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Sample records for composite box girders

  1. Radiographic examination of prestressed concrete box girder bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Srvinivasan, S.; Saravanan, K.; Kapali, V.; Nayak, N.U.; Suresh Bapu, R.H.; Kalyanasundaram, R.M.; Madhavamayandi, A.; Mahadeva Iyer, Y.; Rengaswamy, N.S.

    1996-10-01

    Application of high energy x-radiography, using Betatron equipment to the box girders of prestressed concrete bridges, was conducted for the first time in India. The web thickness of the concrete box girders varied from 300 to 450 mm. Stringent safety measures were observed. The study gave information on the quality of the concrete, grout, and tensioned and untensioned steels.

  2. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    PubMed Central

    Tepic, Jovan; Doroslovacki, Rade

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012) for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM) and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions. PMID:24741350

  3. Online measured hydration heat for 32 meter span concrete box bridge girders during construction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yuan; Zhou, Taiquan

    2008-11-01

    The concrete stress induced by temperature change is regarded as one of the main causes of concrete box girder cracking. To understand the hydration heat distribution on the box girder transverse section, the concrete hydration heat temperature effect experiments were done according to the box girder construction condition, providing useful reference for box girder design and construction practice. The measured locations for concrete hydration heat were chosen as the middle span section and tip sections of box bridge girder. The temperature sensors were embedded in the concrete box girder at the top tray, bottom tray and web of the box girder during concrete pour construction. Then the time-history record for concrete hydration heat was recorded. According to the measured results for temperature, the time-history curve for concrete hydration heat process could be drawn. According to the 32 meter span concrete box girder hydration heat analysis result of Wuhan-Guangzhou railway express line, the common law of hydration heat during early concrete hydration heat process was obtained, including the basic laws of the concrete hydration temperature rise and heat drop, the temperature gradient of concrete and the relations between pumping temperature and thermal climax. Furthermore, the measured hydration heat temperature result provides useful information for preventing concrete cracks caused by temperature difference and temperature changing.

  4. Dynamic Magnification Factor in a Box-Shape Steel Girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar-Ranji, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic effect of moving loads on structures is treated as a dynamic magnification factor when resonant is not imminent. Studies have shown that the calculated magnification factors from field measurements could be higher than the values specified in design codes. It is the main aim of present paper to investigate the applicability and accuracy of a rule-based expression for calculation of dynamic magnification factor for lifting appliances used in marine industry. A steel box shape girder of a crane is considered and transient dynamic analysis using computer code ANSYS is implemented. Dynamic magnification factor is calculated for different loading conditions and compared with rule-based equation. The effects of lifting speeds, acceleration, damping ratio and position of cargo are examined. It is found that rule-based expression underestimate dynamic magnification factor.

  5. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Multicell Reinforced Concrete Box Girders Subjected to Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifaez, Marya; Behnia, Arash; Majeed, Abeer Aqeel; Hwa Kian, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) box girders are a common structural member for road bridges in modern construction. The hollow cross-section of a box girder is ideal in carrying eccentric loads or torques introduced by skew supports. This study employed acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on multicell RC box girder specimens subjected to laboratory-based torsion loading. Three multicell box girder specimens with different cross-sections were tested. The aim is to acquire AE analysis data indicative for characterizing torsion fracture in the box girders. It was demonstrated through appropriate parametric analysis that the AE technique could be utilized to effectively classify fracture developed in the specimens for describing their mechanical behavior under torsion. AE events localization was presented to illustrate the trend of crack and damage propagation in different stages of fracture. It could be observed that spiral-like patterns of crack were captured through AE damage localization system and damage was quantified successfully in different stages of fracture by using smoothed b-value analysis. PMID:25180203

  6. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  7. Monitoring a post-tensioned concrete box girder bridge with cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Jinsuk; Cao, Yinghong; Wang, Ming L.

    2009-03-01

    It is a rare opportunity to monitor a damaged structure due to extensive cracking. The progress of cracks is of primary concern for maintenance. However, it is difficult to distinguish the extension due to structural degradation from temperature to traffic. A Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) was installed in a PC box-girder bridge in order to monitor the crack development. This SHMS has continuously worked for 7 years. The temperature and traffic load patterns were deduced from raw data by using correlation techniques. Although, crack opening displacement (COD) due to temperature of daily and yearly seasonal cycles is much larger than the COD due to trucks, the overall fatigue effect due to traffic is much larger than the temperature effect because of its sheer numbers, about 3000 per day. Overweight trucks are usually allowed with permit in major interstate highway. However, frequency change due to local fatigue of crack is negligible. This research can be helpful to explain why frequency is insensitive to local damage.

  8. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  9. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge.

  10. Strain monitoring of dual-room box-girder during prestressing tension based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Jin, Tao; Zhu, Hongping; He, Weiping; Li, Ming

    2011-11-01

    Monitoring techniques based on fiber Bragg grating sensor have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits when compared with the current solutions of an electric nature in recent years. In this study, several fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were embedded into a prestressed concrete dual-room box-girder when construction at a prefabrication workshop to monitor strain of concrete girder during prestressing tension. All FBG sensors are alive during monitoring, which shows the advantages of robust surviving capability and long-term on-line monitoring performance. From the monitoring results it is found that the variances in strain at the measurement sites are small and almost is linear with time in certain one tension process, and the strain at the measurement sites almost synchronously and linearly change with the increase of the prestress. It is also found that the changes in strain at the measurement sites during the final tension are larger than that during the early tension.

  11. Strain monitoring of dual-room box-girder during prestressing tension based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Jin, Tao; Zhu, Hongping; He, Weiping; Li, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring techniques based on fiber Bragg grating sensor have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits when compared with the current solutions of an electric nature in recent years. In this study, several fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were embedded into a prestressed concrete dual-room box-girder when construction at a prefabrication workshop to monitor strain of concrete girder during prestressing tension. All FBG sensors are alive during monitoring, which shows the advantages of robust surviving capability and long-term on-line monitoring performance. From the monitoring results it is found that the variances in strain at the measurement sites are small and almost is linear with time in certain one tension process, and the strain at the measurement sites almost synchronously and linearly change with the increase of the prestress. It is also found that the changes in strain at the measurement sites during the final tension are larger than that during the early tension.

  12. Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.

  13. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  14. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CRACK AND STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF RC SLAB IN STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER UNDER NEGATIVE BENDING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Junichi; Nakajima, Akinori; Suzuki, Yasuo

    The sophisticated numerical analysis method is required to simulate the strain behavior of the reinforcement and the crack width of the RC slab, although many researches are conducted on the cracking behavior of the RC slab in the composite girder under the negative bending. In this paper, the numerical analysis method is constructed to evaluate the strain behavior of the reinforcement and the crack width of the RC slab in the steel-concrete composite girder subjected to the negative bending. The analysis method using the rigid body spring model takes into account the imperfect composite action between the steel girder and the RC slab, the bond between the reinforcement and the concrete, and the shrinkage of the concrete. As a result, it is confirmed that the analysis method can simulate the crack and the strain behavior of RC slab quantitatively in the steel-concrete composite girder under the negative bending.

  15. Behavior of adhesively bonded concrete-graphite/epoxy composite bridge girders

    SciTech Connect

    Gordaninejad, F.; Saiidi, M.S.; Wehbe, N. )

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the behavior of composite bridge girders constructed from carbon fiber reinforced plastic sections and concrete slabs. The study examined four-point bending of three beams, one bare, I-type, graphite/epoxy beam, and two constructed from concrete slab and graphite/epoxy sections. The concrete slab and graphite/epoxy section were adhesively bonded and no shear connectors were used. All three beams are approximately one-eighth scale models of bridge girders. The sections are geometrically symmetric and have the same symmetric lamination schemes. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed on the bare I-sections to develop basic understanding of the bending behavior. The analyses and tests were then extended to the composite girders. The theoretical and experimental results for the failure loads were in close agreement. It was found that the slip at the interface of the concrete slab and the graphite/epoxy beam had minor effects on the failure load, but it significantly reduced the stiffness of the composite sections. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Design procedures for fiber composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1989-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrative example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.

  17. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  18. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  19. Flutter analysis of composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Greenman, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic instability of flutter is an important factor in the design of modern high-speed, flexible aircraft. The current trend is toward the creative use of composites to delay flutter. To obtain an optimum design, we need an accurate as well as efficient model. As a first step towards this goal, flutter analysis is carried out for an unswept composite box beam using a linear structural model and Theodorsen's unsteady aerodynamic theory. Structurally, the wing was modeled as a thin-walled box-beam of rectangular cross section. Theodorsen's theory was used to get 2-D unsteady aerodynamic forces, which were integrated over the span. A free-vibration analysis is carried out. These fundamental modes are used to get the flutter solution using the V-g method. Future work is intended to build on this foundation.

  20. Analytical investigation of curved steel girder behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Michael Donald

    Horizontally curved bridges meet an increasing demand for complex highway geometries in congested urban areas. A popular type of curved bridge consists of steel I-girders interconnected by cross-frames and a composite concrete deck slab. Prior to hardening of the concrete deck each I-girder is susceptible to a lateral torsional buckling-type failure. Unlike a straight I-girder, a curved I-girder resists major components of stress resulting from strong axis bending, weak axis bending and warping. The combination of these stresses reduce the available strength of a curved girder versus that of an equivalent straight girder. Experiments demonstrating the ultimate strength characteristics of curved girders are few in number. Of the available experimental research, few studies have used full scale-tests and boundary conditions indicative of those found in an actual bridge structure. Unlike straight girders, curved girders are characterized by nonlinear out-of-plane deformations which, depending upon the magnitude of curvature, may occur at very low load levels. Because of the inherent nonlinear behaviour, some have questioned the application of the term lateral torsional buckling to curved girders; rather curved girders behave in a manner consistent with a deflection-amplification problem. Even with the advent of sophisticated analytical techniques, there is a glaring void in the documented literature regarding calibration of these techniques with known experimental curved girder behaviour. Presented here is an analytical study of the nonlinear modelling of curved steel girders and bridges. This is accomplished by incorporating large deflection and nonlinear material behaviour into three dimensional finite element models generated using the program ANSYS. Emphasis is placed on the calibration of the finite method with known experimental ultimate strength data. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of load deformation and ultimate strength are attainable via the

  1. Composite box beam analysis - Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchau, O. A.; Coffenberry, B. S.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Beam theory is widely used as a first approximation in numerous structural applications. When applied to composite beams, the accuracy of beam theory becomes questionable because (1) the shearing and warping deformations become significant, as the shearing stiffness of composite laminates is often very low, and (2) several elastic couplings can occur that strongly influence the behavior of composite beams. The torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams has important implications for aeronautical structures and is deeply modified by the above nonclassical effects. This paper presents two comprehensive analysis methodologies for composite beams and describes experimental results obtained from a thin-walled, rectangular cross-sectional beam. The theoretical predictions are found in good agreement with the observed twist and strain distributions. Out-of-plane torsional warping of the cross-section is found to be the key factor for an accurate modeling of the torsional behavior of such structures.

  2. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  3. Behavior of post-tensioned girder anchorage zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, W. C.; Paes-Filho, W.; Breen, J. E.

    1981-04-01

    Several large, thin-webbed box girder bridges, with post-tensioned anchorage zones have experienced large cracks along the tendon path in the anchorage zones at the design stressing load. A simplified test specimen was developed to accurately simulate the behavior of the post-tensioned box girder web. The primary variables affecting the formation of the tendon path crack were. investigated: tendon inclination and eccentricity, section height and width, tensile splitting strength of the concrete, anchor width and geometry, and the effect of supplementary anchorage zone reinforcement, both active and passive. Behavioral trends are presented as determined from three sources. These include physical tests of 40 quarter-scale microconcrete models and physical tests of 9 full-scale prototype box girder web sections.

  4. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  5. Composite Bending Box Section Modal Vibration Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns with Composite construction in critical structures such as wings and stabilizers is that hidden faults and cracks can develop operationally. In the real world, catastrophic sudden failure can result from these undetected faults in composite structures. Vibration data incorporating a broad frequency modal approach, could detect significant changes prior to failure. The purpose of this report is to investigate the usefulness of frequency mode testing before and after bending and torsion loading on a composite bending Box Test section. This test article is representative of construction techniques being developed for the recent NASA Blended Wing Body Low Speed Vehicle Project. The Box section represents the construction technique on the proposed blended wing aircraft. Modal testing using an impact hammer provides an frequency fingerprint before and after bending and torsional loading. If a significant structural discontinuity develops, the vibration response is expected to change. The limitations of the data will be evaluated for future use as a non-destructive in-situ method of assessing hidden damage in similarly constructed composite wing assemblies. Modal vibration fault detection sensitivity to band-width, location and axis will be investigated. Do the sensor accelerometers need to be near the fault and or in the same axis? The response data used in this report was recorded at 17 locations using tri-axial accelerometers. The modal tests were conducted following 5 independent loading conditions before load to failure and 2 following load to failure over a period of 6 weeks. Redundant data was used to minimize effects from uncontrolled variables which could lead to incorrect interpretations. It will be shown that vibrational modes detected failure at many locations when skin de-bonding failures occurred near the center section. Important considerations are the axis selected and frequency range.

  6. The life times of polymer composites in construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Urs

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses examples that prove the long-term reliability of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) under extreme loading conditions and outdoor weathering. Results of polymer/steel-composite anchorage systems, Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) plates and shells, GFRP box girders, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) post-tensioning tendons and CFRP stays are going to be presented.

  7. SLS LATTICE FINALIZATION AND MAGNET GIRDER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-05-06

    We describe the studies on dynamic aperture for the Swiss Light Source (SLS) 2.4 GeV storage ring including mini gap insertion devices, magnet misalignments and magnet multipole errors. We present a novel method for calculating the Touschek relevant effective lattice momentum acceptance and lifetime. Finally we describe the design of girders optimized for static and dynamic fatigue with high precision mounting of magnets on girders and a system of girder movers to be used for alignment of the girders around the ring.

  8. On the Kinematics of Undulator Girder Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    The theory of rigid body kinematics is used to derive equations that govern the control and measurement of the position and orientation of undulator girders. The equations form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system. The equations are linear for small motion and easily inverted as desired. For reference, some relevant girder geometrical data is also given. Equations 6-8 relate the linear potentiometer readings to the motion of the girder. Equations 9-11 relate the cam shaft angles to the motion of the girder. Both sets are easily inverted to either obtain the girder motion from the angles or readings, or, to find the angles and readings that would give a desired motion. The motion of any point on the girder can be calculated by applying either sets of equations to the two cam-planes and extrapolating in the z coordinate using equation 19. The formulation of the equations is quite general and easily coded via matrix and vector methods. They form the basis of the girder matlab software on the LCLS control system.

  9. Global and Local Stress Analyses of McDonnell Douglas Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains results of structural analyses performed in support of the NASA structural testing of an all-composite stitched/RFI (resin film infusion) wing stub box. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company designed and fabricated the wing stub box. The analyses used a global/local approach. The global model contains the entire test article. It includes the all-composite stub box, a metallic load-transition box and a metallic wing-tip extension box. The two metallic boxes are connected to the inboard and outboard ends of the composite wing stub box, respectively. The load-transition box was attached to a steel and concrete vertical reaction structure and a load was applied at the tip of the extension box to bend the wing stub box upward. The local model contains an upper cover region surrounding three stringer runouts. In that region, a large nonlinear deformation was identified by the global analyses. A more detailed mesh was used for the local model to obtain more accurate analysis results near stringer runouts. Numerous analysis results such as deformed shapes, displacements at selected locations, and strains at critical locations are included in this report.

  10. Experimental-theoretical investigation of the vibration characteristics of rotating composite box beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the study was to predict the effect of elastic couplings on the free vibration characteristics of thin-walled composite box beams and to correlate the results with experimental data. The free vibration characteristics of coupled thin-walled composite beams under rotation were determined using the Galerkin method. The theoretical results were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data obtained for graphite/epoxy, kevlar/epoxy, and glass/epoxy composite beams in an in-vacuo test facility at different rotational speeds.

  11. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Bush, H.; Sutter, T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Bush, Harold; Sutter, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis.

  13. Application of Interface Technology in Nonlinear Analysis of a Stitched/RFI Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Ransom, Jonathan B.

    1997-01-01

    A recently developed interface technology was successfully employed in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of a full-scale stitched/RFI composite wing box loaded in bending. The technology allows mismatched finite element models to be joined in a variationally consistent manner and reduces the modeling complexity by eliminating transition meshing. In the analysis, local finite element models of nonlinearly deformed wide bays of the wing box are refined without the need for transition meshing to the surrounding coarse mesh. The COMET-AR finite element code, which has the interface technology capability, was used to perform the analyses. The COMET-AR analysis is compared to both a NASTRAN analysis and to experimental data. The interface technology solution is shown to be in good agreement with both. The viability of interface technology for coupled global/local analysis of large scale aircraft structures is demonstrated.

  14. Structural Test Documentation and Results for the McDonnell Douglas All-Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the behavior of an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing stub box is representative of a section of a commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company as part of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage and repairs. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 140 percent of Design Limit Load prior to failure through an impact site.

  15. 24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Detail view north under bridge showing arched bascule girder, deck girders and cross beams, and bracing of east bascule leaf. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 26. DETAIL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS ON PIERS, SHOWING PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS ON PIERS, SHOWING PIER PEDESTAL AND CAP, CANTILEVERED SIDEWALK AND GIRDER WEBS, LOOKING EAST - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  17. Lamb wave behavior in bridge girder geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, I. J.; Greve, D. W.; Tyson, N. L.

    2006-03-01

    Lamb waves in plates and in cylindrical pipes have been the subject of extensive study, largely because they propagate great distances with little attenuation, and can therefore be used to detect flaws. In this paper we report finite element simulations and experimental studies of Lamb waves in steel bridge girder geometries. In our studies the Lamb waves are generated by PZT wafer-type transducers mounted on the girder web, driven by a windowed sinusoidal pulse; the pulse center frequency is chosen to yield a frequency-thickness product of roughly 1 MHz-mm, at which the group velocities of the S0 and A0 waves are well separated, and at which waves in higher modes are theoretically absent. Transient dynamic finite element simulations, both in 2D and in 3D, were performed using FEMLAB and ABAQUS. The simulations show that transmission at the web-flange joint creates guided waves in the flanges that travel at different velocities from the Lamb waves in the web, and that reflection at the web-flange joint creates a largely straight-crested wavefront for the Lamb waves in the web remote from the source. Simulation studies also illustrate the acoustic influence of plate girder transverse stiffeners, which is observed to be relatively small. A welded steel plate girder laboratory specimen was fabricated with proportions typical of highway bridge members, at approximately half-scale. The web height is 920 mm and thickness is 3.2 mm, for a representative height-thickness ratio of 288; the flange width is 100 mm and thickness is 6.4 mm, for a representative width-thickness ratio of 16. Small PZT transducers, roughly 6.4 x 6.4 x 0.6 mm, excited at less than 10 V, produce ample signals. We compare simulation results and experimental measurements for Lamb wave illumination of the plate girder segment. We also discuss the detection of cracks, simulated experimentally by saw cuts of varying dimensions in the laboratory girder specimen.

