrasound. To develop a practical separation process, we investigated the stationary position and dia. of the particle swarms and the sound- pressure profiles in a vessel, as well as the flocculation mechanism, by varying the irradiation frequency, water level, particle diameter and particle amount. The primary stationary position corresponded to the wavelength calculated from the resonant frequency regardless of the particle diameter. Subtle changes in the frequency and water level resulted in a significant change in the stationary position. Based on these results, we propose a new separation process based on the particle diameter for sub-mm- or mm-order particles.

  18. New calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-jawad, Madhat M.; Mee, David J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    2007-06-15

    The measurement of forces in hypervelocity expansion tubes is not possible using conventional techniques. The stress wave force balance technique can be applied in expansion tubes to measure forces despite the short test times involved. This article presents a new calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances where an impulse response created using a load distribution is required and no orthogonal surfaces on the model exist. This new technique relies on the tensorial superposition of single-component impulse responses analogous to the vectorial superposition of the calibration loads. The example presented here is that of a scale model of the Mars Pathfinder, but the technique is applicable to any geometry and may be useful for cases where orthogonal loads cannot be applied.

  19. New calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances.

    PubMed

    Abdel-jawad, Madhat M; Mee, David J; Morgan, Richard G

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of forces in hypervelocity expansion tubes is not possible using conventional techniques. The stress wave force balance technique can be applied in expansion tubes to measure forces despite the short test times involved. This article presents a new calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances where an impulse response created using a load distribution is required and no orthogonal surfaces on the model exist. This new technique relies on the tensorial superposition of single-component impulse responses analogous to the vectorial superposition of the calibration loads. The example presented here is that of a scale model of the Mars Pathfinder, but the technique is applicable to any geometry and may be useful for cases where orthogonal loads cannot be applied. PMID:17614632

  20. New calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-jawad, Madhat M.; Mee, David J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of forces in hypervelocity expansion tubes is not possible using conventional techniques. The stress wave force balance technique can be applied in expansion tubes to measure forces despite the short test times involved. This article presents a new calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances where an impulse response created using a load distribution is required and no orthogonal surfaces on the model exist. This new technique relies on the tensorial superposition of single-component impulse responses analogous to the vectorial superposition of the calibration loads. The example presented here is that of a scale model of the Mars Pathfinder, but the technique is applicable to any geometry and may be useful for cases where orthogonal loads cannot be applied.

  1. Multi-Component Ion Modifiers and Arcing Suppressants to Enhance Differential Mobility Spectrometry for Separation of Peptides and Drug Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojevic, Voislav; Koyanagi, Gregory K.; Bohme, Diethard K.

    2014-03-01

    The optimization of ion/molecule chemistry in a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is shown to result in improved peak capacity, separation, and sensitivity. We have experimented with a modifier composed of multiple components, where each component accomplishes a specific task on mixtures of peptides and small drug molecules. Use of a higher proton affinity modifier (hexanol) provides increased peak capacity and separation. Analyte ion/modifier proton transfer is suppressed by adding a large excess of low proton affinity modifier (water or methanol), significantly increasing signal intensity and sensitivity for low proton affinity analytes. Finally, addition of an electrical arcing suppressant (chloroform) allows the device to operate reliably at higher separation fields, improving peak capacity and separation. We demonstrate a 20 % increase in the device peak capacity without any loss of sensitivity and estimate that further optimization of the modifier composition can increase this to 50 %. Use of 3-, 4-, or even 5-component modifiers offers the opportunity for the user to fine-tune the modifier performance to maximize the device performance, something not possible with a single component modifier.

  2. Separation of Competency and Affect Components of Multiple Dimensions of Academic Self-Concept: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda; Debus, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    Examined how separation of competency and affect components of self-concept domains varied in 7- to 13-year-olds. Found that Self-Description Questionnaire factor loadings were invariant over age comparisons. Correlations among reading, math, and school self-concepts decreased with age. Correlations between competency and affect within domains…

  3. The Twofold Multidimensionality of Academic Self-Concept: Domain Specificity and Separation between Competence and Affect Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Academic self-concept is consistently proven to be multidimensional rather than unidimensional as it is domain specific in nature. However, each specific self-concept domain may be further separated into competence and affect components. This study examines the twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept (i.e., its domain specificity and…

  4. A New Technique for Joining Ceramic and Metal Components in High Temperature Electrochemical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2007-01-01

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  5. A new technique for joining ceramic and metal components in high temperature electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K.S.; Hardy, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.

    2007-01-02

    Coal is a potentially very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum, strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  6. Purification of genus-specific chlamydial antigen and its separation into several components by ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, N; Krauss, H

    1982-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate-extracted genus-specific chlamydial antigen was purified from contaminating substances by ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE-sephacel, resulting in a decrease in the complement-fixing activity of the antigen, whereas the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay activity increased. By successive elution with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 M acetate buffer at least three clearly separated components were consistently recovered in 14 trials. The identity of these components as genus-specific chlamydial antigen was demonstrated in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests with specific antisera. The antigenic activity of these components was not diminished by prior treatment of the chlamydial particles with pronase. Antiserum prepared by immunization of rabbits with the antigenic component I of an egg-propagated antigen reacted predominantly with the antigenic components I and II of a cell culture-propagated antigen. PMID:7096557

  7. Measurements of Separate Neutron and Gamma-Ray Coincidences with Liquid Scintillators and Digital PSD Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A

    2007-10-01

    A new technique is presented for the measurement of neutron and/or gamma-ray coincidences. Separate neutron neutron, neutron gamma-ray, gamma-ray neutron, and gamma-ray gamma-ray coincidences are acquired with liquid scintillation detectors and a digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique based on standard charge integration method. The measurement technique allows for the collection of fast coincidences in a time window of the order of a few tens of nanoseconds between the coincident particles. The PSD allows for the acquisition of the coincidences in all particle combinations. The measurements are compared to results obtained with the MCNP-PoliMi code, which simulates neutron and gamma-ray coincidences from from a source on an event-by-event basis. This comparison leads to good qualitative agreement.

  8. Improved separation of soft and hard components in multiple Coulomb scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of the angular distribution function of particles scattered in an amorphous medium is improved by deforming the integration path in the Fourier integral representation into the complex plane. That allows us to present the distribution function as a sum of two positive components, soft and hard, the soft component being close to a Gaussian, and the hard component vanishing in the forward direction, while including the Rutherford asymptotics and all the power corrections to it at large scattering angles. Detailed properties of these components, and their interplay at intermediate deflection angles are discussed. Comparison with the Molière theory is given.

  9. A Technique To Quantify the Population Size and Composition of the Biofilm Component in Communities of Bacteria in the Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cindy E.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    1998-01-01

    The presence of microbial biofilms in the phyllosphere of terrestrial plants has recently been demonstrated, but few techniques to study biofilms associated with living plant tissues are available. Here we report a technique to estimate the proportion of the bacterial population on leaves that is assembled in biofilms and to quantitatively isolate bacteria from the biofilm and nonbiofilm (solitary) components of phyllosphere microbial communities. This technique is based on removal of bacteria from leaves by gentle washing, separation of biofilm and solitary bacteria by filtration, and disintegration of biofilms by ultrasonication. The filters used for this technique were evaluated for their nonspecific retention rates of solitary bacteria and for the efficiency of filtration for different concentrations of solitary bacteria in the presence of biofilms and other particles. The lethality and efficiency of disintegration of the sonication conditions used here were also evaluated. Isolation and quantification of bacteria by this technique is based on use of culture media. However, oligonucleotide probes, sera, or epifluorescent stains could also be used for direct characterization of the biofilm and solitary bacteria in the suspensions generated by this technique. Preliminary results from estimates of biofilm abundance in phyllosphere communities show that bacteria in biofilms constitute between about 10 and 40% of the total bacterial population on broad-leaf endive and parsley leaves. PMID:9835563

  10. Separation and characterization of coal derived components. Quarterly report, 1 October 1983-31 December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtubise, R.H.; Silver, H.F.

    1984-01-16

    No new field-ionization data was obtained this quarter. For preasphaltenes, elemental analysis data was obtained on Kentucky and Wyodak preasphaltene samples. In conjunction with the preasphaltene work, solubility and thin-layer chromatography experiments were performed. The results indicated that basic alumina would not be useful as a general stationary phase for the separation of preasphaltenes. Several experiments were carried out with Chromasorb T, and the results showed it would be an adequate substitute for Fluoropak. The hydrocarbons in a sample from Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center were separated by the number of double bonds. The optimum mobile phases for the separation of monohydroxyl aromatics and dihydroxyl aromatics by reversed-phase liquid chromatography were obtained. In addition, a means of predicting retention in normal-phase chromatography was considered, and a NO/sub 2/ high-performance chromatographic column showed promise for the separation of compound classes. 6 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Space cryogenics components based on the thermomechanical effect - Vapor-liquid phase separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of the thermomechanical effect has been qualified including incorporation in large-scale space systems in the area of vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS). The theory of the porous-plug phase separator is developed for the limit of a high thermal impedance of the solid-state grains. Extensions of the theory of nonlinear turbulent flow are presented based on experimental results.

  12. System approach to robust acoustic echo cancellation through semi-blind source separation based on independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ted S.

    In this dissertation, we build a foundation for what we refer to as the system approach to signal enhancement as we focus on the acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) problem. Such a “system” perspective aims for the integration of individual components, or algorithms, into a cohesive unit for the benefit of the system as a whole to cope with real-world enhancement problems. The standard system identification approach by minimizing the mean square error (MSE) of a linear system is sensitive to distortions that greatly affect the quality of the identification result. Therefore, we begin by examining in detail the technique of using a noise-suppressing nonlinearity in the adaptive filter error feedback-loop of the LMS algorithm when there is an interference at the near end, where the source of distortion may be linear or nonlinear. We provide a thorough derivation and analysis of the error recovery nonlinearity (ERN) that “enhances” the filter estimation error prior to the adaptation to transform the corrupted error’s distribution into a desired one, or very close to it, in order to assist the linear adaptation process. We reveal important connections of the residual echo enhancement (REE) technique to other existing AEC and signal enhancement procedures, where the technique is well-founded in the information-theoretic sense and has strong ties to independent component analysis (ICA), which is the basis for blind source separation (BSS) that permits unsupervised adaptation in the presence of multiple interfering signals. Notably, the single-channel AEC problem can be viewed as a special case of semi-blind source separation (SBSS) where one of the source signals is partially known, i.e., the far-end microphone signal that generates the near-end acoustic echo. Indeed, SBSS optimized via ICA leads to the system combination of the LMS algorithm with the ERN that allows continuous and stable adaptation even during double talk. Next, we extend the system perspective

  13. A simple calculation algorithm to separate high-resolution CH4 flux measurements into ebullition and diffusion-derived components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Schulz-Hanke, Maximilian; Garcia Alba, Joana; Jurisch, Nicole; Hagemann, Ulrike; Sachs, Torsten; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Processes driving methane (CH4) emissions in wetland ecosystems are highly complex. Especially, the separation of CH4 emissions into ebullition and diffusion derived flux components, a perquisite for the mechanistic process understanding and identification of potential environmental driver is rather challenging. We present a simple calculation algorithm, based on an adaptive R-script, which separates open-water, closed chamber CH4 flux measurements into diffusion- and ebullition-derived components. Hence, flux component specific dynamics are revealed and potential environmental driver identified. Flux separation is based on a statistical approach, using ebullition related sudden concentration changes obtained during high resolution CH4 concentration measurements. By applying the lower and upper quartile ± the interquartile range (IQR) as a variable threshold, diffusion dominated periods of the flux measurement are filtered. Subsequently, flux calculation and separation is performed. The algorithm was verified in a laboratory experiment and tested under field conditions, using flux measurement data (July to September 2013) from a flooded, former fen grassland site. Erratic ebullition events contributed 46% to total CH4 emissions, which is comparable to values reported by literature. Additionally, a shift in the diurnal trend of diffusive fluxes throughout the measurement period, driven by the water temperature gradient, was revealed.

  14. A soap technique for cell separation to study the seed coat of Sesbania punicea.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, L; Massa, G; Modenesi, P; Fossati, F

    1993-05-01

    A technique is described for separating plant cells used for morphological studies. The plant material is placed in a concentrated solution of olive oil castile soap for 1-2 days or more. The material is then thoroughly washed and placed between two glass slides. The upper glass slide is lifted from the lower one, then gently pressed down several times. Through this procedure Malpighian cells of the seed coat of Sesbania punicea, mesophyll cells of Euphorbia peplus and of Trifolium pratense and cortical cells of the aerial roots of Monstera deliciosa have been separated. Various shapes of the Malpighian cells of the Sesbania punicea seed coat can be observed along with intermediates. PMID:7687883

  15. Investigation of the pressure and velocity fields in a turbulent separated flow using the LES technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Friedrich, R.

    1991-01-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is utilized to investigate the turbulent separating and reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step. Simulations on a series of successively refined grids were performed (maximum resolution: 320 x 64 x 48). Statistical results are compared with experimental data and show good agreement. An examination of the simulated flow fields reveals the instantaneous structure of the separating shear layer, the reattachment zone and the recirculation region. Large departures from the mean in both the velocity and pressure fields are found to occur in all three regions. The shape and size of structures in the velocity and pressure fields varies with the proximity of solid walls and the region of the flow domain. Awareness of the instantaneous flow field structure is shown to be instrumental to having a complete understanding of the unsteady turbulent flow.

  16. Simulation and experimental determination of the online separation of blood components with the help of microfluidic cascading spirals

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Lisa; Dutz, Silvio; Schneider, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic spirals were used to successfully separate rare solid components from unpretreated human whole blood samples. The measured separation ratio of the spirals is the factor by which the concentration of the rare component is increased due to the Dean effect present in a flow profile in a curved duct. Different rates of dilution of the blood samples with a phosphate-buffered solution were investigated. The diameters of the spherical particles to separate ranged from 2 μm to 18 μm. It was found that diluting the blood to 20% is optimal leading to a separation ratio up to 1.97. Using two spirals continuously placed in a row led to an increase in separation efficacy in samples consisting of phosphate-buffered solution only from 1.86 to 3.79. Numerical investigations were carried out to display the flow profiles of Newtonian water samples and the shear-thinning blood samples in the cross-section of the experimentally handled channels. A macroscopic difference in velocity between the two rheologically different fluids could not be found. The macroscopic Dean flow is equally present and useful to help particles migrate to certain equilibrium positions in blood as well as lower viscous Newtonian fluids. The investigations highlight the potential for using highly concentrated, very heterogeneous, and non-Newtonian fluidic systems in known microsystems for screening applications. PMID:26339311

  17. Simulation and experimental determination of the online separation of blood components with the help of microfluidic cascading spirals.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Lisa; Dutz, Silvio; Schneider, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Häfeli, Urs O

    2015-07-01

    Microfluidic spirals were used to successfully separate rare solid components from unpretreated human whole blood samples. The measured separation ratio of the spirals is the factor by which the concentration of the rare component is increased due to the Dean effect present in a flow profile in a curved duct. Different rates of dilution of the blood samples with a phosphate-buffered solution were investigated. The diameters of the spherical particles to separate ranged from 2 μm to 18 μm. It was found that diluting the blood to 20% is optimal leading to a separation ratio up to 1.97. Using two spirals continuously placed in a row led to an increase in separation efficacy in samples consisting of phosphate-buffered solution only from 1.86 to 3.79. Numerical investigations were carried out to display the flow profiles of Newtonian water samples and the shear-thinning blood samples in the cross-section of the experimentally handled channels. A macroscopic difference in velocity between the two rheologically different fluids could not be found. The macroscopic Dean flow is equally present and useful to help particles migrate to certain equilibrium positions in blood as well as lower viscous Newtonian fluids. The investigations highlight the potential for using highly concentrated, very heterogeneous, and non-Newtonian fluidic systems in known microsystems for screening applications. PMID:26339311

  18. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data Separates Chemicals by Class

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in action potential "spikes" in neuronal networks and can be used to screen chemicals for neurotoxicity. Analytical "fingerprinting," using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on spike trains recorded from prim...

  19. Components of paint thinner in body fluids clearly detected using the salting-out technique.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Nagata, T; Kimura, K; Kudo, K; Imamura, T; Noda, M

    1990-01-01

    For a more sensitive detection of paint thinner components in body fluids, we made use of a salting-out technique, with sodium chloride added to blood samples followed by gas chromatography, using the headspace method. The detection of ethyl acetate and isobutanol was considerably enhanced using these approaches. PMID:2303209

  20. Separation of a Five-Component Mixture in the Microscale Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry laboratory which involves the separation and purification of a mixture consisting of a strong organic acid, a weak organic acid, an organic base, and two neutral compounds. Reinforced are the basic principles of acid/base chemistry and the physical properties of the associated functional groups. (CW)

  1. Recent trends in analytical methods and separation techniques for drugs of abuse in hair.

    PubMed

    Baciu, T; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C; Calull, M

    2015-01-26

    Hair analysis of drugs of abuse has been a subject of growing interest from a clinical, social and forensic perspective for years because of the broad time detection window after intake in comparison to urine and blood analysis. Over the last few years, hair analysis has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of drug abuse in a wide variety of contexts, shown by the large number of applications developed. This review aims to provide an overview of the state of the art and the latest trends used in the literature from 2005 to the present in the analysis of drugs of abuse in hair, with a special focus on separation analytical techniques and their hyphenation with mass spectrometry detection. The most recently introduced sample preparation techniques are also addressed in this paper. The main strengths and weaknesses of all of these approaches are critically discussed by means of relevant applications. PMID:25542354

  2. Applying Reflective Middleware Techniques to Optimize a QoS-enabled CORBA Component Model Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Nanbor; Parameswaran, Kirthika; Kircher, Michael; Schmidt, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Although existing CORBA specifications, such as Real-time CORBA and CORBA Messaging, address many end-to-end quality-of service (QoS) properties, they do not define strategies for configuring these properties into applications flexibly, transparently, and adaptively. Therefore, application developers must make these configuration decisions manually and explicitly, which is tedious, error-prone, and open sub-optimal. Although the recently adopted CORBA Component Model (CCM) does define a standard configuration framework for packaging and deploying software components, conventional CCM implementations focus on functionality rather than adaptive quality-of-service, which makes them unsuitable for next-generation applications with demanding QoS requirements. This paper presents three contributions to the study of middleware for QoS-enabled component-based applications. It outlines rejective middleware techniques designed to adaptively (1) select optimal communication mechanisms, (2) manage QoS properties of CORBA components in their contain- ers, and (3) (re)con$gure selected component executors dynamically. Based on our ongoing research on CORBA and the CCM, we believe the application of rejective techniques to component middleware will provide a dynamically adaptive and (re)configurable framework for COTS software that is well-suited for the QoS demands of next-generation applications.

  3. Applying Reflective Middleware Techniques to Optimize a QoS-enabled CORBA Component Model Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Nanbor; Kircher, Michael; Schmidt, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    Although existing CORBA specifications, such as Real-time CORBA and CORBA Messaging, address many end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) properties, they do not define strategies for configuring these properties into applications flexibly, transparently, and adaptively. Therefore, application developers must make these configuration decisions manually and explicitly, which is tedious, error-prone, and often sub-optimal. Although the recently adopted CORBA Component Model (CCM) does define a standard configuration frame-work for packaging and deploying software components, conventional CCM implementations focus on functionality rather than adaptive quality-of service, which makes them unsuitable for next-generation applications with demanding QoS requirements. This paper presents three contributions to the study of middleware for QoS-enabled component-based applications. It outlines reflective middleware techniques designed to adaptively: (1) select optimal communication mechanisms, (2) man- age QoS properties of CORBA components in their containers, and (3) (re)configure selected component executors dynamically. Based on our ongoing research on CORBA and the CCM, we believe the application of reflective techniques to component middleware will provide a dynamically adaptive and (re)configurable framework for COTS software that is well-suited for the QoS demands of next-generation applications.

  4. Separation of silica from spent geothermal fluids by adsorptive bubble techniques

    SciTech Connect

    De Carlo, E.H.; Ronay, C.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of amorphous silica from super-saturated high ionic strength geothermal fluids produced by the Hawaii Geothermal Project Well-A. A bench-scale technique which makes use of adsorptive bubble flotation is employed to remove silica after flocculation by the addition of polyvalent metal ions to hot (60-90/sup 0/C) spent brine discharge. Ferric and aluminum salts are evaluated as flocculants under varying conditions. The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and the cationic surfactant lauryl amine hydrochloride (LA) are utilized as the collectors below and above the isoelectric point, respectively. Efficiency of removal of the silica is pH, metal concentration, and surfactant-type dependent. Best results are achieved under slightly alkaline conditions (pH = 8), using 3.75 x 10E/sup -4/ M ferric ion present as its sulfate, La as the collector, and with a gas flow of 15 +/- 3 mL/min. Under these conditions, approximately 70 +/- 2% of the total silica is separated from the brine discharge; this value, although not quantitative, represents more than 85% removal of the silica present above its amorphous solubility at the operating temperature. After the separation process, fluids contain residual concentrations of silica which are not expected to result in scale deposition and which can then be passed through heat exchangers to extract further energy for secondary uses.

  5. Repair of massive ventral hernias with the separation of parts technique: reversal of the 'lost domain'.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ivan; Small, William; Dumanian, Gregory Ara

    2009-04-01

    Massive ventral hernia repairs are sometimes complicated by the "loss of domain". The separation of parts hernia repair reverses the loss of domain by increasing intra-abdominal volume, but not by elevating the hemidiaphragms into the thoracic cavity. Hernia repair in patients with a "loss of abdominal domain" is thought to be associated with postoperative pulmonary difficulties. A retrospective chart review was performed on 102 patients treated by a single surgeon. The 10 patients with matching preoperative and postoperative abdominal CT scans were computer-analyzed for intra-abdominal volume changes and diaphragm height measurements. Postoperative pulmonary complications in these 102 patients were recorded. Intra-abdominal volume increased after separation of parts hernia repair from 8600 +/- 2800 mL to 9700 +/- 2700 mL (P = 0.01). Diaphragm height did not statistically change. Two of the 102 patients had prolonged intubations, and seven other patients were ventilated briefly. The separation of parts technique is able to close large ventral hernias without a high incidence of pulmonary complications as a result of its ability to expand the abdominal domain without a change in diaphragmatic height. PMID:19385289

  6. Constrained tone transformation technique for separation and combination of Mandarin tone and intonation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinfu; Kawai, Hisashi; Hirose, Keikichi

    2006-03-01

    This paper addresses a classical but important problem: The coupling of lexical tones and sentence intonation in tonal languages, such as Chinese, focusing particularly on voice fundamental frequency (F1) contours of speech. It is important because it forms the basis of speech synthesis technology and prosody analysis. We provide a solution to the problem with a constrained tone transformation technique based on structural modeling of the F1 contours. This consists of transforming target values in pairs from norms to variants. These targets are intended to sparsely specify the prosodic contributions to the F1 contours, while the alignment of target pairs between norms and variants is based on underlying lexical tone structures. When the norms take the citation forms of lexical tones, the technique makes it possible to separate sentence intonation from observed F0 contours. When the norms take normative F0 contours, it is possible to measure intonation variations from the norms to the variants, both having identical lexical tone structures. This paper explains the underlying scientific and linguistic principles and presents an algorithm that was implemented on computers. The method's capability of separating and combining tone and intonation is evaluated through analysis and re-synthesis of several hundred observed F0 contours. PMID:16583918

  7. Comparison Between Digital and Analog Pulse Shape Discrimination Techniques For Neutron and Gamma Ray Separation

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aryaeinejad; John K. Hartwell

    2005-11-01

    Recent advancement in digital signal processing (DSP) using fast processors and computer makes it possible to be used in pulse shape discrimination applications. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a DSP to distinguish between the neutrons and gamma rays by the shape of their pulses in a liquid scintillator detector (BC501), and have investigated pulse shape-based techniques to improve the resolution performance of room-temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. For the neutron/gamma discrimination, the advantage of using a DSP over the analog method is that in analog system two separate charge-sensitive ADC's are required. One ADC is used to integrate the beginning of the pulse risetime while the second ADC is for integrating the tail part. Using a DSP eliminates the need for separate ADCs as one can easily get the integration of two parts of the pulse from the digital waveforms. This work describes the performance of these DSP techniques and compares the results with the analog method.

  8. Comparison Between Digital and Analog Pulse Shape Discrimination Techniques for Neutron and Gamma Ray Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad

    2005-10-01

    Recent advancements in digital signal processing (DSP) using fast processors and a computer allows one to envision using it in pulse shape discrimination. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a DSP to distinguish between neutrons and gamma rays by the shape of their pulses in a liquid scintillator detector (BC501). For neutron/gamma discrimination, the advantage of using a DSP over the analog method is that in an analog system, two separate charge-sensitive ADCs are required. One ADC is used to integrate the beginning of the pulse rise time while the second ADC is for integrating the tail part. In DSP techniques the incoming pulses coming directly from the detector are immediately digitized and can be decomposed into individual pulses waveforms. This eliminates the need for separate ADCs as one can easily get the integration of two parts of the pulse from the digital waveforms. This work describes the performance of these DSP techniques and compares the results with the analog method.

  9. Separation of asphaltic materials from heptane soluble components in liquified solid hydrocarbonaceous extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.

    1980-07-08

    An improved method is described for maximizing the separation of the heat labile fraction of asphaltic materials in a liquified solid hydrocarbonaceous extract, which comprises the steps of: (A) adding a solvent having a boiling range of from about 50 to 200/sup 0/C for the heptane solubles of said extract, (B) effecting a mixing of said solvent and said extract and providing a pressurized centrifuging action of the combined stream in a confined pressure-tight powered centrifuging zone at a temperature in the range of 100/sup 0/C, to about 200/sup 0//c while at an elevated pressure at least sufficient to maintain the solvent material in a liquid state, whereby to separate the heavier heat labile asphaltic materials fraction from the mixture, and (C) effecting the withdrawal of the asphaltic fraction from the centrifuging zone substantially free of the resulting solution of the heptane soluble liquified fuel extract.

  10. 5 CFR 5501.102 - Designation of HHS components as separate agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the twelve components of HHS listed below is designated as an agency... agencies for purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of HHS: (1) Administration on Aging; (2) Administration for Children and Families: (3) Agency...

  11. 5 CFR 5501.102 - Designation of HHS components as separate agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the twelve components of HHS listed below is designated as an agency... agencies for purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of HHS: (1) Administration on Aging; (2) Administration for Children and Families: (3) Agency...

  12. 5 CFR 5501.102 - Designation of HHS components as separate agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the twelve components of HHS listed below is designated as an agency... agencies for purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of HHS: (1) Administration on Aging; (2) Administration for Children and Families: (3) Agency...

  13. Separating spatial search and efficiency rates as components of predation risk.

    PubMed

    DeCesare, Nicholas J

    2012-11-22

    Predation risk is an important driver of ecosystems, and local spatial variation in risk can have population-level consequences by affecting multiple components of the predation process. I use resource selection and proportional hazard time-to-event modelling to assess the spatial drivers of two key components of risk--the search rate (i.e. aggregative response) and predation efficiency rate (i.e. functional response)--imposed by wolves (Canis lupus) in a multi-prey system. In my study area, both components of risk increased according to topographic variation, but anthropogenic features affected only the search rate. Predicted models of the cumulative hazard, or risk of a kill, underlying wolf search paths validated well with broad-scale variation in kill rates, suggesting that spatial hazard models provide a means of scaling up from local heterogeneity in predation risk to population-level dynamics in predator-prey systems. Additionally, I estimated an integrated model of relative spatial predation risk as the product of the search and efficiency rates, combining the distinct contributions of spatial heterogeneity to each component of risk. PMID:22977145

  14. 5 CFR 5501.102 - Designation of HHS components as separate agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of the twelve components of HHS listed below is designated as an agency... agencies for purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the... Disease Control and Prevention; (6) Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; (7) Food and...

  15. Separation of the atmospheric variability into non-Gaussian multidimensional sources by projection pursuit techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Carlos A. L.; Ribeiro, Andreia F. S.

    2016-04-01

    We develop an expansion of space-distributed time series into statistically independent uncorrelated subspaces (statistical sources) of low-dimension and exhibiting enhanced non-Gaussian probability distributions with geometrically simple chosen shapes (projection pursuit rationale). The method relies upon a generalization of the principal component analysis that is optimal for Gaussian mixed signals and of the independent component analysis (ICA), optimized to split non-Gaussian scalar sources. The proposed method, supported by information theory concepts and methods, is the independent subspace analysis (ISA) that looks for multi-dimensional, intrinsically synergetic subspaces such as dyads (2D) and triads (3D), not separable by ICA. Basically, we optimize rotated variables maximizing certain nonlinear correlations (contrast functions) coming from the non-Gaussianity of the joint distribution. As a by-product, it provides nonlinear variable changes `unfolding' the subspaces into nearly Gaussian scalars of easier post-processing. Moreover, the new variables still work as nonlinear data exploratory indices of the non-Gaussian variability of the analysed climatic and geophysical fields. The method (ISA, followed by nonlinear unfolding) is tested into three datasets. The first one comes from the Lorenz'63 three-dimensional chaotic model, showing a clear separation into a non-Gaussian dyad plus an independent scalar. The second one is a mixture of propagating waves of random correlated phases in which the emergence of triadic wave resonances imprints a statistical signature in terms of a non-Gaussian non-separable triad. Finally the method is applied to the monthly variability of a high-dimensional quasi-geostrophic (QG) atmospheric model, applied to the Northern Hemispheric winter. We find that quite enhanced non-Gaussian dyads of parabolic shape, perform much better than the unrotated variables in which concerns the separation of the four model's centroid regimes

  16. An improved independent component analysis model for 3D chromatogram separation and its solution by multi-areas genetic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 3D chromatogram generated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) has been researched widely in the field of herbal medicine, grape wine, agriculture, petroleum and so on. Currently, most of the methods used for separating a 3D chromatogram need to know the compounds' number in advance, which could be impossible especially when the compounds are complex or white noise exist. New method which extracts compounds from 3D chromatogram directly is needed. Methods In this paper, a new separation model named parallel Independent Component Analysis constrained by Reference Curve (pICARC) was proposed to transform the separation problem to a multi-parameter optimization issue. It was not necessary to know the number of compounds in the optimization. In order to find all the solutions, an algorithm named multi-areas Genetic Algorithm (mGA) was proposed, where multiple areas of candidate solutions were constructed according to the fitness and distances among the chromosomes. Results Simulations and experiments on a real life HPLC-DAD data set were used to demonstrate our method and its effectiveness. Through simulations, it can be seen that our method can separate 3D chromatogram to chromatogram peaks and spectra successfully even when they severely overlapped. It is also shown by the experiments that our method is effective to solve real HPLC-DAD data set. Conclusions Our method can separate 3D chromatogram successfully without knowing the compounds' number in advance, which is fast and effective. PMID:25474487

  17. Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

  18. Separation characteristics and component comparison of woody extracts of Illicium verum fruit.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Yu, Ji; Chang, Junbo; Deng, Heping

    2014-11-01

    Illicium verum was a medicinal plant containing many valuable active ingredients. However, the rich extracts from its fruit are invariably wasted for inefficient separation processes. To further utilize these resources, the four extracts were obtained. The results showed that the optimum extraction times for methanol/ethanol, ether/ethanol, benzene/ethanol, and petroleum ether/ethanol extraction were 3, 5, 9, and 5 h for each single extraction, respectively. Among the four methods, the third method was found to be optimum, and gave a maximum yield of 31.63%. It was suggested that the extracts could be used as rare spices, biomedicines, liquid bioenergy, etc. PMID:25410074

  19. [Determination of six main components in compound theophylline tablet by convolution curve method after prior separation by column partition chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wang, G. F.; Wu, Y. T.; Baldwin, K. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    On a partition chromatographic column in which the support is Kieselguhr and the stationary phase is sulfuric acid solution (2 mol/L), three components of compound theophylline tablet were simultaneously eluted by chloroform and three other components were simultaneously eluted by ammonia-saturated chloroform. The two mixtures were determined by computer-aided convolution curve method separately. The corresponding average recovery and relative standard deviation of the six components were as follows: 101.6, 1.46% for caffeine; 99.7, 0.10% for phenacetin; 100.9, 1.31% for phenobarbitone; 100.2, 0.81% for theophylline; 99.9, 0.81% for theobromine and 100.8, 0.48% for aminopyrine.