  18. Imparting Barely Visible Impact Damage to a Stitched Composite Large-Scale Pressure Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Przekop, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is a concept that was developed by The Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration, which has been a focus of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project. The NASA-Boeing structural development for the HWB aircraft culminated in testing of the multi-bay box, which is an 80%-scale representation of the pressurized center-body section. This structure was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Combined Loads Test System facility. As part of this testing, barely visible impact damage was imparted to the interior and exterior of the test article to demonstrate compliance with a condition representative of the requirements for Category 1 damaged composite structure as defined by the Federal Aviation Regulations. Interior impacts were imparted using an existing spring-loaded impactor, while the exterior impacts were imparted using a newly designed, gravity-driven impactor. This paper describes the impacts to the test article, and the design of the gravitydriven guided-weight impactor. The guided-weight impactor proved to be a very reliable method to impart barely visible impact damage in locations which are not easily accessible for a traditional drop-weight impactor, while at the same time having the capability to be highly configurable for use on other aircraft structures.

  19. Testing of a Stitched Composite Large-Scale Multi-Bay Pressure Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn; Rouse, Marshall; Przekop, Adam; Lovejoy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to develop technologies to reduce aviation's impact on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe to enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company have worked together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composite structures. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together. The PRSEUS concept is designed to maintain residual load carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. A series of building block tests were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. The final step in the building block series is an 80%-scale pressure box representing a portion of the center section of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. The testing of this article under maneuver load and internal pressure load conditions is the subject of this paper. The experimental evaluation of this article, along with the other building block tests and the accompanying analyses, has demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the HWB vehicle. Additionally, much of the development effort is also applicable to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, advanced aircraft configurations, and other structures where weight and through-the-thickness strength are design considerations.

  20. The Behavior of a Stitched Composite Large-Scale Multi-Bay Pressure Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Przekop, Adam; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to develop technologies to reduce impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe to enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company have worked together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composite structures. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building block tests were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. The final step in the building block series of tests is an 80%-scale pressure box representing a portion of the center section of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. The testing of this test article under maneuver and internal pressure loading conditions is the subject of this paper. The experimental evaluation of this article, along with the other building block tests and the accompanying analyses, has demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the HWB vehicle. Additionally, much of the development effort is also applicable to traditional tube-and-wing aircraft, advanced aircraft configurations, and other structures where weight and

  1. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  2. Box-modeling of bone and tooth phosphate oxygen isotope compositions as a function of environmental and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Langlois, C; Simon, L; Lécuyer, Ch

    2003-12-01

    A time-dependent box model is developed to calculate oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate as a function of environmental and physiological parameters. Input and output oxygen fluxes related to body water and bone reservoirs are scaled to the body mass. The oxygen fluxes are evaluated by stoichiometric scaling to the calcium accretion and resorption rates, assuming a pure hydroxylapatite composition for the bone and tooth mineral. The model shows how the diet composition, body mass, ambient relative humidity and temperature may control the oxygen isotope composition of bone phosphate. The model also computes how bones and teeth record short-term variations in relative humidity, air temperature and delta18O of drinking water, depending on body mass. The documented diversity of oxygen isotope fractionation equations for vertebrates is accounted for by our model when for each specimen the physiological and diet parameters are adjusted in the living range of environmental conditions. PMID:14711171

  3. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  4. Girder Support Scheme for the LCLS Undulator System

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.

    2005-01-31

    Differential settlement of the foundation of the LCLS Undulator Hall will cause quadrupoles to move and the electron beam trajectory to distort. The resulting phase errors will decrease the FEL power and require time consuming beam-based alignment sessions to correct. By supporting quadrupoles on girders, with three quadrupoles to a girder, the foundation motion induced phase error between the beam and the X Ray radiation can be reduced by a factor of 5 compared with supporting each quadrupole with a separate column. This comes about because the motions of three quadrupoles on a girder are linearly correlated so their effect on the beam is largely canceled out. Thus a girder support scheme can significantly help to extend the time between required beam based alignments and contribute to a more stable operation of the LCLS FEL beam.

  5. 16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  6. 15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  7. Detail of east rolling segment showing track girder, rolling panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east rolling segment showing track girder, rolling panels and counter weights. View west - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Remnants of track girder of east roadbed showing detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remnants of track girder of east roadbed showing detail of granite piers at low tide. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at low tide. View Northwest - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 21. View northwest under bridge showing steel girders, cross beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View northwest under bridge showing steel girders, cross beams, bracing, and walkway of west approach span. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 20. View southwest under bridge showing steel girder, cross beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View southwest under bridge showing steel girder, cross beams, and bracing of bascule leaves. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  12. PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSIDE SHOWING ARCHED GIRDER AND SLAB CONSTRUCTION. NOTE TWISTED BAR STOCK REINFORCING CAN BE SEEN. - Keggereis Ford Bridge, Spanning West Branch Conococheague Creek at State Route 4006, Willow Hill, Franklin County, PA

  13. 25. View of drum girder, with machinecontrol room above, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of drum girder, with machine-control room above, and drum rollers on center pivot pier. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  14. 44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Detail, bridge land span outboard girder brackets carrying utility conduit. Structure rests on granite blocks mounted on granite piers. - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 322. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW OF GIRDER SPANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    322. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW OF GIRDER SPANS, OAKLAND APPROACH AT TRANSITION TO DOUBLE-DECK ROADWAY, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 7. DETAIL OF SWING SPAN, SHOWING PLATE GIRDER CONSTRUCTION AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SWING SPAN, SHOWING PLATE GIRDER CONSTRUCTION AND PIVOT BEARING BELOW. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM VALLEY STREET RAMP - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  18. Halfthrough girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Half-through girder over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  19. 7. VIEW OF REDUCTION GEARS. TRUNNION SUPPORT GIRDERS, SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF REDUCTION GEARS. TRUNNION SUPPORT GIRDERS, SIDES OF COUNTERWEIGHTS, WITH LOWER BUFFERS, LOOKING WEST FROM WEST CANAL PIER. - East Division Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch Canal at West Division Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. DETAIL OF TYPICAL GIRDER SPAN, PIER NUMBER 5 (BUILT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL GIRDER SPAN, PIER NUMBER 5 (BUILT IN 1922) AND PIER NUMBER 6 (BUILT IN 1929). VIEW TO NORTH. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Experimentally Validated Nonlinear Analysis of Bridge Plate Girders with Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kużawa, Mieszko; Bień, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Comprehensive methodology of numerical nonlinear analysis of the consecutive phases in the structural behaviour of bridge plate girders with deformations is presented. The analysis concerns all stages of structure loading until failure and especially determination of the ultimate shear load capacity. Verification and validation of the numerical procedures proposed is based on comparison of the calculated results with effects of experimental laboratory shear capacity tests of plate girders carried out at the University of Ljubljana.

  2. A multiscale finite element model validation method of composite cable-stayed bridge based on Probability Box theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Rumian; Zong, Zhouhong; Niu, Jie; Liu, Qiqi; Zheng, Peijuan

    2016-05-01

    Modeling and simulation are routinely implemented to predict the behavior of complex structures. These tools powerfully unite theoretical foundations, numerical models and experimental data which include associated uncertainties and errors. A new methodology for multi-scale finite element (FE) model validation is proposed in this paper. The method is based on two-step updating method, a novel approach to obtain coupling parameters in the gluing sub-regions of a multi-scale FE model, and upon Probability Box (P-box) theory that can provide a lower and upper bound for the purpose of quantifying and transmitting the uncertainty of structural parameters. The structural health monitoring data of Guanhe Bridge, a composite cable-stayed bridge with large span, and Monte Carlo simulation were used to verify the proposed method. The results show satisfactory accuracy, as the overlap ratio index of each modal frequency is over 89% without the average absolute value of relative errors, and the CDF of normal distribution has a good coincidence with measured frequencies of Guanhe Bridge. The validated multiscale FE model may be further used in structural damage prognosis and safety prognosis.

  3. Correlation of Structural Analysis and Test Results for the McDonnell Douglas Stitched/RFI All-Composite Wing Stub Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Hinrichs, Stephen C.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical and experimental results of an all-composite wing stub box are presented in this report. The wing stub box, which is representative of an inboard portion of a commercial transport high-aspect-ratio wing, was fabricated from stitched graphite-epoxy material with a Resin Film Infusion manufacturing process. The wing stub box was designed and constructed by the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company as part of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology program. The test article contained metallic load-introduction structures on the inboard and outboard ends of the graphite-epoxy wing stub box. The root end of the inboard load introduction structure was attached to a vertical reaction structure, and an upward load was applied to the outermost tip of the outboard load introduction structure to induce bending of the wing stub box. A finite element model was created in which the center portion of the wing-stub-box upper cover panel was modeled with a refined mesh. The refined mesh was required to represent properly the geometrically nonlinear structural behavior of the upper cover panel and to predict accurately the strains in the stringer webs of the stiffened upper cover panel. The analytical and experimental results for deflections and strains are in good agreement.

  4. Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassens, J.

    1931-01-01

    This paper presents a series of tables for the simple and more common types of girders, similar to the tables given in handbooks under the heading "Strength of Materials," for determining the moments, deflections, etc., of simple beams. Instead of the uniform cross section there assumed, the formulas given here apply only to girders of "uniform strength," i.e., it is assumed that a girder is so dimensioned that a given load subjects it to a uniform stress throughout its whole length. This principle is particularly applicable to very strong structures. Girders of uniform strength are the lightest girders conceivable, because any girder, all of whose members are stressed to the limit, can not be surpassed by a lighter girder, if the two girders have the same form. The weight G of a member of length l, cross section F and specific gravity gamma is: G = Flgamma.

  5. Box-Behnken experimental design for chromium(VI) ions removal by bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites.

    PubMed

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Mihalache, Nicoleta; Botez, Adriana; Matei, Cristian; Berger, Daniela; Damian, Celina Maria; Ionita, Valentin

    2016-10-01

    In this study bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites were synthesised for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites and to reveal the uniform dispersion of nanomagnetite in the BC matrix. Magnetic properties were also measured to confirm the magnetite immobilization on bacterial cellulose membrane. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration, solution pH and solid/liquid ratio upon chromium removal were examined using the statistical Box-Behnken Design. Because of the possibility of magnetite dissolution during chromium(VI) adsorption, the degree of iron leaching was also analysed in the same conditions as Cr(VI) adsorption. From the factors affecting chromium(VI) adsorption the most important was solution pH. The highest Cr(VI) removal efficiency was observed at pH 4, accompanied by the lowest iron leaching in the solution. The adsorption experiments also indicated that the adsorption process of chromium(VI) is well described by Freundlich adsorption model. Our results proved that the BC-magnetite composites could be used for an efficient removal of chromium(VI) from diluted solutions with a minimum magnetite dissolution during operation. PMID:27343705

  6. 11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE GIRDER SPAN. (Also includes a Marking Diagram and a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 1, dated April 7, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P-28746. Scale 1/4 inch to one foot. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  7. Optimization of composite box-beam structures including effects of subcomponent interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragon, Scott A.; Guerdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Minimum mass designs are obtained for a simple box beam structure subject to bending, torque and combined bending/torque load cases. These designs are obtained subject to point strain and linear buckling constraints. The present work differs from previous efforts in that special attention is payed to including the effects of subcomponent panel interaction in the optimal design process. Two different approaches are used to impose the buckling constraints. When the global approach is used, buckling constraints are imposed on the global structure via a linear eigenvalue analysis. This approach allows the subcomponent panels to interact in a realistic manner. The results obtained using this approach are compared to results obtained using a traditional, less expensive approach, called the local approach. When the local approach is used, in-plane loads are extracted from the global model and used to impose buckling constraints on each subcomponent panel individually. In the global cases, it is found that there can be significant interaction between skin, spar, and rib design variables. This coupling is weak or nonexistent in the local designs. It is determined that weight savings of up to 7% may be obtained by using the global approach instead of the local approach to design these structures. Several of the designs obtained using the linear buckling analysis are subjected to a geometrically nonlinear analysis. For the designs which were subjected to bending loads, the innermost rib panel begins to collapse at less than half the intended design load and in a mode different from that predicted by linear analysis. The discrepancy between the predicted linear and nonlinear responses is attributed to the effects of the nonlinear rib crushing load, and the parameter which controls this rib collapse failure mode is shown to be the rib thickness. The rib collapse failure mode may be avoided by increasing the rib thickness above the value obtained from the (linear analysis based

  8. 5. VIEW, LOOKING WEST BENEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER FRAMEWORK, HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING WEST BENEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDER FRAMEWORK, HORIZONTAL LATERAL DIAGONAL TENSION EYEBARS, PAIRS OF EYEBARS RUNNING THE LENGTH OF THE BRIDGE, AND RUNNING SURFACE RAILROAD TIES - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Olmstead Bridge, Spanning Provo River, Provo, Utah County, UT

  9. Preliminary study to facilitate smart structure systems in bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Thomas C.; Peterson, Danford O.; Rossi, Peter J.; Ray, Laura R.; Livingston, Richard A.

    1999-05-01

    Sensors are currently available and used to monitor structural performance and loads incurred by bridges already in service. However, there has been limited research concerning the stresses that steel bridge girders endure during transport from the manufacturer to the job site and during the installation process. This paper reports the measured stresses on steel bridge girders during transportation from Lancaster, PA to Hanover, NH and during construction of the Ledyard Bridge on the New Hampshire - Vermont border. Two different monitoring system were developed for this data acquisition in a mobile environment. The first, a fiber optic strain monitoring system, utilizing Bragg grating technology. The second utilized an electrical- resistive foil strain gage network, in conjunction with wireless telemetry equipment. Together, these two systems formed a smart structure system for monitoring bridge girders while confirming the accuracy of data gathered through redundancy. Result conclusively demonstrated for the first time, that stresses in beams during transportation are significant and approach the factor of safety margin in girder design.

  10. 27. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD OF 1903 GIRDERS, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD OF 1903 GIRDERS, SHOWING PIER CAP, CANTILEVERED SIDEWALK BRACKETS, FLOOR BEAMS, LATERAL BRACING AND UNDERSIDE OF CORRUGATED STEEL DECK. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  11. 245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rusticated stone. It is the only structure on the parkway with stone faced arched piers. The view is facing east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. 15. DETAIL VIEW FROM BELOW THE NORTH MAIN GIRDER & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW FROM BELOW THE NORTH MAIN GIRDER & CANTILEVER BRACKETS, SHOWING THE DETERIORATING ORIGINAL CONCRETE SIDEWALK AND ITS STEEL REINFORCEMENT, PANEL 1, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  13. 25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 33. Photographic copy of Main Roof Girder Details (Ammann and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of Main Roof Girder Details (Ammann and Whitney and The Ballinger Company, April 12, 1955). In files of the City of Philadelphia, Division of Aviation, Terminal E, Philadelphia International Airport. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviaiton. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west from beneath state route 18 bridge (which lies along previous alignment of Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  17. 5. LOOKING NORTH AT FIXED PLATE GIRDER SPAN ON WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING NORTH AT FIXED PLATE GIRDER SPAN ON WESTERN APPROACH. STONE PIER AT CENTER OF FRAME DATES TO PREVIOUS SWING BRIDGE ON THIS SITE. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. Closeup view of subarray driver module, mounted on girder at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closeup view of sub-array driver module, mounted on girder at back of array - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  19. Detail, view, underside of halfthrough girder span over entrance to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, view, underside of half-through girder span over entrance to scrap yard at western end of trestle. Note that abutment is slightly skewed. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  20. Detail of deck plate girder and 150' Warren deck truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of deck plate girder and 150' Warren deck truss skewed connection atop skewed concrete pier, Bridge No. 1348, Second Potomac and C&O Canal Crossing, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  1. Demonstration of detectability of SHM system with FBG/PZT hybrid system in composite wing box structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soejima, Hideki; Ogisu, Toshimichi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo; Koshioka, Yasuhiro

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a novel damage monitoring system that can monitor the integrity of composite structures in aircrafts. In this system, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used as sensors and piezoelectric transducers (PZT) are used as the generators of elastic waves that propagate in the structure to be inspected. The damage monitoring system can detect the structural integrity by the change in elastic waves that are detected by the FBG sensor and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)-type filter. We confirmed that the structure health monitoring (SHM) system was able to monitor the damage initiation and propagation by a change in the waveform of the elastic waves in coupon specimens and structural element specimens. In this study, we demonstrate the detectability of the damage monitoring system by using a subcomponent test specimen that simulates an actual aircraft wing box structure composed of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). The FBG sensors and PZTs are bonded to the surfaces of hat-shaped stringers by an adhesive. Damages such as de-bonding and delamination are introduced in the bonded sections of the skin and stringers by impact. Damage monitoring and diagnosis are carried out by the SHM system under ambient conditions. We successfully verify the detectability of our system.

  2. Identification of a nonlinear black-box model for a self-sensing polymer metal composite actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan; Nam, Doan Ngoc Chi; Yoon, Jong Il

    2010-08-01

    An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electro-active polymer that bends in response to a small applied electrical field as a result of the mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. The aim of this paper is the identification of a novel accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for IPMC actuators with self-sensing behavior based on a recurrent multi-layer perceptron neural network (RMLPNN) and a self-adjustable learning mechanism (SALM). Firstly, an IPMC actuator is investigated. Driving voltage signals are applied to the IPMC in order to identify the IPMC characteristics. Secondly, the advanced NBBM for the IPMC is built with suitable inputs and output to estimate the IPMC tip displacement. Finally, the model parameters are optimized by the collected input/output training data. Modeling results show that the proposed self-sensing methodology based on the optimized NBBM model can well describe the bending behavior of the IPMC actuator corresponding to its applied power without using any measuring sensor.

  3. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Furneaux, K. L.; Heard, D. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Karunaharan, A.; Lee, J.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%), NO (22%) and total peroxy radicals (27%). Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR) and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK) are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with increased

  4. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: Performance of a chemistry box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Furneaux, K. L.; Heard, D. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Karunaharan, A.; Lee, J.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.

    2009-09-01

    Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (41%), NO (18%) and total monoterpenes (16%). Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR) and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK) are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical [OH] concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing [OH] production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism, adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene + OH rate constant of 50-70% is able to produce both isoprene and OH concentrations within error of those measured. Whilst we cannot rule

  5. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  6. Extension of POA based on Fiber Element to Girder Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenxin; Qiang Shizhong

    2010-05-21

    Because of its main advantage of simplicity, practicality, lower computational cost and relative good results Pushover analysis (POA) has become an effective analytical tool during the last decade for the seismic assessment of buildings. But such work on bridges has been very limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to adapt POA for nonlinear seismic analysis of girder bridges, and investigate its applicability in the case of an existing river-spanning approach bridge. To three different types bridge models the nonlinear POA, which adopts fiber model nonlinear beam-column element based on flexibility approach, with return period about 2500 years is carried out. It can be concluded that POA is applicable for bridges, with some shortcomings associated with the method in general, even when it is applied for buildings. Finally the applicable selection for monitoring point and lateral load pattern is suggested according to dynamic characteristic of girder bridges.

  7. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  8. 13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CENTER CROSS GIRDERS, B. TO B. ANGELES, AND LATERAL. (Also includes a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 3, dated April 5, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P28746. Various scales. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  9. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling of microwave-assisted extraction of natural dye from Swietenia mahagony: A comparation between Box-Behnken and central composite design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Sudrajat, Robby Ginanjar Margo; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand of non-toxic and environmentally friendly dyes, colorants that come from natural source have risen as an alternative of sintetic poisonous dyes. In this research natural dye from S. mahagony was extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method under different operating condition such as extraction time (10-30min), plant material to solvent ratio (0.03-0.05g/mL) and microwave power level (100-380 watt). Box-Behnken method and central composite design (CCD) method is widely used for modeling response surface methodology (RSM), both methods show good prediction performance. In this study response surface methodology was performed to optimize the process, both methods were performed by the help Statgraphics Centurion 16 to evaluate the effects of different operating parameters. Finally, both methods were statistically compared by root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD) based on validation data set. Further, result suggests that CCD has better performance as compared to Box-Behnken method. The maximum yield obtained for Box-Behnken is 3.7647% (380 watt, 0.0339g/mL, 28.8899min) and 3.7506% (379.986 watt, 0.0378g/mL, 30min) for central composite design method.

  10. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  11. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Lutter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program). So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  12. Effects of vertical girder realignment in the Argonne APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-14

    The effects of vertical girder misalignments on the vertical orbit of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are studied. Partial sector-realignment is prioritized in terms of the closed-orbit distortions due to misalignments of the corresponding girders in the sectors. A virtual girder-displacement (VGD) method is developed that allows the effects of a girder realignment to be tested prior to physically moving the girder. The method can also be used to anticipate the corrector strengths needed to restore the beam orbit after a realignment. Simulation results are compared to experimental results and found to reproduce the latter quite closely. Predicted corrector strengths are also found to be close to the actual local corrector strengths after a proof-of-principle two-sector realignment was performed.

  13. Boxing clever.

    PubMed

    Toon, P D

    1988-06-01

    This is the first contribution to a new JME column, "At the coalface," to which readers are invited to relate ethical problems they have encountered in their work. An adolescent patient requested that the author, a general practitioner, certify that he was medically fit to box. Toon attempted to dissuade him from boxing by explaining its dangers. When the boy persisted, the physician rapidly considered the ethical principles involved in the encounter and decided to "wash his hands" by telling his patient that if "he insisted on damaging his, or someone else's brain, then he must find another medical accomplice." PMID:3392720

  14. Double-layer composite film based on hollow TiO{sub 2} boxes and P25 as photoanode for enhanced efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yue; Zhao, Li Wang, Shimin Li, Jing; Dong, Binghai; Xu, Zuxun; Wan, Li

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel TiO{sub 2} double-layer composite film is successfully fabricated. • The TiO{sub 2}-HB overlayer exhibited intense scattering ability. • The P25 particles underlayer can enlarge the contact area and increase the contact points between TiO{sub 2}-HB and FTO glass. • TiO{sub 2}-DLL film cells have the maximum conversion efficiency. - Abstract: A TiO{sub 2} double-layer composite film consisting of hollow TiO{sub 2} boxes (HB-TiO{sub 2}) as overlayer and commercial-grade TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P25) as underlayer is designed as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The hollow TiO{sub 2} box has been employed as light-scattering part to increase the optical length in the film and enhance light-harvesting. It was found that the double-layer film cell with lower absorbed dye achieved the highest conversion efficiency and reach up to a maximum value of 6.4%, which is 226% higher than that of pure HB-TiO{sub 2} film cell (η = 1.96%) and 57.2% higher than that of pure P25 particles film cell under identical film thickness at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm{sup −2}. The enhanced efficiency of double-layer film can be attributed to its light-scattering capability.

  15. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  16. Development of high performance precast/prestressed bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhnoukh, Amin K.

    Demand continues to increase for bridges with long spans and shallow depths. Due to safety concerns, four-span overpasses are being replaced with two span overpasses to avoid placement of piers near the highway shoulders. In the meantime, the bridge profile is restricted due to existing businesses nearby. Thus, nearly the same superstructure depth must be used for double the span length. This dissertation focuses on topics aiming at providing precast prestressed concrete girders with the shallowest possible depth for a given span. It forms parts of larger projects conducted by the University of Nebraska for the Nebraska Department of Roads and for the Wire Reinforcement Institute. Specifically, the following issues were researched: (1) Use of 0.7 in. diameter Grade 270 ksi strands for pretensioning of precast concrete girders at a strand spacing of 2 inches by 2 inches. This arrangement gives nearly 190 percent of the prestressing with 0.5 in. diameter strands and nearly 135 percent with 0.6 in. strands. The research focuses on the required confinement steel to allow determination of transfer and development lengths according to current procedures in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for smaller strands. (2) Develop a self consolidating concrete (SCC) mix, using Nebraska aggregates that will allow for a specified design strength at service of 15 ksi and a minimum strength at one day of 10 ksi, representing the demand at the time of release of the prestress to the concrete member. Prior to this study, standard concrete strength prevailing in Nebraska has been 8 ksi at service and 6.5 ksi at release. It was the goal of the research to keep the cost of materials as low as possible but not exceeding 250 per cubic yard, compared to the proprietary mixes that cost approximately four times this amount. (3) Use of 80 ksi welded wire reinforcement (WWR) as the auxiliary reinforcement for shear, web end splitting and flange confinement. This would result in higher

  17. Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng

    2007-04-01

    We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.

  18. Composition of the abyssal infauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka area (NW Pacific) collected with a box corer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Viola; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition with the RV Sonne from July to September 2012, a 0.25 m2 box corer was used to sample the benthic fauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka area. 23 cores were deployed at 12 stations, and in total 36,648 individuals could be identified from a combined surface area of 5.75 m2. Total faunal densities ranged from 1024 to 16,592 ind. m-2, respectively, for the macrofauna from 436 to 3520 ind. m-2. The fauna was dominated by Nematoda (65%), even though this group and other meiofaunal taxa were only partially retained by the 300 μm screen that was used as the smallest screen for this study. The remaining part of the fauna was dominated by polychaetes (23%), followed by peracarid crustaceans (6%) and molluscs (3%). Most of the collected taxa occurred very patchily. Over 80% of the animals were extracted from the upper 2 centimeters of the sediment. Compared to other regions of the Pacific the density of the benthic fauna was unusually high. At the upper slope of the continental margin of the trench and at the southern part of the area the benthic fauna was most taxon rich. Station 3 from the continental slope of the trench was also most rich in terms of faunal density (total numbers of ind. m-2), followed by the station 11 and 12 from that the southernmost part of the abyss. Although the Kuril-Kamchatka area has been sampled on several expeditions during the last century, and some studies on the biomass of the benthic fauna have been published, this study offers the first quantitative community analysis of the benthic fauna in terms of abundance and taxon richness.

  19. Vibration study of the APS storage ring 0. 8 meter quadrupole/girder assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1991-05-01

    The overall objective of this study is to obtain insights into the dynamic coupled behavior of the quadrupole magnet and the girder assembly, and an assessment of the potential for unacceptable vibration levels which would require redesign of the quadrupole and/or girder mounting system(s). Specific objectives include determination of vibrational characteristics (natural frequencies, damping, mode shapes, and transfer functions) of the coupled magnet/girder system, measurement of response amplitudes of forced excitation and ambient floor motion, and calculation of magnification factors associated with the observed coupled vibration modes. In the Phase 1 tests the 0.8 meter quadrupole was mounted to the girder with a prototypic mount and excitation was primarily by an electromagnetic exciter or the result of ambient floor motion, with the exception of Test 7, which was impulse excited. In the Phase 2 tests the excitation was primarily by impulse with only a few tests with ambient floor excitation. A strong, coupled magnet/girder mode response occurs at frequency of 7.62 Hz resulting in very large magnification factors (low damping values) and large displacements. It appears that a low frequency rigid body mode of the magnet coincides with a girder mode frequency. The Phase 2 tests show the effect of jackscrew conditions on system response. When the pedestal bolts were loose, the jackscrew/pedestal assembly deflected slightly from its initial vertical position, resulting in a shift in position of the jackshaft within the screw assembly. The result was a significant reduction of frequency and a large increase in damping.

  20. Vibration study of the APS storage ring 0.8 meter quadrupole/girder assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1991-05-01

    The overall objective of this study is to obtain insights into the dynamic coupled behavior of the quadrupole magnet and the girder assembly, and an assessment of the potential for unacceptable vibration levels which would require redesign of the quadrupole and/or girder mounting system(s). Specific objectives include determination of vibrational characteristics (natural frequencies, damping, mode shapes, and transfer functions) of the coupled magnet/girder system, measurement of response amplitudes of forced excitation and ambient floor motion, and calculation of magnification factors associated with the observed coupled vibration modes. In the Phase 1 tests the 0.8 meter quadrupole was mounted to the girder with a prototypic mount and excitation was primarily by an electromagnetic exciter or the result of ambient floor motion, with the exception of Test 7, which was impulse excited. In the Phase 2 tests the excitation was primarily by impulse with only a few tests with ambient floor excitation. A strong, coupled magnet/girder mode response occurs at frequency of 7.62 Hz resulting in very large magnification factors (low damping values) and large displacements. It appears that a low frequency rigid body mode of the magnet coincides with a girder mode frequency. The Phase 2 tests show the effect of jackscrew conditions on system response. When the pedestal bolts were loose, the jackscrew/pedestal assembly deflected slightly from its initial vertical position, resulting in a shift in position of the jackshaft within the screw assembly. The result was a significant reduction of frequency and a large increase in damping.

  1. Vibration study of the APS storage ring vacuum-chamber/girder assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1991-02-01

    The overall objective of this study is to obtain insights into the dynamic coupling between the storage ring vacuum chamber and girder, and an assessment of the potential for unacceptable vibration amplitudes that would require redesign of the vacuum chamber supports. Specific objectives include determination of the vibrational characteristics (natural frequencies and modes) of the coupled vacuum-chamber/girder system, measurement of response amplitudes to forced excitation and ambient floor motion, and calculation of magnification factors associated with the various coupled vibration modes. 1 ref.

  2. Heats of Formation for CrO, CrO2, and CrO3: An Extreme Challenge for Black-Box Composite Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Karton, Amir; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Radom, Leo

    2012-09-11

    In the present study, we use composite methods, denoted CM(5)Λ and CM5, with post-CCSD(T) terms up to CCSDTQ(5)Λ and CCSDTQ5, respectively, to evaluate the atomization energies for CrO, CrO2, and CrO3. The heats of formation (ΔHf,298) based on our best estimated atomization energies are 198.3 ± 5 kJ mol(-1) (CrO), -81.3 ± 5 kJ mol(-1) (CrO2), and -286.8 ± 20 kJ mol(-1) (CrO3). Standard G4-type composite methods yield atomization energies that are adequate for CrO, less good for CrO2, and least good for CrO3. CrO3 is highly multireference in character, and therefore, a "black box" approach of using a single-reference RHF wave function is inadequate, even for "high-level" G4-type methods. We find that, for CrO3, there is a very large difference in the G4 atomization energies depending on whether an RHF or a UHF reference is used, which is mainly associated with large differences in the MP4 components. In general, we propose that a large R-versus-U difference is likely to be an indication of potential problems in the theoretical treatment. Going beyond G4 to a more rigorous UCCSD(T)-based composite scheme [termed U-CM(3:[DZ,TZ]) in the present study], we again find a large difference (but significantly smaller than that for G4) between the CrO3 atomization energies based on RHF or UHF references. Intriguingly, the use of Brueckner orbitals as reference orbitals in all components, as in the corresponding Brueckner Doubles (BD) procedure [B-CM(3:[DZ,TZ])], produces results for CrO3 that are independent of whether RHF or UHF orbitals are used as the starting point. PMID:26605727

  3. 50. Roanoke River Bridge. This 1,028 six span, steel girder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Roanoke River Bridge. This 1,028 six span, steel girder bridge, built in 1963, is the longest of its type on the parkway. this view is of its west elevation. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. Suppression of maglev vehicle-girder self-excited vibration using a virtual tuned mass damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D. F.; Hansen, C. H.; Li, J.

    2011-02-01

    The self-excited vibration that occurs between a stationary Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) maglev vehicle and a girder is a practical problem that greatly degrades the performance of a maglev system. As of today, this problem has not been fully solved. In this article, the principle underlying the self-excited vibration problem is explored, and it is found that the fundamental resonance frequency of the maglev girder plays a vital role in the initiation of the self-excited vibration. To suppress the self-excited vibration, a scheme applying a tuned mass damper (TMD) to the maglev girder is proposed, and the stability of the combined system is analyzed. Furthermore, a novel concept of a virtual TMD is introduced, which uses an electromagnetic force to emulate the force of a real TMD acting on the girder. However, in the presence of the time delay caused by the inductance of the electromagnets, the stability analysis of the levitation system combined with the virtual TMD becomes complex. Analysis of the stability shows that there exist some repeated time delay zones within which the overall system is stable. Based on this rule, time delay control is introduced to stabilize the system with a virtual TMD, and a procedure to determine the optimal time delay and gain is proposed. Numerical simulation indicates that the proposed virtual TMD scheme can significantly suppress the self-excited vibration caused by one unstable vibration mode, and is suitable for application to EMS maglev systems.

  5. Predicting deflections of a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder subjected to static loads from observed strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufti, Aftab; Jaeger, Leslie; Klowak, Chad; Kyriakopoulos, Nikolas; Bakht, Baidar; Tadros, Gamil

    2007-04-01

    Deflections of structures, such as bridge girders, are often the most difficult to monitor. Strain measurement is relatively simple with the use of electronic strain gauges, fiber optic sensors, or other strain measuring devices. This paper investigates two different methods for predicting or monitoring the deflection of a simply-supported full-scale bridge girder subjected to a partially distributed uniform load using strain measurements. A full-scale pre-stressed concrete bridge girder was instrumented and tested under a static monotonic load in the linear elastic range. This paper highlights the experimentally measured deflections along the length of one half of the girder and compares them to theoretically predicted deflections and deflections predicted using numerical integration along with harmonic analysis of curvatures determined from theoretical and observed experimental strains. Experimental test results indicate that estimating deflections from observed strains is feasible within the linear-elastic range of such girders. The methods outlined for predicting deflections of full-scale pre-stressed concrete bridge girders from observed strains are a valuable tool for structural engineers and for the periodic and continuous monitoring of civil structures such as bridges.

  6. Truck loading positions for maximum live load girder moment in skewed integral bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, O. Fatih

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of the longitudinal and transverse truck positions on the distribution of live load moment among the girders of skewed integral abutment bridges (SIBs) is investigated. For this purpose, three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of several single-span SIBs are built and analyzed. In the analyses, bridges with various skew angles under all possible single and double truck loading positions both in longitudinal and transverse directions are considered. An automated analysis procedure managed by a visual basic program is developed to obtain the structural models and apply the wheel loads of trucks. The finite element analyses (FEA) results are then used to find the most critical loading cases of single truck and adjacent two trucks for the live load moment in the girders of SIBs. The results revealed that, the trucks should be placed nearby the midline of the bridge deck in a diagonal manner.

  7. An Improved Box Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Michael E.

    2011-09-01

    While designing an optics lab for a conceptual physics course, I came across a "box theater" activity. The box theater is a pinhole camera obscura made from a box that students put over their heads and shoulders. I use the activity as a capstone experience to explain optical systems. (Classroom demonstrations of the camera obscura have been described by others.2) First, the students build and experiment with a camera obscura made from a plastic cup and a convex lens with a focal length of 7.5 cm, and then "wear" the box theater. The difficulty with the box theater is the dimness of the image. A cloth drape has to be hung from the bottom of the box around the shoulders of the students to prevent light leakage, and the students have to wait a few minutes for their eyes to adjust to the darkness.

  8. Water Flow Vibration Effect on the NLC RF Structure - Girder System

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C

    2004-07-16

    As part of the vibration budget study for the NLC Main Linac components, the vibration sources in the NLC modules (Girder) are under investigation. The activity is focused on the effect of cooling water flow on the structures (FXB type) stability, the transmission of vibrations to the adjacent components, and the effect of different materials of construction used for the supports. Experimental data and ANSYS simulations have been compared. This paper reports on the ongoing work.

  9. Water Flow Vibration Effect on the NLC RF Structure-Girder System

    SciTech Connect

    Cristian Boffo et al.

    2004-07-07

    As part of the vibration budget study for the NLC Main Linac components, the vibration sources in the NLC modules (Girder) are under investigation. The activity is focused on the effect of cooling water flow on the structures (FXB type) stability, the transmission of vibrations to the adjacent components, and the effect of different materials of construction used for the supports. Experimental data and ANSYS simulations have been compared. This paper reports on the ongoing work.

  10. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  11. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively. PMID:26549036

  12. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion of political…

  13. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  14. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.J.; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables {open_quotes}boxes{close_quotes} because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that {ital CP} violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel

    Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general

  16. Structural behavior of concrete box bridge using embedded FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wonseok; Kang, Donghoon

    2012-04-01

    For the structural monitoring of railway bridges, electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a significant problem as modern railway lines are powered by high-voltage electric power feeding systems. Fiber optic sensing systems are free from EMI and have been successfully applied in civil engineering fields. This study presents the application of fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensing systems to precast concrete box railway bridges. A 20 m long full-scale precast concrete box railway girder was fabricated and tested in order to identify its static performance. The experimental program involved the measurement of the nonlinear static behavior until failure. Multiplexed FBG strain sensors were embedded along the length of steel rebar and a strain-induced wavelength shift was measured in order to monitor internal strains. The measured values from the FBG-based sensors are compared with the results using electric signal-based sensors. The results show that the FBG sensing system is promising and can improve the efficiency of structural monitoring for modern railway bridges.

  17. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  18. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  19. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  20. Flat sheet metal girders with very thin metal web. Part II : sheet metal girders with spars resistant to bending - oblique uprights - stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Herbert

    1931-01-01

    Noting that the stiffness of the girder increases very rapidly as Beta increases, the result can be summed up as follows: When the cross stress preponderates in one direction and when the web plate is to be given the dimensions commensurate to its stresses, it is advisable (regardless of any ensuing structural difficulties) to set the uprights at about Beta = 120 degrees, thereby lowering the weight of the plate wall 15 percent (in contrast to Beta = 90 degrees), and raising the stiffness 55 percent. But, when the cross stresses alternate and are approximately of the same intensity in both directions, or, if the web plate thickness is determined by other structural reasons, then Beta = 90 degrees should be chosen.

  1. Climate in a Box

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Climate in a Box Project is exploring the utility of supercomputers in providing a complete, pre-packaged, ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products and on-demand access to a high-pe...

  2. Boxing with Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Dj; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a model-independent ``box'' parameterization of neutrino oscillations. Oscillation probabilities are linear in these new parameters, so measurements can straighforwardly determine the box parameters which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. We will present these new parameters and examine the effects of unitarity which reduce the number of independent parameters to the minimum set. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n >= 3 flavors.