  20. Difference-NMR techniques for selection of components on the basis of relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Douglas J.; de Azevedo, Eduardo R.; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2003-05-01

    This work describes a numerical methodology to obtain more efficient relaxation filters to selectively retain or remove components based on relaxation times. The procedure uses linear combinations of spectra with various recycle or filter delays to obtain components that are both quantitative and pure. Modulation profiles are calculated assuming exponential relaxation behavior. The method is general and can be applied to a wide range of solution or solid-state NMR experiments including direct-polarization (DP), or filtered cross-polarization (CP) spectra. 13C NMR experiments on isotactic poly(1-butene) and dimethyl sulfone showed the utility of the technique for selectively suppressing peaks.

  1. Phase Separation and Dynamics of Trapped Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Np; Lee, Kl; Edmonds, M.; Liu, I.-K.; Jorgensen, Nb; Wacker, L.; Arlt, Jj

    2016-05-01

    Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are an attractive system to study the non-equilibrium dynamics of interacting quantum gases. We recently formulated a self-consistent kinetic model to study such systems at finite-temperature, where both components are partially-condensed. The BECs and the thermal atoms are coupled together through both the mean-field interactions and all possible collisional processes. We demonstrate the potential dominance of an energy-conserving exchange collision involving a BEC atom and a thermal atom from different components, and discuss the control of the hydrodynamicity through variations of temperature, trap frequencies and trap geometries. Numerically analysing the miscibility-immiscibility phase diagram for the trapped 87Rb-39K experimental system, we demonstrate deviations from the simple (homogeneous) interaction strength criterion (g122 /g11g22 = 1), with the transition boundary depending on the BEC atom numbers. We propose the experimental mapping of this boundary by monitoring the damping rate of the dipole oscillations, supported by detailed numerical simulations at zero and finite temperatures. Acknowledge: EPSRC (Grant No. EP/K03250X/1).

  2. An optical system for measuring nitric oxide using spectral separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Somesfalean, G.; Guo, W.; Wang, H. S.; Wu, S. H.; Qin, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2012-05-01

    An optical sensor based on differential absorption spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of industrial nitric oxide (NO) gas emission is described. The influence of gas absorption interference from sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the environment was considered and a spectral separation technique was developed in order to eliminate this interference effect. The absorption spectrum of SO2 around 226 nm was evaluated by the SO2 concentration obtained using the experimentally recorded absorption spectrum around 300 nm. The absorption spectrum of NO around 226 nm was obtained by subtracting the absorption of SO2 from the integral absorption spectrum of SO2 and NO. The concentration measurements were performed at atmospheric pressure. The technique was found to have a lower detection limit of 0.8 ppm for NO per meter path length (SNR=2) and be immune from the influence from SO2 on the NO measurement. The sensor based on this technique was successfully employed for in situ measurement of SO2 and NO concentrations in the flue gas emitted from an industrial coal-fired boiler.

  3. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    ). (iii) Dominant non-stationary patterns are recognized as independent complex patterns that can be used to represent the space and time amplitude and phase propagations. We present the results of CICA on simulated and real cases e.g., for quantifying the impact of large-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction on global mass changes. Forootan (PhD-2014) Statistical signal decomposition techniques for analyzing time-variable satellite gravimetry data, PhD Thesis, University of Bonn, http://hss.ulb.uni-bonn.de/2014/3766/3766.htm Forootan and Kusche (JoG-2012) Separation of global time-variable gravity signals into maximally independent components, Journal of Geodesy 86 (7), 477-497, doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0532-5

  4. Oscillating signal components of a dead-weight force-standard machine and reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yon-Kyu; Kang, Dae-Im

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of a dead-weight force-standard machine at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). When a build-up system is set into a dead-weight machine, the signals from the force transducers in the build-up system consist of a dc component and oscillating signal components. The dominant oscillating components are due to pendulum motions of the dead weights and bounce-mode oscillation. The oscillation frequencies are about 0.19-0.23 Hz for the pendulum motions and 0.67-1.42 Hz for the bounce-mode oscillation. The frequencies decrease as the weights loaded are increased. The time-averaging technique is the simplest method for reducing the ac components. However, it has some limitations in that the averaging time must be re-adjusted according to the loading conditions. Other methods of reducing the ac components are therefore required. We introduced an infinite-impulse-response (IIR) low-pass filter, which reduced the oscillating components dramatically for all loading conditions. The results obtained by using IIR filtering were compared with those of time averaging and shown to be better.

  5. Comparison of cementing techniques of the tibial component in total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming Guo; Wood, David; Nivbrant, Bo

    2008-01-01

    A few studies have shown that cementing the stem enhances fixation of the tibial baseplate in total knee replacement (TKR). Even the horizontal technique has been shown to provide good fixation. We used radiostereometry to study migration of the tibial component in 30 knees operated with Profix TKR. The knees were randomised for either complete (both under the baseplate and around the stem) or horizontal (only under the baseplate) cementing of the tibial component. At two years the tibial baseplate rotated externally a median of 0.18° in the uncemented stem group and internally a median of 0.23° in the cemented stem group. The tibial baseplate subsided 0.14 mm in the cemented stem group, and no translation was seen in the uncemented stem group. The differences in migration were small and probably without clinical significance. The findings do not favour either of the cementing techniques in TKR. PMID:18704414

  6. Comparison of cementing techniques of the tibial component in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Saari, Tuuli; Li, Ming Guo; Wood, David; Nivbrant, Bo

    2009-10-01

    A few studies have shown that cementing the stem enhances fixation of the tibial baseplate in total knee replacement (TKR). Even the horizontal technique has been shown to provide good fixation. We used radiostereometry to study migration of the tibial component in 30 knees operated with Profix TKR. The knees were randomised for either complete (both under the baseplate and around the stem) or horizontal (only under the baseplate) cementing of the tibial component. At two years the tibial baseplate rotated externally a median of 0.18 degrees in the uncemented stem group and internally a median of 0.23 degrees in the cemented stem group. The tibial baseplate subsided 0.14 mm in the cemented stem group, and no translation was seen in the uncemented stem group. The differences in migration were small and probably without clinical significance. The findings do not favour either of the cementing techniques in TKR. PMID:18704414

  7. Expanded separation technique for chlorophyll metabolites in Oriental tobacco leaf using non aqueous reversed phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Naoyuki

    2011-08-26

    An improved separation method for chlorophyll metabolites in Oriental tobacco leaf was developed. While Oriental leaf still gives the green color even after the curing process, little attention has been paid to the detailed composition of the remaining green pigments. This study aimed to identify the green pigments using non aqueous reversed phase chromatography (NARPC). To this end, liquid chromatograph (LC) equipped with a photo diode array detector (DAD) and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometer (APCI/MSD) was selected, because it is useful for detecting low polar non-volatile compounds giving green color such as pheophytin a. Identification was based on the wavelength spectrum, mass spectrum and retention time, comparing the analytes in Oriental leaf with the commercially available and synthesized components. Consequently, several chlorophyll metabolites such as hydroxypheophytin a, solanesyl pheophorbide a and solanesyl hydroxypheophorbide a were newly identified, in addition to typical green pigments such as chlorophyll a and pheophytin a. Chlorophyll metabolites bound to solanesol were considered the tobacco specific components. NARPC expanded the number of detectable low polar chlorophyll metabolites in Oriental tobacco leaf. PMID:21782189

  8. Recovery of Phytochemical Components from Various Parts of Morinda citrifolia Extracts by Using Membrane Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Sarbatly, Rosalam; Nah, Ng Lee

    In this study, extracts from various Morinda Citrifolia parts (leaf, fruit and root) by methanol was separated into permeate and retentate fractions using a membrane system equipped with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. NF was carried on a ceramic membrane with MWCO of 5 kD. Effect of NF transmembrane pressure at 0.1, 0.12 and 0.17 bar was examined at constant temperature 45EC with constant flow rate. The influence of transmembrane pressure on the efficiency of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of permeate retentate concentration was examined. The antioxidant activities of crude mengkudu extracts, NF permeate and retentate were evaluated by using the DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  9. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The application of existing and new technology to the problem of determining the long-term performance capability of liquid rocket propulsion feed systems is discussed. The long term performance of metal to metal valve seats in a liquid propellant fuel system is stressed. The approaches taken in conducting the analysis are: (1) advancing the technology of characterizing components through the development of new or more sensitive techniques and (2) improving the understanding of the physical of degradation.

  10. Improved error separation technique for on-machine optical lens measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xingyu; Bing, Guo; Zhao, Qingliang; Rao, Zhimin; Cheng, Kai; Mulenga, Kabwe

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes an improved error separation technique (EST) for on-machine surface profile measurement which can be applied to optical lenses on precision and ultra-precision machine tools. With only one precise probe and a linear stage, improved EST not only reduces measurement costs, but also shortens the sampling interval, which implies that this method can be used to measure the profile of small-bore lenses. The improved EST with stitching method can be applied to measure the profile of high-height lenses as well. Since the improvement is simple, most of the traditional EST can be modified by this method. The theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the improved EST eliminates the slide error successfully and generates an accurate lens profile.

  11. Antimicrobial effects of wine: separating the role of polyphenols, pH, ethanol, and other wine components.

    PubMed

    Boban, Natasa; Tonkic, Marija; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Sutlovic, Davorka; Punda-Polic, Volga; Boban, Mladen

    2010-06-01

    While the antimicrobial effectiveness of wine is well documented, relative contributions of the wine components to its antimicrobial activity is controversial. To separate the role of wine phenolics, ethanol, and pH from other wine constituents, the antimicrobial effects of intact wine were compared to that of phenols-stripped wine, dealcoholized wine, ethanol, and low pH applied separately and in combination, against 2 common foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli. All samples were biochemically characterized with respect to their total phenolics and resveratrol content, antioxidant capacity, ethanol content, and pH. Antioxidative activity of the samples corresponded to their total phenolics content. Except for respective controls, pH and ethanol content were similar in all samples. The order of antibacterial activity of the samples was: intact wine > phenols-stripped wine > dealcoholized wine > combination of ethanol and low pH > low pH > ethanol. Separate application of ethanol or low pH showed negligible antibacterial activity while their combination showed synergistic effect. Antibacterial activity of the samples could not be related to their total phenolics and resveratrol content, antioxidant capacity, ethanol content, or pH. Our study indicates that antimicrobial activity of complex solutions such as intact wine cannot be exclusively attributed to its phenolic or nonphenolic constituents, nor can the antimicrobial activity of wine be predicted on the basis of its particular components. PMID:20629891

  12. Low-rank and Sparse Matrix Decomposition for Accelerated Dynamic MRI with Separation of Background and Dynamic Components

    PubMed Central

    Otazo, Ricardo; Candès, Emmanuel; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To apply the low-rank plus sparse (L+S) matrix decomposition model to reconstruct undersampled dynamic MRI as a superposition of background and dynamic components in various problems of clinical interest. Theory and Methods The L+S model is natural to represent dynamic MRI data. Incoherence between k−t space (acquisition) and the singular vectors of L and the sparse domain of S is required to reconstruct undersampled data. Incoherence between L and S is required for robust separation of background and dynamic components. Multicoil L+S reconstruction is formulated using a convex optimization approach, where the nuclear-norm is used to enforce low-rank in L and the l1-norm to enforce sparsity in S. Feasibility of the L+S reconstruction was tested in several dynamic MRI experiments with true acceleration including cardiac perfusion, cardiac cine, time-resolved angiography, abdominal and breast perfusion using Cartesian and radial sampling. Results The L+S model increased compressibility of dynamic MRI data and thus enabled high acceleration factors. The inherent background separation improved background suppression performance compared to conventional data subtraction, which is sensitive to motion. Conclusion The high acceleration and background separation enabled by L+S promises to enhance spatial and temporal resolution and to enable background suppression without the need of subtraction or modeling. PMID:24760724

  13. Carbonylation as a separation technique for removal of non-radioactive species for tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Visnapuu, A.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Creed, R.F. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    Much of the waste generated from five decades of weapons production in the US Department of Energy complex contains highly radioactive constituents. With the high cost of permanent disposal space, it is necessary to separate as many of the nonradioactive species from the radioactive as possible. This paper discusses the transfer of carbonyl processing technology from mineral beneficiation and powder metallurgy operations to the separation of Fe and Ni from radioactively contaminated waste streams. Samples of simulated composite Hanford Tank Waste residue were first processed with a calcine/dissolution technique which resulted in a residue powder consisting of 31.9 pct Fe and 3.3 pct Ni. Because of the specification for waste glass compositions, these two constituents become important in determining the number of waste glass logs produced. Pyrometallurgical reduction of the residue powders, followed by subsequent carbonylation, extracted up to 92.0 pct of the Fe and 95.7 pct of the Ni. The resultant product contained as little as 4.9 pct Fe and 0.3 pct Ni. At this level, Fe would no longer be a limiting constituent in the waste glass.

  14. Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes theory, experimental techniques, and the reported data pertaining to the zeta potential of silica and silicon with attention to use as microfluidic substrate materials, particularly for microchip chemical separations. Dependence on cation concentration, buffer and cation type, pH, cation valency, and temperature are discussed. The Debye-Hückel limit, which is often correctly treated as a good approximation for describing the ion concentration in the double layer, can lead to serious errors if it is extended to predict the dependence of zeta potential on the counterion concentration. For indifferent univalent electrolytes (e.g., sodium and potassium), two simple scalings for the dependence of zeta potential on counterion concentration can be derived in high- and low-zeta limits of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzman equation solution in the double layer. It is shown that for most situations relevant to microchip separations, the high-zeta limit is most applicable, leading to the conclusion that the zeta potential on silica substrates is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the molar counterion concentration. The zeta vs. pH dependence measurements from several experiments are compared by normalizing the zeta based on concentration. PMID:14743473

  15. Application of capillary fluid management techniques to the design of a phase separating microgravity bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Barry W.; Neville, Gale E., Jr.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Manned space missions require the development of compact, efficient, and reliable life support systems. A number of aqueous biological conversion processes are associated with bioregenerative life support systems. Vessels, or bioreactors, capable of supporting these processes in microgravity must be developed. An annular flow bioreactor has been conceived. It has the potential to incorporate containment, phase separation, gas exchange, and illumination into a single vessel. The bioreactor utilizes capillary fluid management techniques and is configured as a cylindrical tube in which a two-phase liquid-gas flow is maintained. Vanes placed around the inner perimeter enhance capillary forces and cause the liquid phase to attach and flow along the interior surface of the tube. No physical barrier is required to complete phase separation. It is shown analytically that liquid film thickness is limited only by vane geometry and that an annular flow bioreactor capable of managing 284 liters would occupy 0.7 cubic m, less than half the volume of a Spacelab experiment rack.

  16. Biochemical component identification by light scattering techniques in whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins (albumin, interferon, C reactive protein), microelements (Na+, Ca+), antibiotic of different generations, in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration are represented. Analysis has been performed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonance based sensor with dielectric microspheres from glass and PMMA as sensitive elements fixed by spin - coating techniques in adhesive layer on the surface of substrate or directly on the coupling element. Sensitive layer was integrated into developed fluidic cell with a digital syringe. Light from tuneable laser strict focusing on and scattered by the single microsphere was detected by a CMOS camera. The image was filtered for noise reduction and integrated on two coordinates for evaluation of integrated energy of a measured signal. As the entrance data following signal parameters were used: relative (to a free spectral range) spectral shift of frequency of WGM optical resonance in microsphere and relative efficiency of WGM excitation obtained within a free spectral range which depended on both type and concentration of investigated agents. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using spatial and spectral parameters of scattered by microsphere light with developed data processing. Biochemical component classification and identification of agents under investigation has been performed by network analysis techniques based on probabilistic network and multilayer perceptron. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis.

  17. Instantaneous and Frequency-Warped Signal Processing Techniques for Auditory Source Separation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Avery Li-Chun

    This thesis summarizes several contributions to the areas of signal processing and auditory source separation. The philosophy of Frequency-Warped Signal Processing is introduced as a means for separating the AM and FM contributions to the bandwidth of a complex-valued, frequency-varying sinusoid p (n), transforming it into a signal with slowly-varying parameters. This transformation facilitates the removal of p (n) from an additive mixture while minimizing the amount of damage done to other signal components. The average winding rate of a complex-valued phasor is explored as an estimate of the instantaneous frequency. Theorems are provided showing the robustness of this measure. To implement frequency tracking, a Frequency-Locked Loop algorithm is introduced which uses the complex winding error to update its frequency estimate. The input signal is dynamically demodulated and filtered to extract the envelope. This envelope may then be remodulated to reconstruct the target partial, which may be subtracted from the original signal mixture to yield a new, quickly-adapting form of notch filtering. Enhancements to the basic tracker are made which, under certain conditions, attain the Cramer -Rao bound for the instantaneous frequency estimate. To improve tracking, the novel idea of Harmonic -Locked Loop tracking, using N harmonically constrained trackers, is introduced for tracking signals, such as voices and certain musical instruments. The estimated fundamental frequency is computed from a maximum-likelihood weighting of the N tracking estimates, making it highly robust. The result is that harmonic signals, such as voices, can be isolated from complex mixtures in the presence of other spectrally overlapping signals. Additionally, since phase information is preserved, the resynthesized harmonic signals may be removed from the original mixtures with relatively little damage to the residual signal. Finally, a new methodology is given for designing linear-phase FIR filters

  18. Adaptive detection method of infrared small target based on target-background separation via robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Qin, Shiyin

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the robust principal component analysis, infrared small target image is regarded as low-rank background matrix corrupted by sparse target and noise matrices, thus a new target-background separation model is designed, subsequently, an adaptive detection method of infrared small target is presented. Firstly, multi-scale transform and patch transform are used to generate an image patch set for infrared small target detection; secondly, target-background separation of each patch is achieved by recovering the low-rank and sparse matrices using adaptive weighting parameter; thirdly, the image reconstruction and fusion are carried out to obtain the entire separated background and target images; finally, the infrared small target detection is realized by threshold segmentation of template matching similarity measurement. In order to validate the performance of the proposed method, three experiments: target-background separation, background clutter suppression and infrared small target detection, are performed over different clutter background with real infrared small targets in single-frame or sequence images. A series of experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only suppress background clutter effectively even if with strong noise interference but also detect targets accurately with low false alarm rate.

  19. Frequency-wavenumber implementation for P- and S-wave separation from multi-component seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiaona; Fu, Chao; Gu, Bingluo; Liang, Guanghe

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a frequency-wavenumber domain scheme to separate P- and S-waves from multi-component seismic data at the free surface. Based on the relationship between the P- and S-wave separated elastic equation, and the divergence and curl operators, we modify the equation to make it applicable to surface seismic data. In the modified equation, the P-wavenumber is chosen to reject the P-waves, and the S-wavenumber is chosen to eliminate the S-waves. The changes in the P-S amplitude ratio caused by the wavenumber choice are corrected. For the free surface condition, an up-going wavefield separation filter is introduced into the modified equation, which can remove the free surface effects from the surface seismic data. In the case of a free surface exhibiting lateral heterogeneity, the seismic data are first transformed into the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and then are transformed into the wavenumber domain using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In the second transform using the DFT, the modified equation is used to separate the P- and S-waves. Numerical tests on synthetic data for three models demonstrate the good performance and accuracy of the scheme.

  20. Global skin friction diagnostics: The GLOF technique and measurements of complex separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodiga, Sudesh A.

    This work describes the application of the global luminescent oil film skin friction meter to quantitative global skin friction diagnostics of complex separated flows. The development of this technique is based on the relationship between the oil film thickness and luminescent intensity of a luminescent oil film. The projected thin oil film equation is given to relate the normalized luminescent intensity with skin friction. The variational formulation with a smoothness constraint on skin friction is proposed to obtain a snap shot solution from two consecutive images for a relative skin friction field. A complete skin friction field is reconstructed through superposition of a sequence of snap shot solutions. A refinement is implemented for this technique focused on data reduction simplification and robustness, luminescent oil formulation, UV excitation and oil film application. This is complemented by a systematic study with emphasis on parametric analysis of data reduction variables such as spatial resolution, time step, Lagrange multiplier, image file format and image filtering. A number of separated flows were also investigated---a low aspect ratio NACA0012 rectangular wing at different angles of attack, wing-body junction flow and delta wings at different angles of attack, yaw and roll. Detailed analysis of the complex skin friction topology of each test case was carried out along with topological constraint analysis using the Poincare-Bendixson index formula. The conservation law given by the Poincare-Bendixson index formula for the number of isolated singular points and boundary switch points in a region enclosed by a penetrable boundary is utilized as a general approach in analyzing the topological features of the skin friction fields. A systematic approach was developed to map skin friction vectors from the two dimensional image plane to a three dimensional model surface in the object space. Combined surface pressure and global skin friction measurements

  1. Dry halide method for separating the components of spent nuclear fuels

    DOEpatents

    Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1998-06-30

    The invention is a nonaqueous, single method for processing multiple spent nuclear fuel types by separating the fission and transuranic products from the nonradioactive and fissile uranium product. The invention has four major operations: exposing the spent fuels to chlorine gas at temperatures preferably greater than 1200 C to form volatile metal chlorides; removal of the fission product chlorides, transuranic product chlorides, and any nickel chloride and chromium chloride in a molten salt scrubber at approximately 400 C; fractional condensation of the remaining volatile chlorides at temperatures ranging from 164 to 2 C; and regeneration and recovery of the transferred spent molten salt by vacuum distillation. The residual fission products, transuranic products, and nickel- and chromium chlorides are converted to fluorides or oxides for vitrification. The method offers the significant advantages of a single, compact process that is applicable to most of the diverse nuclear fuels, minimizes secondary wastes, segregates fissile uranium from the high level wastes to resolve potential criticality concerns, segregates nonradioactive wastes from the high level wastes for volume reduction, and produces a common waste form glass or glass-ceramic. 3 figs.

  2. Dry halide method for separating the components of spent nuclear fuels

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Jerry Dale; Thomas, Thomas Russell; Kessinger, Glen F.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a nonaqueous, single method for processing multiple spent nuclear fuel types by separating the fission- and transuranic products from the nonradioactive and fissile uranium product. The invention has four major operations: exposing the spent fuels to chlorine gas at temperatures preferably greater than 1200.degree. C. to form volatile metal chlorides; removal of the fission product chlorides, transuranic product chlorides, and any nickel chloride and chromium chloride in a molten salt scrubber at approximately 400.degree. C.; fractional condensation of the remaining volatile chlorides at temperatures ranging from 164.degree. C. to 2.degree. C.; and regeneration and recovery of the transferred spent molten salt by vacuum distillation. The residual fission products, transuranic products, and nickel- and chromium chlorides are converted to fluorides or oxides for vitrification. The method offers the significant advantages of a single, compact process that is applicable to most of the diverse nuclear fuels, minimizes secondary wastes, segregates fissile uranium from the high level wastes to resolve potential criticality concerns, segregates nonradioactive wastes from the high level wastes for volume reduction, and produces a common waste form glass or glass-ceramic.

  3. Preliminary investigation of a technique to separate fission noble metals from fission product mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, G.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    A variation of the gold-ore fire assay technique was examined as a method for recovering Pd, Rh and Ru from fission products. The mixture of fission product oxides is combined with glass-forming chemicals, a metal oxide such as PbO (scavenging agent), and a reducing agent such as charcoal. When this mixture is melted, a metal button is formed which extracts the noble metals. The remainder cools to form a glass for nuclear waste storage. Recovery depended only on reduction of the scavenger oxide to metal. When such reduction was achieved, no difference in noble metal recovery efficiency was found among the scavengers studied (PbO, SnO, CuO, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/). Not all reducing agents studied, however, were able to reduce all scavenger oxides to metal. Only graphite would reduce SnO and CuO and allow noble metal recovery. The scavenger oxides Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and PbO, however, were reduced by all of the reducing agents tested. Similar noble metal recovery was found with each. Lead oxide was found to be the most promising of the potential scavengers. It was reduced by all of the reducing agents tested, and its higher density may facilitate the separation. Use of lead oxide also appeared to have no deterimental effect on the glass quality. Charcoal was identified as the preferred reducing agent. As long as a separable metal phase was formed in the melt, noble metal recovery was not dependent on the amount of reducing agent and scavenger oxide. High glass viscosities inhibited separation of the molten scavenger, while low viscosities allowed volatile loss of RuO/sub 4/. A viscosity of approx. 20 poise at the processing temperature offered a good compromise between scavenger separation and Ru recovery. Glasses in which PbO was used as the scavenging agent were homogeneous in appearance. Resistance to leaching was close to that of certain waste glasses reported in the literature. 12 figures. 7 tables.

  4. Utility of magnetic cell separation as a molecular sperm preparation technique.

    PubMed

    Said, Tamer M; Agarwal, Ashok; Zborowski, Maciej; Grunewald, Sonja; Glander, Hans-Juergen; Paasch, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) have become the treatment of choice in many cases of infertility; however, the current success rates of these procedures remain suboptimal. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) most likely contributes to failed ART and to the decrease in sperm quality after cryopreservation. There is a likelihood that some sperm selected for ART will display features of apoptosis despite their normal appearance, which may be partially responsible for the low fertilization and implantation rates seen with ART. One of the features of apoptosis is the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) residues, which are normally present on the inner leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane. Colloidal superparamagnetic microbeads ( approximately 50 nm in diameter) conjugated with annexin V bind to PS and are used to separate dead and apoptotic spermatozoa by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Cells with externalized PS will bind to these microbeads, whereas nonapoptotic cells with intact membranes do not bind and could be used during ARTs. We have conducted a series of experiments to investigate whether the MACS technology could be used to improve ART outcomes. Our results clearly indicate that integrating MACS as a part of sperm preparation techniques will improve semen quality and cryosurvival rates by eliminating apoptotic sperm. Nonapoptotic spermatozoa prepared by MACS display higher quality in terms of routine sperm parameters and apoptosis markers. The higher sperm quality is represented by an increased oocyte penetration potential and cryosurvival rates. Thus, the selection of nonapoptotic spermatozoa by MACS should be considered to enhance ART success rates. PMID:18077822

  5. Sex-based differences in lifting technique under increasing load conditions: A principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, P S; Stevenson, J M; Graham, R B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a sex-based difference in lifting technique across increasing-load conditions. Eleven male and 14 female participants (n = 25) with no previous history of low back disorder participated in the study. Participants completed freestyle, symmetric lifts of a box with handles from the floor to a table positioned at 50% of their height for five trials under three load conditions (10%, 20%, and 30% of their individual maximum isometric back strength). Joint kinematic data for the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar and thoracic spine were collected using a two-camera Optotrak motion capture system. Joint angles were calculated using a three-dimensional Euler rotation sequence. Principal component analysis (PCA) and single component reconstruction were applied to assess differences in lifting technique across the entire waveforms. Thirty-two PCs were retained from the five joints and three axes in accordance with the 90% trace criterion. Repeated-measures ANOVA with a mixed design revealed no significant effect of sex for any of the PCs. This is contrary to previous research that used discrete points on the lifting curve to analyze sex-based differences, but agrees with more recent research using more complex analysis techniques. There was a significant effect of load on lifting technique for five PCs of the lower limb (PC1 of ankle flexion, knee flexion, and knee adduction, as well as PC2 and PC3 of hip flexion) (p < 0.005). However, there was no significant effect of load on the thoracic and lumbar spine. It was concluded that when load is standardized to individual back strength characteristics, males and females adopted a similar lifting technique. In addition, as load increased male and female participants changed their lifting technique in a similar manner. PMID:26851478

  6. Separation of dynamic and isostatic components of the Venusian gravity and topography and determination of the crustal thickness of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, An; Huang, Jinshui; Wei, Daiyun

    2016-09-01

    Assuming that the long-wavelength geoid and topography of Venus are supported by both mantle convection and Airy isostasy, we propose a method to separate the dynamic and isostatic components of the Venusian gravity and topography with the aid of the dynamic admittance from numerical models of mantle convection and the isostatic admittance from an Airy isostatic model. The global crustal thickness is then calculated based on the isostatic component of the gravity and topography. The results show that some highland plateaus such as Ishtar Terra and Ovda Regio have thick crust, which are largely supported by isostatic compensation. Other highland plateaus such as Thetis and Phoebe Regiones appear to have superimposed contributions from crustal thickening and dynamic support. Volcanic rises such as Atla and Beta Regiones have thin crust, which is consistent with the postulation that these volcanic rises are mainly the products of dynamic uplift caused by mantle plumes.

  7. [A new separation protocol (DRBCP-F) for automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator for collection of leukocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates and plasma].

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    Previously published studies on automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator proved fairly good quality of the collected red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), with the disadvantage of a low hematocrit of the filtered RBC and a high platelet contamination of the FFP (RBCP-F protocol.) The DRBCP-F protocol was designed to eliminate the above-mentioned disadvantages and to provide 1 unit of leuko-depleted (filtered) RBC, 2 units of FFP, and additionally 1 platelet concentrate (PC) from the buffy coat. Twenty automated blood component collections (2 cycles, Latham bowl at 5,500 rpm, 230 ml isotonic saline for volume balance, PAGGS-M as additive solution) were performed. The RBC were filtered in a closed system after storage at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Blood cell counts and biochemical parameters of the RBC were determined initially and after 49 days. PC were separated from buffy coat after a soft spin. The volume of the RBC amounted to 293 +/- 12 ml (mean +/- SD) with a hematocrit of 0.61 +/- 0.05 l/l. Residual leukocytes after filtration were found to be 0.04 x 10(6) +/- 0.06 per unit. After storage, the following data were obtained: hemolysis 0.38%, ATP 2.1 +/- 0.4 mumol/g Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) 1.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/g Hb, ph 6.3 +/- 0.1, potassium 6.4 mmol per unit, and LDH in the supernatant was 219 U/l. None of the RBC showed bacterial growth after 49 days. The volume of the collected FFP was 398 +/- 32 ml, with 3.4 +/- 3.5 x 10(3) residual platelets and 5 +/- 12 leukocytes per microliter. Platelet concentrates contained 90.2 +/- 32 x 10(9) platelets in 88 +/- 14 ml plasma. Automated blood donation with the DRBCP-F protocol provided RBC with very low residual leukocyte counts, adequate hematocrit and good metabolic status up to 49 days, and FFP with low platelet contamination. The platelet concentrates were even superior to those prepared from whole blood using the buffy coat method. The storable leuko-depleted RBC are

  8. Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2006-02-21

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  9. Systems for column-based separations, methods of forming packed columns, and methods of purifying sample components

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  10. Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components.