  3. Large-deflection-theory Analysis of the Effect of Web Initial Curvature on the Ultimate Strength of Steel Plate Girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jiří; Kala, Zdeněk

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the paper is to analyze the influence of initial imperfections on the behaviour of thin-walled girders welded of slender plate elements. In parallel with experiments, one of the ultimate load tests was computer modelled. In so doing, the girder was modelled, using the geometrically and materially non-linear variant of the shell finite element method, by the ANSYS program. The shape changing during loading process is often accompanying with sudden "snap-through" i. e. rapid curvature change.

  4. Automatic box loader

    DOEpatents

    Eldridge, Harry H.; Jones, Robert A.; Lindner, Gordon M.; Hight, Paul H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for repetitively forming an assembly consisting of a single layer of tubes and a row of ferromagnetic armatures underlying the same, electromagnetically conveying the resulting assembly to a position overlying a storage box, and depositing the assembly in the box. The system includes means for simultaneously depositing a row of the armatures on the inclined surface of a tube retainer. Tubes then are rolled down the surface to form a single tube layer bridging the armatures. A magnet assembly carrying electromagnets respectively aligned with the armatures is advanced close to the tube layer, and in the course of this advance is angularly displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into parallelism with the tube layer. The magnets then are energized to pick up the assembly. The loaded magnet assembly is retracted to a position overlying the box, and during this retraction is again displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into a horizontal plane. Means are provided for inserting the loaded electromagnets in the box and then de-energizing the electromagnets to deposit the assembly therein. The system accomplishes the boxing of fragile tubes at relatively high rates. Because the tubes are boxed as separated uniform layers, subsequent unloading operations are facilitated.

  5. Flat sheet metal girders with very thin metal web. Part I : general theories and assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Herbert

    1931-01-01

    The object of this report was to develop the structural method of sheet metal girders and should for that reason be considered solely from this standpoint. The ensuing methods were based on the assumption of the infinitely low stiffness in bending of the metal web. This simplifies the basis of calculations to such an extent that many questions of great practical importance can be examined which otherwise cannot be included in any analysis of the bending stiffness of the buckled plate. This report refers to such points as the safety in buckling of uprights to the effect of bending flexibility of spars, to spars not set parallel, etc.

  6. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Stiffeners on Shear-resistant Plate-girder Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L

    1942-01-01

    The results of 60 different tests on 2 aluminum alloy 17S-T plate girders are presented to show the influence of size and spacing of stiffeners upon the buckling characteristics of shear-resistant webs within the elastic range. It is demonstrated that stiffeners increase the stability of a web by retarding the formation subdivided panels. An empirical method of proportioning stiffeners is proposed which recognizes both of these stiffener functions, and comparisons are made with design procedures based upon theoretical considerations of the buckling problem. Also, some experimental data are provided to show the effect of stiffener size and spacing upon ultimate web strengths.

  7. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  8. Modal analysis of a three-span curved steel girder bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Bryant G.; Womack, Kevin C.; Halling, Marvin W.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of modal analysis to ascertain changes in the boundary conditions (or structural damage) of a complicated bridge structure. Reconstruction of the Interstate 15 corridor through Salt Lake City, Utah had provided an opportunity for destructive testing to be conducted on a three-span, continuous curved steel girder bridge. Forced Vibration testing using an eccentric mass shaker was conducted on the bridge in three phases. Each phase represented a change in boundary conditions. The initial testing was done with the bridge in the as-built condition with the continuous deck at the abutments and frozen bronze bearings. The second phase of testing occurred after the bridge deck was cut way from the approach slabs. For the third phase of testing, the bearings at the ends of the girders were replaced with teflon pads and the bearings over the two intermediate piers were jacked up and greased. The results of the study show that modal analysis is capable of determining changes in a structure's natural frequencies and mode shapes due to a change in the boundary conditions. By extrapolation this would indicate that modal analysis would work as an effective non-destructive evaluation tool.

  9. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators' safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:27399710

  10. A Cyber-Physical System for Girder Hoisting Monitoring Based on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruicong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Guan, Quanhua; Hu, Weitong; Li, Mingchu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore design and construction is much more difficult than land-based design and construction, particularly due to hoisting operations. Real-time monitoring of the orientation and movement of a hoisted structure is thus required for operators’ safety. In recent years, rapid development of the smart-phone commercial market has offered the possibility that everyone can carry a mini personal computer that is integrated with sensors, an operating system and communication system that can act as an effective aid for cyber-physical systems (CPS) research. In this paper, a CPS for hoisting monitoring using smartphones was proposed, including a phone collector, a controller and a server. This system uses smartphones equipped with internal sensors to obtain girder movement information, which will be uploaded to a server, then returned to controller users. An alarming system will be provided on the controller phone once the returned data exceeds a threshold. The proposed monitoring system is used to monitor the movement and orientation of a girder during hoisting on a cross-sea bridge in real time. The results show the convenience and feasibility of the proposed system. PMID:27399710

  11. Box truss development and its application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace has aggressively pursued development of deployable structural systems applicable to a wide variety of Shuttle-transportable large space system requirements. This effort has focused on the deployable box truss, mechanisms and materials development, mesh reflector design and fabrication, gate frame truss design and fabrication, and offset-fed antenna design and analysis. The activities discussed are: box truss design; metal matrix composites; precision joints; enhanced passive damping design; mesh reflector development; gate frame truss for solar arrays; 15-meter spinning radio meter; and 60 x 120 meter push broom antenna.

  12. PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

  13. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  14. Cereal Box Totems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  15. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  16. "Can" the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestingi, Francis S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Arcane (mysterious) Can" which is a "tin" can which is permanently sealed, both air- and water-tight, by means of a home canning device. The canning procedure permits the use of a large variety of materials which can not be utilized in the ordinary mystery box. This Can activity is valuable for illustrating in an…

  17. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  18. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  19. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  20. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  1. 6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES CONTAINED ALL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS AND WERE INTERCONNECTED BY CONVEYORS. (9/21/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  3. Multicultural and Nonsexist Prop Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how prop boxes enhance learning and are resources in multicultural and nonsexist primary education, focusing on play, experimentation, and cooperation. Examines integration of prop boxes into the curricula and activities, and presents examples of generic and specific multicultural prop boxes that incorporate art, music, foods,…

  4. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  5. Numerical simulation of out-of-plane distortion fatigue crack growth in bridge girders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIller, Paula A.

    Aging of the United States infrastructure systems has resulted in the degradation of many operational bridge structures throughout the country. Structural deficiencies can result from material fatigue caused by cyclical loadings leading to localized structural damage. While fatigue crack growth is viewed as a serviceability problem, unstable crack growth can compromise the integrity of the structure. Multi-girder bridges designed with transverse cross bracing systems can be prone to distortion fatigue at unstiffened web gaps. Cracking is exhibited within this fatigue prone region from the application of cyclical multi-mode loadings. Focus of fatigue analysis has largely been directed at pure Mode I loading through the development of AASHTO fatigue classifications for crack initiation and the Paris Law for crack propagation. Numerical modeling approaches through the ABAQUS Extended Finite Element Method offers a unique avenue in which this detail can be assessed. Finite element simulations were developed to first evaluate the applicability of the Paris Law crack propagation under multi-mode loading against experimental data. Following the validation, fatigue crack growth in plate girders with various web gap sizes was assessed due to mixed-mode loadings. Modeling results showed enlargement of horizontal initial crack lengths within stiffer web gap regions arrested crack development. Crack directionality was also seen to change as initial crack lengths were increased. From this research it is hypothesized that deterioration of the transverse stiffener connection can be minimized by increasing the horizontal length of initial fatigue cracks. Enlargement of the crack plane away from regions of localized stress concentrations within the web gap may result in arrestment of the out-of-plane distortion induced cracking.

  6. Learning with box kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:24051728

  7. Learning with Box Kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-04-12

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, since the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given which dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:23589591

  8. Profiles in garbage: Corrugated boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-12-01

    Corrugated boxes (also known as old corrugated containers, or OCC) are used to ship products to factories, warehouses, retail stores, offices, and homes. The primary market for OCC is the paperboard industry, which uses OCC for corrugated medium, linerboard, recycled paperboard, and other paper products. In addition, 2.6 million tons of OCC were exported in 1996. OCC provided 37% of the scrap paper that was exported in 1996. Some corrugated boxes can be reused before recycling. Corrugated boxes are easily and highly recyclable. Large producers such as grocery store warehouses and factories have recycled their corrugated boxes for some time. If shredded properly, uncoated corrugated boxes are easily compostable.

  9. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  10. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite-epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 pct. of design limit load during the combined unbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  11. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-09-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  12. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  13. Compact and Secure Design of Masked AES S-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, Babak; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud; Moradi, Amir; Tabandeh, Mahmoud; Shalmani, Mohammad T. Manzuri

    Composite field arithmetic is known as an alternative method for lookup tables in implementation of S-box block of AES algorithm. The idea is to breakdown the computations to lower order fields and compute the inverse there. Recently this idea have been used both for reducing the area in implementation of S-boxes and masking implementations of AES algorithm. The most compact design using this technique is presented by Canright using only 92 gates for an S-box block. In another approach, IAIK laboratory has presented a masked implementation of AES algorithm with higher security comparing common masking methods using Composite field arithmetic. Our work in this paper is to use basic ideas of the two approaches above to get a compact masked S-box. We shall use the idea of masking inversion of IAIK's masked S-box but we will rewrite the equations using normal basis. We arrange the terms in these equations in a way that the optimized functions in Canright's compact S-box can be used for our design. An implementation of IAIK's masked S-box is also presented using Canright's polynomial functions to have a fair comparison between our design and IAIK's design. Moreover, we show that this design which uses two special normal basis for GF(16) and GF(4) is the smallest. We shall also prove the security of this design using some lemmas.

  14. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  15. Black box multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dendy, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The black box multigrid (BOXMG) code, which only needs specification of the matrix problem for application in the multigrid method was investigated. It is contended that a major problem with the multigrid method is that each new grid configuration requires a major programming effort to develop a code that specifically handles that grid configuration. The SOR and ICCG methods only specify the matrix problem, no matter what the grid configuration. It is concluded that the BOXMG does everything else necessary to set up the auxiliary coarser problems to achieve a multigrid solution.

  16. Projection optics box

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  17. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  18. 2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 10 YARDS TO THE RIGHT AND DOWNSLOPE OF THE ADIT IN ID-31-F-1. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  19. ACYSYS in a box

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  20. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2013-05-28

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  1. Real-time damage monitoring scheme in PSC girder bridge using output-only acceleration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Tae; Park, Jae-Hyung; Do, Han-Sung; Lee, Jung-Mi

    2007-04-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been increasingly utilized for structural health monitoring (SHM) due to the advantage that it needs only a few training data to detect damage in structures. In this study, a new damage monitoring method using a set of parallel ANNs and acceleration signals is developed for alarming locations of damage in PSC girder bridges. First, theoretical backgrounds are described. The problem addressed in this paper is defined as the stochastic process. In addition, a parallel ANN-algorithm using output-only acceleration responses is newly designed for damage detection in real time. The cross-covariance of two acceleration-signals measured at two different locations is selected as the feature representing the structural condition. Neural networks are trained for potential loading patterns and damage scenarios of the target structure for which its actual loadings are unknown. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated from numerical model tests on PSC beams for which accelerations were acquired before and after several damage cases.

  2. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  3. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  4. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  5. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  6. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  7. Electrolytic glove-box decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.; Lugo, J.; Nelson, T.

    1997-12-01

    Programmatic requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require the decommissioning of obsolete glove boxes contaminated interiorly with high levels of transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes. At least 300 glove boxes will be decommissioned in the next 5 yr and more over the long term. Most of these glove boxes are located at the two facilities that handle plutonium, the plutonium facility at technical area 55 (TA-55) and the chemistry and metallurgy research (CMR) facility at technical area. In addition to these active LANL glove boxes, which are in need of decommissioning, there are also on the order of 200 {open_quotes}legacy{close_quotes} TRU categorized glove boxes in storage at technical area 54.

  8. Design, analysis, and fabrication of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.; Meade, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous design concepts, materials, and manufacturing methods were investigated analytically and empirically for the covers and spars of a transport wing box. This information was applied to the design, analysis, and fabrication of a full-scale section of a transport wing box. A blade-stiffened design was selected for the upper and lower covers of the box. These covers have been constructed using three styles of AS4/974 prepreg fabrics. The front and rear T-stiffened channel spars were filament wound using AS4/1806 towpreg. Covers, ribs, and spars were assembled using mechanical fasteners. When they are completed later this year, the tests on the technology integration box beam will demonstrate the structural integrity of an advanced composite wing design which is 25 percent lighter than the metal baseline.

  9. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, D. R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, Randall C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. As part of the Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures, the design and fabrication of the technology integration box beam (TIBB) was completed. The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the Lockheed C-130 aircraft. The TIBB was tested for downbending, upbending, torsion, and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. Current analytical and experimental results are described for a study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data. An analytical study was conducted of the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB.

  10. Thinking Inside the Box

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, Charles T.; /SLAC

    2007-11-16

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences.

  11. GPR signal analysis of post-tensioned prestressed concrete girder defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Weng, Changnian; Jiao, Pengfei; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Meng, Xu; Lei, Linlin

    2013-06-01

    The accurate inspection of the duct condition in post-tensioned prestressed concrete (PPC) is an essential part of GPR concrete inspection. The purpose is to inspect the grouting condition of the ducts where the strands are located, to find out if there is a void in the ducts, and if any water exists. In order to investigate the radar image characteristics of different PPC duct defects, a number of model girders were manufactured. Three major ducts are included in our study: (1) well grouted and no void (normal condition); (2) the duct is half filled, and the void is filled by water or air; and (3) the duct is not filled at all, and the duct is water or air filled. The data corresponding to seven different situations are acquired and processed. It is found that the radar can detect the first interface in the duct, and the detailed structure inside the duct cannot be ‘seen’ from the images directly. Characteristic curves greatly help the interpretation. A completely void duct is the easiest to differentiate from the others. The signature for this situation is characterized by a strong and clear reflection interface which becomes weaker as the void is water filled. The normal condition shows the weakest reflection interface. As for the half void situation, the front scan shows a similar result to the normal condition whether it is water or air filled, and the back scan shows similar features to the completely void situation. The experiment and analysis is helpful and instructive for practical engineering inspection.

  12. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. PMID:23856377

  13. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  14. Myiasis in two box turtles.

    PubMed

    Gould, W J; Georgi, M E

    1991-10-15

    Two eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) were treated for myiasis caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis. The tortoises were examined because of swellings of the proximal cervical regions. Both fully recovered following surgical removal of multiple larvae. PMID:1748614

  15. Automated outlier detection framework for identifying damage states in multi-girder steel bridges using long-term wireless monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2015-04-01

    Advances in wireless sensor technology have enabled low cost and extremely scalable sensing platforms prompting high density sensor installations. High density long-term monitoring generates a wealth of sensor data demanding an efficient means of data storage and data processing for information extraction that is pertinent to the decision making of bridge owners. This paper reports on decision making inferences drawn from automated data processing of long-term highway bridge data. The Telegraph Road Bridge (TRB) demonstration testbed for sensor technology innovation and data processing tool development has been instrumented with a long-term wireless structural monitoring system that has been in operation since September 2011. The monitoring system has been designed to specifically address stated concerns by the Michigan Department of Transportation regarding pin and hanger steel girder bridges. The sensing strategy consists of strain, acceleration and temperature sensors deployed in a manner to track specific damage modalities common to multigirder steel concrete composite bridges using link plate assemblies. To efficiently store and process long-term sensor data, the TRB monitoring system operates around the SenStore database system. SenStore combines sensor data with bridge information (e.g., material properties, geometry, boundary conditions) and exposes an application programming interface to enable automated data extraction by processing tools. Large long-term data sets are modeled for environmental and operational influence by regression methods. Response processes are defined by statistical parameters extracted from long-term data and used to automate decision support in an outlier detection, or statistical process control, framework.

  16. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  17. Effects of bottom bracings on torsional dynamic characteristics of horizontally curved twin I-girder bridges with different curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awall, Md. Robiul; Hayashikawa, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; He, Xingwen

    2012-03-01

    Curved twin I-girder bridges (CTIGBs) have low torsional stiffness that makes them vulnerable to dynamic loads. This study investigates the effects of bottom bracings on the torsional dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs. Five types of bottom bracings are designed to investigate their effects on the dynamic characteristics of CTIGBs with different curvatures under free and forced vibrations. To perform numerical investigations, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) bridge and vehicle models are established using commercial ANSYS code, and then a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis approach is proposed. Road roughness profiles generated from power spectral density and cross spectral functions are also taken into account in the analyses. The numerical results show that torsional frequencies increase significantly after providing bottom bracings, and the increasing rate depends on the type of bottom bracings and their locations of installation. Bottom bracings can act as load transmitting members from one main girder to the others. Large negative bearing forces that have occurred in bridges with small radii of curvatures can be remarkably reduced by providing bottom bracing systems. It is found that the performances of several bottom bracing systems are effective in improving the torsional dynamic characteristics of the bridges in this study.

  18. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  20. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOEpatents

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  1. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  2. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  3. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  4. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  6. Box graphs and resolutions I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  7. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  8. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  9. A Diversity of Grammars: Breaking the Boundaries of "The Well Made Box."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidler, Michelle

    In his 1976 article, "Grammars of Style: New Options in Composition," Winston Weathers calls for a Grammar B, an alternate set of conventions which govern the construction of whole compositions. He urges compositionists to look beyond the "well-made box" and consider other options for compositional patterns and discourse structures. Fields such as…

  10. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  11. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  12. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  13. NETL's JIC in a box

    ScienceCinema

    David Anna

    2010-01-08

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  14. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  15. NETL's JIC in a box

    SciTech Connect

    David Anna

    2009-06-03

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  16. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  17. Application of Composite Structures in Bridge Engineering. Problems of Construction Process and Strength Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaga, Kazimierz; Furtak, Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in bridge engineering from decades. This is due to rational utilisation of the strength properties of the two materials. At the same time, the reinforced concrete (or prestressed) deck slab is more favourable than the orthotropic steel plate used in steel bridges (higher mass, better vibration damping, longer life). The most commonly found in practice are composite girder bridges, particularly in highway bridges of small and medium spans, but the spans may reach over 200 m. In larger spans steel truss girders are applied. Bridge composite structures are also employed in cable-stayed bridge decks of the main girder spans of the order of 600, 800 m. The aim of the article is to present the cionstruction process and strength analysis problems concerning of this type of structures. Much attention is paid to the design and calculation of the shear connectors characteristic for the discussed objects. The authors focused mainly on the issues of single composite structures. The effect of assembly states on the stresses and strains in composite members are highlighted. A separate part of problems is devoted to the influence of rheological factors, i.e. concrete shrinkage and creep, as well as thermal factors on the stresses and strains and redistribution of internal forces.

  18. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  19. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  20. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C.; Rabe, Richard A.

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  1. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  2. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  3. Development and fabrication of a graphite polyimide box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, M. A.; Darms, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of graphite/polyimide structures was evaluated and key design and fabrication issues to be considered in future hardware programs are defined. The fabrication and testing at 500 F of a graphite/polyimide center wing box beam using OV-10A aircraft criteria was accomplished. The baseline design of this box was developed in a series of studies of other advanced composite materials: glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and boron/polyimide. The use of this basic design permits ready comparison of the performance of graphite/polyimide with these materials. Modifications to the baseline composite design were made only in those areas effected by the change of materials. Processing studies of graphite fiber polyimide resins systems resulted in the selection of a Modmor II/Gemon L material.

  4. Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.; McCullough, R.L.; Pipes, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The degree of control over material properties that is typified by hybrid composites is transforming engineering design. In part because homogeneous materials such as metals and alloys do not offer comparable control, specifying a material and designing a component have traditionally taken place separately. As composites begin to replace traditional materials in fields and such as aerospace, component design and the specification of a material are merging and becoming aspects of a single process. The controllable microstructure of a composite allows it to be tailored to match the distribution of stresses to which it will be subject. At the same time components must come to reflect the distinctive nature of composites: their directional properties and the intricate forms they can be given through processes such as injection molding, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. The complexity inherent in conceiving components and their materials at the same time suggests engineering design will grow increasingly dependent on computers and multidisciplinary teams. Such an approach will harness the full potential of composites for the technologies of the future. 10 figures.

  5. New hot box solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping; Hou Shuqin; Sha Yongling; Liu Zude

    1992-12-31

    At present, over 100,000 solar cookers are in service in China. Most of these are concentrating cookers, making use of reflectors to concentrate sunlight at the cooking area. These cookers offer higher efficiency, more power and shorter cooking times. Since 1975 the authors have researched solar energy applications and, specifically, solar cookers. The major work has been the development of design calculations, selection of structure and materials, and performance testing. This paper describes the testing of several collection surface structures and box structures.

  6. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  7. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Geometry control of long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during construction through finite element model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Yan, Quan-sheng; Li, Jian; Hu, Min-yi

    2016-04-01

    In bridge construction, geometry control is critical to ensure that the final constructed bridge has the consistent shape as design. A common method is by predicting the deflections of the bridge during each construction phase through the associated finite element models. Therefore, the cambers of the bridge during different construction phases can be determined beforehand. These finite element models are mostly based on the design drawings and nominal material properties. However, the accuracy of these bridge models can be large due to significant uncertainties of the actual properties of the materials used in construction. Therefore, the predicted cambers may not be accurate to ensure agreement of bridge geometry with design, especially for long-span bridges. In this paper, an improved geometry control method is described, which incorporates finite element (FE) model updating during the construction process based on measured bridge deflections. A method based on the Kriging model and Latin hypercube sampling is proposed to perform the FE model updating due to its simplicity and efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to a long-span continuous girder concrete bridge during its construction. Results show that the method is effective in reducing construction error and ensuring the accuracy of the geometry of the final constructed bridge.

  9. Evaluation of post-tensioning of a curved continuous girder using long-gauge fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Jaber, Hiba; Glisic, Branko

    2014-03-01

    Streicker Bridge is a pedestrian bridge on the Princeton University campus. It consists of a main span and four curved continuous girders (legs). The main span and the southeast leg of the bridge are equipped with fiber optic strain and temperature sensors, allowing the bridge to also function as an on-campus laboratory for the Structural Health Monitoring research group. Parallel sensors were embedded at critical cross-sections in the deck prior to the pouring of concrete. The deck of the southeast leg experienced early age cracking within a few days of concrete pouring, which was detected by the strain sensors. Post-tensioning was then performed and it is assumed that it closed off the cracks. Evaluation of post-tensioning forces is complex due to the existence of the cracks, and this paper researches a procedure to estimate the post-tensioning forces at cracked and uncracked locations. The obtained post-tensioning forces were compared to design forces and conclusions regarding the status of post-tensioning were made. This is important as it gives information on the actual health condition and performance of the structure. It also provides information on the safety of the structure. The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the evaluation of the post-tensioning force along the deck based on strain measurements. The monitoring system, results, data analysis method, and conclusions regarding the bridge health condition and performance are presented in this paper.

  10. WHITE BOX: LOW COST BOX FOR LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, João Maximiliano Pedron; RIBEIRO, Roberto Vanin Pinto; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a reality in almost all surgical centers. Although with initial greater technical difficulty for surgeons, the rapid return to activities, less postoperative pain and higher quality aesthetic stimulates surgeons to evolve technically in this area. However, unlike open surgery where learning opportunities are more accessible, the laparoscopic training represents a challenge in surgeon formation. Aim: To present a low cost model for laparoscopic training box. Methods: This model is based in easily accessible materials; the equipment can be easily found based on chrome mini jet and passes rubber thread and a webcam attached to an aluminum handle. Results: It can be finalized in two days costing R$ 280,00 (US$ 90). Conclusion: It is possible to stimulate a larger number of surgeons to have self training in laparoscopy at low cost seeking to improve their surgical skills outside the operating room. PMID:26537148

  11. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  12. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  13. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  14. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training. PMID:21217532

  15. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  16. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe current results from an on-going study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental and analytical results are presented. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data for the TIBB (Technology Integration Box Beam). An analytical investigation was conducted to compliment the experimental investigation and to gain additional insight into the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB. A local analysis of the failure region is being completed. These analytical results are validated through comparisons with the experimental results from the TIBB tests. The experimental and analytical results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that may have resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Typical analytical results are presented for a stiffener runout specimen that is being defined to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms. The results of this study are anticipated to provide better understanding of potential failure mechanisms in composite aircraft structures, to lead to future design improvements, and to identify needed analytical tools for design and analysis.

  17. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  18. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  19. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  20. BLS: Box-fitting Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Zucker, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2016-07-01

    BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares) is a box-fitting algorithm that analyzes stellar photometric time series to search for periodic transits of extrasolar planets. It searches for signals characterized by a periodic alternation between two discrete levels, with much less time spent at the lower level.

  1. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  2. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  3. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  4. 77 FR 46778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... their customer orders for execution on BOX, will aid BOX in recovering some of its costs incurred in... sent to BOX each month execute on BOX. Executions on BOX would include orders executing on the BOX Book... to provide an incentive to BOX Participants to submit orders for execution on BOX, to aid BOX...

  5. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  6. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development. PMID:25810323

  7. Environmental Monitoring in a Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrenetxea, G.; Couach, O.; Ingelrest, F.; Krichane, M.; Parlange, M.; Vetterli, M.

    2007-12-01

    Current data collection techniques are rather limited and make use of very expensive sensing stations, leading to a lack of appropriate environmental observations. We present SensorScope, a collaborative project between environmental and network researchers, that aims at providing an efficient and cheap out-of-the-box monitoring system. Sensorscope is based on a self-organized multi-hop wireless network, composed of a large number of solar powered sensing stations deployed over an area of interest. These sensing stations gather various information about their environment, such as air temperature and humidity, skin temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direcction, precipitation, soil moisture, and soir watter content. SensorScope falls into the category of time-driven networks, as the stations intermittently transmit environmental data to a sink. The latter, in turn, is able to relay this information to a database server which makes all data publicly available in real-time by means of a Goggle Maps-based web interface. The main objective of the SensorScope project is to provide a low-cost and reliable WSN-based system for environmental monitoring to a wide community. It improves present data collection techniques with the latest technology, while exceeding the requirements of most environmental research. The Sensorscope system has already been sucessfully used in three different measurement campaigns: a glacier deployment at Plain Morte (Valais, Switzerland), a wetland monitoring program (Neuchatel, Switzerland), and an alpine deployment to study rock avalanches (Valais, Switzerland)

  8. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  9. High-Density Terminal Box for Testing Wire Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.; Collins, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Compact terminal box provides access to complex wiring harnesses for testing. Box accommodates more than twice as many wires as previous boxes. Box takes in wires via cable connectors and distributes them to contacts on box face. Instead of separate insulated jacks in metal face panel, box uses pairs of small military-standard metal sockets in precision-drilled plastic panel. Shorting plug provides continuity for wires when not being tested.

  10. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  11. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn Against Taking Part in Growing Surgery ... members of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, who specialize in foot surgery, are taking ...

  12. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  13. Enhanced Stuffing Box Rubbers Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, J.

    2002-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Scott's Oil Field Service tested an enhanced stuffing box rubber at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. The enhanced stuffing box rubbers have saved money from not having to replace packing as often and not spilling valuable oil on the ground. A reduction in environmental hazards and the cost of cleaning up spilled oil have also been a benefit.

  14. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    DOEpatents

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  15. End-crop box counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.

    1983-06-01

    The end-crop box counter was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for assaying filled shipping boxes of end crops from the fuel-extrusion process used in fuel-rod fabrication at United Nuclear Corporation. This manual details the measurement technique and the hardware, software, and calibration. It also provides instructions for operation and troubleshooting. The section on operation can be used as a separate operations manual by the routine user.

  16. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  17. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  18. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, S; Herrera, C D

    1999-12-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. PMID:10597855

  19. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program. PMID:25358529

  20. 47. Photograph of a line drawing. '304 S.S. NUTSCHE BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photograph of a line drawing. '304 S.S. NUTSCHE BOX AND FILTER PROBES, BUILDING H.' Holston Defense Corporation. June 24, 1955; revised 1958, 1960, 1965, 1968, 1982. Delineator: G. Sahlin. Drawing # 7651-1008/262. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  1. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  2. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  3. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  4. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  6. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  7. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  8. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  9. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  10. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  11. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  12. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  13. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  14. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  15. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  16. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  17. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    PubMed

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    The study and preservation of museum collections requires complete knowledge and understanding of constituent materials that can be natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic polymers. In former times, objects were incorporated in museum collections and classified solely by their appearance. New studies, prompted by severe degradation processes or conservation-restoration actions, help shed light on the materiality of objects that can contradict the original information or assumptions. The selected case study presented here is of a box dating from the beginning of the 20th century that belongs to the Portuguese National Ancient Art Museum. Museum curators classified it as a tortoiseshell box decorated with gold applications solely on the basis of visual inspection and the information provided by the donor. This box has visible signs of degradation with white veils, initially assumed to be the result of biological degradation of a proteinaceous matrix. This paper presents the methodological rationale behind this study and proposes a totally non-invasive methodology for the identification of polymeric materials in museum artifacts. The analysis of surface leachates using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) complemented by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) allowed for full characterization of the object s substratum. The NMR technique unequivocally identified a great number of additives and ATR FT-IR provided information about the polymer structure and while also confirming the presence of additives. The pressure applied during ATR FT-IR spectroscopy did not cause any physical change in the structure of the material at the level of the surface (e.g., color, texture, brightness, etc.). In this study, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM-EDS) was also used to obtain the elemental composition of the metallic decorations. Additionally, microbiologic and enzymatic assays were performed in order to identify the

  18. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  19. Promotion of solar box cooker technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stibravy, R.

    1992-09-01

    Over 1.5 billion people are affected by fuel wood shortage, according to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. Meanwhile solar cookers are under-exploited. The author presents one version of this technology and discusses how it may be promoted world-wide. The increased use of non fossil fuel energy is essential world-wide in combating global warming trends, preserving the environment, conserving resources and achieving sustainable development. The Solar Box Cooker (SBC) - a box within a box - uses an easily available source of such energy that is also renewable (in contrast to energy that, once used, is not, such as oil, coal, gas, wood). It is also readily available for the developing world, and for much of the developed world too.

  20. Deep shadows in a shallow box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang; Mohan, Ankit; Tumblin, Jack

    2008-02-01

    We present a fast, low-cost technique to gather high-contrast 'relightable' photographs of desktop-sized objects. Instead of an elaborate light stage, we follow Mohan et al.; we place the object and a digitally steered spotlight inside a white cardboard box, aim the spotlight at the box interior, and move the spot to light the object from N repeatable lighting directions. However, strong ambient lighting from box interreflections causes 'shallow' shadows and reduces contrasts in all basis images. We show how to remove this ambient lighting computationally from the N images, by measuring an N ×N matrix of coupling factors between lighting directions using a mirrorsphere light probe. This linear method, suitable for any light stage, creates physically accurate 'deep shadow' basis images, yet imposes only a modest noise penalty, and does not require external light metering or illumination angle measurements. Results from our demonstration system support these claims.

  1. A Fundamental Study on Detection of Defects in the Web Gap Region of Steel Plate Girder Bridges by the Plate Wave Ultrasonic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, H.; Greimann, L.; Wipf, T.; Phares, B.; Nakagawa, N.

    2004-02-01

    Applicability of the plate wave technique was investigated in this study to detect small defects in the web gap region of the steel plate girder. Torsion induced fatigue cracking is one of the most serious problems for steel bridges. As the conventional inspection method, visual inspection has been applied. However, this method is not always accurate. In addition, accessibility of the inspectors is also a serious problem. This study aims at the application of the plate wave ultrasonic testing to detect a fatigue crack in the web gap area and monitor its propagation. As the first step, the influence of a stiffener and detectability of one or more holes in the web gap were investigated.

  2. FRAC-IN-THE-BOX utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.G.; West, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    FRAC-IN-THE-BOX is a computer code developed to calculate the fractions of rectangular parallelepiped mesh cell volumes that are intersected by combinatorial geometry type zones. The geometry description used in the code is a subset of the combinatorial geometry used in SABRINA. The input file may be read into SABRINA and three dimensional plots made of the input geometry. The volume fractions for those portions of the geometry that are too complicated to describe with the geometry routines provided in FRAC-IN-THE-BOX may be calculated in SABRINA and merged with the volume fractions computed for the remainder of the geometry. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  3. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    PubMed

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  4. Structural Testing of a Stitched/Resin Film Infused Graphite-Epoxy Wing Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate the behavior of an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with non-visible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole.

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling. PMID:26855290

  6. No Quantum Realization of Extremal No-Signaling Boxes.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    2016-07-29

    The study of quantum correlations is important for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an important ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure extremal no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) extremal boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some important consequences of this fact. PMID:27517758

  7. No Quantum Realization of Extremal No-Signaling Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    2016-07-01

    The study of quantum correlations is important for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an important ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure extremal no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) extremal boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some important consequences of this fact.

  8. F-box gene family is expanded in herbaceous annual plants Arabidopsis and rice relative to woody perennial plant Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; Jawdy, Sara; Gunter, Lee E; Yin, Tongming; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Weston, David; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2008-01-01

    F-box proteins are generally responsible for substrate recognition in the Skp1-Cullin-F-box complexes that are involved in protein degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteosome pathway. In plants, F-box genes influence a variety of biological processes such as leaf senescence, branching, self-incompatibility and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The number of F-box genes in Populus (~320) is less than half that found in Arabidopsis (~660) or rice (~680), even though the total number of genes in Populus is equivalent to that in rice and 1.5 times that in Arabidopsis. We performed comparative genomic analysis between the woody perennial plant Populus and the herbaceous annual plants Arabidopsis and rice in order to explicate the functional implications of this large gene family. Our analyses reveal interspecific differences in genomic distribution, orthologous relationship, intron evolution, protein domain structure and gene expression. The set of F-box genes shared by these three species appear to be involved in core biological processes essential for plant growth and development; lineage-specific differences primarily occurred because of an expansion of the F-box genes via tandem duplications in Arabidopsis and rice. The present study provides insights into the relationship between the structure and composition of the F-box gene family in herbaceous and woody species and their associated developmental and physiological features.

  9. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  10. Reading for the Able: The Think Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1983-01-01

    A Think Box is a collection of independent activities based on one theme and housed in an easily transportable container. It is intended to be used as enrichment for students who have already completed their assigned work. The activities are designed to develop higher level skills such as critical thinking or creative reading. They can be part of…

  11. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  13. The "Build-the-Box" Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a "build-the-box" lesson to develop a better understanding of writing useful and effective instructions. Considers how the lack of instruction with this assignment compels students to think creatively to complete the project. Concludes that many students realize the difficulty in creating easy-to-understand instructions. Enhances the…

  14. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  15. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  18. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  20. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  1. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  2. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  3. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary reason…

  4. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  5. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  6. Comparing Box Plot Distributions: A Teacher's Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine

    2006-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the comparison of datasets using informal statistical inference is a challenging task since the nature and type of reasoning expected is not fully understood. In this paper a secondary teacher's reasoning from the comparison of box plot distributions during the teaching of a Year 11 (15-year-old) class is analyzed. From…

  7. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  8. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes): synthesis, stability and chemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, W. L.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.; Peat, I. R.; Clark, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) have been a subject of interest in neurosurgery because they are purported to be involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced cerebral vasospasm. There is a growing body of information concerning their putative role in vasospasm; however, there is a dearth of information concerning the chemical and biochemical characteristics of BOXes. A clearer understanding of the synthesis, stability and characteristics of BOXes will be important for a better understanding of the role of BOXes post subarachnoid hemorrhage. We used hydrogen peroxide to oxidize bilirubin and produce BOXes. BOXes were extracted and analyzed using conventional methods such as HPLC and mass spectrometry. Characterization of the stability BOXes demonstrates that light can photodegrade BOXes with a t1/2 of up to 10 h depending upon conditions. Mixed isomers of BOXes have an apparent extinction coefficient of ε = 6985, and a λmax of 310 nm. BOXes are produced by the oxidation of bilirubin, yielding a mixture of isomers: 4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX A) and 3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX B). The BOXes are photodegraded by ambient light and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically with their extinction coefficient as well as with HPLC or mass spectrometry. Their small molecular weight and photodegradation may have made them difficult to characterize in previous studies. PMID:18456996

  9. Upstream box/TATA box order is the major determinant of the direction of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L C; Thali, M; Schaffner, W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian gene promoters for transcription by RNA polymerase II are typically organized in the following order: upstream sequence motif(s)/TATA box/initiation site. Here we report studies in which the order, orientation and DNA sequences of these three elements are varied to determine how these affect polarity of transcription. We have constructed promoters with an 'octamer' upstream sequence ATTTGCAT (or its complement ATGCAAAT) in combination with several different TATA boxes and initiation (cap) sites, and tested these promoters in transfection experiments with cultured cells. TATA boxes derived from the adenovirus major late promoter (TATAAAA), immunoglobulin kappa light chain (TTATATA) and heavy chain (TAAATATA) promoter functioned equally well or even better when inverted. Only the beta-globin TATA box (CATAAAA) was poorly active when inverted. In addition, a symmetrical TATA box (TATATATA) derived from a casein gene was very active. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of most TATA boxes (consensus TATAAAA) is not a primary determinant of the polarity of transcription. We also found that the initiation (cap) site, which usually consists of an adenine embedded in a pyrimidine-rich region (PyPyCAPyPyPyPyPy), was permissive towards sequence alterations; even a randomly composed sequence worked well. However, an inverted, hence purine-rich, cap site reduced transcript levels to 1/7th, as did an oligo G sequence. Irrespective of the presence of a cap site, the configuration: 'TATA box/octamer' yielded a strong leftward, rather than rightward transcription. From this, we conclude that the polarity of transcription is primarily determined by the linear order of an upstream sequence relative to a TATA box, rather than by the individual orientations of either of these two elements. Images PMID:1762900

  10. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. The Box Turtle: Room with a View on Species Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Steisslinger, Mary Beth

    1999-01-01

    Surveys salient aspects of eastern box-turtle natural history. Explores the societal and ecological factors that have contributed to the decline of the box-turtle population. Contains 18 references. (WRM)

  12. A one piece wall box for space electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, W.H.

    1995-05-01

    In extraterrestrial applications, satellite payloads have printed circuit modules that are housed in boxes or chassis. The box may be a one piece wall or a segmented wall. These two wall options are compared for function and cost.