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2004-08-24

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  11. Center-cut separation of intermediately adsorbing target component by 8-zone simulated moving bed chromatography with internal recycle.

    PubMed

    Kiwala, Dawid; Mendrella, Jadwiga; Antos, Dorota; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    An 8-zone simulated moving bed chromatography with internal recycle (8ZSMB-IR) has been designed for center-cut separation, that is, for isolating an intermediately adsorbed component out of a multicomponent mixture. The system consists of two integrated subunits and operates in a fully continuous manner. In the first subunit the feed mixture is split into two fractions containing either a single component or a binary mixture. The binary mixture is recycled through the internal raffinate or extract port into the second subunit, where the target product is isolated. Additionally, the solvent is also recycled internally. For a case study, the separation of a ternary mixture of cycloketones as a model system under weakly non-linear isotherm conditions has been investigated. A few novel configurations of the 8ZSMB-IR unit including the arrangement of the internal recycle of extract, raffinate and solvent streams between two subunits have been examined with respect to various performance indicators for the process realization. The unit performed best with the developed configuration when the internal raffinate stream was recycled and the solvent recycling loop was closed between the last and the first zone of the first subunit. That configuration has further been analyzed experimentally and numerically. On the basis of the results a strategy for determining reliable operating conditions for the 8ZSMB-IR process has been developed. The procedure exploited a model of the process dynamics, which was implemented to refine the isotherm coefficients and to quantify the mixing effect of the liquid stream inside the recycling loops. The upgraded model with the adjusted parameters has been validated based on experimental data and successfully applied for optimizing the operating conditions of the separation. PMID:27260199

  12. Heat transfer analysis in rotating gas turbine components - Experimental techniques and non-intrusive diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, S.

    Measurement techniques which can be applied for the determination of heat transfer coefficients in rotating components of turbomachines are illustrated, using specific examples from the heat transfer research at the Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery at the University of Karlsruhe. The following topics are presented in detail: the effect of wakes on the mean heat transfer of an air foil; some aspects of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in labyrinth seals; analysis of the local heat transfer downstream of a jet in a cross flow using an IR camera; and the measurement of local heat transfer coefficients in turbine disk cavities with liquid crystals.

  13. Unsupervised classification techniques as components of a data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. E.; Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The phenomenal increase in the amount of data and information being generated by remote sensing systems is stressed. A total system design approach as a solution to this problem is discussed with specific reference to the data and information system needs for Sortie Lab - a multiple use payload for the Shuttle. The development of a multispectral data processing system as a needed component of such a system is reviewed with emphasis on unsupervised multispectral classification techniques developed and presently in use at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Specific fabrication techniques of the Polo Model coil and its components

    SciTech Connect

    Friesinger, G.; Forster, S.; Jeske, U.; Nyilas, A.; Schenk, G.; Schmidt, C.; Siewerdt, L.; Susser, M.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuchner, F. . Inst. fuer Technische Physik); Bonnet, P.; Bourquard, A.; Ferry, P.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Poloidal field coils of tokamak machines are characterized by their pulsed operation needed for plasma ramp up and control. They have to sustain operation faults like plasma disruptions in their superconducting state. A low loss conductor, low loss structural reinforcement and a high voltage insulation system are needed for fulfilling these requirements. The basis for this technology has been developed for a superconducting model coil which is being manufactured by GEC Alsthom, Belfort and which will be tested at the KfK Karlsruhe. In this paper the fabrication technique applied for the coil and some high voltage related components are described.

  15. Utility of Magnetic Cell Separation as a Molecular Sperm Preparation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Said, Tamer M.; Agarwal, Ashok; Zborowski, Maciej; Grunewald, Sonja; Glander, Hans-Juergen; Paasch, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have become the treatment of choice in many cases of infertility; however the current success rates of these procedures remain suboptimal. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) most likely contributes to failed ART and to the decrease in sperm quality after cryopreservation. There is likelihood that some sperm selected for ART will display features of apoptosis despite their normal appearance, which may be partially responsible for the low fertilization and implantation rates seen with ART. One of the features of apoptosis is the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) residues, which are normally present on the inner leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane. Colloidal super-paramagnetic microbeads (~50 nm in diameter) conjugated with annexin-V bind to PS are used to separate dead and apoptotic spermatozoa by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). Cells with externalized PS will bind to these microbeads, while non-apoptotic cells with intact membranes do not bind and could be used during ART. We have conducted a series of experiments to investigate if the MACS technology could be used to improve ART outcomes. Our results clearly indicate that integrating MACS as a part of sperm preparation techniques will improve semen quality and cryosurvival rates by eliminating apoptotic sperm. Non-apoptotic spermatozoa prepared by MACS display higher quality in terms of routine sperm parameters and apoptosis markers. The higher sperm quality is represented by an increased oocyte penetration potential and cryosurvival rates. Thus, the selection of non-apoptotic spermatozoa by MACS should be considered to enhance ART success rates. PMID:18077822

  16. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Sklute, Elizabeth; Dyare, Melinda D

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  17. Multilocus amplification of genomic DNA from single cysts of Giardia duodenalis separated using micromanipulation technique.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Juliana Martins; Silva, Sheila Oliveira da; Santos, Valdir Antônio Dos; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Gregori, Fabio; Keid, Lara Borges; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2015-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is divided into at least eight groups, named assemblages A to H. Assemblages A and B are the only ones able to infect humans and other mammals. The species status for these assemblies is a moot point, but has not gained general acceptance because sexual activity in Giardia is not completely understood. Heterozygosity in G. duodenalis can be detected through simultaneous identification of multiple loci in single cysts or trophozoites. In this paper, we describe a technique that enables simultaneous detection of fragments from four genes from single cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from stool samples. Each cyst from a fecal sample of human origin was separated, the DNA was extracted and amplified by means of multiplex PCR directed to four genes and the multiplex PCR product was further re-amplified using four single PCR (one for each gene). The following loci were detected: beta giardin (bg), GLORF-C4 (orfC4), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh). This procedure should make it possible to investigate multiple genes from a single cyst of G. duodenalis assemblage A or B. PMID:26172406

  18. The combined use of order tracking techniques for enhanced Fourier analysis of order components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. S.; Heyns, P. S.

    2011-04-01

    Order tracking is one of the most important vibration analysis techniques for diagnosing faults in rotating machinery. It can be performed in many different ways, each of these with distinct advantages and disadvantages. However, in the end the analyst will often use Fourier analysis to transform the data from a time series to frequency or order spectra. It is therefore surprising that the study of the Fourier analysis of order-tracked systems seems to have been largely ignored in the literature. This paper considers the frequently used Vold-Kalman filter-based order tracking and computed order tracking techniques. The main pros and cons of each technique for Fourier analysis are discussed and the sequential use of Vold-Kalman filtering and computed order tracking is proposed as a novel idea to enhance the results of Fourier analysis for determining the order components. The advantages of the combined use of these order tracking techniques are demonstrated numerically on an SDOF rotor simulation model. Finally, the approach is also demonstrated on experimental data from a real rotating machine.

  19. A penalization technique to model plasma facing components in a tokamak with temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, A.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Schwander, F.; Serre, E.; Ghendrih, P.; Tamain, P.

    2014-10-01

    To properly address turbulent transport in the edge plasma region of a tokamak, it is mandatory to describe the particle and heat outflow on wall components, using an accurate representation of the wall geometry. This is challenging for many plasma transport codes, which use a structured mesh with one coordinate aligned with magnetic surfaces. We propose here a penalization technique that allows modeling of particle and heat transport using such structured mesh, while also accounting for geometrically complex plasma-facing components. Solid obstacles are considered as particle and momentum sinks whereas ionic and electronic temperature gradients are imposed on both sides of the obstacles along the magnetic field direction using delta functions (Dirac). Solutions exhibit plasma velocities (M=1) and temperatures fluxes at the plasma-wall boundaries that match with boundary conditions usually implemented in fluid codes. Grid convergence and error estimates are found to be in agreement with theoretical results obtained for neutral fluid conservation equations. The capability of the penalization technique is illustrated by introducing the non-collisional plasma region expected by the kinetic theory in the immediate vicinity of the interface, that is impossible when considering fluid boundary conditions. Axisymmetric numerical simulations show the efficiency of the method to investigate the large-scale transport at the plasma edge including the separatrix and in realistic complex geometries while keeping a simple structured grid.

  20. A penalization technique to model plasma facing components in a tokamak with temperature variations

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, A.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Schwander, F.; Serre, E.; Ghendrih, P.; Tamain, P.

    2014-10-01

    To properly address turbulent transport in the edge plasma region of a tokamak, it is mandatory to describe the particle and heat outflow on wall components, using an accurate representation of the wall geometry. This is challenging for many plasma transport codes, which use a structured mesh with one coordinate aligned with magnetic surfaces. We propose here a penalization technique that allows modeling of particle and heat transport using such structured mesh, while also accounting for geometrically complex plasma-facing components. Solid obstacles are considered as particle and momentum sinks whereas ionic and electronic temperature gradients are imposed on both sides of the obstacles along the magnetic field direction using delta functions (Dirac). Solutions exhibit plasma velocities (M=1) and temperatures fluxes at the plasma–wall boundaries that match with boundary conditions usually implemented in fluid codes. Grid convergence and error estimates are found to be in agreement with theoretical results obtained for neutral fluid conservation equations. The capability of the penalization technique is illustrated by introducing the non-collisional plasma region expected by the kinetic theory in the immediate vicinity of the interface, that is impossible when considering fluid boundary conditions. Axisymmetric numerical simulations show the efficiency of the method to investigate the large-scale transport at the plasma edge including the separatrix and in realistic complex geometries while keeping a simple structured grid.

  1. A comparative study of feature extraction and blind source separation of independent component analysis (ICA) on childhood brain tumour 1H magnetic resonance spectra.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Zou, Xin; Wilson, Martin P; Davies, Nigel P; Sun, Yu; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2009-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has the potential of determining automatically the metabolite signals which make up MR spectra. However, the reliability with which this is accomplished and the optimal approach for investigating in vivo MRS have not been determined. Furthermore, the properties of ICA in brain tumour MRS with respect to dataset size and data quality have not been systematically explored. The two common techniques for applying ICA, blind source separation (BSS) and feature extraction (FE) were examined in this study using simulated data and the findings confirmed on patient data. Short echo time (TE 30 ms), low and high field (1.5 and 3 T) in vivo brain tumour MR spectra of childhood astrocytoma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma were generated by using a quantum mechanical simulator with ten metabolite and lipid components. Patient data (TE 30 ms, 1.5 T) were acquired from children with brain tumours. ICA of simulated data shows that individual metabolite components can be extracted from a set of MRS data. The BSS method generates independent components with a closer correlation to the original metabolite and lipid components than the FE method when the number of spectra in the dataset is small. The experiments also show that stable results are achieved with 300 MRS at an SNR equal to 10. The FE method is relatively insensitive to different ranges of full width at half maximum (FWHM) (from 0 to 3 Hz), whereas the BSS method degrades on increasing the range of FWHM. The peak frequency variations do not affect the results within the range of +/-0.08 ppm for the FE method, and +/-0.05 ppm for the BSS method. When the methods were applied to the patient dataset, results consistent with the synthesized experiments were obtained. PMID:19431141

  2. Development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for acetabular component loosening in total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Alshuhri, Abdullah A; Holsgrove, Timothy P; Miles, Anthony W; Cunningham, James L

    2015-08-01

    Current techniques for diagnosing early loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) are ineffective, especially for the acetabular component. Accordingly, new, accurate, and quantifiable methods are required. The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of vibrational analysis for accurately detecting acetabular component loosening. A simplified acetabular model was constructed using a Sawbones(®) foam block. By placing a thin silicone layer between the acetabular component and the Sawbones block, 2- and 4-mm soft tissue membranes were simulated representing different loosening scenarios. A constant amplitude sinusoidal excitation with a sweep range of 100-1500 Hz was used. Output vibration from the model was measured using an accelerometer and an ultrasound probe. Loosening was determined from output signal features such as the number and relative strength of observed harmonic frequencies. Both measurement methods were sufficient to measure the output vibration. Vibrational analysis reliably detected loosening corresponding to both 2 and 4 mm tissue membranes at driving frequencies between 100 and 1000 Hz (p < 0.01) using the accelerometer. In contrast, ultrasound detected 2-mm loosening at a frequency range of 850-1050 Hz (p < 0.01) and 4-mm loosening at 500-950 Hz (p < 0.01). PMID:26054805

  3. Three-component velocity field measurements of propeller wake using a stereoscopic PIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Paik, Bu Geun; Yoon, Jong Hwan; Lee, Choung Mook

    A stereoscopic PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique was used to measure the three-dimensional flow structure of the turbulent wake behind a marine propeller with five blades. The out-of-plane velocity component was determined using two CCD cameras with an angular displacement configuration. Four hundred instantaneous velocity fields were measured for each of four different blade phases, and ensemble averaged in order to find the spatial evolution of the propeller wake in the region from the trailing edge up to one propeller diameter (D) downstream. The influence of propeller loading conditions on the wake structure was also investigated by measuring the velocity fields at three advance ratios (J=0.59, 0.72 and 0.88). The phase-averaged velocity fields revealed that a viscous wake formed by the boundary layers developed along the blade surfaces. Tip vortices were generated periodically and the slipstream contracted in the near-wake region. The out-of-plane velocity component and strain rate had large values at the locations of the tip and trailing vortices. As the flow moved downstream, the turbulence intensity, the strength of the tip vortices, and the magnitude of the out-of-plane velocity component at trailing vortices all decreased due to effects such as viscous dissipation, turbulence diffusion, and blade-to-blade interaction.

  4. The application of principal component analysis to quantify technique in sports.

    PubMed

    Federolf, P; Reid, R; Gilgien, M; Haugen, P; Smith, G

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing an athlete's "technique," sport scientists often focus on preselected variables that quantify important aspects of movement. In contrast, coaches and practitioners typically describe movements in terms of basic postures and movement components using subjective and qualitative features. A challenge for sport scientists is finding an appropriate quantitative methodology that incorporates the holistic perspective of human observers. Using alpine ski racing as an example, this study explores principal component analysis (PCA) as a mathematical method to decompose a complex movement pattern into its main movement components. Ski racing movements were recorded by determining the three-dimensional coordinates of 26 points on each skier which were subsequently interpreted as a 78-dimensional posture vector at each time point. PCA was then used to determine the mean posture and principal movements (PMk ) carried out by the athletes. The first four PMk contained 95.5 ± 0.5% of the variance in the posture vectors which quantified changes in body inclination, vertical or fore-aft movement of the trunk, and distance between skis. In summary, calculating PMk offered a data-driven, quantitative, and objective method of analyzing human movement that is similar to how human observers such as coaches or ski instructors would describe the movement. PMID:22436088

  5. Abdominal compartment syndrome as a rare complication following component separation repair: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Allen, H S; Hunter, C; Lee, G K

    2015-04-01

    One of the most feared complications following a massive ventral hernia repair is abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS is caused by an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which can lead to multi-organ dysfunction and ultimately result in death. Component separation repair (CST) has been successful for most large hernia repairs in reducing the risk of ACS by increasing abdominal volume and reducing abdominal wall tension during a tight closure. However, reduction of a large hernia can lead to elevated IAP and possible progression to ACS. Here, we describe the detailed intra-operative and post-operative course of a patient who developed abdominal compartment syndrome following CST repair. PMID:25739715

  6. Factor analysis as a tool for spectral line component separation 21cm emission in the direction of L1780

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, L. V.; Mattila, K.; Haikala, L.; Balazs, L. G.

    1992-01-01

    The spectra of the 21cm HI radiation from the direction of L1780, a small high-galactic latitude dark/molecular cloud, were analyzed by multivariate methods. Factor analysis was performed on HI (21cm) spectra in order to separate the different components responsible for the spectral features. The rotated, orthogonal factors explain the spectra as a sum of radiation from the background (an extended HI emission layer), and from the L1780 dark cloud. The coefficients of the cloud-indicator factors were used to locate the HI 'halo' of the molecular cloud. Our statistically derived 'background' and 'cloud' spectral profiles, as well as the spatial distribution of the HI halo emission distribution were compared to the results of a previous study which used conventional methods analyzing nearly the same data set.

  7. Remote sensing of row crop structure and component temperatures using directional radiometric temperatures and inversion techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    A physically based sensor response model of a row crop was used as the mathematical framework from which several inversion strategies were tested for extracting row structure information and component temperatures using a series of sensor view angles. The technique was evaluated on ground-based radiometric thermal infrared data of a cotton row crop that covered 48 percent of the ground in the vertical projection. The results showed that the accuracies of the predicted row heights and widths, vegetation temperatures, and soil temperatures of the cotton row crop were on the order of 5 cm, 1 deg, and 2 deg C, respectively. The inversion techniques can be applied to directional sensor data from aircraft platforms and even space platforms if the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission can be corrected. In theory, such inversion techniques can be applied to a wide variety of vegetation types and thus can have significant implications for remote sensing research and applications in disciplines that deal with incomplete vegetation canopies.

  8. Separation of the Components of a Commercial Analgesic Tablet: A Two-Week Sequence Comparing Purification by Two-Base Extraction and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two benchtop separation methods to isolate the three active components of the commercial analgesic Excedrin. In the two-week sequence, aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine are separated using either a two-base liquid-liquid extraction or silica column chromatography. Students then…

  9. The Successive Component-separated Magnetic-Transitions on Pseudoternary Compounds Ho1-xGdxRh2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeoka, Toru; Morita, Tetsuhiro; Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    Magnetic measurements on pseudoternary compounds Ho1-xGdxRh2Si2, which substitute Gd having no quadrupole for Ho, were performed. They exhibit a successive component-separated magnetic transition; the c- and ab-components of magnetic moments independently order at different temperatures TN1 and TN2, respectively. The partial ordered state, a frustration appears for TN1 >T >TN2: for the phase II in the magnetic phase diagrams. In the ordered phase, step-like metamagnetic processes appear for TN2 >T; two-step ones appear along the [001] and [100] directions, and a one-step one appears along the [110] direction. The B-T magnetic phase diagrams were constructed. There are six, four and three ordered phases in the B001-T, B100-T and B110-T phase diagram, respectively. Two diagrams of the basal plane directions, B100-T and B110-T, resemble each other. Some interesting or peculiar phase boundaries appear. The Gd composition x dependence of transition temperatures is determined. The transition temperatures TN1 and TN2 increase with increasing x. The x-dependency of TN1 is well scaled by the de Gennes factor: (g-1)2J(J+1) whereas the transition of TN2 is not scaled. Some magnetic features declare that quadrupole interactions play an important role in this compound system.

  10. Multi-component elastic reverse time migration based on the P- and S-wave separated velocity-stress equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bingluo; Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiaona; Liang, Guanghe

    2015-01-01

    The vector P- and S-seismograms in an elastic common-shot gather generated with a P-wave source in a two-dimensional model using a finite difference solution of the P- and S-wave separated velocity-stress equations can be imaged by two independent ERTMs based on the same equations. The inputs as boundary conditions for reverse-time extrapolation are the pure vector P- and S-waves, respectively. The vector P-wave image components can be obtained by the normalized correlation operation between the vector P-source wavefields and receiver wavefields, which are obtained by extrapolating the vector P-seismograms in reverse-time using the same equations as the forward modeling. The vector S-wave image components can be obtained by a similar method. Compared with the conventional ERTM, this method can minimize the artifacts caused by the crosstalk between different wave modes and can preserve the phase and amplitude attributes of migration images very well. Furthermore, the polarity-reversal of the vector S-wave data can be corrected automatically during the imaging process, so destructive interferences between data from adjacent sources do not exist. Numerical examples with synthetic data have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of this method for complex structures.

  11. Basic studies on the role of components of Bacillus megaterium as flotation biocollectors in sulphide mineral separation.

    PubMed

    Vasanthakumar, Balasubramanian; Ravishankar, Honnavar; Subramanian, Sankaran

    2014-03-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the utility of the cellular and extracellular constituents of Bacillus megaterium for the flotation of sphalerite and galena minerals. Based on the flotation results on the individual minerals, it was observed that sphalerite was preferentially floated compared to galena. A maximum selectivity index (SI) value of 11.7 was achieved in the presence of the soluble fraction of the thermolysed cells, which was higher than that obtained with the intact cells (SI of 6.5) and the insoluble fraction of the thermolysed cells (SI of 9.6). The results of the various enzymatic treatment tests revealed that extracellular DNA played a vital role in the selective flotation of sphalerite. A noteworthy finding was that the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) had a higher biocollector capacity vis-à-vis the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), leading to better flotation efficiency. About 95 % recovery of sphalerite could be achieved from the mineral mixture by the combined addition of the ssDNA with the non-DNA components of the bacterial cells, resulting in a maximum SI of 19.1. Calcium and phosphate components of the nutrient media were found to be essential for better selectivity of separation of sphalerite. The mechanisms of microbe-mineral interaction are discussed. PMID:24085394

  12. Initial evaluation of a convection counter streaming galvanization technique of sex separation of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Daniell, J F; Herbert, C M; Repp, J; Torbit, C A; Wentz, A C

    1982-08-01

    A new method for separating X and Y human spermatozoa called convection counter streaming galvanization was evaluated. The method was independently performed by this semenology laboratory with the use of the special separation equipment and extending media provided by its developer, Dr. Bhairab C. Bhattacharya. The mean number of Y spermatozoa increased from 48% to 77% in the separated fraction predicted to be Y-enriched. The fraction predicted to be X-enriched increased from a mean of 52% to 77%. The one separation process allowed accumulation of both enriched fractions simultaneously. The separated portions of spermatozoa maintained good motility and penetration of cervical mucus but produced a mean recovery concentration in the X- and Y-enriched fractions of only 15% to 16% of the preseparation concentration. PMID:7049740

  13. A unique measurement technique to study laminar-separation bubble characteristics on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, J. P.; Mangalam, S. M.; Berry, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A 'nonintrusive', multielement heat-transfer sensor was designed to study laminar-separation bubble characteristics on a NASA LRN (1)-1010 low-Reynolds number airfoil. The sensor consists of 30 individual nickel films, vacuum-deposited on a thin substrate (0.05 mm) that was bonded to the airfoil model with the sensor array placed streamwise on the airfoil upper surface. Experiments were conducted on a 15-cm chord model in the 50,000-300,000 chord Reynolds number range. Time history as well as spectral analysis of signals from surface film gauges were simultaneously obtained to determine the location of laminar separation and the subsequent behavior of the separated shear layer. In addition to the successful determination of laminar separation, a new phenomenon involving a large phase shift in dynamic shear stresses across the separation and reattachment points was observed.

  14. Iodixanol Gradient Centrifugation to Separate Components of the Low-Density Membrane Fraction from 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Jessica B A; Lamb, Christopher A; Gould, Gwyn W; Bryant, Nia J

    2016-02-01

    We optimized a set of fractionation techniques to facilitate the isolation of subcellular compartments containing insulin-sensitive glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4), which is mobilized from GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) in fat and muscle cells in response to insulin. In the absence of insulin, GLUT4 undergoes a continuous cycle of GSV formation and fusion with other compartments. Full membrane fractionation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes produces a low-density membrane fraction that contains both the constitutive recycling pool (the endosomal recycling compartments) and the insulin-sensitive pool (the GSVs). These two pools can be separated based on density using iodixanol gradient centrifugation, described here. PMID:26832683

  15. Generation of diversiform gold nanostructures inspired by honey's components: growth mechanism, characterization, and shape separation by the centrifugation-assisted sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Snitka, Valentinas; Naumenko, Denys O; Ramanauskaite, Lina; Kravchenko, Sergiy A; Snopok, Boris A

    2012-11-15

    The green synthesis of irregular-shaped nanomaterials used for various applications in nanoplasmonics, medicine, and biotechnology creates an economical and environmental challenge. We describe the rapid wet-chemical approach to synthesis of stable and water-soluble gold nanostructues at room temperature. In addition to spherical and road-like nanoparticles, gold decahedra and triangular plates were grown using the one-step synthesis process of HAuCl(4) in the presence of honey, in which main components act as reducing (glucose) and stabilizing (fructose) agents; the mechanism of the process is discussed in details. The requirements for anisotropic phase boundaries for generation of polyhedral gold nanocrystals in solutions are highlighted. The synthesis, morphology, and separation procedure of gold nanoparticles are examined using the techniques of optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that centrifugation can be used for efficient separation of nanoparticles with different shapes from a mixture. It was found that while centrifuging, the spheres sediment at the bottom of the tube, segregating from rods that form a deposit on the side wall, whereas polygons remain in the solution. PMID:22918048

  16. Introduction. [usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying components of California water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Since May 1970, personnel on several campuses of the University of California have been conducting investigations which seek to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Emphasis has been given to California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan. This study is designed to consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships. The specific geographic areas studied are the Feather River drainage in northern California, the Chino-Riverside Basin and Imperial Valley areas in southern California, and selected portions of the west side of San Joaquin Valley in central California. An analysis is also given on how an effective benefit-cost study of remote sensing in relation to California's water resources might best be made.

  17. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Laurence; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jisnmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Wall, Joe

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  18. Advanced radiation techniques for inspection of diesel engine combustion chamber materials components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    Heavy duty truck engines must meet stringent life cycle cost and regulatory requirements. Meeting these requirements has resulted in convergence on 4-stroke 6-in-line, turbocharged, and after-cooled engines with direct-injection combustion systems. These engines provide much higher efficiencies (42%, fuel consumption 200 g/kW-hr) than automotive engines (31%, fuel consumption 270 g/kW-hr), but at higher initial cost. Significant near-term diesel engine improvements are necessary and are spurred by continuing competitive, Middle - East oil problems and Congressional legislation. As a result of these trends and pressures, Caterpillar has been actively pursuing a low-fuel consumption engine research program with emphasis on product quality through process control and product inspection. The goal of this project is to combine the nondestructive evaluation and computational resources and expertise available at LLNL with the diesel engine and manufacturing expertise of the Caterpillar Corporation to develop in-process monitoring and inspection techniques for diesel engine combustion chamber components and materials. Early development of these techniques will assure the optimization of the manufacturing process by design/inspection interface. The transition from the development stage to the manufacturing stage requires a both a thorough understanding of the processes and a way of verifying conformance to process standards. NDE is one of the essential tools in accomplishing both elements and in this project will be integrated with Caterpillar`s technological and manufacturing expertise to accomplish the project goals.

  19. Optical cell separation from three-dimensional environment in photodegradable hydrogels for pure culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Yanagawa, Fumiki; Sugiura, Shinji; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Sumaru, Kimio; Matsui, Hirofumi; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Cell sorting is an essential and efficient experimental tool for the isolation and characterization of target cells. A three-dimensional environment is crucial in determining cell behavior and cell fate in biological analysis. Herein, we have applied photodegradable hydrogels to optical cell separation from a 3D environment using a computer-controlled light irradiation system. The hydrogel is composed of photocleavable tetra-arm polyethylene glycol and gelatin, which optimized cytocompatibility to adjust a composition of crosslinker and gelatin. Local light irradiation could degrade the hydrogel corresponding to the micropattern image designed on a laptop; minimum resolution of photodegradation was estimated at 20 µm. Light irradiation separated an encapsulated fluorescent microbead without any contamination of neighbor beads, even at multiple targets. Upon selective separation of target cells in the hydrogels, the separated cells have grown on another dish, resulting in pure culture. Cell encapsulation, light irradiation and degradation products exhibited negligible cytotoxicity in overall process. PMID:24810563

  20. Anion-exchange separation techniques with methanol-water solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acids.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R J

    1966-09-01

    Mixed methanol-water systems were shown to be of use in the analysis of samples containing 500-mg amounts of metallic impurities for rare earths and actinides. Detailed study of the hydrochloric acid-methanol system led to improved separation of einsteinium and californium from americium and curium as well as to lanthanideactinide separations. Comparisons of elution orders are also drawn between these systems and the corresponding lithium salt systems, with emphasis on ion-hydration theories. PMID:18960002

  1. Principal Component Analysis of Cerebellar Shape on MRI Separates SCA Types 2 and 6 into Two Archetypal Modes of Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Brian C.; Choi, Soo I.; Du, Annie X.; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Geng, Zhuo Z.; Ying, Howard S.; Perlman, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Although “cerebellar ataxia” is often used in reference to a disease process, presumably there are different underlying pathogenetic mechanisms for different subtypes. Indeed, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 2 and 6 demonstrate complementary phenotypes, thus predicting a different anatomic pattern of degeneration. Here, we show that an unsupervised classification method, based on principal component analysis (PCA) of cerebellar shape characteristics, can be used to separate SCA2 and SCA6 into two classes, which may represent disease-specific archetypes. Patients with SCA2 (n=11) and SCA6 (n=7) were compared against controls (n=15) using PCA to classify cerebellar anatomic shape characteristics. Within the first three principal components, SCA2 and SCA6 differed from controls and from each other. In a secondary analysis, we studied five additional subjects and found that these patients were consistent with the previously defined archetypal clusters of clinical and anatomical characteristics. Secondary analysis of five subjects with related diagnoses showed that disease groups that were clinically and pathophysiologically similar also shared similar anatomic characteristics. Specifically, Archetype #1 consisted of SCA3 (n=1) and SCA2, suggesting that cerebellar syndromes accompanied by atrophy of the pons may be associated with a characteristic pattern of cerebellar neurodegeneration. In comparison, Archetype #2 was comprised of disease groups with pure cerebellar atrophy (episodic ataxia type 2 (n=1), idiopathic late-onset cerebellar ataxias (n=3), and SCA6). This suggests that cerebellar shape analysis could aid in discriminating between different pathologies. Our findings further suggest that magnetic resonance imaging is a promising imaging biomarker that could aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with cerebellar syndromes. PMID:22258915

  2. Principal component analysis of cerebellar shape on MRI separates SCA types 2 and 6 into two archetypal modes of degeneration.