  13. Roles of F-box proteins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Pengda; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    F-box proteins, which are the substrate-recognition subunits of SKP1–cullin 1–F-box protein (SCF) E3 ligase complexes, have pivotal roles in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of target proteins. Dysregulation of F-box protein-mediated proteolysis leads to human malignancies. Notably, inhibitors that target F-box proteins have shown promising therapeutic potential, urging us to review the current understanding of how F-box proteins contribute to tumorigenesis. As the physiological functions for many of the 69 putative F-box proteins remain elusive, additional genetic and mechanistic studies will help to define the role of each F-box protein in tumorigenesis, thereby paving the road for the rational design of F-box protein-targeted anticancer therapies. PMID:24658274

  14. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 25. Emplacement no. 1, view to southwest in terminal box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Emplacement no. 1, view to southwest in terminal box room, showing terminal box; largest of the cables extends to gun platform - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

  16. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  17. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  18. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  20. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  1. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  2. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  3. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  4. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  5. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  6. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  7. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  8. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  9. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  10. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  11. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  14. Transformative Environmental Education: Stepping Outside the Curriculum Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students' generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage, creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the…

  15. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  16. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  17. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  18. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  19. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  20. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  1. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  2. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  3. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  4. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  5. Clocks, Cameras, and Chatter, Chatter, Chatter: Activity Boxes as Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Diane; Kittel, Jeanie

    1989-01-01

    Describes activity boxes which can be used in early childhood classrooms to further curriculum and development goals. Activity boxes are containers filled with related objects categorized by color, shape, or material which encourage children to explore, sort, and manipulate real things. Discusses goals and lists contents for 24 activity boxes.…

  6. 46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND AMALGAMATION TABLES. NOTE FULTON IRON WORKS, SAM FRANCISCO 1908 STAMPED INTO THE MORTAR BOX. ALSO NOTE THE DIES RESTING ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX BY THE SECOND STAMP BATTERY FROM THE CAMERA POSITION. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  7. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The... plastic material of the box. Other closing devices at least equally effective may be used. (4) For solid... contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment...

  8. Beyond the Black Box Approach to Ethics!

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the editorial published in this journal, Daniels and colleagues argue that his and Sabin’s accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework should be used to handle ethical issues in the health technology assessment (HTA)-process, especially concerning fairness. In contrast to this suggestion, it is argued that such an approach risks suffering from the irrrelevance or insufficiency they warn against. This is for a number of reasons: lack of comprehensiveness, lack of guidance for how to assess ethical issues within the "black box" of A4R as to issues covered, competence and legitimate arguments and finally seemingly accepting consensus as the final verdict on ethical issues. We argue that the HTA community is already in a position to move beyond this black box approach PMID:27285520

  9. Magnons in a box: Condensation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Olf, Ryan; Wu, Shun; Kadau, Holger; Marti, G. Edward; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold gases offer us a remarkable window into the quantum world, allowing direct access to a wide range of manybody and condensed matter phenomena at convenient macroscopic length and time scales. However, producing ultracold gases at ever lower entropy, and measuring statistical properties such as temperature in these low entropy regimes, is a persistent challenge. Magnons, gapless spin excitations of spinor Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC), are expected to behave like free particles. We show that magnons can be used to cool BEC in a deep trap and serve as a thermometer to measure temperatures at extremely low entropy-per-particle. Unlike atoms trapped in a harmonic trap, trapped magnons experience a box potential due to near exact cancellation of the trapping potential by the mean-field interaction within the condensate. We observe the quasi-condensation of magnon excitations within this nature-made box.

  10. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  11. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  12. The Unintended Effects of a Boxed Warning

    PubMed Central

    Eisenthal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a real-life correlation that after the US Food and Drug Administration introduced a boxed warning concerning malignancies to the labeling for topical calcineurin inhibitors, reluctance to use topical calcineurin inhibitors has led to their substitution with other therapies that have their own risks. Participants: An anonymous survey of attendees of the 2007 Fall Clinical Dermatology conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, from October 17–19, 2007. More than 95 percent of attendees were dermatologists; a small number of mid-level practitioners attended as well. Of nearly 700 attendees, the first 504 who agreed to complete the survey were included. Results: More than 40 percent of dermatologists surveyed claimed that more than 20 percent of their atopic dermatitis patients are not adequately controlled since the introduction of the boxed warning. Forty-eight percent claim that more than 20 percent of those patients were adequately controlled with topical calcineurin inhibitors as part of their regimens. Eighty percent of dermatologists surveyed agree that more than 10 precent of those patients were adequately controlled with topical calcineurin inhibitors in their regimens. Conclusion: While caution is usually prudent, the introduction of a boxed warning in the case of topical calcineurin inhibitors has led to the use of treatments that often have greater risks than the topical calcineurin inhibitors that they replaced. PMID:20729957

  13. Box modeling of the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stone, Peter H.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2012-02-01

    In ˜1990 a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1 Sv, three times larger than the Adriatic source. We develop a simple three-box model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The three boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian seas. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We conjecture that the change in the deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea is attributed to a switch between the different states on the thermohaline circulation; this switch may result from decreased temperature and/or increased salinity over the Aegean sea.

  14. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  15. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  16. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  17. ID box: a multisource attribute data fusion function for target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Marc-Alain; Valin, Pierre; Lesage, Frederic

    2000-04-01

    The R&D group at Lockheed-Martin Canada has developed a target identifier function called ID Box. This computer program performs five main functions: first it transforms the sensor attribute input into a few contact ID declarations, second, it evaluates the association score between the contact declarations and the ID propositions of a current target track, third it performs attribute contact to track fusion using a modification of the Dempster-Shafer evidential theory, fourth the ID Box, using a platform library, produces a translator that unifies the information within track identity and the attribute input, and fifth, it manages the distribution of results to a system human computer interface. Our exhaustive platform library enables the ID Box to fuse attribute data from almost all kinds of sensor or information sources that may be found on large warships or patrol aircraft. These attributes are the radar cross section and the moving parts from surveillance radars, allegiance from interrogator systems, emitter composition from electronics support measure systems, spoken language from communication intercept systems, acoustical signature from sonar systems, propulsion types from IR detectors, dimensional data from imaging systems and other classification attributes from various systems or operators including dynamical parameters from positional trackers. This paper presents and describes the ID Box.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

  19. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  20. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  1. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  2. "Out of the box" professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    At a recent AAPT meeting, I was part of a conversation about professional development that focused on conferences. We discussed the current meeting structure used by AAPT and some alternative formats. This discussion added greatly to my own understanding of new ways for teachers to receive their professional development. This conversation also began my friendship with Kelly O'Shea, a physics teacher from New York. She is also a blogger (check her out at https://kellyoshea.wordpress.com) and an innovative educator. Through my relationship with Kelly, I have grown in my own knowledge of two "out of the box" ways teachers are getting their professional development.

  3. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2013-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  4. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  5. Mirror box therapy: seeing is believing.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Kelly; Chin, May; Kogan, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Working with patients with different chronic pain syndromes can be challenging. Pharmacological therapies are often associated with variety of side effects. Mind-body modalities are thought to play a role; however, the lack of clear consensus and large body of clinical experience makes it hard to provide good evidence-based recommendation to most of our chronic pain patients. In recent years the Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) and to some degree Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) may prove to be an exception. In this review we summarize the current evidence supporting use of Mirror Box Therapy and its successor, Immersive Virtual Reality. PMID:22051561

  6. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  7. Historical Thinking inside the Box: Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Journey Boxes to Craft Counter Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Jeannette; Holmes, Kathlene; Bybee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article details the "journey box" project process enacted by two elementary preservice teacher cohorts. Engaging in activities and projects that promote a sense of investment in not only consuming but producing historical narratives, preservice teachers potentially become interested in sharing this type of learning with their…

  8. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  10. CDL description of the CDC 6600 stunt box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzog, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The CDC 6600 central memory control (stunt box) is described utilizing CDL (Computer Design Language), block diagrams, and text. The stunt box is a clearing house for all central memory references from the 6600 central and peripheral processors. Since memory requests can be issued simultaneously, the stunt box must be capable of assigning priorities to requests, of labeling requests so that the data will be distributed correctly, and of remembering rejected addresses due to memory conflicts.

  11. Removal of lithium antimonide from a radioactive glove box.

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, L.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Graczyk, D. G.; Smith, F. P.

    2000-10-01

    A sample of lithium antimonide (L{sub 3}3Sb) was prepared in a radioactive helium-atmosphere glove box, some of which spread throughout the box. Because of the potential for stibine generation should the Li{sub 3}Sb contact water, some effort was devoted to assessing the extent of possible stibine formation and methods for removing the Li{sub 3}Sb from the box. This note summarizes our findings and the waste disposal procedures used.

  12. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  13. An Efficient Implementation of the Gliding Box Lacunarity Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle,; Timothy R. McJunkin; David J. Gorsich

    2008-03-01

    Lacunarity is a measure of how data fills space. It complements fractal dimension, which measures how much space is filled. Currently, many researchers use the gliding box algorithm for calculating lacunarity. This paper introduces a fast algorithm for making this calculation. The algorithm presented is akin to fast box counting algorithms used by some researchers in estimating fractal dimension. A simplified gliding box measure equation along with key pseudo code implementations for the algorithm are presented. Applications for the gliding box lacunarity measure have included subjects that range from biological community modeling to target detection.

  14. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  15. Structure-borne noise of railway composite bridge: Numerical simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhen; Liu, Quanmin; Pei, Shiling; Song, Lizhong; Zhang, Xun

    2015-09-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of the noise from steel-concrete composite bridges under high-speed train loading, a model used to predict the bridge-borne noise is established and validated through a field experiment. The numerical model for noise prediction is developed based on the combination of spatial train-track-bridge coupled vibration theory and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). Firstly, train-track-bridge coupled vibration is adopted to obtain the velocity time history of the bridge deck vibration. Then, the velocity time history is transferred into frequency domain through FFT to serve as the vibratory energy of SEA deck subsystems. Finally, the transmission of the vibratory energy is obtained by solving the energy balance equations of SEA, and the sound radiation is computed using the vibro-acoustic theory. The numerically computed noise level is verified by a field measurement. It is determined that the dominant frequency of steel-concrete composite bridge-borne noise is 20-1000 Hz. The noise from the bottom flange of steel longitudinal girder is less than other components in the whole frequency bands, while the noise from web of steel longitudinal girder is dominant in high frequency range above 315 Hz. The noise from concrete deck dominates in low-frequency domain ranges from 80 Hz to 160 Hz.

  16. Environmental effects on a single electron box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G. Y.; O'Connell, R. F.

    1995-02-01

    Lafarge et al. (Zeitschrift für Physik B 85 (1991) 327) have measured the average junction charge in a single electron box. Their results are in agreement with theoretical predictions at temperatures T above 100 mK but not at lower T values. We explain the lower T experimental results by incorporating quantum charge fluctuations due to the environment by use of a quantum Langevin equation model. It is shown that, at T = 0, the sawtooth shape of the junction charge, as predicted by existing theories, is rounded off by the quantum fluctuation effects. At finite temperature, the theory is compared with the experiments of Lafarge et al., nd a good fit is obtained at all the relevant temperatures.

  17. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Ocean Thermochaline circulation (THC) is the part of large-scale World Ocean circulation and one of the main climate system components. It is generated by global meridional density gradients, which are controlled by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. THC regulates climate variability on different timescales (from decades to thousands years) [Stocker (2000), Clark (2002)]. Study of paleoclimatic evidences of abrupt and dramatic changes in ocean-atmosphere system in the past (such as, Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events or Younger Dryas, see e.g., [Rahmstorf (2002), Alley & Clark(1999)]) shows that these events are connected with THC regimes. At different times during last 120,000 years, three THC modes have prevailed in the Atlantic. They can be labeled as stadial, interstadial and Heinrich modes or as cold, warm and off mode. THC collapse (or thermohaline catastrophe) can be one of the consequences of global warming (including modern anthropogenic climate changes occurring at the moment). The ideas underlying different box-model studies, possibility of thermochaline catastrophe in present and past are discussed in this presentation. Response of generalized four box model of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [developing the model of Griffies & Tzippermann (1995)] on periodic, stochastic and linear forcing is studied in details. To estimate climatic parameters of the box model we used monthly salinity and temperature data of ECMWF operational Ocean Reanalysis System 3 (ORA-S3) and data from atmospheric NCEP/NCAR reanalysis on precipitation, and heat fluxes for 1959-2011. Mean values, amplitude of seasonal cycle, amplitudes and periods of typical interdecadal oscillations, white noise level, linear trend coefficients and their significance level were estimated for every hydrophysical parameter. In response to intense freshwater or heat forcing, THC regime can change resulting in thermohaline catastrophe. We analyze relevant thresholds of external forcing in

  18. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  19. Breakthrough thinking from inside the box.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Kevin P; Clifford, Patricia Gorman; Dye, Renée

    2007-12-01

    Companies often begin their search for great ideas either by encouraging wild, outside-the-box thinking or by conducting quantitative analysis of existing market and financial data and customer opinions. Those approaches can produce middling ideas at best, say Coyne, founder of an executive-counseling firm in Atlanta, and Clifford and Dye, strategy experts at McKinsey. The problem with the first method is that few people are very good at unstructured, abstract brainstorming. The problems with the second are that databases are usually compiled to describe current--not future--offerings, and customers rarely can tell you whether they need or want a product if they've never seen it. The secret to getting your organization to regularly generate lots of good ideas, and occasionally some great ones, is deceptively simple: First, create new boxes for people to think within so that they don't get lost in the cosmos and they have a basis for offering ideas and knowing whether they're making progress in the brainstorming session. Second, redesign ideation processes to remove obstacles that interfere with the flow of ideas--such as most people's aversion to speaking in groups larger than ten. This article offers a tested approach that poses concrete questions. For example, what do Rollerblades, Häagen-Dazs ice cream, and Spider-Man movies have in common? The answer: Each is something that adults loved as children and that was reproduced in an expensive form for grown-ups. Asking brainstorming participants to ponder how their childhood passions could be recast as adult offerings might generate some fabulous ideas for new products or services. PMID:18283917

  20. Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V.; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2014-01-01

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg−1) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml−1) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  1. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  2. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise. PMID:26197251

  3. 9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS IN ROOM 149. THE GLOVE BOXES ON THE LEFT CONTAIN MIXER STIRRERS THAT AID IN THE DISSOLUTION PROCESS THAT OCCURRED PRIOR TO ANION EXCHANGE. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY USED PRESSURE TO SET RESINS IN CORE SAND. THE ONLY EFFORT REQUIRED OF WORKERS IS TO CHANGE CORE BOXES AND REMOVE HARDENED CORE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  6. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  7. A solar box cooker for mass production in East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, P.A.; Wilcke, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    A solar box cooker produced in Tanzania, East Africa with indigenous materials is described. When compared to a commercially produced glass and cardboard one, it was found to perform as well. Heat transfer through each major component of the cooker is presented. The smallest losses were through the walls of the box. The greatest losses were observed in the cover system.

  8. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  13. A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

  14. Creative Underachievers: Children Who Are Too out of the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Educators in the field of gifted education attempt to not only accelerate curriculum for their students, but also to encourage and expand their critical and creative thinking. They often explain this creative approach to students as "out-of-the-box" thinking. "The box" is an effective analogy to help children understand how to…

  15. Boxing It Up-a Cross-curricular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Wesley

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a class project that examined the manufacture of boxes and packaging to teach about design and technology. The class discovered basic manufacturing techniques by examining and disassembling cereal boxes. Field trips to stores provided more examples. Appraises the children's final projects and discusses acquiring materials. (MJP)

  16. Band-in-a-Box for the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Suggests ways to use the Band-in-a-Box (BIAB) software created by PG Music in the general music classroom. Benefits of the program to music teachers; Key features of BIAB; Basic steps in making an accompaniment in BIAB; Tips on putting in chords; National standards for music education. INSET: Band-in-a-Box Interface.

  17. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  18. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D; Clevers, H

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known HMG boxes defined an unusually loose consensus sequence. We constructed phylogenetic trees connecting the members of the HMG box superfamily in order to understand their evolution. This analysis led us to distinguish two subfamilies: one comprising proteins with a single sequence-specific HMG box, the other encompassing relatively non sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins with multiple HMG boxes. By studying the extent of diversification of the superfamily, we found that the speed of evolution was very different within the various groups of HMG-box containing factors. Comparison of the evolution of the two boxes of ABF2 and of mtTF1 implied different diversification models for these two proteins. Finally, we provide a tree for the highly complex group of SRY-like ('Sox' genes), clustering at least 40 different loci that rapidly diverged in various animal lineages. PMID:8506143

  19. 77 FR 36585 - Post Office Box Service Enhancements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Post Office Box service. Id. at 14. The Commission ordered that the Complaint be held in abeyance until... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Box Service Enhancements AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  20. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  1. 49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The power unit is missing, but the drive belt is seen hanging from the overhead. Printing plate of desired labeling would be attached to the lower half drum. Upon rotation, labeling would be transferred to a cardboard box which was being held around the upper drum. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  2. The Lock Box: Evaluating Mental Organization in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan F.

    A unique psychometric device, The "Lock Box," has been developed to measure the ability of preschool children to structure a novel problematic situation. The primary purpose of the box is to identify those preschoolers with mental ages ranging from 2 1/2 to 6 years who have difficulty imposing an orderly plan on their explorations and whose…

  3. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  4. Boxing Up a Mini Herd: Art Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Midge

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art project for high school students that was inspired by the 1999 "Cows on Parade" exhibition in Chicago (Illinois). Explains that students used old Gateway computer boxes to create their own cows using the box, scissors, and a hot-glue gun. (CMK)

  5. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  6. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  7. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  8. DreamBox Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  9. Perfect mirrors and the self-accelerating box paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Donald; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2002-11-01

    We consider the question raised by Unruh and Wald of whether mirrored boxes can self-accelerate in flat spacetime (the ``self-accelerating box paradox''). From the point of view of the box, which perceives the acceleration as an impressed gravitational field, this is equivalent to asking whether the box can be supported by the buoyant force arising from its immersion in a perceived bath of thermal (Unruh) radiation. The perfect mirrors we study are of the type that rely on light internal degrees of freedom which adjust to and reflect impinging radiation. We suggest that a minimum of one internal mirror degree of freedom is required for each bulk field degree of freedom reflected. A short calculation then shows that such mirrors necessarily absorb enough heat from the thermal bath that their increased mass prevents them from floating on the thermal radiation. For this type of mirror the paradox is therefore resolved. We also observe that this failure of boxes to ``float'' invalidates one of the assumptions going into the Unruh-Wald analysis of entropy balances involving boxes lowered adiabatically toward black holes. Nevertheless, their broad argument can be maintained until the box reaches a new regime in which box-antibox pairs dominate over massless fields as contributions to thermal radiation.

  10. 32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO CARRY LARGE BATCHES OF IRON FROM THE CUPOLA AREAS TO THE LARGE MOLDS MADE ON BOX FLOOR AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  12. 24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS AND BREAKERS FOR RECEPTACLES ON SEVERAL STATIONS. BOXES LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL WAS A SAFETY FEATURE TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE BETWEEN INTERCONNECTED GLOVE BOXES. PLUTONIUM IS PYROPHORIC, AND MAY IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. (5/8/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.

  15. Glove-box shielding analysis for sampling radioactive precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper addresses a radiation transport analysis for as-built dose rates near a nitrite analyzer glove box. The glove box will be utilized in a laboratory serving the Late Wash Facility (LWF) at Savannah River site (SRS). The LWF will reduce the concentration of nitrite in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) radioactive aqueous precipitate feed stream to levels acceptable for the DWPF process. A laboratory serving the LWF incorporates nitrite and benzene analyzer glove boxes. The glove boxes will handle radioactive filtrate from the LWF filter and incorporate shielding for the protection of laboratory technicians. The analysis objective is to predict dose rates around the nitrite glove box subsequent to introduction of filtrate.

  16. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a pressure box test fixture for tension damage tolerance testing of curved fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Bodine, J. B.; Preuss, C. H.; Koch, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure box test fixture was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effects of internal pressure, biaxial tension loads, curvature, and damage on the fracture response of composite fuselage structure. Previous work in composite fuselage tension damage tolerance, performed during NASA contract NAS1-17740, evaluated the above effects on unstiffened panels only. This work extends the tension damage tolerance testing to curved stiffened fuselage crown structure that contains longitudinal stringers and circumferential frame elements. The pressure box fixture was designed to apply internal pressure up to 20 psi, and axial tension loads up to 5000 lb/in, either separately or simultaneously. A NASTRAN finite element model of the pressure box fixture and composite stiffened panel was used to help design the test fixture, and was compared to a finite element model of a full composite stiffened fuselage shell. This was done to ensure that the test panel was loaded in a similar way to a panel in the full fuselage shell, and that the fixture and its attachment plates did not adversely affect the panel.

  17. Structural health monitoring of composite repair patches in bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Ghosh, Kumar; Qing, Xinlin; Karbhari, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, there are many issues involving safety on old bridges, aircrafts and other structures, which threaten the lives of the people using those structures, as well as the structures themselves. To prevent future failure, various measures are being taken. Structure rehabilitations with carbon fiber reinforced composite patches have been adopted and demonstrated to be an excellent way to enhance/repair the structures and prolong the service life. However, there are still many problems residing in this kind of technology that remain unsolved, for example, the failure of the interface between composite repair patches and their host structures. This is a critical issue that must be addressed in order to show the viability of composite patches. In order to study debond occurring between composite repair patches and their host structures, a structure health monitoring scheme was demonstrated on a concrete bridge model in the laboratory. The system is based on active sensing with diagnostic lamb waves, in which piezoelectric transducers are used as both sensors and actuators. In the test, six SMART Layers, each having eight piezoelectirc transducers, were integrated with two composite repair strips on the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. For the three diagnostic layers with each composite repair patch, two layers were bonded on the top surface of the patch, and the other is embedded at the interface between the composite repair patch and the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. The loading procedure of the test included three phases. First, the bridge model was preloaded to initiate cracks on the deck slabs and the repair patches were then implemented. Second, the load was raised to reach the shear capacity of the girders of the bridge model and then the repair patches were implemented on those girders. Lastly, the structure was loaded to damage the deck slabs. During the test, the initiation and development of debond between composite repair patches

  18. Structural Basis for Substrate Placement by an Archaeal Box C/D Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Song; Wang, Ruiying; Yang, Fangping; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; Zhang, Xinxin; Maxwell, E.Stuart; Li, Hong

    2012-05-09

    Box C/D small nucleolar and Cajal body ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/scaRNPs) direct site-specific 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal and spliceosomal RNAs and are critical for gene expression. Here we report crystal structures of an archaeal box C/D RNP containing three core proteins (fibrillarin, Nop56/58, and L7Ae) and a half-mer box C/D guide RNA paired with a substrate RNA. The structure reveals a guide-substrate RNA duplex orientation imposed by a composite protein surface and the conserved GAEK motif of Nop56/58. Molecular modeling supports a dual C/D RNP structure that closely mimics that recently visualized by electron microscopy. The substrate-bound dual RNP model predicts an asymmetric protein distribution between the RNP that binds and methylates the substrate RNA. The predicted asymmetric nature of the holoenzyme is consistent with previous biochemical data on RNP assembly and provides a simple solution for accommodating base-pairing between the C/D guide RNA and large ribosomal and spliceosomal substrate RNAs.

  19. Structural basis for substrate placement by an archaeal box C/D ribonucleoprotein particle

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Song; Wang, Ruiying; Yang, Fangping; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; Zhang, Xinxin; Maxwell, E. Stuart; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Box C/D small nucleolar and Cajal body ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/scaRNPs) direct site-specific 2’-O-methylation of ribosomal and spliceosomal RNAs and are critical for gene expression. Here we report crystal structures of an archaeal box C/D RNP containing three core proteins (fibrillarin, Nop56/58, and L7Ae) and a halfmer box C/D guide RNA paired with a substrate RNA. The structure reveals a guide-substrate RNA duplex orientation imposed by a composite protein surface and the conserved GAEK motif of Nop56/58. Molecular modelling supports a dual C/D RNP structure that closely mimics that recently visualized by electron microscopy. The substrate-bound dual RNP model predicts an asymmetric protein distribution between the RNP that binds and that methylates the substrate RNA. The predicted asymmetric nature of the holoenzyme is consistent with previous biochemical data on RNP assembly and provides a simple solution for accommodating base-pairing between the C/D guide RNA and large ribosomal and spliceosomal substrate RNAs. PMID:20864039

  20. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  1. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  2. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century. PMID:10842787

  3. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  4. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-10-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  5. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of a turbogenerator terminal box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amitabh

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a method of analyzing magnetic fields in and around turbogenerator terminal boxes in three dimensions. The magnetic field is modelled in terms of a magnetic scalar potential under the assumption that the depth of penetration of the field is very small such that eddy currents are restricted to surface currents. The potential formulation and the associated boundary conditions are discussed. A box model which has been analyzed using the present formulation is given along with plot of equipotentials on a box wall.

  7. A new box system for a high pressure tritium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Souers, P.C.; Merrill, J.T.; Wiggins, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 200 MPa (30 kpsi) high pressure tritium pump inside a box system is described. This system is currently under construction but all representative mechanical parts have been fabricated and tested. The pump is a conventional mechanical-plus-cryostaged system, so that most of the interesting features are in the box. The system contains nine separate sections, with automatic pressure balancing and venting systems. Five sections are hood-to-box convertible enclosures with inflatable door seals. The procedure of cryostaging with liquid argon is described. Special detail is given to valves and motor shaft seals. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Outside-the-(Cavity-prep)-Box Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, V.P.; Watson, T.F.; Marshall, G.W.; Blackman, B.R.K.; Stansbury, J.W.; Schadler, L.S.; Pearson, R.A.; Libanori, R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct placement restorative materials must interface with tooth structures that are often compromised by caries or trauma. The material must seal the interface while providing sufficient strength and wear resistance to assure function of the tooth for, ideally, the lifetime of the patient. Needed are direct restorative materials that are less technique-sensitive than current resin-based composite systems while having improved properties. The ideal material could be successfully used in areas of the world with limited infrastructure. Advances in our understanding of the interface between the restoration adhesive system and the stages of carious dentin can be used to promote remineralization. Application of fracture mechanics to adhesion at the tooth-restoration interface can provide insights for improvement. Research in polymer systems suggests alternatives to current composite resin matrix systems to overcome technique sensitivity, while advances in nano- and mesoparticle reinforcement and alignment in composite systems can increase material strength, toughness, and wear resistance, foreshadowing dental application. PMID:24129814

  9. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  10. GREEN SUPERCOMPUTING IN A DESKTOP BOX

    SciTech Connect

    HSU, CHUNG-HSING; FENG, WU-CHUN; CHING, AVERY

    2007-01-17

    The computer workstation, introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1982, was the tool of choice for scientists and engineers as an interactive computing environment for the development of scientific codes. However, by the mid-1990s, the performance of workstations began to lag behind high-end commodity PCs. This, coupled with the disappearance of BSD-based operating systems in workstations and the emergence of Linux as an open-source operating system for PCs, arguably led to the demise of the workstation as we knew it. Around the same time, computational scientists started to leverage PCs running Linux to create a commodity-based (Beowulf) cluster that provided dedicated computer cycles, i.e., supercomputing for the rest of us, as a cost-effective alternative to large supercomputers, i.e., supercomputing for the few. However, as the cluster movement has matured, with respect to cluster hardware and open-source software, these clusters have become much more like their large-scale supercomputing brethren - a shared (and power-hungry) datacenter resource that must reside in a machine-cooled room in order to operate properly. Consequently, the above observations, when coupled with the ever-increasing performance gap between the PC and cluster supercomputer, provide the motivation for a 'green' desktop supercomputer - a turnkey solution that provides an interactive and parallel computing environment with the approximate form factor of a Sun SPARCstation 1 'pizza box' workstation. In this paper, they present the hardware and software architecture of such a solution as well as its prowess as a developmental platform for parallel codes. In short, imagine a 12-node personal desktop supercomputer that achieves 14 Gflops on Linpack but sips only 185 watts of power at load, resulting in a performance-power ratio that is over 300% better than their reference SMP platform.

  11. Box-modeling of 15N/14N in mammals.

    PubMed

    Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent; Fouillet, Hélène; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2006-03-01

    The 15N/14N signature of animal proteins is now commonly used to understand their physiology and quantify the flows of nutrient in trophic webs. These studies assume that animals are predictably 15N-enriched relative to their food, but the isotopic mechanism which accounts for this enrichment remains unknown. We developed a box model of the nitrogen isotope cycle in mammals in order to predict the 15N/14N ratios of body reservoirs as a function of time, N intake and body mass. Results of modeling show that a combination of kinetic isotope fractionation during the N transfer between amines and equilibrium fractionation related to the reversible conversion of N-amine into ammonia is required to account for the well-established approximately 4 per thousand 15N-enrichment of body proteins relative to the diet. This isotopic enrichment observed in proteins is due to the partial recycling of 15N-enriched urea and the urinary excretion of a fraction of the strongly 15N-depleted ammonia reservoir. For a given body mass and diet delta15N, the isotopic compositions are mainly controlled by the N intake. Increase of the urea turnover combined with a decrease of the N intake lead to calculate a delta15N increase of the proteins, in agreement with the observed increase of collagen delta15N of herbivorous animals with aridity. We further show that the low delta15N collagen values of cave bears cannot be attributed to the dormancy periods as it is commonly thought, but inversely to the hyperphagia behavior. This model highlights the need for experimental investigations performed with large mammals in order to improve our understanding of natural variations of delta15N collagen. PMID:16328553

  12. 46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455678-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. 11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT SIDE POSTS BOLTED TO BASE STRINGER AND HORIZONTAL BOARD SIDE WALLS. VIEW IS TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  17. 9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING TO RIGHT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  18. Inside the "Black Box" of Classroom Language Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2000-01-01

    Reports five studies that provide initial insight into the black box of classroom testing. The studies investigate various aspects of perceptions and practices of assessment in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

  19. INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS JUST FILLED THE FLASK WITH SAND FROM A HIGH VELOCITY MECHANICAL SAND THRUSTER. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR WITH CIRCULAR CAR SHOP IN BACKGROUND LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. 55. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOX ON SOUTH FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOX ON SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W UMBLICAL MAST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. 84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH THE REFRIGERATOR ROOM IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  5. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  6. NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CORE SET IN MOLD HALF IN BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CORE SET IN MOLD HALF IN BOX FLOOR AREA. AWAITING OTHER MOLD HALF TO BE PLACED ON TOP. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA TO REMOVE ANY EXCESS OR LOOSE SAND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El Tovar stone vault in alignment with tunnel. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  11. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 10. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE TRANSFORMERS (THREE IDENTICAL BOXES, RIGHT CENTER) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE TRANSFORMERS (THREE IDENTICAL BOXES, RIGHT CENTER) AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ON WEST WALL OF TRANSFORMER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Enloe Dam, Power House, On Similkameen River, Oroville, Okanogan County, WA

  13. 24. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, DOUBLE CULVERT APPEARS TO BE "BOX", ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, DOUBLE CULVERT APPEARS TO BE "BOX", BUT IS PIPE WITH SQUARE HEAD WALL OPENING. NOTE ARCHED TOP STYLE USED BY CCC. VIEW SE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  14. 129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Astronaut Richard Covey with control box for bicycle ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Richard O. Covey, mission commander, is seen with the control box for bicycle ergometer on Endeavour. During the eleven-day STS-61 mission, crew members not performing spacewalks found the ergometer to provide much needed exercise.

  16. 111. RELAY BOX AND SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. RELAY BOX AND SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL, UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 22. Photocopy of April 30, 1904 photograph. Glass Negative Box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of April 30, 1904 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. 'TULIPS IN THE MAIN GARDEN' VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CENTRAL GARDEN - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  18. 26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  19. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  20. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other... resistant adhesive must be used. (5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents....

  1. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other... resistant adhesive must be used. (5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents....

  2. 42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in foreground, aft elevation of cabin beyond; weather canopy overhead is not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  3. 7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel at the east end (series 4 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. 2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX AT JUNCTION OF PIPE WITH CONCRETE CHANNEL TO FISH SCREEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. VIEW OF TWO READY AMMUNITION BOXES WITH TWO UNATTACHED STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO READY AMMUNITION BOXES WITH TWO UNATTACHED STEEL DOORS - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. DETAIL OF THREE DOORS FOR READY AMMUNITION BOXES (IN FOREGROUND). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THREE DOORS FOR READY AMMUNITION BOXES (IN FOREGROUND). NOTE THE STEEL PLATES IN THE BACKGROUND - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. DETAIL OF A READY AMMUNITION BOX SHOWING THE INTERNAL SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF A READY AMMUNITION BOX SHOWING THE INTERNAL SUPPORT BRACKETS - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  11. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  12. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  13. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  14. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  15. 8. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ICE BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ICE BOX AT REAR OF CARGO SPACE Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  16. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  17. 25. DETAIL OF SOLENOID BOX FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS ON NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF SOLENOID BOX FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS ON NORTH SIDE OF SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Analytical modeling of concrete box beams reinforced by GFRP rebars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Pang, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    An FRP rebar reinforced concrete box beam has been studied in this paper. Static analysis has been performed on the beams subjected to tension, bending, and torsion, based on a conceptual box beam structure. Linear vibration analysis has been conducted to predict the natural frequencies of the structures. Three dimensional finite element analysis has also been carried out to predict the stress, strain, deflection, and natural frequencies of the box beam structures. The results show that an FRP rebar deforms more compatibly with surrounding concrete than a steel rebar does. The results suggest that the concrete beams with FRP reinforcement are much more likely to be subject to compression failure (breakage of concrete on compression side) when compared to the box beams reinforced with steel rebars under the same loading conditions.

  19. A Golden Oldie--A Black Box Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clifton; Wang, Yimin

    1994-01-01

    Provides a schematic to build a black box experiment that uses light bulbs of various intensities. The students are to determine the complex circuit by unscrewing the bulbs and noting what happens. (MVL)

  20. Stark effect of hydrogenic impurities in a quantum box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Vazquez, Gerardo J.; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Spector, Harold N.

    2004-03-01

    We extend the model of a cubic quantum box proposed by Ribeiro and Latge to carry out a variational calculation of the bindingenergy of impurities in such a structure as function of anelectric field.The binding energy of the impurities increases with the electric field. In addition, the electric field splits the energy of impurities on the faces of the box which are equivalent in the absence of the electric field.

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  2. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Deng, Hui; Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven

    2015-02-02

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations.

  3. 4. DETAIL VIEW (SIDE A) OF HANDMADE STEEL BOX ASSOCIATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW (SIDE A) OF HANDMADE STEEL BOX ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEPLETED URANIUM ALLOY DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENT FABRICATION PROCESS. THE BOX WAS USED TO TRANSFER HEATED BLOCKS OF METAL (SHOWN IN THE OPENED DOOR) FROM THE MOLTEN SALT BATH TO THE ROLLER LINES. (4/28/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. The Confinement and Sheath Within a Glass Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    The confinement structure provided by a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode of a GEC rf Reference Cell is proving to be ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures which are often difficult to obtain under other types of confinement. A glass box also provides a mechanism for controlling the number of dust particles comprising a particular dust structure as well as their size and symmetry. However, given the small volume of the glass box and the fact that each of the glass panes comprising the box develop a new sheath within the plasma environment, the structure of the overall sheath inside is quite different from that produced by the lower electrode alone. Since both the confinement and sheath structure are vital for producing ordered dust particle structures, a better understanding of the underlying physics is sorely needed. In this experiment, the trajectories of dust particles acting as probes while falling through the glass box under various plasma environments are tracked and analyzed. It will be shown that the resulting data provides a map of both the confining force and the structure of the sheath inside the glass box. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  6. Development and initial validation of an endoscopic part-task training box

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher C.; Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Kumar, Nitin; Ou, Amy; Camacho, Andrew; Lengyel, Balazs; Ryan, Michele B.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims There is currently no objective and validated methodology available to assess the progress of endoscopy trainees or to determine when technical competence has been achieved. The aims of the current study were to develop an endoscopic part-task simulator and to assess scoring system validity. Methods Fundamental endoscopic skills were determined via kinematic analysis, literature review, and expert interviews. Simulator prototypes and scoring systems were developed to reflect these skills. Validity evidence for content, internal structure, and response process was evaluated. Results The final training box consisted of five modules (knob control, torque, retroflexion, polypectomy, and navigation and loop reduction). A total of 5 minutes were permitted per module with extra points for early completion. Content validity index (CVI)-realism was 0.88, CVI-relevance was 1.00, and CVI-representativeness was 0.88, giving a composite CVI of 0.92. Overall, 82% of participants considered the simulator to be capable of differentiating between ability levels, and 93% thought the simulator should be used to assess ability prior to performing procedures in patients. Inter-item assessment revealed correlations from 0.67 to 0.93, suggesting that tasks were sufficiently correlated to assess the same underlying construct, with each task remaining independent. Each module represented 16.0%–26.1% of the total score, suggesting that no module contributed disproportionately to the composite score. Average box scores were 272.6 and 284.4 (P=0.94) when performed sequentially, and average score for all participants with proctor 1 was 297.6 and 308.1 with proctor 2 (P=0.94), suggesting reproducibility and minimal error associated with test administration. Conclusion A part-task training box and scoring system were developed to assess fundamental endoscopic skills, and validity evidence regarding content, internal structure, and response process was demonstrated

  7. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  8. The five-box method: The “four-box method” for the Catholic physician

    PubMed Central

    Marugg, Lindsey; Atkinson, Marie-Noelle; Fernandes, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background/Hypothesis The traditional ethical model of the “Four-Box Method” can be adapted to integrate the perspective of a Catholic physician. In an increasingly secularist environment, medical students and physicians are often asked to “leave religious beliefs at the door” and not consider the care and stewardship of our own morality and involvement as a provider. We reject this view. A patient's own religious and moral beliefs should be respected to the extent that they do not destroy our own; for us, the Catholic viewpoint can shine a light into dark corners and aid us in translating true things to patients of any religion. Methods We analyzed a sample case in five different categories: medical indications, patient preferences, quality of life, contextual features, and the Catholic context. We explored how to methodically integrate the perspective of a Catholic physician into the analysis of this case to make the best decision for the patients. Results/Discussion We felt that we were successfully able to integrate this perspective and create a “fifth box” based on the principles of Catholic social teaching. There were also points during the analysis that the perspective of the Catholic physician was integrated into the discussion of medical indications, proving to us that the “Catholic perspective” cannot be just put in one box either. Lay Summary The traditional ethical model of the “four-box method” can be adapted to integrate the perspective of a Catholic physician. In an increasingly secularist environment, medical students and physicians are often asked to “leave religious beliefs at the door” and not consider the care and stewardship of our own morality and involvement as a provider. We reject this view. A patient's own religious and moral beliefs should be respected to the extent that they do not destroy our own; for us, the Catholic viewpoint can shine a light into dark corners and aid us in translating true things to patients

  9. W-box and G-box elements play important roles in early senescence of rice flag leaf

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Xu, Wei; Hu, Xuesong; Liu, Haoju; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Plant cis-elements play important roles in global regulation of gene expression. Based on microarray data from rice flag leaves during early senescence, we identified W-box and G-box cis-elements as positive regulators of senescence in the important rice variety Minghui 63. Both cis-elements were bound by leaf senescence-specific proteins in vitro and influenced senescence in vivo. Furthermore, combination of the two elements drove enhanced expression during leaf senescence, and copy numbers of the cis-elements significantly affected the levels of expression. The W-box is the cognate cis-element for WRKY proteins, while the G-box is the cognate cis-element for bZIP, bHLH and NAC proteins. Consistent with this, WRKY, bZIP, bHLH and NAC family members were overrepresented among transcription factor genes up-regulated according during senescence. Crosstalk between ABA, CTK, BR, auxin, GA and JA during senescence was uncovered by comparing expression patterns of senescence up-regulated transcription factors. Together, our results indicate that hormone-mediated signaling could converge on leaf senescence at the transcriptional level through W-box and G-box elements. Considering that there are very few documented early senescence-related cis-elements, our results significantly contribute to understanding the regulation of flag leaf senescence and provide prioritized targets for stay-green trait improvement. PMID:26864250

  10. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.512 Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box;...