    PubMed

    Jung, Brian C; Choi, Soo I; Du, Annie X; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Geng, Zhuo Z; Ying, Howard S; Perlman, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Prince, Jerry L; Ying, Sarah H

    2012-12-01

    Although "cerebellar ataxia" is often used in reference to a disease process, presumably there are different underlying pathogenetic mechanisms for different subtypes. Indeed, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 2 and 6 demonstrate complementary phenotypes, thus predicting a different anatomic pattern of degeneration. Here, we show that an unsupervised classification method, based on principal component analysis (PCA) of cerebellar shape characteristics, can be used to separate SCA2 and SCA6 into two classes, which may represent disease-specific archetypes. Patients with SCA2 (n=11) and SCA6 (n=7) were compared against controls (n=15) using PCA to classify cerebellar anatomic shape characteristics. Within the first three principal components, SCA2 and SCA6 differed from controls and from each other. In a secondary analysis, we studied five additional subjects and found that these patients were consistent with the previously defined archetypal clusters of clinical and anatomical characteristics. Secondary analysis of five subjects with related diagnoses showed that disease groups that were clinically and pathophysiologically similar also shared similar anatomic characteristics. Specifically, Archetype #1 consisted of SCA3 (n=1) and SCA2, suggesting that cerebellar syndromes accompanied by atrophy of the pons may be associated with a characteristic pattern of cerebellar neurodegeneration. In comparison, Archetype #2 was comprised of disease groups with pure cerebellar atrophy (episodic ataxia type 2 (n=1), idiopathic late-onset cerebellar ataxias (n=3), and SCA6). This suggests that cerebellar shape analysis could aid in discriminating between different pathologies. Our findings further suggest that magnetic resonance imaging is a promising imaging biomarker that could aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with cerebellar syndromes. PMID:22258915

  3. Genetic separation of autonomous endosperm formation (AutE) from the two other components of apomixis in Hieracium.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Daisuke; Johnson, Susan D; Henderson, Steven T; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-06-01

    In apomictic Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species, embryo sacs develop in ovules without meiosis. Embryo and endosperm formation then occur without fertilization, producing seeds with a maternal genotype encased in a fruit (achene). Genetic analyses in H. praealtum indicate a dominant locus (LOA) controls meiotic avoidance, and another dominant locus (LOP) controls both fertilization-independent embryogenesis and endosperm formation. While cytologically examining developmental events in ovules of progeny from crosses between different wild-type and mutant Hieracium apomicts, and a sexual Hieracium species, we identified two plants, AutE196 and AutE24, which have lost the capacity for meiotic avoidance and fertilization-independent embryo formation. AutE196 and AutE24 exhibit autonomous endosperm formation and set parthenocarpic, seedless achenes at a penetrance of 18 %. Viable seed form after pollination. Cytological examination of 102 progeny from a backcross of AutE196 with sexual H. pilosella showed that autonomous endosperm formation is a heritable, dominant, qualitative trait, detected in 51 % of progeny. Variation in quantitative trait penetrance indicates other factors influence its expression. The correlation between autonomous endosperm development and mature parthenocarpic achene formation suggests the former is sufficient to trigger fruit maturation in Hieracium. The developmental component of autonomous endosperm formation is therefore genetically separable from those controlling meiotic avoidance and autonomous embryogenesis in Hieracium and has been denoted as AutE. We postulate that tight linkage of AutE and genes controlling autonomous embryogenesis at the LOP locus in H. praealtum may explain why inheritance of autonomous seed formation is typically observed as a single component. PMID:23471494

  4. Ground-roll separation of seismic data based on morphological component analysis in two-dimensional domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Guang-Zhong; Zhang, Yang; Bi, Yun-Yun; Wang, Jin-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Ground roll is an interference wave that severely degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data and affects its subsequent processing and interpretation. In this study, according to differences in morphological characteristics between ground roll and reflected waves, we use morphological component analysis based on two-dimensional dictionaries to separate ground roll and reflected waves. Because ground roll is characterized by low-frequency, low-velocity, and dispersion, we select two-dimensional undecimated discrete wavelet transform as a sparse representation dictionary of ground roll. Because of a strong local correlation of the reflected wave, we select two-dimensional local discrete cosine transform as the sparse representation dictionary of reflected waves. A sparse representation model of seismic data is constructed based on a two-dimensional joint dictionary then a block coordinate relaxation algorithm is used to solve the model and decompose seismic record into reflected wave part and ground roll part.The good effects for the synthetic seismic data and application of real seismic data indicate that when using the model, strong-energy ground roll is considerably suppressed and the waveform of the reflected wave is effectively protected.

  5. Is the Determination of Specific IgE against Components Using ISAC 112 a Reproducible Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Lizaso, María T.; Goikoetxea, María J.; García, Blanca E.; Cabrera-Freitag, Paula; Trellez, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ImmunoCAP ISAC 112 is a fluoro-immunoassay that allows detection of specific IgE to 112 molecular components from 51 allergenic sources. We studied the reliability of this technique intra- and inter- assay, as well as inter-batch- and inter-laboratory-assay. Methods Twenty samples were studied, nineteen sera from polysensitized allergic patients, and the technique calibrator provided by the manufacturer (CTR02). We measured the sIgE from CTR02 and three patients' sera ten times in the same and in different assays. Furthermore, all samples were tested in two laboratories and with two batches of ISAC kit. To evaluate the accuracy of ISAC 112, we contrasted the determinations of CTR02 calibrator with their expected values by T Student test. To analyse the precision, we calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, and to analyse the repeatability and the reproducibility, we calculated the intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to each allergen. Results The results obtained for CTR02 were similar to those expected in 7 of 15 allergens that generate the calibration curve, whereas in 8 allergens the results showed significant differences. The mean CV obtained in the CTR02 determinations was of 9.4%, and the variability of sera from patients was of 22.9%. The agreement in the intra- and inter-assay analysis was very good to 94 allergens and good to one. In the inter-batch analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 82 allergens, good to 14, moderate to 5 allergens, poor to one, and bad to 1 allergen. In the inter-laboratory analyse, we obtained a very good agreement to 73 allergens, good to 22, moderate to 6 and poor to two allergens. Conclusion The allergen microarray immunoassay, ISAC 112, is a repeatable and reproducible in vitro diagnostic tool for determination of sIgE beyond the own laboratory. PMID:24516646

  6. Separation of potential data as regional and residuals by geostatistical filtering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.

    2009-12-01

    I propose a spatial filtering scheme using factorial kriging, a kind of geostatistical filtering method in order to separate potential data as regional and residual anomalies. Spatial filtering assumes that regional anomalies have longer distance relation and residual anomalies have effected on smaller range. Gravity anomaly was decomposed into two variogram models depending on long and short effective ranges. And best-fitted variogram models produced the separated regional-residual anomalies by means of factorial kriging. This algorithm was examined with synthetic gravity data, and also applied to a real microgravity data to figure out abandoned mineshaft.

  7. HRMS Sky Survey Techniques for Separating the Rare Interesting Signal from the Multitude of Background Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, E.; Backus, C.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Sky Survey component will survey the entire celestial sphere over the microwave frequency band to search for signals of intelligent origin which originate from beyond our solar system.

  8. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  9. Separation technique for messenger RNAs by use of schizophyllan/poly(A) tail complexation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Taro; Beppu, Akiko; Sakurai, Kazuo; Shinkai, Seiji

    2005-01-01

    Schizophyllan (SPG) is one of the water soluble beta-1,3-glucans and has a peculiar molecular recognition capability, namely, the single stranded SPG (s-SPG) can form a stoichiometric complex with certain polynucleotides such as poly(C) and poly(A), although it cannot bind poly(G) and poly(dC) at all. In this paper, we prepared an s-SPG-appended column and made an attempt to separate polynucleotides on the bases of this molecular recognition capability. The s-SPG-appended column trapped only such RNAs that could form the complex with s-SPG but eluted other RNAs which did not form the complex. Encouraged by the results in the model system, we extended the s-SPG-appended column into separation of native messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from a RNA mixture (total RNA) obtained from yeast. Since eukaryotic mRNAs have a poly(A) tail with 150-300 bases, we supposed that the tails would be trapped by the s-SPG-appended column. The results indicate that mRNAs were separated from total RNA in good yield and with high purity. It should be emphasized that this is the first device to separate natural mRNAs without using a dA/dT Watson-Crick-type interaction. PMID:15638518

  10. Lightweight custom composite prosthetic components using an additive manufacturing-based molding technique.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Michael T; Belter, Joseph T; Gemmell, Kevin D; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D printing becomes higher quality and more inexpensive. The idea of 3D printed prosthetics components promises affordable, customizable devices, but these systems currently have major shortcomings in durability and function. In this paper, we propose a fabrication method for custom composite prostheses utilizing additive manufacturing, allowing for customizability, as well the durability of professional prosthetics. The manufacturing process is completed using 3D printed molds in a multi-stage molding system, which creates a custom finger or palm with a lightweight epoxy foam core, a durable composite outer shell, and soft urethane gripping surfaces. The composite material was compared to 3D printed and aluminum materials using a three-point bending test to compare stiffness, as well as gravimetric measurements to compare weight. The composite finger demonstrates the largest stiffness with the lowest weight compared to other tested fingers, as well as having customizability and lower cost, proving to potentially be a substantial benefit to the development of upper-limb prostheses. PMID:26737367

  11. Use of laser flow visualization techniques in reactor component thermal-hydraulic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    To properly design reactor components, an understanding of the various thermal hydraulic phenomena, i.e., thermal stratification flow channeling, recirculation regions, shear layers, etc., is necessary. In the liquid metal breeder reactor program, water is commonly used to replace sodium in experimental testing to facilitate the investigations, (i.e., reduce cost and allow fluid velocity measurement or flow pattern study). After water testing, limited sodium tests can be conducted to validate the extrapolation of the water results to sodium. This paper describes a novel laser flow visualization technique being utilized at ANL together with various examples of its use and plans for further development. A 3-watt argon-ion laser, in conjunction with a cylindrical opticallens, has been used to create a thin (approx. 1-mm) intense plane of laser light for the illuminiation of various flow tracers in precisely defined regions of interest within a test article having windows. Both fluorescing dyes tuned to the wavelength of the laser light (to maximize brightness and sharpness of flow image) and small (< 0.038-mm, 0.0015-in. dia.) opaque, nearly neutrally buoyant polystyrene spheres (to ensure that the particles trace out the fluid motion) have been used as flow tracers.

  12. Computer simulation of the pneumatic separator in the pneumatic-electrostatic separation system for recycling waste printed circuit boards with electronic components.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-05-01

    Technologies could be integrated in different ways into automatic recycling lines for a certain kind of electronic waste according to practical requirements. In this study, a new kind of pneumatic separator with openings at the dust hooper was applied combing with electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards. However, the flow pattern and the particles' movement behavior could not be obtained by experimental methods. To better control the separation quantity and the material size distribution, computational fluid dynamics was used to model the new pneumatic separator giving a detailed understanding of the mechanisms. Simulated results showed that the tangential velocity direction reversed with a relatively small value. Axial velocity exhibited two sharp decreases at the x axis. It is indicated that the bottom openings at the dust hopper resulted in an enormous change in the velocity profile. A new phenomenon that was named dusting was observed, which would mitigate the effect of particles with small diameter on the following electrostatic separation and avoid materials plugging caused by the waste printed circuit boards special properties effectively. The trapped materials were divided into seven grades. Experimental results showed that the mass fraction of grade 5, grade 6, and grade 7 materials were 27.54%, 15.23%, and 17.38%, respectively. Grade 1 particles' mass fraction was reduced by 80.30% compared with a traditional separator. Furthermore, the monocrystalline silicon content in silicon element in particles with a diameter of -0.091 mm was 18.9%, higher than that in the mixed materials. This study could serve as guidance for the future material flow control, automation control, waste recycling, and semiconductor storage medium destruction. PMID:23560940

  13. Comparison of separation techniques for the elucidation of IgG N-glycans pooled from healthy mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Barbara; Tharmalingam-Jaikaran, Tharmala; Schomberg, Michael; Szekrényes, Ákos; Kelly, Ronan M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Guttman, Andràs; Rudd, Pauline M

    2014-05-01

    The IgG N-glycome provides sufficient complexity and information content to serve as an excellent source for biomarker discovery in mammalian health. Since oligosaccharides play a significant role in many biological processes it is very important to understand their structure. The glycosylation is cell type specific as well as highly variable depending on the species producing the IgG. We evaluated the variation of N-linked glycosylation of human, bovine, ovine, equine, canine and feline IgG using three orthogonal glycan separation techniques: hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-UPLC, reversed phase (RP)-UPLC and capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The separation of the glycans by these high resolution methods yielded different profiles due to diverse chemistries. However, the % abundance of structures obtained by CE-LIF and HILIC-UPLC were similar, whereas the analysis by RP-UPLC was difficult to compare as the structures were separated by classes of glycans (highly mannosylated, fucosylated, bisected, fucosylated and bisected) resulting in the co-elution of many structures. The IgGs from various species were selected due to the complexity and variation in their N-glycan composition thereby highlighting the complementarity of these separation techniques. PMID:24680513

  14. A Time Series Separation and Reconstruction (TSSR) Technique to Estimate Daily Suspended Sediment Concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    High suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) from natural and anthropogenic sources are responsible for biological impairments of many streams, rivers, lakes, and estuaries, but techniques to estimate sediment concentrations or loads accurately at the daily temporal resolution a...

  15. Analytical-scale separations of lanthanides : a review of techniques and fundamentals.

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K. L.; Jensen, M. P.

    1999-10-27

    Separations chemistry is at the heart of most analytical procedures to determine the rare earth content of both man-made and naturally occurring materials. Such procedures are widely used in mineral exploration, fundamental geology and geochemistry, material science, and in the nuclear industry. Chromatographic methods that rely on aqueous solutions containing complexing agents sensitive to the lanthanide cationic radius and cation-exchange phase transfer reactions (using a variety of different solid media) have enjoyed the greatest success for these procedures. In this report, they will briefly summarize the most important methods for completing such analyses. they consider in some detail the basic aqueous (and two-phase) solution chemistry that accounts for separations that work well and offer explanations for why others are less successful.

  16. Measurement of isotope separation factors in the palladium-hydrogen system using a thermistor technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, T.M.

    1998-05-01

    The range of available data on separation factors in the palladium-hydrogen/deuterium system has been extended. A matched pair of glass-coated bead thermistors was used to measure gas phase compositions. The compositions of the input gas--assumed also to be the solid phase composition--were measured independently be mass spectrometry as being within 0.5 mole% of the values used to calibrate the thermistors. This assumption is based on the fact that > 99% of the input gas is absorbed into the solid. Separation factors were measured for 175 K {le} T {le} 389 K and for 0.195 {le} x{sub H} {le} 0.785.

  17. Air-sea Exchange of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) - Separation of the Transfer Velocity to Buoyancy, Turbulence, and Wave Driven Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Huebert, B. J.; Fairall, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    In the past several years, we have measured the sea-to-air flux of DMS directly with eddy covariance on five cruises in distinct oceanic environments, including the equatorial Pacific (TAO 2003), Sargasso Sea (Biocomplexity 2004), Northern Atlantic (DOGEE 2007), Southern Ocean (SO-GasEX 2008), and Peruvian/Chilean upwelling region (VOCALS-REx 2008). Normalizing DMS flux by its concurrent air-sea concentration difference gave us the transfer velocity of DMS (kDMS). Our wealth of kDMS measurements (~2000 hourly values) in very different oceans and across a wide range of wind speeds (0.5~20.5 m/s) provides an opportunity to evaluate existing parameterizations of k and quantify the importance of various controlling factors on gas exchange. Gas exchange in different wind speed regimes is driven by distinct physical mechanisms. In low winds (<4 m/s), buoyancy-driven convection results in a finite and positive kDMS. In moderate winds (4~10 m/s), turbulence from wind-stress prevails, as we found a near linear dependence of kDMS on wind speed and on friction velocity (u*). In high winds (>10 m/s), there is additional bubble-mediated exchange from wave-breaking, which depends on gas solubility (a function of temperature and to a lesser degree, salinity). When normalizing kDMS to a reference temperature of 20°C, we found the oft-used Schmidt number correction (for diffusivity) to be inadequate because it does not account for the temperature dependence in solubility. To quantify the solubility effect, we subtract the small buoyancy-driven term computed by the NOAA-COARE model 3.0a from k660 (kDMS corrected to a Schmidt number of 660). A linear fit to the residual k660 in the moderate wind regime allows us to further separate the turbulence-driven and wave-breaking components. A solubility correction is applied to the latter, which is then added back to the buoyancy and turbulence-driven terms to give k660,C. Compared to k660, k660,C shows a significant reduction in scatter

  18. Separation techniques for low-level determination of actinides in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, J; Jäggi, M; Beer, H; Rüthi, M; Zumsteg, I

    2009-05-01

    The separation methods for soil samples applied at PSI are based on extraction chromatography and ion exchange. After sample leaching, the actinides are pre-concentrated via precipitation using oxalic acid. Besides the classical separation methods applying the extraction chromatographic resins U/TEVA (for U, Th), TRU (Pu, Am), new methods were recently implemented to increase the radiochemical recovery of particularly trivalent Am and Cm. These methods do not require initial reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) but stabilize Pu on the tetravalent oxidation state using a mixture of NaNO(2)/H(2)O(2) in strong acidic medium. The Pu-fraction is then fixed along with Th onto Dowex AG 1-X2 anion exchanger resin. Th is eluted via complexation with 10M HCl, Pu via reduction with HI. The fractions of Am+Cm and U are loaded onto DGA resin. This resin shows extraordinary high distribution coefficients (k'-values) exceeding 10(4) (for Am) in strong nitric acid medium. The separation between U and Am is obtained quantitatively by decreasing the HNO(3) concentration from 3 to 0.25 M (stripping of the U-fraction) while Am can be easily eluted thereafter using 0.25 M HCl as complexation compound. PMID:19243967

  19. Ecophysiological analysis of moss-dominated biological soil crusts and their separate components from the Succulent Karoo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bettina; Graf, Tobias; Bass, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Biological soil crusts, formed by an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and bacteria in varying proportions, live in or directly on top of the uppermost soil layer. To evaluate their role in the global carbon cycle, gas exchange measurements were conducted under controlled conditions. Moss-dominated soil crusts were first analyzed as moss tufts on soil, then the mosses were removed and the soil was analyzed separately to obtain the physiological response of both soil and individual moss stems. Net photosynthetic response of moss stems and complete crusts was decreased by insufficient and excess amounts of water, resulting in optimum curves with similar ranges of optimum water content. Light saturation of both sample types occurred at high irradiance, but moss stems reached light compensation and saturation points at lower values. Optimum temperatures of moss stems ranged between 22 and 27°C, whereas complete crusts reached similar net photosynthesis between 7 and 27°C. Under optimum conditions, moss stems reached higher net photosynthesis (4.0 vs. 2.8 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and lower dark respiration rates (-0.9 vs. -2.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Respiration rates of soil without moss stems were high (up to -2.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) causing by far lower absolute values of NP/DR ratios of soil crusts as compared to moss stems. In carbon balances, it therefore has to be clearly distinguished between measurements of soil crust components versus complete crusts. High rates of soil respiration may be caused by leaching of mosses, creating high-nutrient microsites that favor microorganism growth. PMID:22278609

  20. Separation of heavy metals from salts in multicomponent gas by a two-stage dust collection technique.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimoto, Kaoru

    2013-06-15

    A Pb and Zn separation method from salts (Na, K, and Cl) in a simulated multicomponent gas generated by the incineration fly ash melting is studied. The heavy metals are separated using a two-stage dust collection technique. A standard reagents mixture is volatilized by heating in a lab-scale reactor to generate the simulated multicomponent gas. The volatilized salts in the gas are condensed and collected by a filter at a high temperature (600-800 °C), allowing Pb and Zn to pass through the filter as gaseous species. The gaseous heavy metals are condensed by lowering their temperature to 100 °C and collected. The metal separation is promoted by elevating the temperature used in the first-stage dust collection to 800 °C and maintaining a reductive atmosphere in the reactor. Subsequently, a sequential chemical extraction is performed on the obtained materials to evaluate the metals leaching characteristics from the materials. In the separated salts to be landfilled, a portion of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, As, and Cr remain as water-soluble compounds. The separated Pb and Zn, to be extracted and recovered with precipitation for the metal enrichment, can be extracted using water, acid (pH 3), or CH₃COONH₄ solution (1M). PMID:23611806

  1. Computational Investigations of Inboard Flow Separation and Mitigation Techniques on Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Raymond

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the NREL 5-MW rotor have been examined using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method, OVERFLOW2. A comprehensive off-body grid independence study has been performed. A strong dependence on the size of the near-body wake grid has been found. Rapid diffusion of the wake appears to generate an overprediction of power and thrust. A large, continuous near-wake grid at minimum of two rotor diameters downstream of the rotor appears to be necessary for accurate predictions of near-body forces. The NREL 5-MW rotor demonstrates significant inboard flow separation up to 30% of span. This separation appears to be highly three-dimensional, with a significant amount of radial flow increasing the size of the separated region outboard. Both integrated aerodynamic coefficients and detailed wake structures for the baseline NREL 5-MW rotor are in excellent agreement with results by Riso at Uinfinity = 8 and 11 m/s. A simple, continuous full-chord fence was applied at the maximum chord location of the blade, within the region of separation. This non-optimized device reduced the boundary-layer cross-flow and resulting separation, and increased rotor power capture by 0.9% and 0.6% at U infinity = 8 and 11 m/s, respectively. Suction side only fences perform similarly in terms of power capture but reduce the increase in rotor thrust. Fence heights from 0.5% to 17.5% of the maximum chord all demonstrate some level of effectiveness, with fences (1-2.5%cmax) showing similar performance gains to taller fences with smaller penalties in thrust. Performance in terms of power capture is not very sensitive to spanwise location when placed within the separation region. Blunt trailing edge modifications to the inboard region of the blade showed a relatively significant effect on rotor power. Over a large range of trailing edge thicknesses from hTE = 10 to 25%c, power was found to increase by 1.4%. Thrust increased proportionally with the thicknesses examined

  2. Effects of light intensity and pattern contrast on the ability of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi, to separate optic flow-field components.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aaron P; Barnes, W Jon P; Macauley, Martin W S

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel suite of computer-generated visual stimuli that mimicked components of optic flow, the visual responses of the tropical land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi, were investigated. We show that crabs are normally successful in distinguishing the rotational and translational components of the optic flow field, showing strong optokinetic responses to the former but not the latter. This ability was not dependent on the orientation of the crab, occurring both in "forwards-walking" and "sideways-walking" configurations. However, under conditions of low overall light intensity and/or low object/background contrast, the separation mechanism shows partial failure causing the crab to generate compensatory eye movements to translation, particularly in response to low-frequency (low-velocity) stimuli. Using this discovery, we then tested the ability of crabs to separate rotational and translational components in a combined rotation/translation flow field under different conditions. We demonstrate that, while crabs can successfully separate such a combined flow field under normal circumstances, showing compensatory eye movements only to the rotational component, they are unable to make this separation under conditions of low overall light intensity and low object/background contrast. Here, the responses to both flow-field components show summation when they are in phase, but, surprisingly, there is little reduction in the amplitude of responses to rotation when the translational component is in antiphase. Our results demonstrate that the crab's visual system finds separation of flow-field components a harder task than detection of movement, since the former shows partial failure at light intensities and/or object/background contrasts at which movement of the world around the crab is still generating high-gain optokinetic responses. PMID:15733344

  3. Assessment of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography as a separation technique for the analysis of seized drugs: Applicability to synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, Stephanie; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of modern methods for ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) has great potential for impacting the analysis of seized drugs. In the separation of synthetic cannabinoids the technique has the potential to produce superior resolution of positional isomers and diastereomers. To demonstrate this potential we have examined the capability of UHPSFC for the analysis of two different groups of synthetic cannabinoids. The first group was a mixture of 22 controlled synthetic cannabinoids, and the second group included JWH018 and nine of its non-controlled positional isomers The clear superiority of UHPSFC over other separation techniques was demonstrated, in that it was capable of near baseline separation of all 10 positional isomers using a chiral column. In total we examined four achiral columns, including Acquity UPC(2) Torus 2-PIC, Acquity UPC(2) Torus Diol, Acquity UPC(2) Torus DEA and Acquity UPC(2) Torus 1-AA (1.7μm 3.0×100mm), and three chiral columns, including Acquity UPC(2) Trefoil AMY1, Acquity UPC(2) Trefoil CEL1 and Acquity UPC(2) Trefoil CEL2 (2.5μm 3.0×150mm), using mobile phase compositions that combined carbon dioxide with methanol, acetonitrile, ethanol or isopropanol modifier gradients. Detection was performed using simultaneous PDA UV detection and quadrupole mass spectrometry. The orthogonality of UHPSFC, GC and UHPLC for the analysis of these compounds was demonstrated using principal component analysis. Overall we feel that this new technique should prove useful in the analysis and detection of seized drug samples, and will be a useful addition to the compendium of methods for drug analysis. PMID:26947165

  4. 100% foundry compatible packaging and full wafer release and die separation technique for surface micromachined devices

    SciTech Connect

    OLIVER,ANDREW D.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.

    2000-04-06

    A completely foundry compatible chip-scale package for surface micromachines has been successfully demonstrated. A pyrex (Corning 7740) glass cover is placed over the released surface micromachined die and anodically bonded to a planarized polysilicon bonding ring. Electrical feedthroughs for the surface micromachine pass underneath the polysilicon sealing ring. The package has been found to be hermetic with a leak rate of less than 5 x 10{sup {minus}8} atm cm{sup {minus}3}/s. This technology has applications in the areas of hermetic encapsulation and wafer level release and die separation.

  5. Neutron/gamma dose separation by the multiple-ion-chamber technique

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many mixed n/..gamma.. dosimetry systems rely on two dosimeters, one composed of a tissue-equivalent material and the other made from a non-hydrogenous material. The paired chamber technique works well in fields of neutron radiation nearly identical in spectral composition to that in which the dosimeters were calibrated. However, this technique is drastically compromised in phantom due to the degradation of the neutron spectrum. The three-dosimeter technique allows for the fall-off in neutron sensitivity of the two non-hydrogenous dosimeters. Precise and physically meaningful results were obtained with this technique with a D-T source in air and in phantom and with simultaneous D-T neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma ray irradiation in air. The MORSE-CG coupled n/..gamma.. three-dimensional Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in a water phantom. Gamma doses calculated in phantom with this code were generally lower than corresponding ion chamber measurements. This can be explained by the departure of irradiation conditions from ideal narrow-beam geometry. 97 references.

  6. Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

  7. Fetoscopic Amniotic Band Release in a Case of Chorioamniotic Separation: An Innovative New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Michael A.; Whitehead, William E.; Ball, Robert; Silver, Robert; Shamshirsaz, Alireza; Ruano, Rodrigo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Becker, Judith; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Hollier, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fetoscopic release of amniotic bands has proved its life- and limb-saving potential. Rupture of the amnion and separation of chorion from the amnion and uterine wall can however preclude the standard fetoscopic approach to release the amniotic bands using a single port. Methods and Materials A 28-year-old G1P0 woman was referred to our unit at 19 weeks due to amniotic band syndrome involving the left ankle, the infrapatellar region of the right leg, and the umbilical cord. Of note, part of the fetus was seen outside the amniotic cavity by ultrasonography and the left ankle and foot were severely swollen. The patient underwent a laparotomy and fetoscopic release of the amniotic bands as well as partial amnionectomy using two uterine ports and CO2 as distention. Results The surgery and postoperative recovery course were uneventful. At 341/7 weeks the patient went into labor, which was augmented resulting vaginal delivery of a 2,460-g male infant. The infant was noted to have a shallow skin indentation on the left lower extremity near the ankle. The infant was discharged in excellent condition. Conclusion In those cases where release of an amniotic band is impossible due to membrane separation, surgery in a CO2-filled uterus offers an option. PMID:27298754

  8. Study on the variable cycle engine modeling techniques based on the component method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihua; Xue, Hui; Bao, Yuhai; Li, Jijun; Yan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Based on the structure platform of the gas turbine engine, the components of variable cycle engine were simulated by using the component method. The mathematical model of nonlinear equations correspondeing to each component of the gas turbine engine was established. Based on Matlab programming, the nonlinear equations were solved by using Newton-Raphson steady-state algorithm, and the performance of the components for engine was calculated. The numerical simulation results showed that the model bulit can describe the basic performance of the gas turbine engine, which verified the validity of the model.

  9. New Advanced Fabrication Technique for Millimeter-Wave Planar Components based on Fluororesin Substrates using Graft Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Naoki; Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Sakata, Eiji

    2008-06-01

    As the importance of advanced millimeter-wave diagnostics increases, a reliable and accurate fabrication technique for high-performance devices and relevant components is essential. We describe a new improved fabrication technique for millimeter-wave planar components, such as antennas using low-loss fluororesin substrates. A fragile adhesion between the copper foil and fluororesin substrate and the accuracy of the device pattern using conventional fabrication techniques have been prime suspects in the failure of the devices. In order to solve these problems, surface treatment of fluororesin films and a fabrication method using electro-fine-forming (EF2) are proposed. The peel adhesion strength between the metal and fluororesin films and the value of the dielectric constant of the fluororesin films before and after grafting are reported. A prototype antenna using conventional fluororesin substrates and grafted-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films produced using the EF2 fabrication technique are also introduced.

  10. A novel human detoxification system based on nanoscale bioengineering and magnetic separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D; Liu, Xianqiao; Mertz, Carol J; Xie, Yumei; Torno, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

    2007-01-01

    We describe the conceptual approach, theoretical background and preliminary experimental data of a proposed platform technology for specific and rapid decorporation of blood-borne toxins from humans. The technology is designed for future emergent in-field or in-hospital detoxification of large numbers of biohazard-exposed victims; for example, after radiological attacks. The proposed systems is based on nanoscale technology employing biocompatible, superparamagnetic nanospheres, which are functionalized with target-specific antitoxin receptors, and freely circulate within the human blood stream after simple intravenous injection. Sequestration of the blood-borne toxins onto the nanosphere receptors generates circulating nanosphere-toxin complexes within a short time interval; mathematical modeling indicates prevailing of unbound nanosphere receptors over target toxin concentrations at most therapeutic injection dosages. After a toxin-specific time interval nanosphere-toxin complexes are generated within the blood stream and, after simple arterial or venous access, the blood is subsequently circulated via a small catheter through a portable high gradient magnetic separator device. In this device, the magnetic toxin complexes are retained by a high gradient magnetic field and the detoxified blood is then returned back to the blood circulation (extracorporeal circulation). Our preliminary in vitro experiments demonstrate >95% first pass capture efficiency of magnetic spheres within a prototype high gradient magnetic separation device. Further, based on the synthesis of novel hydrophobic magnetite nanophases with high magnetization ( approximately 55 emu/g), the first biodegradable magnetic nanospheres at a size range of approximately 280 nm and functionalized with PEG-maleimide surface groups for specific antibody attachment are described here. In future applications, we envision this technology to be suitable for emergent, in-field usage for acutely biohazard exposed

  11. Characterization of branched polysaccharides using multiple-detection size separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Francisco; Gilbert, Robert G

    2010-11-01

    The structure of branched polysaccharides involves a hierarchy of levels, from the constituent sugars, then the branching pattern, up to the macromolecular architecture, and then supramolecular organization. Finding causal relations between this complex structure/architecture and both (bio)synthetic mechanisms and final properties is needed for understanding the functionality of branched polysaccharides, which is important in fields ranging from improved nutrition and health through to papermaking and pharmaceuticals. The structural complexity makes this task especially challenging. This review focuses on the best current means to obtain reliable branch chain and size distributions using size-separation technologies coupled with number-, mass- and molecular-weight-sensitive detectors. Problems with current technologies are also critically appraised. PMID:20960448

  12. Electrophoretic separation techniques and their hyphenation to mass spectrometry in biological inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Grabmann, Gerlinde; Hartinger, Christian G

    2016-04-01

    Electrophoretic methods have been widely applied in research on the roles of metal complexes in biological systems. In particular, CE, often hyphenated to a sensitive MS detector, has provided valuable information on the modes of action of metal-based pharmaceuticals, and more recently new methods have been added to the electrophoretic toolbox. The range of applications continues to expand as a result of enhanced CE-to-MS interfacing, with sensitivity often at picomolar level, and evolved separation modes allowing for innovative sample analysis. This article is a followup to previous reviews about CE methods in metallodrug research (Electrophoresis, 2003, 24, 2023-2037; Electrophoresis, 2007, 28, 3436-3446; Electrophoresis, 2012, 33, 622-634), also providing a comprehensive overview of metal species studied by electrophoretic methods hyphenated to MS. It highlights the latest CE developments, takes a sneak peek into gel electrophoresis, traces biomolecule labeling, and focuses on the importance of early-stage drug development. PMID:26643265

  13. Gaining adequate interdental space with modified elastic separating rings: rationale and technique.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Ami; Venezia, Eyal

    2002-06-01

    Restoring a tooth with an inadequate contact point and root proximity is a challenge to the practitioner. Ignoring such situations or making compromises in the treatment plan may hinder a successful treatment outcome. Treatment options include strategic extractions, sectional orthodontics, and minor orthodontic movements. The purpose of this article is to discuss the clinical problems and difficulties arising from this situation and to present a modified treatment modality through two case reports. Elastic separating rings, which open an interdental space for placing orthodontic appliances, can be modified to serve as a preprosthetic means for solving mesiodistal crowding of teeth in daily practice. The classic method is modified by the use of elastic rings in sequentially increased thickness, so that the space gained with one ring is followed and increased with a thicker one. An orthodontic background and special instruments are not necessary. PMID:12073721

  14. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge the performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.

  15. Techniques employed by the NASA White Sands Test Facility to ensure oxygen system component safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stradling, J. S.; Pippen, D. L.; Frye, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of ascertaining the safety and suitability of a variety of oxygen system components are discussed. Additionally, qualification and batch control requirements for soft goods in oxygen systems are presented. Current oxygen system component qualification test activities in progress at White Sands Test Facility are described.

  16. Thermal stability and separation characteristics of anti-sticking layers of Pt/Cr films for the hot slumping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuang; Wen, Ming-Wu; Wang, Zhan-Shan

    2016-07-01

    The thermal stability and separation characteristics of anti-sticking layers of Pt/Cr films are studied in this paper. Several types of adhesion layers were investigated: 10.0 nm Pt, 1.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt, 2.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt and 3.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. The variation of layer thickness, roughness, crystallization and surface topography of Pt/Cr films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, large angle X-ray diffraction and optical profiler before and after heating. 2.5 nm Cr + 50.0 nm Pt film exhibits the best thermal stability and separation characteristics according to the heating and hot slumping experiments. The film was also applied as an anti-sticking layer to optimize the maximum temperature of the hot slumping technique. Supported by CAS XTP project XDA04060605

  17. Internal sample attenuator counting (ISAC). A new technique for separating and measuring bound and free activity in radioimmunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Thorell, J.I.

    1981-12-01

    A new method for the separation counting of bound and free activity in radioimmunoassays is described. Particles containing a radiation-abosrbing (attenuating) material are added to the assay. They shield the radiation from either the antibody-bound or the free radioligand. This obviates such manipulations conventionally involved in the separation and counting steps of radioimmunoassays as centrifugation decanting. Bismuth oxide is used as the attenuator. Particles with different properties are described. In one type, bismuth oxide is combined with active charcoal in an agarose matrix and serves as an absorbant for the free radioligand. In another type bismuth oxide is trapped within a polyacrylamide matrix to which antibodies are coupled. This particle can be used with a first- or a second-antibody bound activity. Application of the technique is illustrated with radioimmunoassays for thyroxin, triiodothyronine, human choriogonadotropin, and lutropin (luteinizing hormone).

  18. Evaluation and comparison of various separation techniques for the analysis of closely-related compounds of pharmaceutical interest.

    PubMed

    Gourmel, Charlotte; Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud, Alexandre; Waller, Laura; Reginato, Emilie; Verne, Joelle; Dulery, Bertrand; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge; Schappler, Julie; Guillarme, Davy

    2013-03-22

    The aim of the present work was to compare various separation techniques for the fast analysis of closely-related compounds, including structurally-related compounds, positional isomers, diastereoisomers, Z/E isomers. Three analytical techniques were evaluated, namely ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC), both with sub-2μm particles, and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using non-aqueous solvents. To fairly compare the three analytical techniques, only two starting conditions for further method development were considered. All the selected mobile phases or background electrolyte were MS-compatible. As expected, CE often provided excellent results for the analysis of basic compounds but it was difficult to find out conditions that could be widely applied. On the other hand, UHPLC and UHPSFC were more generic and the performance was better than CE for the analysis of neutral and acidic compounds. In all cases, the analysis time was systematically lower than 3min. In conclusion, UHPLC was the most versatile strategy for the analysis of closely-related compounds and should be tested in a first instance. UHPSFC and CE approaches offered some drastic changes in selectivity and should be considered a second choice to reach alternative selectivity as they also allow high throughput separations. PMID:23415443

  19. Manual for extending the laser specklegram technique to strain analysis of rotating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, L. C.; Turner, J. L.; Weathers, J.; Swinson, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The theory, techniques, and equipment necessary for extending laser speckle techniques to analyze stresses in rotating blades are described. Details for setting up the equipment, for timing the events, for data recording, and for data analysis are discussed. Finite element techniques are investigated for analysis of speckle data. Advantages and limitations of the finite element analysis for the speckle data are discussed. The finite element program is listed.

  20. Removal turbidity and separation of heavy metals using electrocoagulation-electroflotation technique A case study.

    PubMed

    Merzouk, B; Gourich, B; Sekki, A; Madani, K; Chibane, M

    2009-05-15

    The electrocoagulation (EC) process was developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. This process is very effective in removing organic pollutants including dyestuff wastewater and allows for the reduction of sludge generation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the operating parameters, such as pH, initial concentration (C(0)), duration of treatment (t), current density (j), interelectrode distance (d) and conductivity (kappa) on a synthetic wastewater in the batch electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EF) process. The optimal operating conditions were determined and applied to a textile wastewater and separation of some heavy metals. Initially a batch-type EC-EF reactor was operated at various current densities (11.55, 18.6, 35.94, 56.64, 74.07 and 91.5mA/cm(2)) and various interelectrode distance (1, 2 and 3cm). For solutions with 300mg/L of silica gel, high turbidity removal (89.54%) was obtained without any coagulants when the current density was 11.55mA/cm(2), initial pH was 7.6, conductivity was 2.1mS/cm, duration of treatment was 10min and interelectrode distance was 1cm. The application of the optimal operating parameters on a textile wastewater showed a high removal efficiency for various items: suspended solid (SS) 86.5%, turbidity 81.56%, biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) 83%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 68%, and color over 92.5%. During the EC process under these conditions, we have studied the separation of some heavy metal ions such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) with different initial concentrations in the range of 50-600mg/L and initial pH between 7.5 and 7.8. This allowed us to show that the kinetics of electrocoagulation-electroflotation is very quick (<15min), and the removal rate reaches 95%. PMID:18799259

  1. Formation of highly porous polymeric foams with controlled release capability : a phase-separation technique.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, S; Lo, H; Leong, K W

    1999-01-01

    The success of many tissue engineering applications depends on a scaffold with the suitable physical properties, one of which might be a macroporous structure that allows cellular ingrowth. Such a porous implant further raises the possibility of delivering chemotactic or growth factors to influence the course of cell proliferation and differentiation in situ. The scaffolds can also be preseeded with cells to accelerate tissue growth or repair. Even in the absence of these payloads, they still provide the benefit of introducing the minimal amount of foreign material into the tissue. Furthermore, by making the porous scaffold, or foam, from biodegradable polymers, the regenerated tissue would be rid of any synthetic component, leading to a more functional biological equivalent, and eliminating concerns of long-term tissue compatibility. PMID:21370167

  2. Supramolecular structures based on regioisomers of cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins - new media for capillary separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Benkovics, Gabor; Hodek, Ondrej; Havlikova, Martina; Bosakova, Zuzana; Coufal, Pavel; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Eva; Darcsi, Andras; Beni, Szabolcs; Jindrich, Jindrich

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the preparation and application of supramolecular structures based on mono-cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins (Cin-α-CD). Pure regioisomers of Cin-α-CD having the cinnamyl moiety at the 2-O- or at the 3-O-position, respectively, were prepared, characterized and applied in capillary electrophoresis as additives to the background electrolyte. These new monomer units with a potential to self-organize into supramolecular structures were synthesized via a straightforward one-step synthetic procedure and purified using preparative reversed-phase chromatography allowing a large scale separation of the regioisomers. The ability of the monomers to self-assemble was proved by various methods including NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The light scattering experiments showed that the monomer units have distinguishable ability to form supramolecular structures in different solvents and the size distribution of the aggregates in water can be easily modulated using different external stimuli, such as temperature or competitive guest molecules. The obtained results indicated that the two regioisomers of Cin-α-CD formed different supramolecular assemblies highlighting the fact that the position of the cinnamyl group plays an important role in the intermolecular complex formation. PMID:26877812

  3. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  4. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  5. Improving the photoinduced charge separation parameters in corrole-perylene carboximide dyads by tuning the redox and spectroscopic properties of the components.

    PubMed

    Flamigni, Lucia; Ciuciu, Adina I; Langhals, Heinz; Böck, Bernd; Gryko, Daniel T

    2012-03-01

    A couple of corrole-perylene carboximide dyads (C2-PIa and C2-PIx) have been synthesized and their photoreactivity has been evaluated. We aimed at obtaining better performances for photoinduced charge separation, both in terms of efficiency and in terms of lifetime, with respect to formerly studied systems. The energy level of the charge-separated state was tuned by selecting perylene and corrole components with diverse redox and spectroscopic properties. High spectroscopic energy levels of the perylene carboximide derivatives (PIs) allow a fast charge separation to be maintained in competition with an energy-transfer process from the PI to the corrole unit. Yields and lifetimes of charge separation in toluene are, respectively, 75% and 2.5 μs for C2-PIa and 65% and 24 ns for C2-PIx. The results and the effect of solvent polarity are discussed in the framework of current energy- and electron-transfer theories. PMID:22234895

  6. Stationary phases with special structural properties for high-throughput separation techniques: preparation, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Buszewski, Boguslaw; Welerowicz, Tomasz

    2004-06-01

    Stationary phases with specific structural properties for high-throughput liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques are described. Special attention was paid to phases with special structural properties, mainly containing internal functional group (e.g. amide). Such materials are generally called "embedded phases". There are phases created in amidation process of aminopropylated silica gel, especially phases based on biological compounds, like phospholipids and cholesterol, which are called immobilized artificial membranes (IAM's). The synthesis and applications of polar embedded amide LC stationary phases were also reviewed. Methods of characterization of synthesized packing materials were presented, with general focusing on spectroscopic measurements like (13C and 29Si CP/MAS NMR and FT-IR), elemental and thermal analysis as well as chromatographic quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) and extended chemometric tests. The potential applications of various dedicated stationary phases in a high-throughput LC screening procedures were also presented. PMID:15200378

  7. Simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by foam separation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.D.; Huang, M.K.; Gua, J.Y.; Wu, T.P.; Huang, J.Y.

    1988-04-01

    The objective of the present work is to extend the application of adsorbing colloid flotation techniques to remove mixtures of metal ions. The systems studied are: 1) Co(II) and Cr(VI); 2) Co(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI); 3) Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Zn(II); 4) Cr(VI), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II); 5) Cd(II), Pd(II), and Cu(II). Ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide were used as the coprecipitant, and sodium lauryl sulfate was used as the collector and frother. The ionic strength of the solution was adjusted with NaNO/sub 3/ or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It was found that all the heavy metals can be removed effectively by a single step foam flotation treatment.

  8. Fluorous affinity-based separation techniques for the analysis of biogenic and related molecules.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl-containing compounds have a unique 'fluorous' property that refers to the remarkably specific affinity they share. Fluorous compounds can be easily isolated from non-fluorous species on the perfluoroalkyl-functionalized stationary phases used in fluorous solid-phase extraction and fluorous liquid chromatography by means of fluorous-fluorous interactions (fluorophilicity). Recently, this unique specificity has been applied to the highly selective enrichment and analysis of different classes of biogenic and related compounds in complex samples. Because the biogenic compounds are generally not 'fluorous', they must be derivatized with appropriate perfluoroalkyl group-containing reagent in order to utilize fluorous interaction. In this review, we introduce the application of fluorous affinity techniques including derivatization methods to biogenic sample analysis. PMID:24865313

  9. The use of net analyte signal orthogonalization in the separation of multi-component diffraction patterns obtained from X-ray powder diffraction of intact compacts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael D; Cogdill, Robert P; Short, Steven M; Hair, Colleen R; Wildfong, Peter L D

    2008-06-01

    X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis of intact multi-component consolidated mixtures has significant potential owing to the ability to non-destructively quantify and discriminate between solid phases in composite bodies with minimal sample preparation. There are, however, limitations to the quantitative power using traditional univariate methods on diffraction data containing features from all components in the system. The ability to separate multi-component diffraction data into patterns representing single constituents allows both composition as well as physical phenomena associated with the individual components of complex systems to be probed. Intact, four-component compacts, consisting of two crystalline and two amorphous constituents were analyzed using XRPD configured in both traditional Bragg-Brentano reflectance geometry and parallel-beam transmission geometry. Two empirical, model-based methods consisting of a multiple step net analyte signal (NAS) orthogonalization are presented as ways to separate multi-component XRPD patterns into single constituent patterns. Multivariate figures of merit (FOM) were calculated for each of the isolated constituents to compare method-specific parameters such as sensitivity, selectivity, and signal-to-noise, enabling quantitative comparisons between the two modes of XRPD analysis. PMID:18294800

  10. Synchrotron-Based Microspectroscopic Analysis of Molecular and Biopolymer Structures Using Multivariate Techniques and Advanced Multi-Components Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.

    2008-01-01

    More recently, advanced synchrotron radiation-based bioanalytical technique (SRFTIRM) has been applied as a novel non-invasive analysis tool to study molecular, functional group and biopolymer chemistry, nutrient make-up and structural conformation in biomaterials. This novel synchrotron technique, taking advantage of bright synchrotron light (which is million times brighter than sunlight), is capable of exploring the biomaterials at molecular and cellular levels. However, with the synchrotron RFTIRM technique, a large number of molecular spectral data are usually collected. The objective of this article was to illustrate how to use two multivariate statistical techniques: (1) agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and (2) principal component analysis (PCA) and two advanced multicomponent modeling methods: (1) Gaussian and (2) Lorentzian multi-component peak modeling for molecular spectrum analysis of bio-tissues. The studies indicated that the two multivariate analyses (AHCA, PCA) are able to create molecular spectral corrections by including not just one intensity or frequency point of a molecular spectrum, but by utilizing the entire spectral information. Gaussian and Lorentzian modeling techniques are able to quantify spectral omponent peaks of molecular structure, functional group and biopolymer. By application of these four statistical methods of the multivariate techniques and Gaussian and Lorentzian modeling, inherent molecular structures, functional group and biopolymer onformation between and among biological samples can be quantified, discriminated and classified with great efficiency.

  11. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  12. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  13. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  14. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26749864

  15. Silica/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofiber membrane separators via sol-gel and electrospinning techniques for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem; Lu, Yao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-05-01

    Silica/polyacrylonitrile (SiO2/PAN) hybrid nanofiber membranes were fabricated by using sol-gel and electrospinning techniques and their electrochemical performance was evaluated for use as separators in lithium-ion batteries. The aim of this study was to design high-performance separator membranes with enhanced electrochemical performance and good thermal stability compared to microporous polyolefin membranes. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticle content up to 27 wt% was achieved in the membranes by using sol-gel technique. It was found that SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes had superior electrochemical performance with good thermal stability due to their high SiO2 content and large porosity. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membranes, SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes had larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes with different SiO2 contents (0, 16, 19 and 27 wt%) were also assembled into lithium/lithium iron phosphate cells, and high cell capacities and good cycling performance were demonstrated at room temperature. In addition, cells using SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes with high SiO2 contents showed superior C-rate performance compared to those with low SiO2 contents and commercial microporous polyolefin membrane.

  16. Baseflow separation in a premontane transitional rainforest using stable isotope techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. R.; DuMont, A.; Roark, E.; Cahill, A. T.; Brumbelow, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic, geologic, and biologic processes are critical to understanding the ecosystem in the tropical premontane transitional forests of Costa Rica. Precipitation is significantly lower during the dry season, and incoming rainfall can be completely intercepted and re-evaporated by the canopy during light events. These canopy processes can affect the rates of runoff and infiltration by changing the quantity and timing of rainfall reaching the ground surface. However, the resulting partitioning of stream water sources between event-water and baseflow from groundwater is not well quantified due to limited accessibility and complex subsurface conditions. This study focuses on research conducted at the Texas A&M Soltis Center for Education and Research, near San Ramón, Costa Rica. We have monitored a 2.2 ha watershed there, measuring precipitation and transpiration rates for over two years, and groundwater levels and stream flow rates for nearly one year. Precipitation rates for the watershed averaged 4.4 m/yr since 2010. Stream flow (runoff, spring flow, and baseflow) averaged 0.09 m^3/sec during the 2012-2013 wet seasons. At 1.2 mm/day, transpiration was a relatively minor component of the water budget. Over a 40-day span during summer 2013, we collected a combination of daily and rain-event based samples from locations throughout the watershed. Sources included: the main stream and two small tributaries, groundwater from piezometers, pore water from suction lysimeters, throughfall and stemflow from under canopy collection systems, and xylem water from 8 tree species across the watershed. We then measured stable isotope fractions (δ18O and δD) in the water using a Picarro L2120i CRDS. Isotope ratios for all surface water averaged -5.50‰ for δ18O and -28.00‰ for δD, while that measured under baseflow conditions were -5.45‰ for δ18O and -29.18‰ for δD. These results indicate that baseflow is the dominate source of stream water even in the wet season

  17. Application of systems engineering techniques to component design - Capturing functionality and linking part 'critical to quality' features to requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C. M.; Moorby, J. S.; Sulley, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    A systems engineering approach - focusing upon functionality - has predominantly been applied in industry to the design of complex systems with many functional interactions, inputs and outputs, eg the design of a decay heat removal system. This paper presents how systems engineering techniques can be applied to component design, i.e. treating the component as a system in its own right, and using functionality as the 'bridge' between the customer requirements and accepted performance. A pressure relief valve is used as an example to present the techniques of: Functional Modelling to establish the functional requirements and Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to establish any emergent functionality to reduce the risk of adverse behaviour. A key aspect of component design is capturing the design intent and establishing the 'Critical to Quality 'features that can critically affect quality and performance. This paper details 'Quality Function Deployment' being applied to a component to capture such features and to establish a clear link to the overarching performance requirements. This approach is particularly useful in ensuring continuity of design understanding throughout the component life cycle, assessing the effects of any proposed changes to the design and the effects of changes in system or customer requirements, or for using the design in a different application. (authors)

  18. A microchip electrophoresis-mass spectrometric platform for fast separation and identification of enantiomers employing the partial filling technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangtang; Xiao, Dan; Ou, Xiao-Ming; McCullumn, Cassandra; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A microchip electrophoresis-mass spectrometric (MCE-MS) method was developed for fast chiral analysis. The proposed MCE-MS platform deployed a glass /PDMS hybrid microchip with an easy-to-fabricate monolithic nanoelectrospray emitter. Enantiomeric MCE separation was achieved by means of the partial filling technique. A novel chip design with an arm channel connecting to the middle of the MCE separation channel for delivering the chiral selector was tested and proven valid. Enantiomeric separation of 3.4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), glutamic acid (Glu), and serine (Ser), the selected test compounds, were achieved within 130 s with resolution values (Rs) of 2.4, 1.1, and 1.0, respectively. The proposed chiral MCE-MS assay was sensitive and had detection limits of 43 nM for L-DOPA and 47 nM for D-DOPA. The analytical platform was well suited for studies of stereochemical preference in living cells because it integrated cell culture, sample injection, chiral separation, and MS detection into a single platform. Metabolism of DOPA in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was studied as a model system. On-chip incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with racemic DOPA was carried out, and the incubation solution was injected and in-line assayed at time intervals. It was found that L-DOPA concentration decreased gradually as incubation time increased while the concentration of coexisting D-DOPA remained constant. The results firmly indicated that SH-SY5Y cells metabolized L-DOPA effectively while left D-DOPA intact. PMID:24354006

  19. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions passes through an electric field tuned to the 235U ion resonance frequency so that they preferentially absorb energy and increase the diameter of their corkscrew-like orbits. Ions with a large-diameter...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note: In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions passes through an electric field tuned to the 235U ion resonance frequency so that they preferentially absorb energy and increase the diameter of their corkscrew-like orbits. Ions with a large-diameter...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions passes through an electric field tuned to the 235U ion resonance frequency so that they preferentially absorb energy and increase the diameter of their corkscrew-like orbits. Ions with a large-diameter...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions passes through an electric field tuned to the 235U ion resonance frequency so that they preferentially absorb energy and increase the diameter of their corkscrew-like orbits. Ions with a large-diameter...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions passes through an electric field tuned to the 235U ion resonance frequency so that they preferentially absorb energy and increase the diameter of their corkscrew-like orbits. Ions with a large-diameter...

  4. Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Detection of electric discharge machined notches in a silicon carbide tube by an ultrasonic bore side probe under microcomputer control was demonstrated. Use of the reflection mode was shown to enhance the sensitivity of flaw detection with an acoustic microscope. In this configuration, the transducer and laser scanned coverslip are both on the tube outer surface, eliminating the need to fill the tube with water. A conceptual design is presented for inspecting tubes up to seven feet long in both through transmission and reflection mode configurations. A comparison of NDE techniques for ceramic butt joints showed holographic interferometry to be generally better than dye-penetrant, radiographic, or ultrasonic techniques for characterizing a crack-like inner wall defect. Pitch catch and pulse echo ultrasonic techniques also indicated the presence of an anomaly in the region identified as flawed via holography, while radiographic and penetrant testing results were ambiguous.

  5. A technique for making clean holes in metallic piping and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecker, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Testing was conducted to develop a technique of providing clean holes in process piping or in a metal surface accessible from one side only without disassembling the system. The method was performed on sample pieces of piping and worked successfully with no contaminants being found on the inside of the pipe. The materials tested were Inconel 600, 304 stainless steel, Hastelloy X, and ASTM-A53 black steel. The technique was developed such that it could be done in the field with hand-held power tools and a portable tungsten inert gas welding machine.

  6. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; O'Brien, James E.; McKellar, Michael G.; Housley, Gregory K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  7. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  8. Focused ion beam techniques for fabricating geometrically-complex components and devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Thomas Michael; Adams, David Price; Hodges, V. Carter; Vasile, Michael J.

    2004-03-01

    We have researched several new focused ion beam (FIB) micro-fabrication techniques that offer control of feature shape and the ability to accurately define features onto nonplanar substrates. These FIB-based processes are considered useful for prototyping, reverse engineering, and small-lot manufacturing. Ion beam-based techniques have been developed for defining features in miniature, nonplanar substrates. We demonstrate helices in cylindrical substrates having diameters from 100 {micro}m to 3 mm. Ion beam lathe processes sputter-define 10-{micro}m wide features in cylindrical substrates and tubes. For larger substrates, we combine focused ion beam milling with ultra-precision lathe turning techniques to accurately define 25-100 {micro}m features over many meters of path length. In several cases, we combine the feature defining capability of focused ion beam bombardment with additive techniques such as evaporation, sputter deposition and electroplating in order to build geometrically-complex, functionally-simple devices. Damascene methods that fabricate bound, metal microcoils have been developed for cylindrical substrates. Effects of focused ion milling on surface morphology are also highlighted in a study of ion-milled diamond.

  9. Non-destructive evaluation techniques, high temperature ceramic component parts for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, H.; Hirsekorn, S.; Lottermoser, J.; Goebbels, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns studies conducted on various tests undertaken on material without destroying the material. Tests included: microradiographic techniques, vibration analysis, high-frequency ultrasonic tests with the addition of evaluation of defects and structure through analysis of ultrasonic scattering data, microwave tests and analysis of sound emission.

  10. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Janssen, Curtis L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Sosonkina, Masha; Windus, Theresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also addressmore » interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.« less

  11. Development of nondestructive-evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat-exchanger components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupperman, D. S.; Yuhas, D.; Michaels, T. E.; Michaels, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment was made of ultrasonic techniques developed to date for nondestructive evaluation of SiC heat exchanger tubes. The results suggest that ultrasonic inspection is a useful and valuable technique for inspecting these tubes, including ceramic butt joints. However, this method alone is currently not sufficiently effective to detect all critical flaws because of (1) the difficulties in following the surface of an out of round tube; (2) the high velocity and thus the large angle of refraction of sound in SiC, which for small diameter tubes leads to significant beam distortion; and (3) insuffient resolution, relative to the small critical flaw size in ceramics, at conventional ultrasonic testing frequencies. The experiments show that higher frequencies (up to 35 MHz) are required for effective wall thickness measurements and detection of laminar type flaws.

  12. Technique for removal of femoral components with intercondylar articulation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Alpert, S W; Stuchin, S A; Lubliner, J A

    Total knee revision arthroplasty is a challenging and demanding procedure. Removal of well-fixed implants must be done meticulously to preserve bone stock. The presence of intercondylar geometries compounds this problem because the cement-metal interface is inaccessible. The authors present a new technique for approaching this region using a high speed metal cutting burr, thus effectively preserving bone stock in the distal femur. PMID:8829597

  13. Determination of main and minor components of silicon based materials by a combustion with elemental fluorine. Separation of gaseous fluorination products by carrier gas distillation and gas mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Russe; Kipphardt; Broekaert

    2000-08-15

    For the determination of main and minor components in silicon-based ceramic powders, a decomposition by a combustion with elemental fluorine and separation of the volatile fluorination products by a carrier-gas distillation with a subsequent detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry is described. The necessity and success of the separation step is demonstrated for the determination of boron as a minor constituent in SiC, where the spectral interferences of silicon on the boron signals are decreased considerably. The method developed is shown to be directly applicable to determination of silicon in Si3N4, SiC, and SiO2. The determination of nitrogen in Si3N4 requires additional effort, to separate nitrogen from the excess of fluorine. For the determination of boron, a complete mobilization of BF3 is assured by the presence of an adequate amount of GeF4. Analysis results obtained with different types of calibration show a precision of 30 microg for boron at the milligram-per-gram level and a precision between 0.5 and 2% (m/m) for the main components, silicon and nitrogen. Within these standard deviations, the results agree well with the values expected from the stoichiometry, with the results for silicon and boron obtained by wet chemical decomposition and slurry techniques in combination with ICP-OES and with the results for nitrogen obtained by carrier gas heat extraction. PMID:10959976

  14. Structured behavioral observation techniques as components of an effective fitness-for-duty program

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, J.T.; Barnes, V.E.; Moore, C.J.; Toquam, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Performance-based tests are designed to evaluate physical and cognitive performance and have several attractive features that may be useful in nuclear power plant fitness-for-duty programs. Three types of performance-based testing that may eventually be useful in the nuclear power industry are reviewed in this paper: (a) the Los Angeles Police Department's Drug Recognition Expert program, (b) performance assessment batteries, and (c) performance assessment devices. Each of these techniques is evaluated here in terms of the following measures of effectiveness: (1) scope, or the range of potential problems that can be detected; (2) reliability, or the consistency of results; (3) sensitivity, or the ability of the test to detect impairment or the presence of drugs at low levels; (4) specificity, or the ability of the test to correctly identify the source of impairment or the drug present; (5) implementation, or the practicality of using the technique in the nuclear power plant setting. This information analyzed in this paper indicates that although performance and cognitive assessment techniques currently lack the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of random chemical screening to detect and deter substance abuse, they can address a variety of fitness-for-duty concerns that may not be adequately addressed by a urinalysis testing program alone. These include detection of drug use not detected by urinalysis, psychological stress, or physical injury or illness.

  15. Active Components of Essential Oils as Anti-Obesity Potential Drugs Investigated by in Silico Techniques.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giosuè; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In this study, for the first time, we have considered essential oils (EOs) as possible resources of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), in particular against the mitochondrial isoform VA that, actually, represents an innovative target for the obesity treatment. In silico structure-based virtual screening was performed in order to speed up the identification of promising antiobesity agents. The potential hit compounds were submitted to in vitro assays and experimental results, corroborated by molecular modeling studies, showed EOs components as a new class of CAIs with a competitive mechanism of action due to the zinc ion coordination within the active sites of these metallo-enzymes. PMID:27268752

  16. Phased Arrays Techniques and Split Spectrum Processing for Inspection of Thick Titanium Casting Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchet, J.; Sicard, R.; Zellouf, D. E.; Chahbaz, A.

    2003-03-01

    In aircraft structures, titanium parts and engine members are critical structural components, and their inspection crucial. However, these structures are very difficult to inspect ultrasonically because of their large grain structure that increases noise drastically. In this work, phased array inspection setups were developed to detected small defects such as simulated inclusions and porosity contained in thick titanium casting blocks, which are frequently used in the aerospace industry. A Cut Spectrum Processing (CSP)-based algorithm was then implemented on the acquired data by employing a set of parallel bandpass filters with different center frequencies. This process led in substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio and thus, of detectability.

  17. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C. PMID:22559543

  18. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: Scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Jansen, M.; Fuente, G. F. de la

    2012-04-15

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 deg. C.

  19. An Improved Method for Detectingand Separating Cloud from Drizzle Radar Signatures Using a Time Domain Parametric Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, C.; Chandra, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    The separation of radar signatures depicting cloud and drizzle within a pulse radar volume is a fundamental problem whose solution is required to decouple the microphysical and dynamical processes introduced by turbulence. Such a solution would lead to the development of new meteorological products.In this presentation, a method to detect, separate and estimate multiple radar echoes from cloud and drizzle obtained from vertically pointing cloud Doppler spectra is described. In the case when only clouds are present, the Doppler spectrum is symmetrical and is well approximated by a Gaussian. To extract cloud echoes, a parametric maximum likelihood estimator in the time domain is employed using the recorded radar Doppler spectra data. To detect skewness in the radar spectrum, goodness of fit parameters are defined. It is shown that these new detection parameters exhibit a low level sensitivity to poor signal-to-noise ratios and large signal spectrum widths. The proposed method can consequently be applied to signals with shorter integration time; this significantly reduces the impact of small-scale dynamics present in the Doppler spectrum. Additionally, signals near the cloud top and cloud base are used as constraints to optimize the detection and estimation algorithm's performance.The applications of the technique include inference of the vertical air motion and the particle size distribution of the drizzle. The method will be tested on datasets that have been collected by the ARM cloud radars.

  20. Modeling technique to simulate thermally-induced stress in an assembly consisting of components made of different materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, W.; Weigand, M.; Renneisen, A.; Hoeerl, S. )

    1991-06-01

    A modeling technique based on the stress-freezing procedure of three-dimensional photoelasticity is presented. This technique makes it possible to freeze the state of stress caused by a restraint in thermal expansion. The method simulates the restraint using the glass-transition effect during the stress-freezing procedure, so that the state of stress can be measured quantitatively. Cured epoxy resins were used as model materials. To achieve the necessary difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion, a prestressing method was used. The experimental stress analysis shows that the prestressing method can be applied when different thermal expansion properties associated with multiple components are required. The modeling technique is illustrated by an example in which the stress in the bottom of a light metal-alloy cylinder head is simulated.

  1. Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2011-05-01

    Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

  2. Electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This technique separates a single narrow zone of sample mixture in an electrolyte medium into many zones containing a single component of the mixture and electrolyte between them. Since the densities of the separated zones generally differ from that of the intervening medium, such systems are gravitationally unstable and stabilization is required. The various techniques for stabilization include using the capillary space provided by thin films, the interstices of solid material such as filter paper and a variety of gel-forming substances.

  3. Testing methods and techniques: Strength of materials and components. A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The methods, techniques, and devices used in testing the mechanical properties of various materials are presented. Although metals and metal alloys are featured prominently, some of the items describe tests on a variety of other materials, from concrete to plastics. Many of the tests described are modifications of standard testing procedures, intended either to adapt them to different materials and conditions, or to make them more rapid and accurate. In either case, the approaches presented can result in considerable cost savings and improved quality control. The compilation is presented in two sections. The first deals specifically with material strength testing; the second treats the special category of fracture and fatigue testing.

  4. : Signal Decomposition of High Resolution Time Series River data to Separate Local and Regional Components of Conductivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Signal processing techniques were applied to high-resolution time series data obtained from conductivity loggers placed upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment facility along a river. Data was collected over 14-60 days, and several seasons. The power spectral densit...

  5. Signal Decomposition of High Resolution Time Series River Data to Separate Local and Regional Components of Conductivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Signal processing techniques were applied to high-resolution time series data obtained from conductivity loggers placed upstream and downstream of an oil and gas wastewater treatment facility along a river. Data was collected over 14-60 days. The power spectral density was us...

  6. Closed loop control techniques for the growth of single crystal turbine components

    SciTech Connect

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Analysis of processes used for the production of single crystal turbine components reveals significant shortcomings. Inadequate consideration has been made of the fact the system is cooling dominated and that the amount of cooling tends to increase as the emissive cooling area expands during the process. Experimental evidence suggests that during processing, this increased cooling causes the solidification interface to move away from the baffle and become curved. The motion of the interface results in a decrease in the solidification gradient. The combination of these actions can result in variations in PDAS (primary dendrite arm spacing), grain misalignment and the production of defects. It is shown that despite this tendency, microstructural stabilization may be achieved through the use of the heat of fusion as an internal process heat source.

  7. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  8. Novel materials, fabrication techniques and algorithms for microwave and THz components, systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Min

    This dissertation presents the investigation of several additive manufactured components in RF and THz frequency, as well as the applications of gradient index lens based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation system and broadband electronically beam scanning system. Also, a polymer matrix composite method to achieve artificially controlled effective dielectric properties for 3D printing material is studied. Moreover, the characterization of carbon based nano-materials at microwave and THz frequency, photoconductive antenna array based Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) near field imaging system, and a compressive sensing based microwave imaging system is discussed in this dissertation. First, the design, fabrication and characterization of several 3D printed components in microwave and THz frequency are presented. These components include 3D printed broadband Luneburg lens, 3D printed patch antenna, 3D printed multilayer microstrip line structure with vertical transition, THz all-dielectric EMXT waveguide to planar microstrip transition structure and 3D printed dielectric reflectarrays. Second, the additive manufactured 3D Luneburg Lens is employed for DOA estimation application. Using the special property of a Luneburg lens that every point on the surface of the Lens is the focal point of a plane wave incident from the opposite side, 36 detectors are mounted around the surface of the lens to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of a microwave signal. The direction finding results using a correlation algorithm show that the averaged error is smaller than 1º for all 360 degree incident angles. Third, a novel broadband electronic scanning system based on Luneburg lens phased array structure is reported. The radiation elements of the phased array are mounted around the surface of a Luneburg lens. By controlling the phase and amplitude of only a few adjacent elements, electronic beam scanning with various radiation patterns can be easily achieved

  9. Development of analytical techniques to study H2s poisoning of PEMFCs and components

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Rockward, Tommy; Uribe, Francisco A; Garzon, Fernando H

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H{sub 2}S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. Not only is it important to know a particular material's affinity to adsorb H{sub 2}S, when considering materials for PEMFC applications, issues such as permeation and crossover rates also become extremely important Several experimental methods have been developed to quantify H{sub 2}S adsorption onto surfaces and to quantify H{sub 2}S permeation through Nafion(reg.) membranes using readily available and inexpensive Ag/AgS ion probes. In addition to calculating the H{sub 2}S uptake on commonly used XC-72 carbon supports and PtlXC-72 catalysts, the H{sub 2}S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion(reg.) PEMFC membranes was also studied using these specialized techniques. In each ion probe experiment performed, a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H{sub 2}S during the course of the measurement. Crossover experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. By using these techniques, we have confirmed H{sub 2}S crossover in Nafion(reg.) membranes and have calculated preliminary rates of H{sub 2}S crossover.

  10. Space-time codependence of retinal ganglion cells can be explained by novel and separable components of their receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Cameron S; Sabharwal, Jasdeep; Wu, Samuel M

    2016-09-01

    Reverse correlation methods such as spike-triggered averaging consistently identify the spatial center in the linear receptive fields (RFs) of retinal ganglion cells (GCs). However, the spatial antagonistic surround observed in classical experiments has proven more elusive. Tests for the antagonistic surround have heretofore relied on models that make questionable simplifying assumptions such as space-time separability and radial homogeneity/symmetry. We circumvented these, along with other common assumptions, and observed a linear antagonistic surround in 754 of 805 mouse GCs. By characterizing the RF's space-time structure, we found the overall linear RF's inseparability could be accounted for both by tuning differences between the center and surround and differences within the surround. Finally, we applied this approach to characterize spatial asymmetry in the RF surround. These results shed new light on the spatiotemporal organization of GC linear RFs and highlight a major contributor to its inseparability. PMID:27604400

  11. Time-Frequency Theta and Delta Measures Index Separable Components of Feedback Processing in a Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Edward M.; Nelson, Lindsay D.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work using gambling tasks indicate that the feedback negativity (FN) reflects primary or salient stimulus attributes (often gain vs. loss), whereas the feedback-P300 appears sensitive to secondary stimulus information. A recent time-frequency approach has characterized separable theta (3–7 Hz) and delta (0–3 Hz) feedback processes, independently sensitive to primary feedback attributes, specifically loss and gain outcomes respectively (Bernat et al., 2011). The current study extends this time-frequency work to evaluate both primary and secondary (relative outcome and outcome magnitude) feedback attributes. Consistent with previous reports, theta indexed an initial, lower-level response sensitive to the primary (most salient) feedback attributes (specifically losses), while delta was sensitive to both primary attributes (specifically gains) and assessed secondary stimulus features. PMID:25581491

  12. Novel materials, fabrication techniques and algorithms for microwave and THz components, systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Min

    This dissertation presents the investigation of several additive manufactured components in RF and THz frequency, as well as the applications of gradient index lens based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation system and broadband electronically beam scanning system. Also, a polymer matrix composite method to achieve artificially controlled effective dielectric properties for 3D printing material is studied. Moreover, the characterization of carbon based nano-materials at microwave and THz frequency, photoconductive antenna array based Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) near field imaging system, and a compressive sensing based microwave imaging system is discussed in this dissertation. First, the design, fabrication and characterization of several 3D printed components in microwave and THz frequency are presented. These components include 3D printed broadband Luneburg lens, 3D printed patch antenna, 3D printed multilayer microstrip line structure with vertical transition, THz all-dielectric EMXT waveguide to planar microstrip transition structure and 3D printed dielectric reflectarrays. Second, the additive manufactured 3D Luneburg Lens is employed for DOA estimation application. Using the special property of a Luneburg lens that every point on the surface of the Lens is the focal point of a plane wave incident from the opposite side, 36 detectors are mounted around the surface of the lens to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of a microwave signal. The direction finding results using a correlation algorithm show that the averaged error is smaller than 1º for all 360 degree incident angles. Third, a novel broadband electronic scanning system based on Luneburg lens phased array structure is reported. The radiation elements of the phased array are mounted around the surface of a Luneburg lens. By controlling the phase and amplitude of only a few adjacent elements, electronic beam scanning with various radiation patterns can be easily achieved

  13. Simplified techniques to study components of solar radiation under haze and clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.

    1982-03-01

    Estimates of the global (G), diffuse (D) and direct-beam (I) irradiances at the surface of the earth can be obtained with a single instrument, ''dial'' radiometer. The dial assembly intermittently shades a solid-state sensor on a continual automatic basis. This is a very simple instrument that does not require mechanical adjustments of the shade. When corrections for imperfect cosine response and excessive shading of sky radiation are performed, measurements averaged over 1 h should be accurate well within +- 5%. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity or haziness can be expressed as an extinction coefficient, computed for I in reference to that obtained under cloudless clean skies for the same solar zenith angle. The uneven spectral response of silicon-cell and PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) sensors should be considered when comparing estimates of G, D or I to measurments of these components by a wide-band sensor. Linear relationships seem adequate for a variety of cloud conditions. This allows the use of single dial silicon-cell radiometer, for example, to estimate quite accurately the values of G, D and I that would be seen by wide-band or PAR radiometers. An alternative, but less exact, means of obtaining estimates of hourly averages of D and I is to measure only G and use the ratio of G to that which would be obtained under clean, cloudless conditions as the sole determining factors.

  14. Revision total hip replacement using the cement-in-cement technique for the acetabular component: technique and results for 60 hips.

    PubMed

    Brogan, K; Charity, J; Sheeraz, A; Whitehouse, S L; Timperley, A J; Howell, J R; Hubble, M J W

    2012-11-01

    The technique of femoral cement-in-cement revision is well established, but there are no previous series reporting its use on the acetabular side at the time of revision total hip replacement. We describe the technique and report the outcome of 60 consecutive acetabular cement-in-cement revisions in 59 patients at a mean follow-up of 8.5 years (5 to 12). All had a radiologically and clinically well-fixed acetabular cement mantle at the time of revision. During the follow-up 29 patients died, but no hips were lost to follow-up. The two most common indications for acetabular revision were recurrent dislocation (46, 77%) and to complement femoral revision (12, 20%). Of the 60 hips, there were two cases of aseptic loosening of the acetabular component (3.3%) requiring re-revision. No other hip was clinically or radiologically loose (96.7%) at the latest follow-up. One hip was re-revised for infection, four for recurrent dislocation and one for disarticulation of a constrained component. At five years the Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for aseptic loosening and 92.2% (95% CI 84.8 to 99.6), with revision for any cause as the endpoint. These results support the use of cement-in-cement revision on the acetabular side in appropriate cases. Theoretical advantages include preservation of bone stock, reduced operating time, reduced risk of complications and durable fixation. PMID:23109626

  15. The use of Bayesian nonlinear regression techniques for the modelling of the retention behaviour of volatile components of Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, M; Mani-Varnosfaderani, A; Taherinia, D; Mahmoodi, M M

    2012-07-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the ability of Bayesian multivariate adaptive regression splines (BMARS) and Bayesian radial basis function (BRBF) techniques for modelling the gas chromatographic retention indices of volatile components of Artemisia species. A diverse set of molecular descriptors was calculated and used as descriptor pool for modelling the retention indices. The ability of BMARS and BRBF techniques was explored for the selection of the most relevant descriptors and proper basis functions for modelling. The results revealed that BRBF technique is more reproducible than BMARS for modelling the retention indices and can be used as a method for variable selection and modelling in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies. It is also concluded that the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) search engine, implemented in BRBF algorithm, is a suitable method for selecting the most important features from a vast number of them. The values of correlation between the calculated retention indices and the experimental ones for the training and prediction sets (0.935 and 0.902, respectively) revealed the prediction power of the BRBF model in estimating the retention index of volatile components of Artemisia species. PMID:22452344

  16. Low temperature techniques applied for CTEM and STEM analysis of cellular components at a molecular level.

    PubMed

    Sjöstrand, F S

    1982-12-01

    One of the most important problems in tissue preparation for electron microscopic analysis at a molecular level involves the preservation of the tissue without introducing extensive denaturation of the proteins. Low temperature is a most efficient condition for the inhibition of protein denaturation and freeze-drying offers favourable conditions for transferring proteins to a dry state with minimal denaturation of the proteins. However, the embedding of the dried tissue in a plastic leads to extensive denaturation of the proteins when performed in the conventional way. This eliminates very efficiently the advantages of the method. The situation becomes even worse when subjecting the tissue to freeze-substitution. To eliminate as far as possible the denaturing effect of plastic embedding, freeze-drying can be combined with low temperature embedding in a plastic. Freeze-fracturing allows a most efficient use of low temperature to reduce conformation changes in proteins. The value of the freeze-fracturing technique depends entirely on a precise knowledge of the location of the fracture planes. Since this location is not known, it must be determined on the basis of a deduction. If this deduction is wrong, the method becomes misleading. Two methods which allow a certain testing of the correctness of the deduced location of the fracture planes are mentioned. PMID:6759657

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  18. Use of total internal reflection Raman (TIR) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to analyze component separation in thin offset ink films after setting on coated paper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kivioja, Antti; Hartus, Timo; Vuorinen, Tapani; Gane, Patrick; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina

    2013-06-01

    The interactive behavior of ink constituents with porous substrates during and after the offset print process has an important effect on the quality of printed products. To help elucidate the distribution of ink components between the retained ink layer and the substrate, a variety of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis techniques have been developed. This paper describes for the first time the use of total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy to analyze the penetration behavior of separated offset ink components (linseed oil, solid color pigment) in coated papers providing chemically intrinsic information rapidly, nondestructively, and with minimal sample preparation. In addition, the already widely applied technique of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was evaluated in parallel and compared. The results of the ATR-IR Raman clearly revealed an improvement in uppermost depth resolution compared with values previously published from other nondestructive techniques, and the method is shown to be capable of providing new knowledge of the setting of thin (0.25-2 μm) offset ink films, allowing the spreading and the penetration behavior on physically different paper coating surfaces to be studied. PMID:23735252

  19. Frequency-offset separated oscillatory fields: A demonstration of a new technique for a measurement of the helium n=2 triplet P fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzakerley, D. W.; Kato, K.; George, M. C.; Vutha, A. C.; Skinner, T. D. G.; Bezginov, N.; Hessels, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    We perform a proof-of-principle demonstration of the frequency-offset separated oscillatory field (FOSOF) technique. For the FOSOF technique, the two separated field have frequencies which are offset from each other, so that the relative phases of the fields varies linearly in time. This proof-of-principle demonstration measures the 23 P1 m = 1 to 23 P2 m = 1 transition in atomic helium and demonstrates the usefulness of the FOSOF technique for high-precision atomic measurements. Supported by NSERC, CRC.

  20. Local mechanisms for the separation of optic flow-field components in the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi: a role for motion parallax?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aaron P; Barnes, W Jon P; Macauley, Martin W S

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of global mechanisms have been proposed over the years that explain how crabs might separate the rotational and translational components of their optic flow field, there has been no evidence to date that local mechanisms such as motion parallax are used in this separation. We describe here a study that takes advantage of a recently developed suite of computer-generated visual stimuli that creates a three-dimensional world surrounding the crab in which we can simulate translational and rotational optic flow. We show that, while motion parallax is not the only mechanism used in flow-field separation, it does play a role in the recognition of translational optic flow fields in that, under conditions of low overall light intensity and low contrast ratio when crabs find the distinction between rotation and translation harder, smaller eye movements occur in response to translation when motion parallax cues are present than when they are absent. Thus, motion parallax is one of many cues that crabs use to separate rotational and translational optic flow by showing compensatory eye movements to only the former. PMID:15733345

  1. Distinct and separable activities of the endocytic clathrin coat components Fcho1/2 and AP-2 in developmental patterning

    PubMed Central

    Umasankar, P. K.; Sanker, Subramaniam; Thieman, James R.; Chakraborty, Souvik; Wendland, Beverly; Tsang, Michael; Traub, Linton M.

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis occurs at multiple independent import sites on the plasma membrane, but how these positions are selected and how different cargo is simultaneously recognized is obscure. FCHO1 and FCHO2 are early-arriving proteins at surface clathrin assemblies and are speculated to act as compulsory coat nucleators, preceding the core clathrin adaptor AP-2. Here, we show the μ-homology domain (μHD) of FCHO1/2 represents a novel endocytic interaction hub. Translational silencing of fcho1 in zebrafish embryos causes strong dorsoventral patterning defects analogous to Bmp signal failure. The Fcho1 μHD interacts with the Bmp receptor Alk8, uncovering a new endocytic component that positively modulates Bmp signal transmission. Still, the fcho1 morphant phenotype is distinct from severe embryonic defects apparent when AP-2 is depleted. Our data thus contradict the primacy of FCHO1/2 in coat initiation. PMID:22484487

  2. Fabrication of zirconia composite membrane by in-situ hydrothermal technique and its application in separation of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Pugazhenthi, G

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of the work was preparation of zirconia membrane on a low cost ceramic support through an in-situ hydrothermal crystallization technique for the separation of methyl orange dye. To formulate the zirconia film on the ceramic support, hydrothermal reaction mixture was prepared using zirconium oxychloride as a zirconia source and ammonia as a precursor. The synthesized zirconia powder was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and particle size distribution (PSD) to identify the phases and crystallinity, specific surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution, thermal behavior, chemical composition and size of the particles. The porosity, morphological structure and pure water permeability of the prepared zirconia membrane, as well as ceramic support were investigated using the Archimedes' method, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and permeability. The specific surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution of the zirconia powder was found to be 126.58m(2)/g, 3.54nm and 0.3-10µm, respectively. The porosity, average pore size and pure water permeability of the zirconia membrane was estimated to be 42%, 0.66µm and 1.44×10(-6)m(3)/m(2)skPa, respectively. Lastly, the potential of the membrane was investigated with separation of methyl orange by means of flux and rejection as a function of operating pressure and feed concentration. The rejection was found to decrease with increasing the operating pressure and increases with increasing feed concentrations. Moreover, it showed a high ability to reject methyl orange from aqueous solution with a rejection of 61% and a high permeation flux of 2.28×10(-5)m(3)/m(2)s at operating pressure of 68kPa. PMID:25982409

  3. Separating components of variation in measurement series using maximum likelihood estimation. Application to patient position data in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, J. P.; Mayles, W. P. M.; Mayles, H. M.; Syndikus, I.

    2014-10-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is presented as a statistical tool to evaluate the contribution of measurement error to any measurement series where the same quantity is measured using different independent methods. The technique was tested against artificial data sets; generated for values of underlying variation in the quantity and measurement error between 0.5 mm and 3 mm. In each case the simulation parameters were determined within 0.1 mm. The technique was applied to analyzing external random positioning errors from positional audit data for 112 pelvic radiotherapy patients. Patient position offsets were measured using portal imaging analysis and external body surface measures. Using MLE to analyze all methods in parallel it was possible to ascertain the measurement error for each method and the underlying positional variation. In the (AP / Lat / SI) directions the standard deviations of the measured patient position errors from portal imaging were (3.3 mm / 2.3 mm / 1.9 mm), arising from underlying variations of (2.7 mm / 1.5 mm / 1.4 mm) and measurement uncertainties of (1.8 mm / 1.8 mm / 1.3 mm), respectively. The measurement errors agree well with published studies. MLE used in this manner could be applied to any study in which the same quantity is measured using independent methods.

  4. Innovative separation and preconcentration technique of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction exploiting graphene oxide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Ghazaghi, Mehri; Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Rahighi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A uniquely novel, fast, and facile technique is introduced for the first time in which a scant amount of graphene oxide (GO), without modification, has been utilized in dispersive mode of solid phase extraction (SPE) for an efficient yet simple separation. The proposed method of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction (CHD-µSPE) is based on coagulation of homogeneous GO solution with the aid of polyetheneimine (PEI). CHD-µSPE use full adsorption capacity of GO because in this method was used GO solution obtained from synthesis process without drying step and stacking nanosheets. In optimized condition, 30 µL GO solution (7 mg mL(-1)), obtained in synthesis process, was injected into 1.5 mL the sample solution followed by immediate injection of 53 µL PEI solution (1 mg mL(-1)). After inserting PEI, GO sheets aggregate and can be readily separated by centrifugation. PEI not only cause aggregation of GO, but also form three-dimensional network of GO with easy handling in following separation steps. Lead, cadmium, and chromium were selected as model analytes and the effecting parameters including the amount of GO, concentration of PEI, sample pH, extraction time, and type of desorption solvent were investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the proposed CHD-µSPE method can be successfully applied GO in dispersive mode of SPE without effecting on good capability adsorption of GO. The novel method was applied in determination of lead, cadmium, and chromium in water, human saliva, and urine samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits are as low as 0.035, 0.005, and 0.012 µg L(-1) for Pb, Cd, and Cr respectively. The intra-day precisions (RSDs) were lower than 3.8%. CHD-µSPE method showed a good linear ranges of 0.24-15.6, 0.015-0.95 and 0.039-2.33 µg L(-1) for Pb, Cd and Cr respectively. Method performance was investigated by determination of mentioned metal ions in river water, human urine and

  5. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid.

    PubMed

    Conte, Pellegrino; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    A humic acid extracted from a volcanic soil was subjected to preparative high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to reduce its molecular complexity and eleven different size fractions were obtained. Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning 13C NMR (CPMAS 13C NMR) analysis performed with variable contact-time (VCT) pulse sequences showed that the largest molecular-size fractions contained aromatic, alkyl, and carbohydrate-like components. The carbohydrate-like content and the alkyl chain length seemed to decrease with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon atoms was also observed with decreasing molecular size of the separated fractions. Mathematical treatment of the results from VCT experiments enabled cross polarization (T (CH)) and proton spin-lattice relaxation (T(1rho)(H)) times to be related to structural differences among the size fractions. The conformational distribution indicated that the eleven size fractions could be allocated to two main groups. The first group, with larger nominal molecular sizes, was characterized by molecular domains with slower local molecular motion. The second group of size fractions, with smaller nominal molecular sizes, was characterized by a larger number of molecular domains with faster local molecular motion. The T (CH) and (T(1rho)(H)) values suggested that either condensed or strongly associated aromatic systems were predominant in the size fractions with the largest apparent molecular dimensions. PMID:16896626

  6. The Use of Multi-Component Statistical Techniques in Understanding Subduction Zone Arc Granitic Geochemical Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompe, L.; Clausen, B. L.; Morton, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-component statistical techniques and GIS visualization are emerging trends in understanding large data sets. Our research applies these techniques to a large igneous geochemical data set from southern California to better understand magmatic and plate tectonic processes. A set of 480 granitic samples collected by Baird from this area were analyzed for 39 geochemical elements. Of these samples, 287 are from the Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) and 164 from part of the Transverse Ranges (TR). Principal component analysis (PCA) summarized the 39 variables into 3 principal components (PC) by matrix multiplication and for the PRB are interpreted as follows: PC1 with about 30% of the variation included mainly compatible elements and SiO2 and indicates extent of differentation; PC2 with about 20% of the variation included HFS elements and may indicate crustal contamination as usually identified by Sri; PC3 with about 20% of the variation included mainly HRE elements and may indicate magma source depth as often diplayed using REE spider diagrams and possibly Sr/Y. Several elements did not fit well in any of the three components: Cr, Ni, U, and Na2O.For the PRB, the PC1 correlation with SiO2 was r=-0.85, the PC2 correlation with Sri was r=0.80, and the PC3 correlation with Gd/Yb was r=-0.76 and with Sr/Y was r=-0.66 . Extending this method to the TR, correlations were r=-0.85, -0.21, -0.06, and -0.64, respectively. A similar extent of correlation for both areas was visually evident using GIS interpolation.PC1 seems to do well at indicating differentiation index for both the PRB and TR and correlates very well with SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, FeO*, CaO, K2O, Sc, V, and Co, but poorly with Na2O and Cr. If the crustal component is represented by Sri, PC2 correlates well and less expesively with this indicator in the PRB, but not in the TR. Source depth has been related to the slope on REE spidergrams, and PC3 based on only the HREE and using the Sr/Y ratios gives a reasonable

  7. Performance of Axial-Flow Supersonic Compressor of XJ55-FF-1 Turbojet Engine. II - Performance of Inlet Guide Vanes as Separate Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert C.; Tysl, Edward R.

    1949-01-01

    The inlet wide vanes for the supersonic compressor of the XJ55-FF-1 engine were studied as a separate component in order to determine the performance prior to installation in the compressor test rig. Turning angles approached design values, and increased approximately to through the inlet Mach number range from 0.30 to choke. A sharp break in turning angle was experienced when the choke condition was reached. The total-pressure loss through the guide vanes was approximately 1 percent for the unchoked conditions and from 5 to 6 percent when choked.

  8. Influence of humic substances on Co[sup 2+] sorption by a subsurface mineral separate and its mineralogic components

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, J.M.; Resch, C.T.; Smith, S.C. )

    1994-01-01

    The sorption of Co[sup 2+] (10[sup [minus]6] mol/L) was measured on subsurface mineral materials in the absence and presence of a sorbed leonardite humic acid (LHA) to (1) evaluate the sorptive role of mineral-bound humic substances, and (2) establish approaches to model metal ion binding in composite materials. The subsurface materials were a <2.0 [mu]m size fraction of an ultisol saprolite (CP) and this same material treated with dithonite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) to remove Fe-oxides (DCP). Comparable experiments (with and without LHA) were also performed with mineral sorbents representing dominant phases in the CP separate (gibbsite, Al-geothite, and kalonite) to evaluate their potential contributions to Co sorption. The mineral-bound LHA ranged in concentration between 0.1-0.4 mg-C/m[sup 2], representing approximately 0.7% of the subsurface isolate by mass. In solid-free suspensions, the affinity of LHA for Co increased with pH and decreasing I (K[sub d] ranging 20-450 L/g). Mineral-bound LHA increased Co sorption on all the sorbents by factors of 10-60%, with the greatest augmentation noted at pH values (4.5-6.5) where (1) maximum LHA sorption occurred, and (2) Co sorption to the mineral phase was weak and dominated by ion exchange. The LHA appeared simply to augment, rather than to change the intrinsic adsorption behavior of the mineral sorbents. Accordingly, predictions of the K[sub d] for Co on the LHA-coated subsurface materials (DCP, CP) based on a linear additivity model agreed well with the experimental data, suggesting that the complex humic-mineral association acted as a noninterative sorbent mixture at low aqueous Co concentrations.

  9. Separating spectral mixtures in hyperspectral image data using independent component analysis: validation with oral cancer tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Jan, Chia-Ing; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lin, Chia-Yi; Mo, Jen-Feng; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2013-12-01

    Recently, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems, which can provide 100 or more wavelengths of emission autofluorescence measures, have been used to delineate more complete spectral patterns associated with certain molecules relevant to cancerization. Such a spectral fingerprint may reliably correspond to a certain type of molecule and thus can be treated as a biomarker for the presence of that molecule. However, the outcomes of HSI systems can be a complex mixture of characteristic spectra of a variety of molecules as well as optical interferences due to reflection, scattering, and refraction. As a result, the mixed nature of raw HSI data might obscure the extraction of consistent spectral fingerprints. Here we present the extraction of the characteristic spectra associated with keratinized tissues from the HSI data of tissue sections from 30 oral cancer patients (31 tissue samples in total), excited at two different wavelength ranges (330 to 385 and 470 to 490 nm), using independent and principal component analysis (ICA and PCA) methods. The results showed that for both excitation wavelength ranges, ICA was able to resolve much more reliable spectral fingerprints associated with the keratinized tissues for all the oral cancer tissue sections with significantly higher mean correlation coefficients as compared to PCA (p<0.001).

  10. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-03-17

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU[center dot]Spec[trademark] column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable.

  11. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-03-17

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU{center_dot}Spec{trademark} column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable.

  12. Influence of humic substances on Co 2+ sorption by a subsurface mineral separate and its mineralogic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, J. M.; Resch, C. T.; Smith, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    The sorption of Co 2+ (10 -6 mol/L) was measured on subsurface mineral materials in the absence and presence of a sorbed leonardite humic acid (LHA) to (1) evaluate the sorptive role of mineral-bound humic substances, and (2) establish approaches to model metal ion binding in composite materials. The subsurface materials were a < 2.0 μm size fraction of an ultisol saprolite (CP) and this same material treated with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) to remove Fe-oxides (DCP). Comparable experiments (with and without LHA) were also performed with mineral sorbents representing dominant phases in the CP separate (gibbsite, Al-goethite, and kaolinite) to evaluate their potential contributions to Co sorption. The mineral-bound LHA ranged in concentration between 0.1-0.4 mg-C/m 2, representing approximately 0.7% of the subsurface isolate by mass. The sorption-desorption of LHA on the mineral surfaces, and its affinity for Co as a aqueous phase complexant were also determined. Batch measurements were employed (sorbents at 20-90 m 2/L; LHA-DOC at ≈11 mg-C/L) over a range in pH and ionic strength ( I) at I = 0.01 and 0.1 in NaClO 4. The LHA strongly sorbed to the subsurface mineral isolates (CP and DCP), and to all the specimen sorbents except kaolinite. Maximum sorption of LHA occurred at lower pH (≈4.5). In solid-free suspensions, the affinity of LHA for Co increased with pH and decreasing I ( Kd ranging 20-450 L/g). Mineral-bound LHA increased Co sorption on all the sorbents by factors of 10-60 %, with the greatest augmentation noted at pH values (4.5-6.5) where (1) maximum LHA sorption occurred, and (2) Co sorption to the mineral phase was weak and dominated by ion exchange. The LHA appeared simply to augment, rather than to change the intrinsic adsorption behavior of the mineral sorbents. Accordingly, predictions of the Kd for Co on the LHA-coated subsurface materials (DCP, CP) based on a linear additivity model agreed well with the experimental data, suggesting

  13. A new method for separating the climatic and biological trend components from tree ring series, with implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the reconstruction of past climates from tree rings multi-decadal to multi-centennial periods, one longstanding problem is the confounding of the natural biological growth trend of the tree with any existing long term trends in the climate. No existing analytical method is capable of resolving these two change components, so it remains unclear how accurate existing ring series standardizations are, and by implication, climate reconstructions based upon them. For example, dendrochronological at the ITRDB are typically standardized by detrending, at each site, each individual tree core, using a relatively stiff deterministic function such as a negative exponential curve or smoothing spline. Another approach, referred to as RCS (Regional Curve Standardization) attempts to solve some problems of the individual series detrending, by constructing a single growth curve from the aggregated cambial ages of the rings of the cores at a site (or collection of sites). This curve is presumed to represent the “ideal” or expected growth of the trees from which it is derived. Although an improvement in some respects, this method will be degraded in direct proportion to the lack of a mixture of tree sizes or ages throughout the span of the chronology. I present a new method of removing the biological curve from tree ring series, such that temporal changes better represent the environmental variation captured by the tree rings. The method institutes several new approaches, such as the correction for the estimated number of missed rings near the pith, and the use of tree size and ring area relationships instead of the traditional tree ages and ring widths. The most important innovation is a careful extraction of the existing information on the relationship between tree size (basal area) and ring area that exists within each single year of the chronology. This information is, by definition, not contaminated by temporal climatic changes, and so when removed, leaves the

  14. Patch nearfield acoustic holography combined with sound field separation technique applied to a non-free field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, ChuanXing; Jing, WenQian; Zhang, YongBin; Xu, Liang

    2015-02-01

    The conventional nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) is usually based on the assumption of free-field conditions, and it also requires that the measurement aperture should be larger than the actual source. This paper is to focus on the problem that neither of the above-mentioned requirements can be met, and to examine the feasibility of reconstructing the sound field radiated by partial source, based on double-layer pressure measurements made in a non-free field by using patch NAH combined with sound field separation technique. And also, the sensitivity of the reconstructed result to the measurement error is analyzed in detail. Two experiments involving two speakers in an exterior space and one speaker inside a car cabin are presented. The experimental results demonstrate that the patch NAH based on single-layer pressure measurement cannot obtain a satisfied result due to the influences of disturbing sources and reflections, while the patch NAH based on double-layer pressure measurements can successfully remove these influences and reconstruct the patch sound field effectively.

  15. Each peptide of the two-component lantibiotic lacticin 3147 requires a separate modification enzyme for activity.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, O; Hill, C; Ross, R P

    2000-09-01

    The genetic determinants for production and immunity to the two-component lantibiotic lacticin 3147 are encoded by a 12.6 kb region of the plasmid pMRC01. This region contains ten genes arranged in two divergent clusters; these include the structural genes and a number of genes whose products show significant similarity to proteins involved in the biosynthesis of other lantibiotics. Using a strategy of deletion and mutational analysis, the effect of disruption of a number of these genes was investigated. Inactivation of either of the structural genes, ltnA1 or ltnA2, resulted in mutants that were incapable of producing active lacticin 3147; however, the combination of the cell-free supernatant from both mutants resulted in a restoration of bacteriocin activity, confirming that processing and export of the structural peptides can occur independently. An unusual feature of the lacticin 3147 gene cluster is the presence of two lanM homologues, whose gene products are proposed to be involved in the dehydration and thioether-forming reactions which result in lanthionine bridge formation. Mutants created in the ltnM1 and ltnM2 genes were also incapable of lantibiotic production, confirming an essential role for these enzymes in the lacticin 3147 biosynthetic pathway and supporting the assertion that these proteins are modification enzymes. Interestingly, addition of purified LtnA1, but not purified LtnA2, to the cell-free supernatant of the ltnM1 mutant restored bacteriocin activity; in contrast, only purified LtnA2 could complement the cell-free supernatant of the ltnM2 mutant. Creation of a number of double mutants supported these findings, and confirmed that LtnM1 is required to produce mature LtnA1, while LtnM2 is required to produce mature LtnA2. PMID:10974102

  16. Comparison of tetrachromic VOF stain to other histochemical staining techniques for characterizing stromal soft and hard tissue components.

    PubMed

    Belaldavar, C; Hallikerimath, S; Angadi, P V; Kale, A D

    2014-11-01

    The components of hard tissues including dentin, enamel, cementum, bone and other calcified deposits, and mature and immature collagen pose problems for identification in routine hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained sections. Use of combinations of stains can demonstrate the components of hard tissues and soft tissues distinctly. We assessed the efficacy of the Verde Luz-orange G-acid fuchsin (VOF) stain for differentiating hard and soft connective tissues and compared results with other histochemical staining techniques. Eighty tissue sections comprising developing tooth (30), ossifying fibroma (30) and miscellaneous pathologies (20) expected to contain varying types of calcified tissues were stained with H & E, VOF, and Masson's trichrome (MT). In developing tooth, VOF demonstrated better differentiation of hard tissues, while it was comparable to MT for ossifying fibroma and miscellaneous pathologies. The intensity of staining was greater with VOF than with the other stains studied. VOF stains hard tissue components distinctly and gives good contrast with the surrounding connective tissue. VOF is comparable to MT, but has added advantages including single step staining, rapid and easy procedures, and it distinguishes the maturity of the tissues. PMID:24830362

  17. [Near-infrared spectroscopy technology for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process of active components of Centella asiatica L. Urban].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Ye, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Guang; Qi, Yun-Peng; Fan, Guo-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is to study and develop a method for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process of active components that are madecassoside and asiaticoside of Centella asiatica L. Urban using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. After collecting 50%-ethanol eluant, we detected their NIR spectra and developed the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method of active components. Then, partial least square (PLS) was used to develop linear correlation between their NIR spectra and contents. During modeling, correlation coefficient (R2) and root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) were regarded as the indexes to select optimal wavenumbers and preprocessing methods. The optimal wavenumbers of madecassoside and asiaticoside were in the range of 12 000.8-7 499.8 cm(-1) and 12 000.8-9 750.3 cm(-1), respectively; R2 were 96.44 and 96.07, respectively, and RMSECV were 0.084 80 and 0.000 99, respectively. The above developed model was used for online monitoring of the contents of madecassoside and asiaticoside during the column separation and purification process of Centella asiatica L. Urban. The predicted results were satisfactory. This method was proved to be fast, convenient and precise. It can be used in online monitoring and quality control of the manufacturing of madecassoside and asiaticoside. PMID:23586234

  18. Interaction of the mixed yeast culture in the autotroph-heterotroph system with a closed gas cycle and spatially separated components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T.; Somova, L.

    The study considers the experimental model of the "autotroph-heterotroph" system with a closed gas cycle, in which the heterotrophic link is a mixed yeast population. The autotrophic link is represented by the algae Chlorella vulgaris and the heterotrophic link by the yeasts Candida utilis and Candida guilliermondii. The controls are separate links of Chlorella and yeasts isolated from the atmosphere. It has been shown that the outcome of the competition in the heterotrophic link depends on the strategy of the yeast population towards the substrate and oxygen. The C. utilis population quickly utilizes the substrate as it is an R-strategist and is less sensitive to oxygen deficiency. The C. guilliermondii population consumes low concentrations of the substrate because it is a K-strategist, but it is more sensitive to oxygen deficiency. That is why, in the "autotroph-heterotroph" system with a closed gas cycle, after a considerable amount of the substrate has been consumed, the C. guilliermondii population becomes more competitive that the C. utilis population. In the culture of a separate yeast link, isolated from the atmosphere, the C. utilis population finds itself in more favorable conditions due to oxygen deficiency. The system with a complex heterotrophic component exists longer than the system whose heterotrophic component is represented by one yeast species. This is accounted for by the positive metabolite interaction of yeasts and a more complete utilization of the substrate by a mixed culture of yeasts featuring different strategies towards the substrate.

  19. Technical Note: A simple calculation algorithm to separate high-resolution CH4 flux measurements into ebullition and diffusion-derived components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, M.; Schulz-Hanke, M.; Garcia Alba, J.; Jurisch, N.; Hagemann, U.; Sachs, T.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Processes driving the production, transformation and transport of methane (CH4) in wetland ecosystems are highly complex. Thus, serious challenges are constitutes in terms of the mechanistic process understanding, the identification of potential environmental drivers and the calculation of reliable CH4 emission estimates. We present a simple calculation algorithm to separate open-water CH4 fluxes measured with automatic chambers into diffusion- and ebullition-derived components, which helps facilitating the identification of underlying dynamics and potential environmental drivers. Flux separation is based on ebullition related sudden concentration changes during single measurements. A variable ebullition filter is applied, using the lower and upper quartile and the interquartile range (IQR). Automation of data processing is achieved by using an established R-script, adjusted for the purpose of CH4 flux calculation. The algorithm was tested using flux measurement data (July to September 2013) from a former fen grassland site, converted into a shallow lake as a result of rewetting ebullition and diffusion contributed 46 and 55 %, respectively, to total CH4 emissions, which is comparable to those previously reported by literature. Moreover, the separation algorithm revealed a concealed shift in the diurnal trend of diffusive fluxes throughout the measurement period.

  20. Development of a novel technique to assess the vulnerability of micro-mechanical system components to environmentally assisted cracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David George; Goods, Steven Howard

    2006-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will play an important functional role in future DOE weapon and Homeland Security applications. If these emerging technologies are to be applied successfully, it is imperative that the long-term degradation of the materials of construction be understood. Unlike electrical devices, MEMS devices have a mechanical aspect to their function. Some components (e.g., springs) will be subjected to stresses beyond whatever residual stresses exist from fabrication. These stresses, combined with possible abnormal exposure environments (e.g., humidity, contamination), introduce a vulnerability to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). EAC is manifested as the nucleation and propagation of a stable crack at mechanical loads/stresses far below what would be expected based solely upon the materials mechanical properties. If not addressed, EAC can lead to sudden, catastrophic failure. Considering the materials of construction and the very small feature size, EAC represents a high-risk environmentally induced degradation mode for MEMS devices. Currently, the lack of applicable characterization techniques is preventing the needed vulnerability assessment. The objective of this work is to address this deficiency by developing techniques to detect and quantify EAC in MEMS materials and structures. Such techniques will allow real-time detection of crack initiation and propagation. The information gained will establish the appropriate combinations of environment (defining packaging requirements), local stress levels, and metallurgical factors (composition, grain size and orientation) that must be achieved to prevent EAC.

  1. [Simultaneous separation and detection of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by RP-HPLC and structure confirmation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yue-Qiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Min-Jian

    2013-08-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous separation and detection of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B by RP-HPLC and drug quality standard was established. The structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate have been confirmed. Reference European Pharmacopoeia EP7.0 version, British Pharmacopoeia 2012 version, National Drug Standards of China (WS 1-XG-2002), domestic and international interrelated literature were referred to select the composition of mobile phase. The experimental parameters including salt concentration, pH, addition quantities of organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate were optimized. Finally, the assay was conducted on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol x mL(-1) ammonium perchlorate (add ammonia to adjust the pH value to 8.2) -methanol (48 : 52) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. The MS, NMR, UV and RP-HPLC were used to confirm the structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves of 18 alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B showed good linearity within the concentration of 0.50-100 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The method is sensitive, reproducible and the results are accurate and reliable. It can be used for chiral resolution of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18Pbeta-glycyrrhizinic acid, and detection content of principal component and

  2. CO component estimation based on the independent component analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kaji, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA) is a component separation algorithm based on the levels of non-Gaussianity. Here we apply FastICA to the component separation problem of the microwave background, including carbon monoxide (CO) line emissions that are found to contaminate the PLANCK High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data. Specifically, we prepare 100 GHz, 143 GHz, and 217 GHz mock microwave sky maps, which include galactic thermal dust, NANTEN CO line, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) emissions, and then estimate the independent components based on the kurtosis. We find that FastICA can successfully estimate the CO component as the first independent component in our deflection algorithm because its distribution has the largest degree of non-Gaussianity among the components. Thus, FastICA can be a promising technique to extract CO-like components without prior assumptions about their distributions and frequency dependences.

  3. A novel multi-element coprecipitation technique for separation and enrichment of metal ions in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Funda Armagan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-08-15

    A multi-element preconcentration-separation technique for heavy metal ions in environmental samples has been established. The procedure is based on coprecipitation of gold(III), bismuth(III), cobalt(II), chromium(III), iron(III), manganese(II), nickel(II), lead(II), thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) ions by the aid of Cu(II)-9-phenyl-3-fluorone precipitate. The Cu(II)-9-phenyl-3-fluorone precipitate was dissolved by the addition 1.0 mL of concentrated HNO(3) and then the solution was completed to 5 mL with distilled water. Iron, lead, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel levels in the final solution were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometer, while gold, bismuth, uranium and thorium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The optimal conditions are pH 7, amounts of 9-phenyl-3-fluorone: 5mg and amounts of Cu(II): 1mg. The effects of concomitant ions as matrix were also examined. The preconcentration factor was 30. Gold(III), bismuth(III), chromium(III), iron(III), lead(II) and thorium(IV) were quantitatively recovered from the real samples. The detection limits for the analyte elements based on 3 sigma (n=15) were in the range of 0.05-12.9 microg L(-1). The validation of the presented procedure was checked by the analysis of two certified reference materials (Montana I Soil (NIST-SRM 2710) and Lake Sediment (IAEA-SL-1)). The procedure was successfully applied to some environmental samples including water and sediments. PMID:19071860

  4. Separation of Climate Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Fodor, I

    2002-11-13

    Understanding changes in global climate is a challenging scientific problem. Simulated and observed data include signals from many sources, and untangling their respective effects is difficult. In order to make meaningful comparisons between different models, and to understand human effects on global climate, we need to isolate the effects of different sources. Recent eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo volcanoes coincided with large El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which complicates the separation of their contributions on global temperatures. Current approaches for separating volcano and ENSO signals in global mean data involve parametric models and iterative techniques [3]. We investigate alternative methods based on principal component analysis (PCA) [2] and independent component analysis (ICA) [1]. Our goal is to determine if such techniques can automatically identify the signals corresponding to the different sources, without relying on parametric models.

  5. Davanloo's Technique of Total Removal of Resistance and Optimum Mobilization of the Transference Component of the Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Davanloo's Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (IS-TDP) is a unique brief dynamic psychotherapy characterized by relentless therapist intervention. While Davanloo has published extensively on his findings, there has been a paucity of publications on his most recent work involving the Montreal Closed Circuit Training Program. The purpose of this article is to highlight Davanloo's current understanding of his technique as well as his newest research findings. This will be done contextually, by highlighting case vignettes from the Montreal Closed Circuit Training Program. A special focus will be placed on the handling of resistance and Davanloo's concept of the "Transference Component of the Resistance" or TCR. This work was presented at Davanloo's 35th Annual Metapsychology Meeting in Montreal in October, 2014. PMID:26583443

  6. Application of Principal Component Analysis to NIR Spectra of Phyllosilicates: A Technique for Identifying Phyllosilicates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Lanza, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of the martian surface from the OMEGA and CRISM instruments have identified a variety of phyllosilicates in Noachian terrains. The types of phyllosilicates present on Mars have important implications for the aqueous environments in which they formed, and, thus, for recognizing locales that may have been habitable. Current identifications of phyllosilicates from martian NIR data are based on the positions of spectral absorptions relative to laboratory data of well-characterized samples and from spectral ratios; however, some phyllosilicates can be difficult to distinguish from one another with these methods (i.e. illite vs. muscovite). Here we employ a multivariate statistical technique, principal component analysis (PCA), to differentiate between spectrally similar phyllosilicate minerals. PCA is commonly used in a variety of industries (pharmaceutical, agricultural, viticultural) to discriminate between samples. Previous work using PCA to analyze raw NIR reflectance data from mineral mixtures has shown that this is a viable technique for identifying mineral types, abundances, and particle sizes. Here, we evaluate PCA of second-derivative NIR reflectance data as a method for classifying phyllosilicates and test whether this method can be used to identify phyllosilicates on Mars.

  7. Solar flux-density distribution due to partially shaded/blocked mirrors using the separation of variables/superposition technique with polynomial and Gaussian sunshapes

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.; Fathalah, K.A.

    1996-05-01

    In a previous work, the separation of a variable/superposition technique was used to predict the flux density distribution on the receiver surfaces of solar central receiver plants. In this paper further developments of the technique are given. A numerical technique is derived to carry out the convolution of the sunshape and error density functions. Also, a simplified numerical procedure is presented to determine the basic flux density function on which the technique depends. The technique is used to predict the receiver solar flux distribution using two sunshapes, polynomial and Gaussian distributions. The results predicted with the technique are validated by comparison with experimental results from mirrors both with and without partial shading/blocking of their surfaces.

  8. A Technique Using Principal Component Analysis to Compare Seasonal Cycles of Earth Radiation from CERES and Model Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Mlynczak, Pamela E.; Potter, Gerald L.

    2012-01-01

    A method for quantitatively comparing the seasonal cycles of two global data sets is presented. The seasonal cycles of absorbed solar radiation (ASR) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) have been computed from an eight-year data set from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometers and from a model data set produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. To compare the seasonal cycles from these two data sets, principal component (PC) analysis is used, where the PCs express the time variations and the corresponding empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) describe the geographic variations. Ocean has a long thermal response time compared to land, so land and ocean are separated for the analysis. The root-mean square values for the seasonal cycles of ASR and OLR are extremely close for the two data sets. The first three PCs are quite close, showing that the time responses and magnitudes over the globe are very similar. The agreement between the two sets of PCs is quantified by computing the matrix of inner products of the two sets. For ASR over land, the first PCs of CERES and the model agree to better than 99.9%. The EOF maps are similar for most of the globe, but differ in a few places, and the agreement of the EOF maps is likewise quantified. Maps of differences between the annual cycles show regions of agreement and disagreement.

  9. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Case, S D C; Jensen, L S

    2016-03-01

    The combined effects of pig slurry acidification, subsequent separation techniques and biochar production from the solid fraction on N mineralisation and N2O and CO2 emissions in soil were investigated in an incubation experiment. Acidification of pig slurry increased N availability from the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions. PMID:26716355

  10. The load separation technique in the elastic-plastic fracture analysis of two- and three-dimensional geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharobeam, Monir H.

    1994-01-01

    Load separation is the representation of the load in the test records of geometries containing cracks as a multiplication of two separate functions: a crack geometry function and a material deformation function. Load separation is demonstrated in the test records of several two-dimensional geometries such as compact tension geometry, single edge notched bend geometry, and center cracked tension geometry and three-dimensional geometries such as semi-elliptical surface crack. The role of load separation in the evaluation of the fracture parameter J-integral and the associated factor eta for two-dimensional geometries is discussed. The paper also discusses the theoretical basis and the procedure for using load separation as a simplified yet accurate approach for plastic J evaluation in semi-elliptical surface crack which is a three-dimensional geometry. The experimental evaluation of J, and particularly J(sub pl), for three-dimensional geometries is very challenging. A few approaches have been developed in this regard and they are either complex or very approximate. The paper also presents the load separation as a mean to identify the blunting and crack growth regions in the experimental test records of precracked specimens. Finally, load separation as a methodology in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics is presented.

  11. Separation studies of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) by reversed-phase paper chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1987-07-01

    Reversed-phase paper chromatographic separations of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) have been carried out on Whatman No 1 filter paper impregnated with triphenylphosphine oxide as stationary phase and using organic complexing agents such as sodium acetate, sodium succinate and sodium malonate solutions as active mobile phases. Results for the separation of binary and ternary mixtures are reported and the method has been successfully applied to the separation and detection of these elements present in real samples and at ppm level concentration.

  12. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  13. Determination of uranium and rare-earth metals separation coefficients in LiCl KCl melt by electrochemical transient techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. A.; Hayashi, H.; Minato, K.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2005-09-01

    The main step in the pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel recycling is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

  14. Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Model by Referring to Hydrological Separation of Runoff Components using Chemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Model by Referring to Hydrological Separation of Runoff Components using Chemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Discharge Hidetaka Chikamori Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, JAPAN A rainfall-runoff model is generally calibrated by minimizing error in calculated runoff using records of hydrological components, that is, observed rainfall, discharge and observed or estimated evapotranpiration. However, calibration using only hydrological components sometimes produces a model with strange structure that does not reflect physical properties of an objective basin. It is probably due to error in referred hydrological records. In this study, the author calibrated a rainfall runoff model using not only hydrological record but also chemical and isotopic data of discharge so as to obtain a reasonably structured model from multiple viewpoints. Besides, the model structure was improved in order to simulate isotopic characteristics well. It is well known that ratio of surface flow in total flow can be estimated by change in concentration of cation or anion. Relative concentration of 18O, δ18O is well used for separating runoff of retained water in soil as "old water" from total runoff. A Long-and-Short Term Tank Model (LST2 Model) was applied to three Hinoki Cypress catchments in Mie experimental basin located in the middle of Japan. One of these catchments is of well-maintained planted forest, and two are of poor-maintained planted. A model was calibrated by Differential Evolution for each catchment using hydrological data, concentration of K+ and δ18O. In these catchments, Gomi et al (2008) showed that concentration of K+ well expresses ratio of surface runoff to total runoff, and that δ18O subsurface runoff to total runoff. The results show that an original version of LST2 Model cannot simulated delayed subsurface flow ratio estimated by δ18O, although it well simulates surface flow ratio estimated by

  15. Evaluation of advanced separation techniques for application to flue gas cleanup processes for the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Drummond, C.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    Thirteen advanced separation techniques were reviewed in detail for application to flue gas cleanup processes. Of these, the three most promising for application to systems for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas are solvent extraction, electrodialysis, and inverse thermal phase separation. Gas separation membranes would also be promising if a membrane could be developed that would be selective for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. Specific utility or industrial systems incorporating some of these processes are suggested. Preliminary estimates of annual revenue requirements for three gas-separation-membrane flue gas cleanup systems and an electrodialysis system are compared with an estimate for a limestone system with selective catalytic reduction. In addition, fourteen wet simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ flue gas cleanup processes that have progressed beyond bench scale were reviewed for possible modification to incorporate advanced separation techniques. It appeared that in processes where modifications were possible, either such modification would result in marginal improvement, or the process would no longer be recognizable.

  16. Evaluation of advanced separation techniques for application to flue gas cleanup processes for the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Drummond, C.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    Thirteen advanced separation techniques were reviewed in detail for application to flue gas cleanup processes. Of these, the three most promising for application to systems for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas are solvent extraction, electrodialysis, and inverse thermal phase separation. Gas separation membranes would also be promising if a membrane could be developed that would be selective for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. Specific utility or industrial systems incorporating some of these processes are suggested. Preliminary estimates of annual revenue requirements for three gas-separation-membrane flue gas cleanup systems and an electrodialysis system are compared with an estimate for a limestone system with selective catalytic reduction. In addition, fourteen wet simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ flue gas cleanup processes that have progressed beyond bench scale were reviewed for possible modification to incorporate advanced separation techniques. It appeared that in processes where modifications were possible, either such modification would result in marginal improvement, or the process would no longer be recognizable. 147 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. A comparison of robust principal component analysis techniques for buried object detection in downward looking GPR sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Rice, Joseph; Masarik, Matthew; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards are a deadly threat in modern conflicts; hence, detecting them before they cause injury or death is of paramount importance. One method of buried explosive hazard discovery relies on data collected from ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensors. Threat detection with downward looking GPR is challenging due to large returns from non-target objects and clutter. This leads to a large number of false alarms (FAs), and since the responses of clutter and targets can form very similar signatures, classifier design is not trivial. One approach to combat these issues uses robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to enhance target signatures while suppressing clutter and background responses, though there are many versions of RPCA. This work applies some of these RPCA techniques to GPR sensor data and evaluates their merit using the peak signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) of the RPCA-processed B-scans. Experimental results on government furnished data show that while some of the RPCA methods yield similar results, there are indeed some methods that outperform others. Furthermore, we show that the computation time required by the different RPCA methods varies widely, and the selection of tuning parameters in the RPCA algorithms has a major effect on the peak SCR.

  18. Nonlinear Lock-In Infrared Microscopy: A Complementary Investigation Technique for the Analysis of Functional Electroceramic Components.

    PubMed

    Hofstätter, Michael; Raidl, Nadine; Sartory, Bernhard; Supancic, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Using lock-in infrared microscopy as a tool for current detection on the micrometer scale in AC-driven specimens in combination with iterative grinding procedure allows preparation of current dominating microstructure regions on well-polished surfaces. This technique is applied successfully on varistor components based on specially doped ZnO-based varistor ceramics. This peculiar electroceramic material exhibits exceptional high nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, described by a power law according I~V(α), caused by double Schottky barriers at the grain boundaries. As a novelty the thermographic response is used to evaluate local electrical properties, namely the nonlinearity coefficient α, on basis of higher order harmonics with respect to the basic electrical driving AC-frequency. To correlate the observed electrical properties to the microstructure, the polar crystal orientation of the relevant ZnO grains is determined by combining electron backscatter diffraction and orientation-dependent patterns as a result of a chemical etching procedure. These findings support a modified new model for describing the grain boundary controlled current flow in a varistor microstructure including orientation-dependent barrier properties. Hence, the experimentally observed current direction-dependent behavior can be described consistently. PMID:25973600

  19. Characterization of the multi-component driving land subsidence using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Ravenna case of study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonì, Roberta; Fiaschi, Simone; Calcaterra, Domenico; Di Martire, Diego; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Meisina, Claudia; Perini, Luisa; Ramondini, Massimo; Tessitore, Serena; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Land subsidence represents a kind of hazard, which affects an increasing number of worldwide regions, densely populated, causing damage to the environment and infrastructures. Settlements can be related to multiple processes both natural and anthropic (i.e. vadose zone processes, soil consolidation, aquifer compaction, solid and fluid extraction and load-induced compaction) which take place at different spatio-temporal scale. Over the last decades, advanced subsidence studies exploited Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) data, a recent remote sensing tool, to investigate land subsidence phenomena around the world. In particular, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique, allowing a quantitative estimation at high resolution of the surface deformations, has already been successfully applied to monitor the phenomenon evolution; PSI measurements represent the cumulative displacement, deriving from the contribution of natural and anthropic components, both superficial and deep. The overlapping of several causative factors makes more difficult to accurately interpret the resulting deformations; therefore, it is essential to implement a suitable methodology to distinguish the shallow and deep components of motion. The aim of our research is to introduce a PSI-based approach not only to monitoring but also to understand the land subsidence mechanism, in order to disentangle the natural and anthropic components of motion. The methodology consists of three main phases: 1) Post-processing elaborations (i.e. interpolation of the cumulated displacements and isokinetics map implementation); 2) Characterization of the subsidence areas (i.e. subsidence pattern recognition by means of automatic time series classification); 3) Mechanisms recognition (i.e. identification of the predisposing and triggering factors and comparison with lito-technical model of subsoil, and with earth measurements). In this work, the methodology has been applied to the Ravenna area, Italy, using

  20. Removal of High Concentration Chromium by a Foam-separating Technique Using Casein Proteins as a Foaming Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Futoshi

    Foam separation of high concentration chromium in leather tanning wastewater was investigated using casein protein as a foaming reagent5mL of5w/v% ammonium acetate buffer was added to the sample chromium water. After adjusting the pH to 9.0,4g/L concentrations of casein and gelatin solution were added to recovery the coagulating flocs of chromium resulting foam separation. The sample water containing chromium flocs was incased in reactor, then mixed with distilled water and 1mL of ethanol to sum 200mL total. The foam separation was performed at time intervals of 3min with an air flow rate of 300mL/min. With casein reagent, the removal rate of chromium was not influenced by the presence of NaCl, however, the rate decreased tendency using with the use of gelatin. The proposed method, utilizing 4g/L of casein solution with water, was not influenced by the presence of calcium (<34mM), magnesium (<1mM), carbonate (<0.5mM), bicarbonate (<1.2mM) nor sulfate (<350mM) ions, and is ideal for foam separation in chromium concentrations of about 100mgCr/L.

  1. Separating the Research Question from the Laboratory Techniques: Advancing High-School Biology Teachers' Ability to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Eilat; Yarden, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry is essentially a process in which research questions are asked and an attempt is made to find the answers. However, the formulation of operational research questions of the sort used in authentic scientific inquiry is not a trivial task. Here, we set out to explore the possible influence of separating the research question from the…

  2. Recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by immunomagnetic separation techniques and potential for regrowth in finished composts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Mature, finished compost made from various feedstocks should undergo testing for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to ensure thermal destruction of the pathogen during composting. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) –based methods may provide an assay which can be conducted within...

  3. WE-G-18C-09: Separating Perfusion and Diffusion Components From Diffusion Weighted MRI of Rectum Tumors Based On Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, N; Wengler, K; Mazaheri, Y; Hunt, M; Deasy, J; Gollub, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pseudodiffusion arises from the microcirculation of blood in the randomly oriented capillary network and contributes to the signal decay acquired using a multi-b value diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI sequence. This effect is more significant at low b-values and should be properly accounted for in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculations. The purpose of this study was to separate perfusion and diffusion component based on a biexponential and a segmented monoexponential model using IVIM analysis Methods. The signal attenuation is modeled as S(b) = S0[(1−f)exp(−bD) + fexp(−bD*)]. Fitting the biexponetial decay leads to the quantification of D, the true diffusion coefficient, D*, the pseudodiffusion coefficient, and f, the perfusion fraction. A nonlinear least squares fit and two segmented monoexponential models were used to derive the values for D, D*,‘and f. In the segmented approach b = 200 s/mm{sup 2} was used as the cut-off value for calculation of D. DW-MRI's of a rectum cancer patient were acquired before chemotherapy, before radiation therapy (RT), and 4 weeks into RT and were investigated as an example case. Results: Mean ADC for the tumor drawn on the DWI cases was 0.93, 1.0 and 1.13 10{sup −3}×mm{sup 2}/s before chemotherapy, before RT and 4 weeks into RT. The mean (D.10{sup −3} × mm{sup 2}/s, D* 10{sup −3} × mm{sup 2}/s, and f %) based on biexponential fit was (0.67, 18.6, and 27.2%), (0.72, 17.7, and 28.9%) and (0.83,15.1, and 30.7%) at these time points. The mean (D, D* f) based on segmented fit was (0.72, 10.5, and 12.1%), (0.72, 8.2, and 17.4%) and (.82, 8.1, 16.5%) Conclusion: ADC values are typically higher than true diffusion coefficients. For tumors with significant perfusion effect, ADC should be analyzed at higher b-values or separated from the perfusion component. Biexponential fit overestimates the perfusion fraction because of increased sensitivity to noise at low b-values.

  4. Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Farhana; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Ge, Xueping; Camarda, Kyle; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-04-01

    The polymerization kinetics of physically separated hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases of a model dental adhesive have been investigated. The two phases were prepared from neat resin containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) in the ratio of 45:55 (wt./wt.). Neat resins containing various combinations of popular photo-initiating compounds, e.g., camphoquinone (CQ), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP), were prepared. To obtain the two phases, 33 wt.% of deuterium oxide (D2O) was added to the neat resins. This amount of D2O exceeded the miscibility limit for the resins. The concentration of each component of the photo-initiating system in the two phases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When combined with CQ, DMAEMA is less efficient as a co-initiator compared to EDMAB. The addition of DPIHP as the third component into either CQ/EDMAB or CQ/DMAEMA photo-initiating systems led to comparable performance in both the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The addition of the iodonium salt significantly improved the photopolymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase; the latter exhibited extremely poor polymerization when the iodonium salt was not included in the formulation. The partition concentration of EDMAB in the hydrophilic-rich phase was significantly lower than that of DMAEMA or DPIHP. This study indicates the need for a combination of hydrophobic/hydrophilic photosensitizer and addition of iodonium salt to improve polymerization within the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive.

  5. Linearized iterative least-squares (LIL): a parameter-fitting algorithm for component separation in multifrequency cosmic microwave background experiments such as Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Rishi

    2015-08-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for least-squares parameter fitting, optimized for component separation in multifrequency cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We sidestep some of the problems associated with non-linear optimization by taking advantage of the quasi-linear nature of the foreground model. We demonstrate our algorithm, linearized iterative least-squares (LIL), on the publicly available Planck sky model FFP6 simulations and compare our results with those of other algorithms. We work at full Planck resolution and show that degrading the resolution of all channels to that of the lowest frequency channel is not necessary. Finally, we present results for publicly available Planck data. Our algorithm is extremely fast, fitting six parameters to the seven lowest Planck channels at full resolution (50 million pixels) in less than 160 CPU minutes (or a few minutes running in parallel on a few tens of cores). LIL is therefore easily scalable to future experiments, which may have even higher resolution and more frequency channels. We also, naturally, propagate the uncertainties in different parameters due to noise in the maps, as well as the degeneracies between the parameters, to the final errors in the parameters using the Fisher matrix. One indirect application of LIL could be a front-end for Bayesian parameter fitting to find the maximum likelihood to be used as the starting point for Gibbs sampling. We show that for rare components, such as carbon monoxide emission, present in a small fraction of sky, the optimal approach should combine parameter fitting with model selection. LIL may also be useful in other astrophysical applications that satisfy quasi-linearity criteria.

  6. Statistical analysis and comparative study of energy balance components estimated using micrometeorological techniques during HUBEX/IOP 1998/99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhilin; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Renhua

    2003-06-01

    In order to study energy and water cycles in the Huaihe River Basin, micrometeorological measurements were carried out in Shouxian County, Anhui Province, during HUBEX/IOP (May to August 1998 and June to July 1999). The employed techniques included Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance (BREB) and Eddy Covariance (EC) methods. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the energy balance components in the district are analyzed. Furthermore, the results are compared with those from other regions of China. The main results are as follows: (1) There was a consistency between the available energy (R n-G) and the sum of sensible (H) and latent (E) heat fluxes measured by the EC method (H+E)ec, but E br was slightly larger (about 10%) than E ec; (2) Most of the net radiation (R n) was used to evaporate water from the surface. During HUBEX/IOP in 1998 and 1999, the mean daily amounts of R n were 13.89 MJ m-2d-1 and 11.83 MJ m-2d-1, and the mean Bowen Ratios (β) were 0.14 (over ruderal) and 0.06 (over paddy) respectively; (3) The diurnal variation characteristic of β was larger and unsteady at sunrise and sunset, and smaller and steady during the rest of the daytime. Local advection appeared in the afternoon over paddy areas in 1999; (4) In comparison with the results from other regions of China, the mean β was the lowest (0.06) over paddy areas in the Huaihe River Basin and the highest (0.57) during June August 1998 in Inner Mongolia grassland. The Bowen Ratio β is mainly related to the soil humidity.

  7. Stereoisomers Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Piotr

    The use of capillary electrophoresis for enantiomer separation and optical purity determination is presented. The contents start with basic information about the nature of stereoizomers and the mechanism of enantioseparation using capillary electrophoresis techniques. The molecules to be separated show identical chemical structure and electrochemical behavior. Therefore, the chiral recognition of enantiomers is possible only by bonding to chiral selector and the separation based on very small differences in complexation energies of diastereomer complexes formed. This method is useful for this purpose due to the fact that different compounds can be used as chiral selectors. The mostly used chiral selectors like cyclodextrins, crown ethers, chiral surfactants, macrocyclic antibiotics, transition metal complexes, natural, and synthetic polymers and their application for this purpose is also discussed. Finally, examples of practical applications of electromigration techniques for enantiomers separation and determination are presented.

  8. Separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by gel-based chromatography using surfactant step-gradient techniques and development of new instrumentation for studying SWCNT reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breindel, Leonard M.

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis methods such as CoMoCATTM, HiPcoTM, pulsed laser vaporization (PLV), and catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) produce several different distributions of (n,m) SWCNT structures, where ( n,m) defines the nanotube diameter and chiral wrapping angle. Post-synthesis processing such as functionalization and/or separations must therefore be employed to yield high purity electronic or single (n,m) samples. Through the use of a surfactant gradient across a gel-based chromatographic column, separations of single (n,m) species can be achieved. Anionic surfactants such as SDS, SDBS, and AOT display different separation effectiveness for single (n,m) species. Results of near-infrared optical absorption for separated SWCNT surfactant suspensions will be discussed, leading to a broader understanding of the important factors necessary for the gel chromatography separation technique. In particular, the effects of SWCNT/surfactant micelle structure are found to be key to achieving fast, simple SWCNT electronic type separations. Additionally, development of new instrumentation for the near-infrared spectrofluorimetric analysis (NIR-SFA) of SWCNTs is useful to the advancement of fundamental SWCNT research and applications. NIR-SFA, for instance, allows for the (n,m) structures of a sample to be identified and monitored during the progress of a chemical reaction or separation experiment. Seeking to achieve the time resolutions necessary for such experiments, the design and optimizations of a system utilizing single-wavelength excitation by diode lasers coupled with a fast NIR detection system are presented.

  9. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  10. Introducing Students to Protein Analysis Techniques: Separation and Comparative Analysis of Gluten Proteins in Various Wheat Strains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirinelli, Alyssa L.; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Pohl, Nicola L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is commonly taught in undergraduate laboratory classes as a traditional method to analyze proteins. An experiment has been developed to teach these basic protein gel skills in the context of gluten protein isolation from various types of wheat flour. A further goal is to relate this technique to current…

  11. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  12. Technique for the long-term projections of water balance components for northern river basins of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy; Nasonova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present work is a development of a technique for a long-term projection of changes in water resources of northern rivers of Russia caused by climate change. The technique is based on the land surface model SWAP and information on the land surface parameters taken from global data sets. SWAP is a physically-based model. A good accuracy of simulating different characteristics of the water and energy regimes under different conditions and on different spatial scales was confirmed by numerous validation of the model against measured data. As a result, it was concluded that SWAP can be a good tool for simulation of water balance components for various river basins both for the current climatic conditions and for the future ones. The northern river basins of Russia are covered with a sparse network of meteorological stations and poorly provided with land surface parameters. The latter was overcome by application of global data sets on land surface characteristics. Evidently, that direct application of such information leads to a low accuracy of model simulations. To improve the quality of river runoff modeling the main land surface parameters were calibrated using the SCE-UA algorithm and river runoff measurements. Optimization of model parameters has significantly improved the agreement between measured and simulated streamflow of northern rivers. The Nash-Satcliffe efficiency for the modeled daily streamflow varied from 0.70 to 0.85 and the absolute bias values reached 1-10 %. That allowed us to use the SWAP model for hydrological projections. In order to make sure that the land surface parameters, obtained for the modern period, remain valid in projection periods, the following investigation was carried out. For the Northern Dvina River, model transposability in time under contracted climate conditions was analyzed. In so doing, model calibration and validation was performed for contrasted climatic conditions in terms of temperature and precipitation

  13. Separation and characterization of mares' milk alpha(s1)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, gamma-casein-like, and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Egito, A S; Miclo, L; López, C; Adam, A; Girardet, J M; Gaillard, J L

    2002-04-01

    The equine alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins (CN) were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by reversed-phase HPLC. The alpha(s1)-, beta-, and kappa-CN were characterized either by monodimensional urea-PAGE or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-PAGE or by bidimensional electrophoresis. Kappa-casein was characterized after electrophoresis by glycoprotein-specific staining. To identify alpha(s1)-CN without ambiguity, internal sequences were determined after trypsin or chymosin digestion of purified alpha(s1)-CN. These sequences, that could be estimated to correspond to 62% of the full protein, presented strong identities with regions of alpha(s1)-CN primary structures of other species. In particular, 51, 48, 43, and 40% identities were obtained with corresponding regions of sow, dromedary, cow, and human alpha(s1)-CN, respectively. On the other hand, trace amounts of equine gamma-CN-like and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides were found in the whole CN. They were identified by microsequencing and corresponded to beta-CN peptides generated by plasmin action on the whole CN. The equine alpha(s1), beta-, and kappa-CN were separated by bidimensional electrophoresis in numerous isoelectric variants with apparent isoelectric points distributed between pH 4.4 to 6.3, 4.4 to 5.9, and 3.5 to 5.5, respectively. The beta- and kappa-CN displayed a more acidic character in the mare than in the cow. PMID:12018413

  14. Separation of the electron and proton cosmic-ray components by means of a calorimeter in the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment for the case of particle detection within a large aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Karelin, A. V. Borisov, S. V.; Voronov, S. A.; Malakhov, V. V.

    2013-06-15

    The PAMELA satellite-borne experiment is designed to study cosmic rays over a broad energy range. The apparatus has been in near-Earth cosmic space from June 2006 to the present time. It is equipped with a magnetic spectrometer for determining the sign of the particle charge and rigidity. In solving some problems, however, information from the magnetic spectrometer becomes inaccessible, so that it is necessary to employ a calorimeter to separate the electron and nuclear cosmic-ray components. A procedure for separating these components for particles arriving off the magnetic-spectrometer aperture is considered.

  15. Theoretical study of moving magnetic beads on an inclined plane and its application in the ratchet separation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Johnson, S.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. The translational and rotational velocities of magnetic beads traveling on an inclined plane in the creeping flow regime are studied. The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. Rolling and slipping cases are studied in detail. It is shown that the lift force effect is critical for large values of sedimentation Reynolds number (Res) and negligible for small values of Res. This method is applicable for neutrally buoyant and heavy magnetic bead motion. Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes. This is applicable for novel applications such as drug delivery, magnetic tweezers, and magnetic actuated stiffness testing systems which require accurate magnetic bead sizes for accurate function.

  16. DHARMA - Discriminant hyperplane abstracting residuals minimization algorithm for separating clusters with fuzzy boundaries. [data points pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasarathy, B. V.

    1976-01-01

    Learning of discriminant hyperplanes in imperfectly supervised or unsupervised training sample sets with unreliably labeled samples along the fuzzy joint boundaries between sample clusters is discussed, with the discriminant hyperplane designed to be a least-squares fit to the unreliably labeled data points. (Samples along the fuzzy boundary jump back and forth from one cluster to the other in recursive cluster stabilization and are considered unreliably labeled.) Minimization of the distances of these unreliably labeled samples from the hyperplanes does not sacrifice the ability to discriminate between classes represented by reliably labeled subsets of samples. An equivalent unconstrained linear inequality problem is formulated and algorithms for its solution are indicated. Landsat earth sensing data were used in confirming the validity and computational feasibility of the approach, which should be useful in deriving discriminant hyperplanes separating clusters with fuzzy boundaries, given supervised training sample sets with unreliably labeled boundary samples.

  17. Two-monoclonal-antibody sandwich-type assay for thyrotropin, with use of an avidin-biotin separation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, W.D.; Griffin, J.; Zahradnik, R.

    1986-10-01

    We have developed a sensitive, specific, noncompetitive, sandwich-type radioimmunoassay for human thyrotropin (hTSH), which can be performed in 30 min. The assay involves two monoclonal antibodies, selected for high affinity and specificity and also for reaction against antigenic sites on hTSH that are distal from each other. One of these antibodies is labeled with /sup 125/I; the other is conjugated covalently to biotin. Polystyrene beads were also conjugated covalently to biotin. After conjugation, the beads were incubated with avidin. These beads represent a rapid, simple method for separating hTSH-bound antibody from free antibody. The biotin-antibody-hTSH-/sup 125/I-labeled antibody complexes bind to the beads and hTSH concentration is directly related to counts per minute. This assay can detect hTSH at a concentration of 0.06 milli-unit/L in serum.

  18. Principles of Electromigration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques provide the separation of analyzed sample components owing to external voltage generating electrokinetic phenomena—electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Taking into account the relatively large number of parameters dealt with during electrophoretic analyses, it is essential to know their influence on the achieved separation of analytes. In this chapter the theoretical and practical aspects of a resolution optimization, as well as the effect of different separation parameters on the migration behavior are described. These, among others, include migration time, efficiency, selectivity, and resolution. The influence of electrods polarization, applied voltage, temperature, capillary, background electrolyte, and various additives on the separation is also discussed.

  19. The long-term outcome of the cemented Weber acetabular component in total hip replacement using a second-generation cementing technique.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P T; de Man, F H R; Haverkamp, D; Marti, R K

    2009-01-01

    We report the long-term outcome of a modified second-generation cementing technique for fixation of the acetabular component of total hip replacement. An earlier report has shown the superiority of this technique assessed by improved survival compared with first-generation cementing. The acetabular preparation involved reaming only to the subchondral plate, followed by impaction of the bone in the anchorage holes. Between 1978 and 1993, 287 total hip replacements were undertaken in 244 patients with a mean age of 65.3 years (21 to 90) using a hemispherical Weber acetabular component with this modified technique for cementing and a cemented femoral component. The survival with acetabular revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint was 99.1% (95% confidence interval 97.9 to 100 after ten years and 85.5% (95% confidence interval 74.7 to 96.2) at 20 years. Apart from contributing to a long-lasting fixation of the component, this technique also preserved bone, facilitating revision surgery when necessary. PMID:19092001

  20. Application of principal component analysis and information fusion technique to detect hotspots in NOAA/AVHRR images of Jharia coalfield, India - article no. 013523

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.

    2007-07-01

    Present paper proposes an algorithm for hotspot (sub-surface fire) detection in NOAA/AVHRR images in Jharia region of India by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and fusion technique. Proposed technique is very simple to implement and is more adaptive in comparison to thresholding, multi-thresholding and contextual algorithms. The algorithm takes into account the information of AVHRR channels 1, 2, 3, 4 and vegetation indices NDVI and MSAVI for the required purpose. Proposed technique consists of three steps: (1) detection and removal of cloud and water pixels from preprocessed AVHRR image and screening out the noise of channel 3, (2) application of PCA on multi-channel information along with vegetation index information of NOAA/AVHRR image to obtain principal components, and (3) fusion of information obtained from principal component 1 and 2 to classify image pixels as hotspots. Image processing techniques are applied to fuse information in first two principal component images and no absolute threshold is incorporated to specify whether particular pixel belongs to hotspot class or not, hence, proposed method is adaptive in nature and works successfully for most of the AVHRR images with average 87.27% detection accuracy and 0.201% false alarm rate while comparing with ground truth points in Jharia region of India.

  1. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  2. Usefulness of two-point Dixon fat-water separation technique in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Li, Ren-Chen; Zeng, Meng-Su

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare differences between volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) using two-point Dixon fat-water separation (Dixon-VIBE) and chemically selective fat saturation (FS-VIBE) with magnetic resonance imaging examination. METHODS: Forty-nine patients were included, who were scanned with two VIBE sequences (Dixon-VIBE and FS-VIBE) in hepatobiliary phase after gadoxetic acid administration. Subjective evaluations including sharpness of tumor, sharpness of vessels, strength and homogeneity of fat suppression, and artifacts that were scored using a 4-point scale. The liver-to-lesion contrast was also calculated and compared. RESULTS: Dixon-VIBE with water reconstruction had significantly higher subjective scores than FS-VIBE in strength and homogeneity of fat suppression (< 0.0001) but lower scores in sharpness of tumor (P < 0.0001), sharpness of vessels (P = 0.0001), and artifacts (P = 0.034). The liver-to-lesion contrast on Dixon-VIBE images was significantly lower than that on FS-VIBE (16.6% ± 9.4% vs 23.9% ± 12.1%, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Dixon-VIBE provides stronger and more homogenous fat suppression than FS-VIBE, while has lower clarity of focal liver lesions in hepatobiliary phase after gadoxetic acid administration. PMID:25945017

  3. Temperature effect on thin lipid film elasticity and phase separation: insights from Langmuir monolayer and fluorescence microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattari, Z.; Maghrabi, M.; Al-Abdullah, T.

    2015-07-01

    Langmuir monolayer pressure isotherms and compressibility modulus measurements of phospholipid mixtures in several Langmuir monolayer systems at the air/water interface were investigated in this study. The ultimate aim was to carry out a comparison of the elasticity modulus for monolayers with different mixtures of l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), l,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and chicken egg yolk sphingomyelin (eSM), in the presence/absence of cholesterol (Chol). In particular, we were able to propose that the leading force beyond the phase separation into liquid expanded (LE-) and liquid condensed (LC-) phases emerges from the increasing barrier to incorporate DOPC molecules into a highly ordered LC-phase. In addition, our findings suggest that DOPC lipid molecules have a priority to incorporate in a disordered LE-phase, while DPPC and eSM prefer the ordered one. Also, Chol seems to split almost equally into both phases, indicating that Chol has no priority for either phase and there are no particular interactions between Chol and saturated lipid molecules.

  4. Supramolecular structures based on regioisomers of cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins – new media for capillary separation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkovics, Gabor; Hodek, Ondrej; Havlikova, Martina; Bosakova, Zuzana; Coufal, Pavel; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Eva; Darcsi, Andras; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the preparation and application of supramolecular structures based on mono-cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins (Cin-α-CD). Pure regioisomers of Cin-α-CD having the cinnamyl moiety at the 2-O- or at the 3-O-position, respectively, were prepared, characterized and applied in capillary electrophoresis as additives to the background electrolyte. These new monomer units with a potential to self-organize into supramolecular structures were synthesized via a straightforward one-step synthetic procedure and purified using preparative reversed-phase chromatography allowing a large scale separation of the regioisomers. The ability of the monomers to self-assemble was proved by various methods including NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The light scattering experiments showed that the monomer units have distinguishable ability to form supramolecular structures in different solvents and the size distribution of the aggregates in water can be easily modulated using different external stimuli, such as temperature or competitive guest molecules. The obtained results indicated that the two regioisomers of Cin-α-CD formed different supramolecular assemblies highlighting the fact that the position of the cinnamyl group plays an important role in the intermolecular complex formation. PMID:26877812

  5. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water using an immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Cireddu, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine a rapid method for detecting Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water. Methods and Results: Water samples were assayed for E. coli and enterococci by traditional and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) methods. Three sample treatments were evaluated for the IMS/ATP method: double filtration, single filtration, and direct analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis showed strong, significant, linear relations between IMS/ATP and traditional methods for all sample treatments; strongest linear correlations were with the direct analysis (r = 0.62 and 0.77 for E. coli and enterococci, respectively). Additionally, simple linear regression was used to estimate bacteria concentrations as a function of IMS/ATP results. The correct classification of water-quality criteria was 67% for E. coli and 80% for enterococci. Conclusions: The IMS/ATP method is a viable alternative to traditional methods for faecal-indicator bacteria. Significance and Impact of the Study: The IMS/ATP method addresses critical public health needs for the rapid detection of faecal-indicator contamination and has potential for satisfying US legislative mandates requiring methods to detect bathing water contamination in 2 h or less. Moreover, IMS/ATP equipment is considerably less costly and more portable than that for molecular methods, making the method suitable for field applications. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  6. The Cord Blood Separation League Table: a Comparison of the Major Clinical Grade Harvesting Techniques for Cord Blood Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Basford, Christina; Forraz, Nicolas; Habibollah, Saba; Hanger, Kendal; McGuckin, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Well over 1 million Umbilical Cord Blood units (UCB) have been stored globally in the last 10 years. Already, over 20,000 transplants been performed using UCB for haematopoietic reconstitution alone, now this potential is joined by regenerative medicine. However, more needs to be known about processing of this stem cell source for it to reach full potential. Methods and Results: In this study we evaluated five separation methods: plasma depletion, density gradient, Hetastarch, a novel method known as PrepaCyte-CB and an automated centrifugal machine. Sepax gives the highest recovery of nucleated cells, an average of 78.8% (SD±21.36). When looking at CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells PrepaCyte-CB provided the greatest recovery at 74.47% (SD±8.89). For volume reduction density gradient was the most effective leaving 0.03×106 RBC/ml, 8 times more efficient than its nearest competitor PrepaCyte-CB (p<0.05). Finally PrepaCyte-CB processing left samples with the highest clonogenic potential after processing and more significantly after cryopreservation: 9.23 CFU/108 cells (SD±2.33), 1.5 fold more effective than its nearest rival Sepax (p<0.05). Conclusions: PrepaCyte-CB was the most flexible method; the only processing type unaffected by volume. Results indicate that processing choice is important depending on your final intended use. PMID:24855539

  7. WE-G-18C-07: Accelerated Water/fat Separation in MRI for Radiotherapy Planning Using Multi-Band Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Crijns, S; Stemkens, B; Sbrizzi, A; Lagendijk, J; Berg, C van den; Andreychenko, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dixon sequences are used to characterize disease processes, obtain good fat or water separation in cases where fat suppression fails and to obtain pseudo-CT datasets. Dixon's method uses at least two images acquired with different echo times and thus requires prolonged acquisition times. To overcome associated problems (e.g., for DCE/cine-MRI), we propose to use a method for water/fat separation based on spectrally selective RF pulses. Methods: Two alternating RF pulses were used, that imposes a fat selective phase cycling over the phase encoding lines, which results in a spatial shift for fat in the reconstructed image, identical to that in CAIPIRINHA. Associated aliasing artefacts were resolved using the encoding power of a multi-element receiver array, analogous to SENSE. In vivo measurements were performed on a 1.5T clinical MR-scanner in a healthy volunteer's legs, using a four channel receiver coil. Gradient echo images were acquired with TE/TR = 2.3/4.7ms, flip angle 20°, FOV 45×22.5cm{sup 2}, matrix 480×216, slice thickness 5mm. Dixon images were acquired with TE,1/TE,2/TR=2.2/4.6/7ms. All image reconstructions were done in Matlab using the ReconFrame toolbox (Gyrotools, Zurich, CH). Results: RF pulse alternation yields a fat image offset from the water image. Hence the water and fat images fold over, which is resolved using in-plane SENSE reconstruction. Using the proposed technique, we achieved excellent water/fat separation comparable to Dixon images, while acquiring images at only one echo time. Conclusion: The proposed technique yields both inphase water and fat images at arbitrary echo times and requires only one measurement, thereby shortening the acquisition time by a factor 2. In future work the technique may be extended to a multi-band water/fat separation sequence that is able to achieve single point water/fat separation in multiple slices at once and hence yields higher speed-up factors.

  8. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    The ability to accurately structurally analyze engine components to assure that they can survive for their designed lifetime in an increasingly harsh environment is discussed. Under the HOST (HOt Section Technology) program, advanced component-specific modeling methods, with built-in analysis capability, will be developed separately for burner liners, turbine blades and vanes. These modeling methods will make maximum use of, but will not rely solely on, existing analysis methods and techniques, to analyze the three identified components. Nor will the complete structural analysis of a component necessarily be performed as a single analysis. The approach to be taken will develop complete software analysis packages with internal, component-specific, self-adaptive solution strategies. Each package will contain a set of modeling and analysis tools. The selection and order of specific methods and techniques within the set to be applied will depend on the specific-component, the current thermo-mechanical loading, and the current state of the component. All modeling and analysis decisions will be made internally based on developed decision criteria within the solution strategies; minimal user intervention will be required.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of modified nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds by thermally induced phase separation technique and aminolysis for promoting cyctocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunyu; He, Zhihang; Xu, Guojie; Xiao, Xiufeng

    2016-07-01

    Modified nanofibrous Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were fabricated by aminolysis combined with thermally induced phase separation technique using PLLA/1,4-dioxane/urea-NaOH-H2O system at -40 °C freeze temperature. Aminolysis led to the modification of scaffold resulting in enhancement in the bioactivity. The surface of the modified nanofibrous scaffold provided a good environment for attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 cells, exhibiting significant potential for bone tissue regeneration and for promoting cytocompatibility. PMID:27095503

  10. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernstad, A; la Cour Jansen, J

    2012-05-01

    Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4kg NO(3)(-)eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0kg SO(2)(-)eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960kg CO(2)(-)eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidence of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidence of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The hot spot identification shows that losses of organic matter in mechanical pretreatment as well as tank connected food waste disposal systems and energy in drying and vacuum systems reply to the largest impact on the results in each system respectively. PMID:22321897

  11. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Survey and evaluation of measurement techniques for temperature, strain and heat flux for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the final results of Tasks 1 and 2, Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems (NASA program NAS3-25141). During Task 1, an extensive survey was conducted of sensor concepts which have the potential for measuring surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. Each sensor concept was analyzed and evaluated under Task 2; sensor concepts were then recommended for further development. For temperature measurement, both pyrometry and thermographic phosphors are recommended for measurements up to and beyond the melting point of ceramic materials. For lower temperature test programs, the thin-film techniques offer advantages in the installation of temperature sensors. Optical strain measurement techniques are recommended because they offer the possibility of being useful at very high temperature levels. Techniques for the measurement of heat flux are recommended for development based on both a surface mounted sensor and the measurement of the temperature differential across a portion of a ceramic component or metallic substrate.

  12. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  13. Effect of processing techniques on color and active components amount of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas l) flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Y.; Mahmudatussa’adah, A.; Yogha, S.

    2016-04-01

    Sweet potato processing is limited, such as flour, snacks, cystic, or chips. Flakes as pre-cooked meals are made through the stages of making pasta and drying. The purpose of this study was to optimize the production of sweet potato flakes at the stage of making pasta and drying. Making the pasta is done through techniques steamed or baked. Pasta drying using tools a drum dryer or cabinet dryer. As an indicator of optimization is the total of monomeric anthocyanins, β-carotene and color the resulting flakes. The results showed that the amount of anthocyanin monomeric flakes by using steam, and drum dryer (3.83 ± 0.03 mg CYE/g db), flakes by the technique of steam, and cabinet dryer (3.03 ± 0.02 mg CYE/g db), flakes with techniques bake, drum dryer (2.49 ± 0.05 CYE mg/g db), flakes with bake technique, cabinet dryer (1.98 ± 0.03 mg CYE/g db). The Color of purple sweet potato flakes produced through steamed techniques bright purple, while the color purple sweet potato flakes produced through techniques roast give a brownish purple color. The amount of β-carotene yellow flakes sweet potato with stages of cooking steamed, drum dryer (152±0.5 mg/Kg db), grilled drum dryer (136±0.4 mg/Kg db), flakes of yellow sweet potato with stages of roasted and cabinet dryer (140±0.8 mg/Kg db), and grilled stage with cabinet dryer (122±0.3 mg/Kg db). In conclusion sweet potato flakes production techniques through the stages of steam process, and used drum dryers have a number of anthocyanins or β-carotene bigger and brighter colors than the baked flakes techniques and used cabinet dryer.

  14. Enantiomeric separation of functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger bases using macrocyclic cyclofructan and cyclodextrin chiral selectors in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with application of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Na, Yun-Cheol; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Sharma, Ankit; Lacour, Jérôme; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-04-01

    The enantiomeric separation of a series of racemic functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger base compounds was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using HPLC and CE the entire set of 14 derivatives was separated by chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral additives composed of cyclodextrin (native and derivatized) and cyclofructan (derivatized). Baseline separations (Rs≥1.5) in HPLC were achieved for 13 of the 14 compounds with resolution values as high as 5.0. CE produced 2 baseline separations. The separations on the cyclodextrin CSPs showed optimum results in the reversed phase mode, and the LARIHC™ cyclofructan CSPs separations showed optimum results in the normal phase mode. HPLC separation data of the compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA biplot analysis showed that retention is governed by the size of the R1 substituent in the case of derivatized cyclofructan and cyclodextrin CSPs, and enantiomeric resolution closely correlated with the size of the R2 group in the case of non-derivatized γ-cyclodextrin CSP. It is clearly shown that chromatographic retention is necessary but not sufficient for the enantiomeric separations of these compounds. PMID:24631813

  15. Reprint of: Enantiomeric separation of functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger bases using macrocyclic cyclofructan and cyclodextrin chiral selectors in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with application of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Na, Yun-Cheol; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Sharma, Ankit; Lacour, Jérôme; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-10-01

    The enantiomeric separation of a series of racemic functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger base compounds was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using HPLC and CE the entire set of 14 derivatives was separated by chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral additives composed of cyclodextrin (native and derivatized) and cyclofructan (derivatized). Baseline separations (Rs ≥ 1.5) in HPLC were achieved for 13 of the 14 compounds with resolution values as high as 5.0. CE produced 2 baseline separations. The separations on the cyclodextrin CSPs showed optimum results in the reversed phase mode, and the LARIHC cyclofructan CSPs separations showed optimum results in the normal phase mode. HPLC separation data of the compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA biplot analysis showed that retention is governed by the size of the R1 substituent in the case of derivatized cyclofructan and cyclodextrin CSPs, and enantiomeric resolution closely correlated with the size of the R2 group in the case of non-derivatized γ-cyclodextrin CSP. It is clearly shown that chromatographic retention is necessary but not sufficient for the enantiomeric separations of these compounds. PMID:24910297

  16. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-05-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4 kg NO{sub 3}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0 kg SO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960 kg CO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the

  17. A simple, direct radioimmunoassay for plasma cortisol, featuring a 125I radioligand and a solid-phase separation technique.

    PubMed

    Riad-Fahmy, D; Read, G F; Gaskell, S J; Dyas, J; Hindawi, R

    1979-05-01

    A simple, direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in human serum and plasma is described. An antiserum, raised in sheep to a cortisol-3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime/bovine serum albumin conjugate, is coupled to microcellulose. No extraction is required because plasma samples and standards are incubated with the antiserum and an 125I radioligand in a low-pH buffer, which denatures cortisol-binding globulins. The assay satisfies accepted validation criteria. In addition, results from the radioimmunoassay compare well with those obtained by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique (r = 0.968; FRIA = 0.97 FGCMS + 2.0 nmol/L). The latter procedure features the very high intrinsic specificity obtained by selected ion monitoring at high mass-spectrometric resolution (M/deltaM = 8500) with a Varian MAT-731 instrument. The simplicity of the radioimmunoassay procedure, with use of reagents prepared "in house," makes this a very practical and economical assay for use in the medium or large endocrine laboratory. PMID:436230

  18. Comparative study between extraction techniques and column separation for the quantification of sinigrin and total isothiocyanates in mustard seed.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A

    2012-07-15

    Glucosinolates are β-thioglycosides which are found naturally in Cruciferae including the genus Brassica. When enzymatically hydrolysed, glucosinolates yield isothiocyanates and give a pungent taste. Both glucosinolates and isothiocyanates have been linked with anticancer activity as well as antifungal and antibacterial properties and therefore the quantification of these compounds is scientifically important. A wide range of literature exists on glucosinolates, however the extraction and quantification procedures differ greatly resulting in discrepancies between studies. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the most popular extraction procedures to identify the most efficacious method and whether each extraction can also be used for the quantification of total isothiocyanates. Four extraction techniques were compared for the quantification of sinigrin from mustard cv. Centennial (Brassica juncea L.) seed; boiling water, boiling 50% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile, boiling 100% methanol and 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol at 70 °C. Prior to injection into the HPLC, the extractions which involved solvents (acetonitrile or methanol) were freeze-dried and resuspended in water. To identify whether the same extract could be used to measure total isothiocyanates, a dichloromethane extraction was carried out on the sinigrin extracts. For the quantification of sinigrin alone, boiling 50% (v/v) acetonitrile was found to be the most efficacious extraction solvent of the four tested yielding 15% more sinigrin than the water extraction. However, the removal of the acetonitrile by freeze-drying had a negative impact on the isothiocyanate content. Quantification of both sinigrin and total isothiocyanates was possible when the sinigrin was extracted using boiling water. Two columns were compared for the quantification of sinigrin revealing the Zorbax Eclipse to be the best column using this particular method. PMID:22743340

  19. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  20. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.