  11. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.512 Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box;...

  12. Structure and mechanism of the T-box riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinwei

    2015-01-01

    In most Gram-positive bacteria, including many clinically devastating pathogens from genera such as Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria and Staphylococcus, T-box riboswitches sense and regulate intracellular availability of amino acids through a multipartite mRNA-tRNA interaction. The T-box mRNA leaders respond to nutrient starvation by specifically binding cognate tRNAs and sensing whether the bound tRNA is aminoacylated, as a proxy for amino acid availability. Based on this readout, T-boxes direct a transcriptional or translational switch to control the expression of downstream genes involved in various aspects of amino acid metabolism: biosynthesis, transport, aminoacylation, transamidation, etc. Two decades after its discovery, the structural and mechanistic underpinnings of the T-box riboswitch were recently elucidated, producing a wealth of insights into how two structured RNAs can recognize each other with robust affinity and exquisite selectivity. The T-box paradigm exemplifies how natural non-coding RNAs can interact not just through sequence complementarity, but can add molecular specificity by precisely juxtaposing RNA structural motifs, exploiting inherently flexible elements and the biophysical properties of post-transcriptional modifications, ultimately achieving a high degree of shape complementarity through mutually induced fit. The T-box also provides a proof-of-principle that compact RNA domains can recognize minute chemical changes (such as tRNA aminoacylation) on another RNA. The unveiling of the structure and mechanism of the T-box system thus expands our appreciation of the range of capabilities and modes of action of structured non-coding RNAs, and hints at the existence of networks of non-coding RNAs that communicate through both, structural and sequence specificity. PMID:25959893

  13. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  14. Diverse roles for MADS box genes in Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed Central

    Rounsley, S D; Ditta, G S; Yanofsky, M F

    1995-01-01

    Members of the MADS box gene family play important roles in flower development from the early step of determining the identity of floral meristems to specifying the identity of floral organ primordia later in flower development. We describe here the isolation and characterization of six additional members of this family, increasing the number of reported Arabidopsis MADS box genes to 17. All 11 members reported prior to this study are expressed in flowers, and the majority of them are floral specific. RNA expression analyses of the six genes reported here indicate that two genes, AGL11 and AGL13 (AGL for AGAMOUS-like), are preferentially expressed in ovules, but each has a distinct expression pattern. AGL15 is preferentially expressed in embryos, with its onset at or before the octant stage early in embryo development. AGL12, AGL14, and AGL17 are all preferentially expressed in root tissues and therefore represent the only characterized MADS box genes expressed in roots. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the two genes expressed in ovules are closely related to previously isolated MADS box genes, whereas the four genes showing nonfloral expression are more distantly related. Data from this and previous studies indicate that in addition to their proven role in flower development, MADS box genes are likely to play roles in many other aspects of plant development. PMID:7549482

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, Robert; Prahl, Duncan; Lange, Rich

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  16. Shielding analysis of glove boxes for handling of plutonium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1996-12-31

    The end of the Cold War has led the U.S. Department of Energy to adopt new programs for the management of excess plutonium materials. The programs center on placing plutonium is safe, long-term storage (50 yr) prior to final disposition. Before the plutonium can be placed in storage, materials will have to be stabilized and repackaged. Savannah River site (SRS) is pursuing the design of facilities for the stabilization of plutonium materials. Plutonium handling is to be performed in airtight glove boxes or similar enclosures. Glove boxes will incorporate radiation shielding for the protection of operators. This paper addresses the shielding configuration of the glove boxes and protection of operating personnel from external radiation. Shielding analysis of the glove boxes included (a) identification of plutonium source terms; (b) analysis of extremity exposures, which pertains to workers hands and forearms exposure; (c) shielding analysis, which includes shielding windows (transparent shielding) and glove-box walls; and (d) measures to enhance the radiological design of the enclosures.

  17. Finite element modeling of the dynamic response of a composite reinforced concrete bridge for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanjani Zadeh, V.; Patnaik, A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modeling of a composite steel stinger supported reinforced concrete (RC) deck highway bridge subjected to moving truck loads. FE models were validated using test data that were generated elsewhere for structural health monitoring. The FE models were established using a commercial FE analysis package called ABAQUS/standard. The case study bridge was discretized to a combination of shell and solid elements which represent the deck and piers, respectively. Numerous constrain interactions were defined to make the model suitable to obtain accurate results. Moving loads induced by two standard AASHTO trucks were developed through a specific load-time history, applied on 35 nodes on the superstructure. To study the dynamic behavior of the bridge under a moving load, a modal analysis followed by an implicit dynamic analysis was carried out. Acceptable agreement was found between the field measurements and FE simulation. Most concerned dynamic response was strains at different locations in bridge girders and columns, because it is the only critical parameter that can be measured with confidence during SHM at site. The range of strains determined in analysis was reasonably close to the measured strains at the site of the study bridge. Several parameters including damping, truck weight and speed, and material properties were studied. Truck speed had the highest effect on strain response of both girders and columns.

  18. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  19. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  20. Box-covering algorithm for fractal dimension of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dai-Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hai-Xin; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-10-01

    Box-covering algorithm is a widely used method to measure the fractal dimension of complex networks. Existing researches mainly deal with the fractal dimension of unweighted networks. Here, the classical box covering algorithm is modified to deal with the fractal dimension of weighted networks. Box size length is obtained by accumulating the distance between two nodes connected directly and graph-coloring algorithm is based on the node strength. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of the ``Sierpinski'' weighted fractal networks, the E.coli network, the Scientific collaboration network, the C.elegans network and the USAir97 network. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks. We find that the fractal property is influenced by the edge-weight in weighted networks. The possible variation of fractal dimension due to changes in edge-weights of weighted networks is also discussed.

  1. Efficient similarity search on 3D bounding box annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Petri, Marisa; Schubert, Matthias; Shekelyan, Michael; Stockerl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Searching for similar image regions in medical databases yields valuable information for diagnosis. However, most of the current approaches are restricted to special cases or they are only available for rather small data stores. In this paper, we propose a fast query pipeline for 3D similarity queries on large databases of computed tomography (CT) scans consisting of minimum bounding box annotations. As these box annotations also contain background information which is not part of the item that was actually annotated, we employ approximate segmentation approaches for distinguishing between within-object texture and background texture in order to correctly describe the annotated objects. Our method allows a compact form of object description. In our framework, we exploit this advantage for enabling very fast query times. We have validated our method on data sets of 111 and 1293 bounding box lesion annotations within the liver and other organs. Our experiments show a significant performance improvement over previous approaches in both runtime and precision.

  2. Box-covering algorithm for fractal dimension of weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dai-Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hai-Xin; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-01-01

    Box-covering algorithm is a widely used method to measure the fractal dimension of complex networks. Existing researches mainly deal with the fractal dimension of unweighted networks. Here, the classical box covering algorithm is modified to deal with the fractal dimension of weighted networks. Box size length is obtained by accumulating the distance between two nodes connected directly and graph-coloring algorithm is based on the node strength. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of the "Sierpinski" weighted fractal networks, the E.coli network, the Scientific collaboration network, the C.elegans network and the USAir97 network. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks. We find that the fractal property is influenced by the edge-weight in weighted networks. The possible variation of fractal dimension due to changes in edge-weights of weighted networks is also discussed. PMID:24157896

  3. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account. PMID:25385452

  4. REMOTE REFURBISHMENT OF THE METALLOGRAPHY PREPARATION BOX AT THE INL

    SciTech Connect

    Adam B. Robinson; R. Paul Lind

    2010-09-01

    One of the most utilized hot cell capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory is referred to as the containment box. This is where all destructive examination samples are prepared for analysis. This one window box is contained within the much larger Hot Fuels Examination Facility which consists of a 21x10x8 meter hot cell with an inert argon atmosphere. The refurbishment of this box entailed removing of all sample preparation equipment and support systems, as well as the design and installation of new preparation equipment. The new equipment consists of low and high speed saws, grinding and polishing equipment, water recirculation systems, and sample storage units. This paper includes the details of this refurbishment.

  5. Qualification of box HEPA filters for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Wilson, K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-03-01

    We have successfully completed qualification tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that are encapsulated within a box and manufactured by American Air Filters. The qualification tests are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME N509 and the U.S. Military Standard MIL-F-51068 for HEPA filters to be used in nuclear applications. The qualification tests specify minimum filter efficiencies following exposure to heated air, overpressure, and rough handling. Prior to this study, no box HEPA filters from any manufacturer had been qualified despite their wide-spread use in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Box HEPA filters are not addressed in any of the existing HEPA standards and only briefly discussed in the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook.

  6. Mapping and validation of Xanthomonas citri subsp citri genes regulated by putative plant-inducible promoter box (PIP-box).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F M S; Oliveira, J C F; Laia, M L; Jacob, T R; Ferreira, R M; Ferro, M I T; Tezza, R I D; Zingaretti, S M; Silva, C F; Ferro, J A

    2016-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (Xac), is a major disease affecting citriculture worldwide, because of the susceptibility of the host and the lack of efficient control methods. Previous studies have reported that some genes of phytopathogenic bacteria possess a consensus nucleotide sequence (TTCGC...N15...TTCGC) designated the "plant-inducible-promoter box" (PIP box) located in the promoter region, which is responsible for activating the expression of pathogenicity and virulence factors when the pathogen is in contact with the host plant. In this study, we mapped and investigated the expression of 104 Xac genes associated with the PIP box sequences using a macroarray analysis. Xac gene expression was observed during in vitro (Xac grown for 12 or 20 h in XAM1 induction medium) or in vivo (bacteria grown in orange leaves for 3 to 5 days) infection conditions. Xac grown in non-induction NB liquid medium was used as the control. cDNA was isolated from bacteria grown under the different conditions and hybridized to the macroarray, and 32 genes differentially expressed during the infection period (in vitro or in vivo induction) were identified. The macroarray results were validated for some of the genes through semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the functionality of the PIP box-containing promoter was demonstrated by activating b-glucuronidase reporter gene activity by the PIP box-containing promoter region during Xac-citrus host interaction. PMID:27173329

  7. Black Box Testing: Experiments with Runway Incursion Advisory Alerting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research findings on the Black box testing of Runway Incursion Advisory Alerting System (RIAAS) and Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) system. Developing automated testing software for such systems has been a problem because of the extensive information that has to be processed. Customized software solutions have been proposed. However, they are time consuming to develop. Here, we present a less expensive, and a more general test platform that is capable of performing complete black box testing. The technique is based on the classification of the anomalies that arise during Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we also discuss a generalized testing tool (prototype) that we have developed.

  8. A starling-deterrent wood duck nest box

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGilvrey, F.B.; Uhler, F.M.

    1971-01-01

    In many parts of the United States, the starling (Sturnus vulgaris) has I become a serious competitor for nest boxes erected for wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Research at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and at Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge near Rock Hall, Maryland, demonstrated that horizontal nest structures with semicircular entrance holes 11 inches in diameter were acceptable to nesting wood ducks but discouraged nesting by starlings. Starlings seemed to prefer boxes in open impoundments to those in wooded impoundments, whereas wood ducks seemed to show no preference.

  9. Principal investigator in a box: Version 1.2 documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolph, Jurine; Bhatnagar, Rajiv; Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Frainer, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Holden, Kritina; Lai, Sen-Hao; Lam, Chih-Chao; Manahan, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Principal Investigator (PI) in a box is a computer system designed to help optimize the scientific results of experiments that are performed in space. The system will assist the astronaut experimenters in the collection and analysis of experimental data, recognition and pursuit of 'interesting' results, optimal use of the time allocated to the experiment, and troubleshooting of the experiment apparatus. This document discusses the problems that motivate development of 'PI-in-a-box', and presents a high- level system overview and a detailed description of each of the modules that comprise the current version of the system.

  10. Advanced solar box and flat plate collector cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Bergler, H.

    1992-12-31

    Several new solar cooker systems have been developed at Synopsis during the last years: advanced box type cookers, featuring an optimized heat transfer from the absorber into the cooking vessel; flat plate cookers, based on a particular two-way collector with air as transfer fluid; flat plate cookers with heat-pipe transfer; specialized cookers for the baking of bread and flat bread. The working principle of these cookers is described, the structure of a thermal simulation model and results of thermal tests are presented. The results of the first year of local production and use of advanced boxes in India are reported.

  11. LIGAND-INDUCED CHANGES IN T BOX ANTITERMINATOR RNA STABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S.; Acquaah-Harrison, G.; Jack, K.D.; Bergmeier, S.C.; Hines, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The T box antiterminator RNA element is an important component of the T box riboswitch that controls the transcription of vital genes in many Gram-positive bacteria. A series of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles was screened in a fluorescence-monitored thermal denaturation assay to identify ligands that altered the stability of antiterminator model RNA. Several ligands were identified that significantly increased or decreased the melting temperature (Tm) of the RNA. The results indicate that this series of triazole ligands can alter the stability of antiterminator model RNA in a structure-dependent manner. PMID:22117759

  12. The Torsion of Box Beams with One Side Lacking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambilargiu, E

    1940-01-01

    The torsion of box beams of rectangular section, the edges of which are strengthened by flanges, and of which one side is lacking, is analyzed by the energy method. The torsional stresses are generally taken up by the bending of the two parallel walls, the rigidity of which is augmented by the third wall. The result was checked experimentally on duralumin and plywood boxes. The torsion recorded was 10 to 30 percent less than that given by the calculation, owing to self-stiffening.

  13. A Calculus for Boxes and Traits in a Java-Like Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Lorenzo; Damiani, Ferruccio; de Luca, Marco; Geilmann, Kathrin; Schäfer, Jan

    The box model is a component model for the object-oriented paradigm, that defines components (the boxes) with clear encapsulation boundaries. Having well-defined boundaries is crucial in component-based software development, because it enables to argue about the interference and interaction between a component and its context. In general, boxes contain several objects and inner boxes, of which some are local to the box and cannot be accessed from other boxes and some can be accessible by other boxes. A trait is a set of methods divorced from any class hierarchy. Traits can be composed together to form classes or other traits. We present a calculus for boxes and traits. Traits are units of fine-grained reuse, whereas boxes can be seen as units of coarse-grained reuse. The calculus is equipped with an ownership type system and allows us to combine coarse- and fine-grained reuse of code by maintaining encapsulation of components.

  14. Preparation for Testing a Multi-Bay Box Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center provides a test capability to help develop validated structures technologies. The test machine was design to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. The COLTS facility is capable of testing fuselage barrels up to 4.6 m in diameter and 13.7 m long with combined mechanical, internal pressure, and thermal loads. The COLTS facility is currently being prepared to conduct a combined mechanical and pressure loading for a multi-bay pressure box to experimentally verify the structural performance of a composite structure which is 9.1 meters long and representative of a section of a hybrid wing body fuselage section in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA. This paper describes development of the multi-bay pressure box test using the COLTS facility. The multi-bay test article will be subjected to mechanical loads and internal pressure loads up to design ultimate load. Mechanical and pressure loads will be applied independently in some tests and simultaneously in others.

  15. 8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS. THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS PURIFIED AND CONCENTRATED PLUTONIUM-BEARING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS TO MAKE THEM ACCEPTABLE AS FEED FOR CONVERSION TO METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 77 FR 74513 - Folding Gift Boxes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on April 2, 2012 (77 FR 19714) and determined on July 6, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42762, July 20, 2012). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Folding Gift Boxes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  17. 206. Big Witch Road grade separation structure. This concrete box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    206. Big Witch Road grade separation structure. This concrete box culvert, built in 1950, is unusual in that the culvert's concrete bottom extends beyond the structure to the ends of its perpendicular wing walls. Facing northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. Teacher's Guide to Seeds: The MATCH Box Project; Prototype Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standring, Gillian; And Others

    The objective of this multimedia kit is to provide third and fourth grade children with materials with which they can interact, and which will help them to explore a selected part of their environment. By examining the fruits and seeds in the box, by experimenting with them, and by watching them grow, children will acquire skill in manipulating…

  19. Workplace statistical literacy for teachers: interpreting box plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

    2013-06-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the appropriate knowledge and experience to interpret the graphs, tables and other data that they receive. This study examined the statistical literacy demands placed on teachers, with a particular focus on box plot representations. Although box plots summarise the data in a way that makes visual comparisons possible across sets of data, this study showed that teachers do not always have the necessary fluency with the representation to describe correctly how the data are distributed in the representation. In particular, a significant number perceived the size of the regions of the box plot to be depicting frequencies rather than density, and there were misconceptions associated with outlying data that were not displayed on the plot. As well, teachers' perceptions of box plots were found to relate to three themes: attitudes, perceived value and misconceptions.

  20. 8. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING NORTH. CANAL HEADING RIGHT FOLLOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING NORTH. CANAL HEADING RIGHT FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING LEFT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS NEAR TOP RIGHT INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING CANAL AT OLD TRESTLE ENTRANCE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO