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1

UHTC Composites for Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTC) have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought tot he fore by the low fracture tougness and thermal shock resistance of UHTC. In addition, poor oxidation resistance is a limitation on UHTC applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing these deficiencies for the past two years via a small task at GRC that is in the Airframe part of the Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Our focus is on UHTC composite (UHTCC) constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. Processing, mechanical property, and oxidation resutls will be reported.

Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.

2004-01-01

2

A Thermostructural Analysis of a Diboride Composite Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to support the design of zirconium diboride composite leading edges for hypersonic vehicles, a finite element model (FEM) of a prototype leading edge was created and finite element analysis (FEA) was employed to assess its thermal and structural response to aerothermal boundary conditions. Unidirectional material properties for the structural components of the leading edge, a continuous fiber reinforced diboride composite, were computed with COSTAR. These properties agree well with those experimentally measured. To verify the analytical approach taken with COSMOS/M, an independent FEA of one of the leading edge assembly components was also done with COSTAR. Good agreement was obtained between the two codes. Both showed that a unidirectional lay-up had the best margin of safety for a simple loading case. Both located the maximum stress in the same region and ply. The magnitudes agreed within 4 percent. Trajectory based aerothermal heating was then applied to the leading edge assembly FEM created with COSMOS/M to determine steady state temperature response, displacement, stresses, and contact forces due to thermal expansion and thermal strains. Results show that the leading edge stagnation line temperature reached 4700 F. The maximum computed failure index for the laminated composite components peaks at 4.2, and is located at the bolt flange in layer 2 of the side bracket. The temperature gradient in the tip causes a compressive stress of 279 ksi along its width and substantial tensile stresses within its depth.

Kowalski, Tom; Buesking, Kent; Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeff

1996-01-01

3

Advanced leading edge thermal-structure concept. Direct bond reusable surface insulation to a composite structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced leading-edge concept was analyzed using the space shuttle leading edge system as a reference model. The comparison indicates that a direct-bond system utilizing a high temperature (2700 F) fibrous refractory composite insulation tile bonded to a high temperature (PI/graphite) composite structure can result in a weight savings of up to 800 lb. The concern that tile damage or loss during ascent would result in adverse entry aerodynamics if a leading edge tile system were used is addressed. It was found from experiment that missing tiles (as many as 22) on the leading edge would not significantly affect the basic force-and-moment aerodynamic coefficients. Additionally, this concept affords a degree of redundancy to a thermal protection system in that the base structure (being a composite material) ablates and neither melts nor burns through when subjected to entry heating in the event tiles are actually lost or damaged during ascent.

Riccitiello, S. R.; Figueroa, H.; Coe, C. F.; Kuo, C. P.

1984-01-01

4

Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites for Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of UHTC. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHTC applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTC for the past two years via a small task at GRC that is in the Airframe part of the Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The progress on approaches to improving oxidation resistance by alloying and functional grading will be reported. In particular, initial tests of tantalum additions have shown potential for major improvement. Results for additional tests at higher temperatures will be presented. These oxidation improvements are being incorporated in the composites approaches. Two fabrication approaches are being persued to produce carbon fiber reinforced UHTC composites: prepregging and rigid perform infiltration. Fabrication procedures, microstructures, and initial mechanical property and oxidation results for composites will be reported.

Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeanne; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.

2003-01-01

5

Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composites for Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of UHTC. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHT applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTC for the past two years via a small task at GRC that is in the Airframe part of the Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The progress on approaches to improving oxidation resistance by alloying and functional grading will be reported. In particular, initial tests of tantalum additions have shown potential for major improvement. Less promising results of additional tests at higher temperatures will be presented. Two fabrication approaches are being pursued to produce carbon fiber reinforced UHTC composites: prepregging and rigid perform infiltration. Fabrication procedures and microstructures for composites will be reported.

Levine, Stanley R.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.; Petko, Jeanne; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.

2003-01-01

6

Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composites for Leading Edges, 2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTC) have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of the UHTC. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHTC applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTC for the past two years via a small task at GRC that is in the Airframe part of the Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The progress on approaches to improving oxidation resistance by alloying and functional grading will be reported.

Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lorincz, Jonathan A.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.

2004-01-01

7

Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Characterization of Particulate Reinforced Diboride Composites for High Temperature Leading Edge Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work on refractory diboride composites has shown that these systems have the potential for use in high temperature leading edge applications for reusable reentry vehicles. Experiments in reentry environments have shown that these materials have multiple use temperatures greater than 1900 C. The work to be discussed focuses on three compositions: HfB2/SiC, ZrB2/SiC, and ZrB2/C/SiC. These composites have been hot pressed and their mechanical properties measured at room and elevated temperatures. Extensive microstructural characterization has been conducted on polished cross sections and the fracture surfaces have been examined to determine their failure origins.

Ellerby, Donald T.; Bull, J. D.; Johnson, S. M.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Gusman, M.; Stuffle, K.; Cull, A. D.; Causey, S. J.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

8

Arc Jet Results on Candidate High Temperature Coatings for NASA's NGLT Refractory Composite Leading Edge Task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2000, arc jet testing was conducted on thirteen material systems for possible use on the nose leading edge of the Hyper-X program s X-43A Mach 10 vehicle. Six material systems survived 3, 130- second cycles. To support NASA s Next Generation Launch Technology Programs (NGLT) need for passive refractory composite leading edges with multiple reuse capability at temperatures up to 3600 F, these six materials were subjected to an expanded arc jet test program. This expanded arc jet test program included three phases. The purpose of the first phase was to generate emissivity data as a function of temperature. The purpose of the second phase was to determine if the material systems had any thermal cycling durability, and the third phase was to determine whether the materials could survive an arc jet test of one hour duration. Some of the coating systems were found to have very low emissivities, suggesting that they would not be good candidates for leading edges coating. Other coating systems survived both the second and third phases of the test program and showed potential for use as an oxidation protection coating for leading edges. This presentation summarizes the test program results.

Ohlhorst, C. W.; Vaughn, W. L.; Lewis, R. K.; Milhoan, J. D.

2004-01-01

9

Space environmental effects on LDEF composites: A leading edge coated graphite epoxy panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electronics module cover for the leading edge (Row D 9) experiment M0003-8 was fabricated from T300 graphite/934 epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape in a (O(sub 2), +/- 45, O(sub 2), +/- 45, 90, 0)(sub s) layup. This 11.75 in x 16.75 in panel was covered with thermal control coatings in three of the four quadrants with the fourth quadrant uncoated. The composite panel experienced different thermal cycling extremes in each quadrant due to the different optical properties of the coatings and bare composite. The panel also experienced ultraviolet (UV) and atomic oxygen (AO) attack as well as micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. An AO reactivity of 0.99 x 10(exp -24) cm(sup 3)/atom was calculated for the bare composite based on thickness loss. The white urethane thermal control coatings (A276 and BMS 1060) prevented AO attack of the composite substrate. However, the black urethane thermal control coating (Z306) was severely eroded by AO, allowing some AO attack of the composite substrate. An interesting banding pattern on the AO eroded bare composite surface was investigated and found to match the dimensions of the graphite fiber tow widths as prepregged. Also, erosion depths were greater in the darker bands. Five micrometeoroid/space debris impacts were cross sectioned to investigate possible structural damage as well as impact/AO interactions. Local crushing and delaminations were found to some extent in all of the impacts. No signs of coating undercutting were observed despite the extensive AO erosion patterns seen in the exposed composite material at the impact sites. An extensive microcrack study was performed on the panel along with modeling of the thermal environment to estimate temperature extremes and thermal shock. The white coated composite substrate displayed almost no microcracking while the black coated and bare composite showed extensive microcracking. Significant AO erosion was seen in many of the cracks in the bare composite.

George, Pete E.; Dursch, Harry W.; Hill, Sylvester G.

1993-01-01

10

Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

Maslov, Anatoly A.

1998-01-01

11

Development and Validation of a Novel Bird Strike Resistant Composite Leading Edge Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel design of a fibre-reinforced composite Leading Edge (LE) of a Horizontal Tail Plain (HTP) is proposed. The development and validation approach of the innovative composite LE structure are described. The main design goal is the satisfactory impact resistance of the novel composite LE in the case of bird strike. The design concept is based on the absorption of the major portion of the bird kinetic energy by the composite skins, in order to protect the ribs and the inner LE structure from damaging, thus preserving the tail plane functionality for safe landing. To this purpose, the LE skin is fabricated from specially designed composite panels, so called ‘tensor skin’ panels, comprising folded layers, which unfold under the impact load and increase the energy absorption capability of the LE. A numerical model simulating the bird strike process is developed and bird strike experimental testing is performed, in order to validate the proposed layout and prove the capability of the structure to successfully withstand the impact loading. The numerical modelling issues and the critical parameters of the simulation are discussed. The present work is part of the European Aeronautics Research Project, ‘Crashworthiness of aircraft for high velocity impact CRAHVI’ [1].

Kermanidis, Th.; Labeas, G.; Sunaric, M.; Ubels, L.

2005-11-01

12

Materials, Manufacturing and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite of is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

Handschuh, Katherine M.; Miller, Sandi G.; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.

2014-01-01

13

Materials, Manufacturing, and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

Miller, Sandi G.; Handschuh, Katherine; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Martin, Richard E.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Pereira, J. Michael

2015-01-01

14

Advanced X-Ray Inspection of Reinforced Carbon Composite Materials on the Orbiter Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The post return-to-flight (RTF) inspection methodology for the Orbiter Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS) is currently being defined. Numerous NDT modalities and techniques are being explored to perform the flight-to-flight inspections of the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite material for impact damage, general loss of mass in the bulk layers, or other anomalous conditions that would pose risk to safe return upon re-entry. It is possible to have an impact upon ascent that is not visually observable on the surface, yet causes internal damage. Radiographic testing may be a useful NDT technique for such occurrences. The authors have performed radiographic tests on full-sized mock samples of LESS hardware with embedded image quality phantoms. Digitized radiographic film, computed radiography and flat panel digital real-time radiography was acquired using a GE Eresco 200 x-ray tube, and Se-75 and Yb-169 radioisotopes.

Hernandez, Jose M.; Berry, Robert F.; Osborn, Robin; Bueno, Clifford; Osterlitz, Mark; Mills, Richard; Morris, Philip; Phalen, Robert; McNab, Jim; Thibodeaux, Tahanie; Thompson, Kyle

2004-01-01

15

Wing Leading Edge Debris Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a slide presentation showing the Left Wing Leading Edge (WLE) heat damage observations: Heavy "slag" deposits on select RCC panels. Eroded and knife-edged RCC rib sections. Excessive overheating and slumping of carrier panel tiles. Missing or molten attachment bolts but intact bushing. Deposit mainly on "inside" RCC panel. Deposit on some fractured RCC surface

Shah, Sandeep; Jerman, Gregory

2004-01-01

16

Icing tunnel tests of a composite porous leading edge for use with a liquid anti-ice system. [Lewis icing research tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficacy of liquid ice protection systems which distribute a glycol-water solution onto leading edge surfaces through a porous skin was demonstrated in tests conducted in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel using a composite porous leading edge panels. The data obtained were compared with the performance of previously tested stainless steel leading edge with the same geometry. Results show: (1) anti-ice protection of a composite leading edge is possible for all the simulated conditions tested; (2) the glycol flow rates required to achieve anti-ice protection were generally much higher than those required for a stainless steel panel; (3) the low reservoir pressures of the glycol during test runs indicates that more uniform distribution of glycol, and therefore lower glycol flow rates, can probably be achieved by decreasing the porosity of the panel; and (4) significant weight savings can be achieved in fluid ice protection systems with composite porous leading edges. The resistance of composite panels to abrasion and erosion must yet be determined before they can be incorporated in production systems.

Kohlman, D. L.

1981-01-01

17

Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

2013-01-01

18

UHTC for Sharp Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrahigh temperature ceramics have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of UHTCs. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHTC applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTCs for the past year via a small task at GRC that is part of the 3rd Gen TPS effort. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The approaches and progress will be reported.

Levine, Stanley R.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Opila, Elizabeth J.

2003-01-01

19

Fiber optic damage detection for an aircraft leading edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First test results of a multilayered fiber optic impact damage detection system fabricated within an aircraft wing composite leading edge are reported. The graphically presented results indicate that embedded optical fiber will track the growth of a delamination region. These results strongly support the concept of structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composites.

Measures, Raymond M.; Leblanc, M.; Hogg, D.; McEwen, K.; Park, B.

20

Leading Edge Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Review Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution David M. Raskin,1 Rekha Seshadri,2 Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2 The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive.02.002 The availability of hundreds of bacterial genome sequences has altered the study of bacte- rial pathogenesis

Mekalanos, John

21

Leading Edge The Microbial Opsin Family  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Primer The Microbial Opsin Family of Optogenetic Tools Feng Zhang,1,2,9,* Johannes advances in understanding microbial opsins have been driven by molecular engineering for optogenetics on these and other light-sensitive proteins has resulted in a technology called optogenetics (Deisseroth, 2011

Schnitzer, Mark

22

Leading Edge Modeling the Cell Cycle  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Primer Modeling the Cell Cycle: Why Do Certain Circuits Oscillate? James E. Ferrell *Correspondence: james.ferrell@stanford.edu DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2011.03.006 Computational modeling and the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems allow one to not simply describe the events of the cell cycle, but also

23

Leading Edge Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Review Stem Cell Trafficking in Tissue Development, Growth, and Disease Diana J. Laird, USA 4Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 5Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 42 Church Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 6Present address: Institute

von Andrian, Ulrich H.

24

Airfoil noise reductions through leading edge serrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an experimental investigation into the use of leading edge (LE) serrations as a means of reducing the broadband noise generated due to the interaction between the aerofoil's LE and impinging turbulence. Experiments are performed on a flat plate in an open jet wind tunnel. Grids are used to generate isotropic homogeneous turbulence. The leading edge serrations are in the form of sinusoidal profiles of wavelengths, ?, and amplitudes, 2h. The frequency and amplitude characteristics are studied in detail in order to understand the effect of LE serrations on noise reduction characteristics and are compared with straight edge baseline flat plates. Noise reductions are found to be insignificant at low frequencies but significant in the mid frequency range (500 Hz-8 kHz) for all the cases studied. The flat plate results are also compared to the noise reductions obtained on a serrated NACA-65 aerofoil with the same serration profile. Noise reductions are found to be significantly higher for the flat plates with a maximum noise reduction of around 9 dB compared with about 7 dB for the aerofoil. In general, it is observed that the sound power reduction level (?PWL) is sensitive to the amplitude, 2h of the LE serrations but less sensitive to the serration wavelength, ?. Thus, this paper sufficiently demonstrates that the LE amplitude acts as a key parameter for enhancing the noise reduction levels in flat plates and aerofoils.

Narayanan, S.; Chaitanya, P.; Haeri, S.; Joseph, P.; Kim, J. W.; Polacsek, C.

2015-02-01

25

SPH – Lagrangian study of bird impact on leading edge wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental bird-strike tests were conducted using a dead chicken of 8lb with a speed of 250kts that hit on leading edge bay in composite material made with aluminium alloy 2024-T3, core panel of honeycomb and GLARE cover plates. A validated simulation methodology has been developed in order to use a reference in further bird test certification procedure on the fin

M. Guida; F. Marulo; M. Meo; A. Grimaldi; G. Olivares

2011-01-01

26

Shock wave shape on power law leading edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computations using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method are presented for hypersonic flow on power law shaped leading edges. The primary aim of this paper is to examine the geometry effect of such leading edges on the shock wave structure. The sensitivity of the shock wave shape and shock standoff distance to shape variations of such leading edges is calculated

W. F. N. Santos

2005-01-01

27

Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.

Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.

1996-01-01

28

Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Leading Edge Stagnation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multigrid solver is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work which is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in evaluating the discrete residuals. TME in solving the incompressible inviscid fluid equations is demonstrated for leading- edge stagnation flows. The contributions of this paper include (1) a special formulation of the boundary conditions near stagnation allowing convergence of the Newton iterations on coarse grids, (2) the boundary relaxation technique to facilitate relaxation and residual restriction near the boundaries, (3) a modified relaxation scheme to prevent initial error amplification, and (4) new general analysis techniques for multigrid solvers. Convergence of algebraic errors below the level of discretization errors is attained by a full multigrid (FMG) solver with one full approximation scheme (F.4S) cycle per grid. Asymptotic convergence rates of the F.4S cycles for the full system of flow equations are very fast, approaching those for scalar elliptic equations.

Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Mineck, Raymond E.

2004-01-01

29

Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Leading Edge Stagnation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multigrid solver is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work which is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in evaluating the discrete residuals. TME in solving the incompressible inviscid fluid equations is demonstrated for leading-edge stagnation flows. The contributions of this paper include (1) a special formulation of the boundary conditions near stagnation allowing convergence of the Newton iterations on coarse grids, (2) the boundary relaxation technique to facilitate relaxation and residual restriction near the boundaries, (3) a modified relaxation scheme to prevent initial error amplification, and (4) new general analysis techniques for multigrid solvers. Convergence of algebraic errors below the level of discretization errors is attained by a full multigrid (FMG) solver with one full approximation scheme (FAS) cycle per grid. Asymptotic convergence rates of the FAS cycles for the full system of flow equations are very fast, approaching those for scalar elliptic equations.

Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Mineck, Raymond E.

2004-01-01

30

Development of X-43A Mach 10 Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nose leading edge of the Hyper-X Mach 10 vehicle was orginally anticipated to reach temperatures near 4000 F at the leading-edge stagnation line. A SiC coated carbon/carbon (C/C) leading-edge material will not survive that extreme temperature for even a short duration single flight. To identify a suitable leading edge for the Mach 10 vehicle, arc-jet testing was performed on thirteen leading-edge segments fabricated from different material systems to evaluate their performance in a simulated flight environment. Hf, Zr, Si, and Ir based materials, in most cases as a coating on C/C, were included in the evaluation. Afterwards, MER, Tucson, AZ was selected as the supplier of the flight vehicle leading edges. The nose and the vertical and horizontal tail leading edges were fabricated out of a 3:1 biased high thermal conductivity C/C. The leading edges were coated with a three layer coating comprised of a SiC conversion of the top surface of the C/C, followed by a chemical vapor deposited layer of SiC, followed by a thin chemical vapor deposited layer of HfC. This paper will describe the fabrication of the Mach 10 C/C leading edges and the testing performed to validate performance.

Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Glass, David E.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Lindell, Michael C.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Hogenson, P. A.; Nichols, J. M.; Risner, N. W.; Thompson, D. R.

2005-01-01

31

Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

1988-01-01

32

Numerical study of delta wing leading edge blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spanwise and tangential leading edge blowing as a means of controlling the position and strength of the leading edge vortices are studied by numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The leading edge jet is simulated by defining a permeable boundary, corresponding to the jet slot, where suitable boundary conditions are implemented. Numerical results are shown to compare favorably with experimental measurements. It is found that the use of spanwise leading edge blowing at moderate angle of attack magnifies the size and strength of the leading edge vortices, and moves the vortex cores outboard and upward. The increase in lift primarily comes from the greater nonlinear vortex lift. However, spanwise blowing causes earlier vortex breakdown, thus decreasing the stall angle. The effects of tangential blowing at low to moderate angles of attack tend to reduce the pressure peaks associated with leading edge vortices and to increase the suction peak around the leading edge, so that the integrated value of the surface pressure remains about the same. Tangential leading edge blowing in post-stall conditions is shown to re-establish vortical flow and delay vortex bursting, thus increasing C sub L sub max and stall angle.

Yeh, David; Tavella, Domingo; Roberts, Leonard

1988-01-01

33

Observations on the leading edge in lifted flame stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to report some of the first experimental evidence for the “leading edge” flame as the stabilization mechanism in lifted jet diffusion flames [1–5]. CH fluorescence has been used to indicate the flame front location (i.e., region of chemical reaction) and thereby characterize features of the stabilization region [5, 6]. The “leading edge” flame phenomenon

K. A. Watson; K. M. Lyons; J. M. Donbar; C. D. Carter

1999-01-01

34

Vortex leading edge flap assembly for supersonic airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leading edge flap (16) for supersonic transport airplanes is disclosed. In its stowed position, the leading edge flap forms the lower surface of the wing leading edge up to the horizontal center of the leading edge radius. For low speed operation, the vortex leading edge flap moves forward and rotates down. The upward curve of the flap leading edge triggers flow separation on the flap and rotational flow on the upper surface of the flap (vortex). The rounded shape of the upper fixed leading edge provides the conditions for a controlled reattachment of the flow on the upper wing surface and therefore a stable vortex. The vortex generates lift and a nose-up pitching moment. This improves maximum lift at low speed, reduces attitude for a given lift coefficient and improves lift to drag ratio. The mechanism (27) to move the vortex flap consists of two spanwise supports (24) with two diverging straight tracks (64 and 68) each and a screw drive mechanism (62) in the center of the flap panel (29). The flap motion is essentially normal to the airloads and therefore requires only low actuation forces.

Rudolph, Peter K. C. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

35

Robust UHTC for Sharp Leading Edge Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrahigh temperature ceramics have performed unreliably due to material flaws and attachment design. These deficiencies are brought to the fore by the low fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of UHTCs. If these deficiencies are overcome, we are still faced with poor oxidation resistance as a limitation on UHTC applicability to reusable launch vehicles. We have been addressing the deficiencies of UHTCs for the past year via a small task at GRC that is part of the 3rd Gen TPS effort. Our focus is on composite constructions and functional grading to address the mechanical issues and on composition modification to address the oxidation issue. The approaches and progress will be reported.

Levine, Stanley R.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Opila, Elizabeth J.

2003-01-01

36

Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

Yap, Keng C.

2010-01-01

37

Timing discriminator using leading-edge extrapolation  

DOEpatents

A discriminator circuit to recover timing information from slow-rising pulses by means of an output trailing edge, a fixed time after the starting corner of the input pulse, which is nearly independent of risetime and threshold setting. This apparatus comprises means for comparing pulses with a threshold voltage; a capacitor to be charged at a certain rate when the input signal is one-third threshold voltage, and at a lower rate when the input signal is two-thirds threshold voltage; current-generating means for charging the capacitor; means for comparing voltage capacitor with a bias voltage; a flip-flop to be set when the input pulse reaches threshold voltage and reset when capacitor voltage reaches the bias voltage; and a clamping means for discharging the capacitor when the input signal returns below one-third threshold voltage.

Gottschalk, Bernard (Palo Alto, CA)

1983-01-01

38

Timing discriminator using leading-edge extrapolation  

DOEpatents

A discriminator circuit to recover timing information from slow-rising pulses by means of an output trailing edge, a fixed time after the starting corner of the input pulse, which is nearly independent of risetime and threshold setting is described. This apparatus comprises means for comparing pulses with a threshold voltage; a capacitor to be charged at a certain rate when the input signal is one-third threshold voltage, and at a lower rate when the input signal is two-thirds threshold voltage; current-generating means for charging the capacitor; means for comparing voltage capacitor with a bias voltage; a flip-flop to be set when the input pulse reaches threshold voltage and reset when capacitor voltage reaches the bias voltage; and a clamping means for discharging the capacitor when the input signal returns below one-third threshold voltage.

Gottschalk, B.

1981-07-30

39

Leading Edge Uncovering a Tumor Suppressor  

E-print Network

of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN12 is lost in a large percentage of this breast cancer subtype, offering. The molecular characterization of breast cancer subtypes has lead to significant progress in treating this common disease. Tumors that express the estrogen recep- tor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) respond

Albeck, John

40

Shock Interaction Control for Scramjet Cowl Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted to qualitatively determine the effectiveness of stagnation-region gas injection in protecting a scramjet cowl leading edge from the intense heating produced by Type III and Type IV shock interactions. The model consisted of a two-dimensional leading edge, representative of that of a scramjet cowl. Tests were conducted at a nominal freestream Mach number of 6. Gaseous nitrogen was supersonically injected through the leading-edge nozzles at various mass flux ratios and with the model pitched at angles of 0deg and -20deg relative to the freestream flow. Qualitative data, in the form of focusing and conventional schlieren images, were obtained of the shock interaction patterns. Results indicate that large shock displacements can be achieved and both the Type III and IV interactions can be altered such that the interaction does not impinge on the leading edge surface.

Albertson, Cindy W.; Venkat, Venki, S.

2005-01-01

41

Leading Edge Spinning the Web of Cell Fate  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Minireview Spinning the Web of Cell Fate Kevin Van Bortle1 and Victor G. Corces1,* 1 involved in spinning the web of cell fate. Chromatin at the Nuclear Lamina The nuclear lamina is a thin

Corces, Victor G.

42

Supersonic wings with significant leading-edge thrust at cruise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental/theoretical correlations are presented which show that significant levels of leading-edge thrust are possible at supersonic speeds for certain planforms having the geometry to support the theoretical thrust-distribution potential. The new analytical process employed provides not only the level of leading-edge thrust attainable but also the spanwise distribution of both it and that component of full theoretical thrust which acts as vortex lift. Significantly improved aerodynamic performance in the moderate supersonic speed regime is indicated.

Robins, A. W.; Carlson, H. W.; Mack, R. J.

1980-01-01

43

Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen

2000-01-01

44

Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise.  

PubMed

Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number. PMID:24116405

Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P

2013-10-01

45

Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

1995-01-01

46

Hydrofoil vibration and noise reduction with leading edge isolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for reducing the vibration and noise from hydrofoils subject to unsteady hydrodynamic loads was demonstrated experimentally. Unsteady loads are generated when hydrofoils interact with approach-flow disturbances such as hull boundary layer turbulence or wakes from upstream rotors. Since the unsteady loads are known to be concentrated in the vicinity of the leading edge, a single stage vibration isolation mount was incorporated into a hydrofoil at its 20% chord location to inhibit the leading edge-generated unsteady loads from being transmitted to the remainder of the foil and any structures coupled to it. The hydrofoil was tested in a water tunnel facility with a wake generator placed upstream to produce the approach-flow disturbances. The reduction in the loading on the portion of the hydrofoil isolated from the leading edge was inferred from vibration measurements. Reductions of 5 to 10 dB were demonstrated.

Brungart, Timothy A.; Myer, Eric C.; Capone, Dean E.; Campbell, Robert L.

2005-09-01

47

Design and Analysis of UHTC Leading Edge Attachment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center was contacted to provide technical support to NASA Ames Research Center in the design and analysis of an ultra high temperature ceramic (UHTC) leading edge. UHTC materials are being considered for reusable launch vehicles because their high temperature capability may allow for un-cooled sharp leading edge designs. While ceramic materials have the design benefit of allowing subcomponents to run hot, they also provide a design challenge in that they invariably must be in contact with cooler subcomponents elsewhere in the structure. NASA Glenn Research Center proposed a modification to an existing attachment design. Thermal and structural analyses of the leading edge assembly were carried out using ABAQUS finite element software. Final results showed that the proposed modifications aided in thermally isolating hot and cold subcomponents and reducing bearing stresses at the attachment location.

Thomas, David J.; Nemeth, Noel N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

48

Fluid-thermal-structural interaction of aerodynamically heated leading edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional finite element approach is presented for the integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis of aerodynamically heated leading edges. The approach is combined with an adaptive unstructured remeshing technique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for high speed compressible flow, the energy equation for the structure thermal response, and the quasi-static equilibrium equations for the structural response. Coupling and interaction between the three disciplines are demonstrated using two applications for high speed flow over a cylinder and a simulated engine leading edge verification test.

Dechaumphai, Pramote; Wieting, Allan R.; Pandey, Ajay K.

1989-01-01

49

Topology Optimization of Adaptive Compliant Aircraft Wing Leading Edge  

E-print Network

Topology Optimization of Adaptive Compliant Aircraft Wing Leading Edge M.J. Santer and S. This technique provides the designer with a greater level of control over the problem complexity than alternative compliant aircraft wing rib from conception via optimization to fabrication of a demonstration model

Pellegrino, Sergio

50

Contact angle at the leading edge controls cell protrusion rate.  

PubMed

Plasma membrane tension and the pressure generated by actin polymerization are two antagonistic forces believed to define the protrusion rate at the leading edge of migrating cells [1-5]. Quantitatively, resistance to actin protrusion is a product of membrane tension and mean local curvature (Laplace's law); thus, it depends on the local geometry of the membrane interface. However, the role of the geometry of the leading edge in protrusion control has not been yet investigated. Here, we manipulate both the cell shape and substrate topography in the model system of persistently migrating fish epidermal keratocytes. We find that the protrusion rate does not correlate with membrane tension, but, instead, strongly correlates with cell roundness, and that the leading edge of the cell exhibits pinning on substrate ridges-a phenomenon characteristic of spreading of liquid drops. These results indicate that the leading edge could be considered a triple interface between the substrate, membrane, and extracellular medium and that the contact angle between the membrane and the substrate determines the load on actin polymerization and, therefore, the protrusion rate. Our findings thus illuminate a novel relationship between the 3D shape of the cell and its dynamics, which may have implications for cell migration in 3D environments. PMID:24794299

Gabella, Chiara; Bertseva, Elena; Bottier, Céline; Piacentini, Niccolò; Bornert, Alicia; Jeney, Sylvia; Forró, László; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B

2014-05-19

51

Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.

Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.

1984-01-01

52

at the Leading Edge of Change CASE FOR SUPPORT  

E-print Network

of coping mechanisms for enhancing physical, mental and emotional health for the aging populationEducation at the Leading Edge of Change CASE FOR SUPPORT z Faculty of Education 2009-2010 E #12;#12;!Syntax Error, !00 FACULTY OF EDUCATION Dean's Address The Faculty of Education is uniquely positioned

Barthelat, Francois

53

Vortex interaction with a leading-edge of finite thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex interaction with a thick elliptical leading-edge at zero relative offset produces a pronounced secondary vortes of opposite sense that travels with the same phase speed as the primaty vortex along the lower surface of the edge. The edge thickness (scale) relative to the incident vorticity field has a strong effect on the distortion of the incident primary vortex during the impingement processs. When the thickness is sufficiently small, there is a definite severing of the incident vortex and the portion of the incident vortex that travels along the upper part of the elliptical surface has a considerably larger phase speed than that along the lower surface; this suggests that the integrated loading along the upper surface is more strongly correlated. When the thickness becomes too large, then most, if not all, of the incident vortex passes below the leading-edge. On the other hand, the relative tranverse offset of the edge with respect to the center of the incident vortex has a significant effect on the secondary vortex formation.

Sohn, D.; Rockwell, Donald

1987-01-01

54

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

55

The fish tail motion forms an attached leading edge vortex.  

PubMed

The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail. PMID:23407826

Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

2013-04-01

56

The fish tail motion forms an attached leading edge vortex  

PubMed Central

The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail. PMID:23407826

Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

2013-01-01

57

Fabrication and Testing of a Leading-Edge-Shaped Heat Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled leading edge has evolved from the design stage to the fabrication and testing of a full size, leading-edge-shaped heat pipe. The heat pipe had a 'D-shaped' cross section and was fabricated from arc cast Mo-4lRe. An artery was included in the wick. Several issues were resolved with the fabrication of the sharp leading edge radius heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested in a vacuum chamber at Los Alamos National Laboratory using induction heating and was started up from the frozen state several times. However, design temperatures and heat fluxes were not obtained due to premature failure of the heat pipe resulting from electrical discharge between the induction heating apparatus and the heat pipe. Though a testing anomaly caused premature failure of the heat pipe, successful startup and operation of the heat pipe was demonstrated.

Glass, David E.; Merrigan, Michael A.; Sena, J. Tom; Reid, Robert S.

1998-01-01

58

Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the metal vane was tested for a total of 150 cycles. Both the leading edge and trailing edge of the blade exhibited fatigue cracking and burn-through similar to the failures experienced in service by the F402 engine. Next, an airfoil, fitted with the ceramic leading edge insert, was exposed for 200 cycles. The temperature response of those HPBR cycles indicated a reduced internal metal temperature, by as much as 600 F at the midspan location for the same surface temperature (2100 F). After testing, the composite insert appeared intact, with no signs of failure on either the vane s leading or trailing edge. Only a slight oxide scale, as would be expected, was noted on the insert. Overall, the CMC insert performed similarly to a thick thermal barrier coating. With a small air gap between the metal and the SiC/SiC leading edge, heat transfer from the CMC to the metal alloy was low, effectively lowering the temperatures. The insert's performance has proven that an uncooled CMC can be engineered and designed to withstand the thermal up-shock experienced during the severe lift conditions in the Pegasus engine. The design of the leading-edge insert, which minimized thermal stresses in the SiC/SiC CMC, showed that the CMC/metal assembly can be engineered to be a functioning component.

Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

2000-01-01

59

Nondestructive Evaluation for the Space Shuttle's Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia highlighted concerns about the integrity of the Shuttle's thermal protection system, which includes Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on the leading edge. This led NASA to investigate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for certifying the integrity of the Shuttle's wing leading edge. That investigation was performed simultaneously with a large study conducted to understand the impact damage caused by errant debris. Among the many advanced NDE methods investigated for applicability to the RCC material, advanced digital radiography, high resolution computed tomography, thermography, ultrasound, acoustic emission and eddy current systems have demonstrated the maturity and success for application to the Shuttle RCC panels. For the purposes of evaluating the RCC panels while they are installed on the orbiters, thermographic detection incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and eddy current array scanning systems demonstrated the ability to measure the RCC panels from one side only and to detect several flaw types of concern. These systems were field tested at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and at several locations where impact testing was being conducted. Another advanced method that NASA has been investigating is an automated acoustic based detection system. Such a system would be based in part on methods developed over the years for acoustic emission testing. Impact sensing has been demonstrated through numerous impact tests on both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. A variety of impact materials and conditions have been evaluated including foam, ice, and ablator materials at ascent velocities as well as simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. These tests have successfully demonstrated the capability to detect and localize impact events on Shuttle's wing structures. A first generation impact sensing system has been designed for the next Shuttle flight and is undergoing final evaluation for deployment on the Shuttle's first return to flight. This system will employ wireless accelerometer sensors that were qualified for other applications on previous Shuttle flights. These sensors will be deployed on the wing's leading edge to detect impacts on the RCC leading edge panels. The application of these methods will help to insure the continued integrity of the Shuttle wing's leading edge system as the Shuttle flights resume and until their retirement.

Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Prosser, William H.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Cramer, K. Elliot

2005-01-01

60

Heat pipes for wing leading edges of hypersonic vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wing leading edge heat pipes were conceptually designed for three types of vehicle: an entry research vehicle, aero-space plane, and advanced shuttle. A full scale, internally instrumented sodium/Hastelloy X heat pipe was successfully designed and fabricated for the advanced shuttle application. The 69.4 inch long heat pipe reduces peak leading edge temperatures from 3500 F to 1800 F. It is internally instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers to measure sodium vapor qualities. Large thermal gradients and consequently large thermal stresses, which have the potential of limiting heat pipe life, were predicted to occur during startup. A test stand and test plan were developed for subsequent testing of this heat pipe. Heat pipe manufacturing technology was advanced during this program, including the development of an innovative technique for wick installation.

Boman, B. L.; Citrin, K. M.; Garner, E. C.; Stone, J. E.

1990-01-01

61

Probabilistic Structural Health Monitoring of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural health monitoring (SHM) system can contribute to the risk management of a structure operating under hazardous conditions. An example is the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) that monitors the debris hazards to the Space Shuttle Orbiter s Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. Since Return-to-Flight (RTF) after the Columbia accident, WLEIDS was developed and subsequently deployed on board the Orbiter to detect ascent and on-orbit debris impacts, so as to support the assessment of wing leading edge structural integrity prior to Orbiter re-entry. As SHM is inherently an inverse problem, the analyses involved, including those performed for WLEIDS, tend to be associated with significant uncertainty. The use of probabilistic approaches to handle the uncertainty has resulted in the successful implementation of many development and application milestones.

Yap, Keng C.; Macias, Jesus; Kaouk, Mohamed; Gafka, Tammy L.; Kerr, Justin H.

2011-01-01

62

Leading-edge vortex solutions with large total pressure losses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations are presented for a Lambda = 75 deg delta wing in a supersonic freestream under two conditions which lead to leading-edge vortices. For one condition, analysis of the computed vortical flow reveals a closed streamline in the core. From varying computational parameters, it appears that this is due to truncation error of the convective derivatives. For the other condition, comparisons are made with wind-tunnel data, and good agreement is noted for pitot pressure distributions, flow angles on the symmetry plane, and the position of an embedded shock. Many of the aerodynamic parameters are shown to be insensitive to grid spacing.

Murman, Earll M.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Goodsell, Aga M.; Landahl, Marten T.

1987-01-01

63

Optimization of the leading edge segment of a corrugated wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insect wings consist of flat plates of membranes stiffened by spars. The effect of this structure is that the wings appear as corrugated surfaces when considered on chordwise sections. We know that aerodynamically efficient insects such as a dragonfly engage in fixed wing flight modes for extended periods. The analysis in the literature has shown that the aerodynamic efficiency (cl/cd) of a corrugated aerofoil is sensitive to Reynolds number (Re) and angle-of-attack (AoA), yet the conclusions established are on the basis of flow analysis on a single baseline shape only. The sample size of the aerofoils must be extended further so that the influence and merits of corrugated shape features can be established. In this work, a design-of-experiments (DoE) approach is applied to induce systematic shape perturbations on a select, off-the-shelf baseline shape one feature at a time over a set number of increments. At each shape increment, the aerodynamic forces are established using a high fidelity CFD solver. The design space is modeled at a Re of 20,000 and 34,000 and at flow angle of 4.0° to represent a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) in glide. The results confirmed the importance of the leading and trailing edge deflections on cl/cd. At Re = 20, 000, cl/cd of a corrugated aerofoil with deflection at the leading edge region only is 16% higher than the baseline shape, and 39% higher than the flat plate. At Re = 34, 000, cl/cd performance is sensitive to the trailing edge deflection. At the optimum deflection setting, cl/cd is 18% higher than the baseline shape and 23% higher than the flat plate. The results confirm that the leading and trailing edge deflections are critical to cl/cd for a MAV in glide.

Khurana, Manas; Chahl, Javaan

2014-03-01

64

Structure of leading-edge vortex flows including vortex breakdown  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation of the structure of leading-edge vortex flows on thin sharp-edged delta wings was carried out at low Reynolds numbers. Flow-visualization techniques were used to study the topology of the vortex and the phenomenon of vortex breakdown. Seven-hole probe-wake surveys and laser-doppler-anemometer measurements were obtained and compared. Delta wings with sweep angles of 70, 75, 80, and 85/sup 0/ were tested at angles of attack of 10, 20, 30, and 40/sup 0/. The test were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ to 6.4 x 10/sup 5/. Smoke-flow visualization revealed the presence of small Kelvin-Helmholtz type vortical structures in the shear layer of a leading-edge vortex. These shear-layer vortices follow a helical path and grow in the streamwise direction as they wind into the vortex core where the individual shear layers merge. The phenomenon of vortex breakdown was studied using high-speed cinema photography. The bubble and spiral types of breakdown were observed and appear to represent the extremes in a continuum of breakdown forms.

Payne, F.M.

1987-01-01

65

Leading edge vortex dynamics on a pitching delta wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the dynamic behavior of the leading edge vortices on a delta wing undergoing oscillatory pitching motion is presented. A sharp edge, flat plate, delta wing having a sweep angle of 70 deg was used in this investigation. The wing was sinusoidally pitched about its 1/2 chord position at reduced frequencies ranging from k = 2(pi)fc/u = 0.05 to 0.30 at chord Reynolds numbers between 90,000 and 350,000, for angle of attack ranges of 29 to 39 deg and 0 to 45 deg. During these dynamic motions, visualization of the leading edge vortices was obtained by marking the vortices with TiCl4 introduced through ports located near the model apex. The location of vortex breakdown was recorded using high speed motion picture photography. The motion picture records were analyzed to determine vortex trajectory and breakdown position as a function of angle of attack. When the wing was sinusoidally pitched, a hysteresis was observed in the location of breakdown position. This hysteresis increased with reduced frequency. The velocity of breakdown propagation along the wing, and the phase lag between model motion and breakdown location were also determined. Detailed information was also obtained on the oscillation of breakdown position in both static and dynamic cases.

Lemay, S. P.; Batill, S. M.; Nelson, R. C.

1988-01-01

66

An Aeroacoustic Study of a Leading Edge Slat Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroacoustic evaluations of high-lift devices have been carried out in the Quiet Flow Facility of the NASA Langley Research Center. The present paper describes detailed flow and acoustic measurements that have been made in order to better understand the noise generated from airflow over a wing leading edge slat configuration, and to possibly predict and reduce this noise source. The acoustic database is obtained by a moveable Small Aperture Directional Array of microphones designed to electronically steer to different portions of models under study. The slat is shown to be a uniform distributed noise source. The data was processed such that spectra and directivity were determined with respect to a one-foot span of slat. The spectra are normalized in various fashions to demonstrate slat noise character. In order to equate portions of the spectra to different slat noise components, trailing edge noise predictions using measured slat boundary layer parameters as inputs are compared to the measured slat noise spectra.

Mendoza, J. M.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M., Jr.

2002-01-01

67

Simulated big sagebrush regeneration supports predicted changes at the trailing and leading edges of distribution shifts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many semi-arid plant communities in western North America are dominated by big sagebrush. These ecosystems are being reduced in extent and quality due to economic development, invasive species, and climate change. These pervasive modifications have generated concern about the long-term viability of sagebrush habitat and sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (notably greater sage-grouse), highlighting the need for better understanding of the future big sagebrush distribution, particularly at the species' range margins. These leading and trailing edges of potential climate-driven sagebrush distribution shifts are likely to be areas most sensitive to climate change. We used a process-based regeneration model for big sagebrush, which simulates potential germination and seedling survival in response to climatic and edaphic conditions and tested expectations about current and future regeneration responses at trailing and leading edges that were previously identified using traditional species distribution models. Our results confirmed expectations of increased probability of regeneration at the leading edge and decreased probability of regeneration at the trailing edge below current levels. Our simulations indicated that soil water dynamics at the leading edge became more similar to the typical seasonal ecohydrological conditions observed within the current range of big sagebrush ecosystems. At the trailing edge, an increased winter and spring dryness represented a departure from conditions typically supportive of big sagebrush. Our results highlighted that minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well as soil water recharge and summer dry periods are important constraints for big sagebrush regeneration. Overall, our results confirmed previous predictions, i.e., we see consistent changes in areas identified as trailing and leading edges; however, we also identified potential local refugia within the trailing edge, mostly at sites at higher elevation. Decreasing regeneration probability at the trailing edge underscores the Schlaepfer et al. Future regeneration potential of big sagebrush potential futility of efforts to preserve and/or restore big sagebrush in these areas. Conversely, increasing regeneration probability at the leading edge suggest a growing potential for conflicts in management goals between maintaining existing grasslands by preventing sagebrush expansion versus accepting a shift in plant community composition to sagebrush dominance.

Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Taylor, Kyle A.; Pennington, Victoria E.; Nelson, Kellen N.; Martin, Trace E.; Rottler, Caitlin M.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

2015-01-01

68

ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF LEAD FROM TEKTITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of lead in three tektites and Libyan Desert ; glass is compared with that in knowa terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. ; The lead contained in the glasses is similar to modern terrestrial lead, ; particularly lead frozen modern oceanic sediments. The uranium, thorium, and ; lead concentrations were determined for one of the glasses, an australia. ;

G TILTON

1958-01-01

69

Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the NASP vehicle uses cryogenic hydrogen to cool structural components and then burns this fuel in the combustor, hydrogen necessary for descent cooling only, when the vehicle is unpowered, is considered to be a weight penalty. Details of the design of the refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge are currently being investigated. Issues such as thermal contact resistance and thermal stress are also being investigated.

Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

1992-01-01

70

Multiple shock-shock interference on a cylindrical leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of an experimental study of shock wave interference heating on a cylindrical leading edge representative of the cowl of a rectangular hypersonic engine inlet are presented. This Mach 8 study has provided the first detailed pressure and heat transfer rate distributions on a cylinder resulting from a two-dimensional shockwave interference pattern created by two incident oblique shock waves intersecting the cylinder bow shock wave. The peak heat transfer rate was 38 times the undisturbed flow stagnation point level and occurred when the two oblique shock waves coalesced prior to intersecting the cylinder bow shock wave. Development of pressure deflection diagrams identified a new interference pattern consisting of concomitant supersonic jets separated from each other by a shear layer and submerged in the subsonic region between the bow shock wave and body.

Wieting, Allan R.

1991-01-01

71

An embedded mesh procedure for leading-edge vortex flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cell-vertex scheme is outlined for solving the flow about a delta wing with M (sub infinity) is greater than 1. Embedded regions of mesh refinement allow solutions to be obtained which have much higher resolution than those achieved to date. Effects of mesh refinement and artificial viscosity on the solutions are studied, to determine at what point leading-edge vortex solutions are grid-converged. A macroscale and a microscale for the size of the vortex are defined, and it is shown that the macroscale (which includes the wing surface properties) is converged on a moderately refined grid, while the microscale is very sensitive to grid spacing. The level of numerical diffusion in the core of the vortex is found to be substantial. Comparisons with the experiment are made for two cases which have transonic cross-flow velocities.

Powell, Kenneth G.; Murman, Earll M.

1989-01-01

72

Managed aquifer recharge: rediscovering nature as a leading edge technology.  

PubMed

Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) has rapidly increased in Australia, USA, and Europe in recent years as an efficient means of recycling stormwater or treated sewage effluent for non-potable and indirect potable reuse in urban and rural areas. Yet aquifers have been relied on knowingly for water storage and unwittingly for water treatment for millennia. Hence if 'leading edge' is defined as 'the foremost part of a trend; a vanguard', it would be misleading to claim managed aquifer recharge as a leading edge technology. However it has taken a significant investment in scientific research in recent years to demonstrate the effectiveness of aquifers as sustainable treatment systems to enable managed aquifer recharge to be recognised along side engineered treatment systems in water recycling. It is a 'cross-over' technology that is applicable to water and wastewater treatment and makes use of passive low energy processes to spectacularly reduce the energy requirements for water supply. It is robust within limits, has low cost, is suitable from village to city scale supplies, and offers as yet almost untapped opportunities for producing safe drinking water supplies where they do not yet exist. It will have an increasingly valued role in securing water supplies to sustain cities affected by climate change and population growth. However it is not a universal panacea and relies on the presence of suitable aquifers and sources of water together with effective governance to ensure human health and environment protection and water resources planning and management. This paper describes managed aquifer recharge, illustrates its use in Australia, outlining economics, guidelines and policies, and presents some of the knowledge about aquifer treatment processes that are revealing the latent value of aquifers as urban water infrastructure and provide a driver to improving our understanding of urban hydrogeology. PMID:21076220

Dillon, P; Toze, S; Page, D; Vanderzalm, J; Bekele, E; Sidhu, J; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S

2010-01-01

73

Deformation Zones along Leading Edges of Thrust Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation zones and concomitant damage along earthquake ruptures were recognized long ago in studies of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Most of the previous investigations of deformation zones have been of features along strike slip earthquake ruptures. This research, in contrast, describes and analyzes deformation zones observed along leading edges of two thrusts—the 1999 Chi Chi rupture in Taiwan and the Sylmar segment of the 1971 San Fernando Valley rupture in California. Deformation zones along the leading edges of the Chi Chi and Sylmar thrusts have several features and conditions in common: Both formed over reverse faults that dip 30° to 45° at shallow depths. Both accommodated different amounts of strike slip as well as reverse, dip slip along their traces. Both had associated ground deformation zones containing various kinds of smaller structures, including low amplitude folds, small fractures such as strike slip and thrust faults and tension cracks. Both had broken and tilted dwellings and other man made structures within them. Also, both deformation zones were highly asymmetric: the deformation zone in the hanging wall was much wider than that in the footwall. We have combined a proper yielding criterion for permanent (plastic) deformation at the ground surface produced by slip on a buried dislocation that is propagating upward to the surface. The result is an approximate simulation of the growth of ground deformation zones analogous to those we see in the field. The specific phenomena we investigate with the method include: 1). Compressional deformation zones straddling earthquake thrust ruptures. 2). Asymmetric deformation zones. Compressional deformation zones are much wider in the hanging wall than the footwall of thrusts. 3). A thrust deformation zone also includes an extensional zone in the hanging wall. 4). Where there is also left lateral, strike shift across the deformation zone, a zone of left lateral distortion is sandwiched by zones of right lateral distortion.

Johnsion, A. M.; Huang, W. O.

2006-12-01

74

Model tests of airframe noise reduction concepts. [trailing-edge flap and leading-edge slat modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing-edge flap and leading-edge slat models were modified to reduce their acoustic response to convected turbulence. These components were tested on an 0.3-m chord wing at 70.7 and 100 m/sec velocities in an acoustic wind tunnel. Noise radiation from the side edges of the 40 deg deflected flap was reduced by use of porous and perforated surface treatment along the leading- and side-edge region. Up to 2 to 3 dB reduction of total flap noise was achieved over a 3-octave range of frequency. Leading-edge slat noise was reduced about 2 dB by use of a perforated trailing-edge region on the slat. These reductions were retained when the modified slat and flaps were tested together.

Fink, M. R.; Bailey, D. A.

1980-01-01

75

Edge delamination in angle-ply composite laminates, part 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method was developed for describing the edge delamination stress intensity characteristics in angle-ply composite laminates. The method is based on the theory of anisotropic elasticity. The edge delamination problem is formulated using Lekhnitskii's complex-variable stress potentials and an especially developed eigenfunction expansion method. The method predicts exact orders of the three-dimensional stress singularity in a delamination crack tip region. With the aid of boundary collocation, the method predicts the complete stress and displacement fields in a finite-dimensional, delaminated composite. Fracture mechanics parameters such as the mixed-mode stress intensity factors and associated energy release rates for edge delamination can be calculated explicity. Solutions are obtained for edge delaminated (theta/-theta theta/-theta) angle-ply composites under uniform axial extension. Effects of delamination lengths, fiber orientations, lamination and geometric variables are studied.

Wang, S. S.

1981-01-01

76

Experimental and Numerical Study of CMC Leading Edges in Hypersonic Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future transportation concepts aim at high supersonic or hypersonic speeds, where the formerly sharp boundaries between aeronautic and aerospace applications become blurred. One of the major issues involved to high speed flight are extremely high aerothermal loads, which especially appear at the leading edges of the plane's wings and at sharp edged air intake components of the propulsion system. As classical materials like metals or simple ceramics would thermally and structurally fail here, new materials have to be applied. In this context, lightweight ceramic matrix composites (CMC) seem to be prospective candidates as they are high-temperature resistant and offer low thermal expansion along with high specific strength at elevated temperature levels. A generic leading edge model with a ceramic wing assembly with a sweep back angle of 53° was designed, which allowed for easy leading edge sample integration of different CMC materials. The samples consisted of the materials C/C-SiC (non-oxide), OXIPOL and WHIPOX (both oxide) with a nose radius of 2 mm. In addition, a sharp edged C/C-SiC sample was prepared to investigate the nose radius influence. Overall, 13 thermocouples were installed inside the entire model to measure the temperature evolution at specific locations, whereby 5 thermocouples were placed inside the leading edge sample itself. In addition, non-intrusive techniques were applied for surface temperature measurements: An infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature distribution and at specific spots, the surface temperature was also measured by pyrometers. Following, the model was investigated in DLR's arc-heated facility L3K at a total enthalpy of 8.5 MJ/kg, Mach number of 7.8, different angles of attack and varying wing inclination angles. These experiments provide a sound basis for the simulation of aerothermally loaded CMC leading edge structures. Such fluid-structure coupled approaches have been performed by FOI, basing on a modal approach for the conduction model. Results show, that the temperature profiles are correctly depicted dependent on the model's angle of attack.

Kuhn, M.; Esser, B.; Gülhan, A.; Dalenbring, M.; Cavagna, L.

2011-08-01

77

Rotational accelerations stabilize leading edge vortices on revolving fly wings.  

PubMed

The aerodynamic performance of hovering insects is largely explained by the presence of a stably attached leading edge vortex (LEV) on top of their wings. Although LEVs have been visualized on real, physically modeled, and simulated insects, the physical mechanisms responsible for their stability are poorly understood. To gain fundamental insight into LEV stability on flapping fly wings we expressed the Navier-Stokes equations in a rotating frame of reference attached to the wing's surface. Using these equations we show that LEV dynamics on flapping wings are governed by three terms: angular, centripetal and Coriolis acceleration. Our analysis for hovering conditions shows that angular acceleration is proportional to the inverse of dimensionless stroke amplitude, whereas Coriolis and centripetal acceleration are proportional to the inverse of the Rossby number. Using a dynamically scaled robot model of a flapping fruit fly wing to systematically vary these dimensionless numbers, we determined which of the three accelerations mediate LEV stability. Our force measurements and flow visualizations indicate that the LEV is stabilized by the ;quasi-steady' centripetal and Coriolis accelerations that are present at low Rossby number and result from the propeller-like sweep of the wing. In contrast, the unsteady angular acceleration that results from the back and forth motion of a flapping wing does not appear to play a role in the stable attachment of the LEV. Angular acceleration is, however, critical for LEV integrity as we found it can mediate LEV spiral bursting, a high Reynolds number effect. Our analysis and experiments further suggest that the mechanism responsible for LEV stability is not dependent on Reynolds number, at least over the range most relevant for insect flight (100leading edge) vortices could represent a convergent solution for the generation of high fluid forces over a quite large range in size. PMID:19648415

Lentink, David; Dickinson, Michael H

2009-08-01

78

Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

2013-01-01

79

Boundary element simulation of oscillating foil with leading-edge separation  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we develop a numerical model to account for the leading-edge separation for the boundary element simulation of the oscillating foil with potential flow assumption. Similar to the trailing-edge separation, ...

Dong, Xiaoxia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

80

Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

2005-01-01

81

ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF LEAD IN PEGMATITIC FELDSPARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion-exchange method was developed for extracting microgram quantities ; of lead from pegmatitic feldspars. The isotopie composition of lead in feldspars ; ranging from 350 to 2750 million years (m.y.) in age was determined. Model ages ; were calculated and were generally found to be in good agreement with independent ; age determinations. The results are compatible with a

E. J. Catanzaro; P. W. Gast

1960-01-01

82

Mechanisms of leading edge protrusion in interstitial migration  

PubMed Central

While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5??m × 5??m cross-sections, HL60 neutrophil-like cells assemble an actin-rich slab filling the whole channel cross-section at their front. This leading edge comprises two distinct F-actin networks: an adherent network that polymerizes perpendicular to cell-wall interfaces and a ‘free’ network that grows from the free membrane at the cell front. Each network is polymerized by a distinct nucleator and, due to their geometrical arrangement, the networks interact mechanically. On the basis of our experimental data, we propose that, during interstitial migration, medial growth of the adherent network compresses the free network preventing its retrograde movement and enabling new polymerization to be converted into forward protrusion. PMID:24305616

Wilson, Kerry; Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

2013-01-01

83

Characteristics of surface roughness associated with leading edge ice accretion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed size measurements of surface roughness associated with leading edge ice accretions are presented to provide information on characteristics of roughness and trends of roughness development with various icing parameters. Data was obtained from icing tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) using a NACA 0012 airfoil. Measurements include diameters, heights, and spacing of roughness elements along with chordwise icing limits. Results confirm the existence of smooth and rough ice zones and that the boundary between the two zones (surface roughness transition region) moves upstream towards stagnation region with time. The height of roughness grows as the air temperature and the liquid water content increase, however, the airspeed has little effect on the roughness height. Results also show that the roughness in the surface roughness transition region grows during a very early stage of accretion but reaches a critical height and then remains fairly constant. Results also indicate that a uniformly distributed roughness model is only valid at a very initial stage of the ice accretion process.

Shin, Jaiwon

1994-01-01

84

Method and Apparatus for a Leading Edge Slat on a Wing of an Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge device is moved on a leading edge from an undeployed position to a deployed position. The leading edge device has an outer surface, an inner surface, and a deformable fairing attached to the leading edge device such that the deformable fairing covers at least a portion of the inner surface. The deformable fairing changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge device is moved to the deployed position. The leading edge device is then moved from the deployed position to the undeployed position, wherein the deformable fairing changes from the original shape to the deformed shape.

Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

2013-01-01

85

Pressure measurements on the leading edge of a swept wing at Mach 2.2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed pressure measurements were made on a flat semispan swept wing with a rounded leading edge at Mach number 2.2 through a range of Reynolds numbers. Pressure orifices were distributed in the streamwise direction at five spanwise stations on the leading edge and on the upper and lower surfaces. No significant amount of leading-edge suction was found, but the pressures and integrated normal forces on the upper and lower surfaces indicate the presence of a vortex lift.

Sorrells, R. B., III

1974-01-01

86

Modulation of leading edge vorticity and aerodynamic forces in flexible flapping wings.  

PubMed

In diverse biological flight systems, the leading edge vortex has been implicated as a flow feature of key importance in the generation of flight forces. Unlike fixed wings, flapping wings can translate at higher angles of attack without stalling because their leading edge vorticity is more stable than the corresponding fixed wing case. Hence, the leading edge vorticity has often been suggested as the primary determinant of the high forces generated by flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary to modulate the size and strength of the leading edge vorticity independently of the gross kinematics while simultaneously monitoring the forces generated by the wing. In a recent study, we observed that forces generated by wings with flexible trailing margins showed a direct dependence on the flexural stiffness of the wing. Based on that study, we hypothesized that trailing edge flexion directly influences leading edge vorticity, and thereby the magnitude of aerodynamic forces on the flexible flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, we visualized the flows on wings of varying flexural stiffness using a custom 2D digital particle image velocimetry system, while simultaneously monitoring the magnitude of the aerodynamic forces. Our data show that as flexion decreases, the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity increases and enhances aerodynamic forces, thus confirming that the leading edge vortex is indeed a key feature for aerodynamic force generation in flapping flight. The data shown here thus support the hypothesis that camber influences instantaneous aerodynamic forces through modulation of the leading edge vorticity. PMID:21852729

Zhao, Liang; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

2011-09-01

87

Combined overlay, focus and CD metrology for leading edge lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As leading edge lithography moves to 22-nm design rules, low k1 technologies like double patterning are the new resolution enablers, and system control and setup are the new drivers to meet remarkably tight process requirements. The way of thinking and executing setup and control of lithography scanners is changing in four ways. First, unusually tight process tolerances call for very dense sampling [1], which in effect means measurements at high throughput combined with high order modeling and corrections to compensate for wafer spatial fingerprint. Second, complex interactions between scanner and process no longer allow separation of error sources through traditional metrology approaches, which are based on using one set of metrology tools and methods for setup and another for scanner performance control. Moreover, setup and control of overlay is done independently from CD uniformity, which in effect leads to independent and conflicting adjustments for the scanner. Third, traditional CD setup and control is based on the focus and dose calculated from their CD response and not from measurement of their effect on pattern profile, which allows a clean and orthogonal de-convolution of focus and dose variations across the wafer. Fourth, scanner setup and control has to take into consideration the final goal of lithography, which is the accurate printing of a complex pattern describing a real device layout. To this end we introduce a new setup and control metrology step: measuring-to-match scanner 1D and 2D proximity. In this paper we will describe the strategy for setup and control of overlay, focus, CD and proximity based on the YieldStarTM metrology tool and present the resulting performance. YieldStar-200 is a new, high throughput metrology tool based on a high numerical aperture scatterometer concept. The tool can be used stand-alone as well as integrated in a processing track. It is suitable for determining process offsets in X,Y and Z directions through Overlay and Focus measurements respectively. In addition CD profile information can be measured enabling proximity matching applications. By using a technique [2][3][4] to de-convolve dose and focus based on the profile measurement of a well-characterized process monitor target, we show that the dose and focus signature of a high NA 193nm immersion scanner can be effectively measured and corrected. A similar approach was also taken to address overlay errors using the diffraction based overlay capability [5] of the same metrology tool. We demonstrate the advantage of having a single metrology tool solution, which enables us to reduce dose, focus and overlay variability to their minimum non-correctable signatures. This technique makes use of the high accuracy and repeatability of the YieldStar tool and provides a common reference of scanner setup and user process. Using ASML's YieldStar in combination with ASML scanners, and control solutions allows for a direct link from the metrology tool to the system settings, ensuring that the appropriate system settings can be easily and directly updated.

Ebert, Martin; Cramer, Hugo; Tel, Wim; Kubis, Michael; Megens, Henry

2011-04-01

88

Effects of leading-edge camber on low-speed characteristics of slender delta wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel studies have been conducted to determine the effects of leading-edge camber on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a thin, sharp-edge 74 deg delta wing. The results include force and moment measurements, pressure distributions, and flow visualization patterns determined from oil flow, tuft and water vapor observations. The study indicated that leading-edge camber near the apex is effective in controlling the pitch-up tendency of slender delta wings.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.

1972-01-01

89

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 6. Perspectives Charter School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

90

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 4. Boston Arts Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

91

High-performance wings with significant leading-edge thrust at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of curved-leading-edge wings with which significant levels of leading-edge thrust may be achieved at moderate supersonic speeds is suggested. A recent analysis of the factors limiting such leading-edge thrust has led to a new method for the prediction of attainable leading-edge thrust from subsonic through supersonic speeds for wings of arbitrary planform. Recent supersonic tests of a new wing shape, which largely meets design criteria given by the new prediction method, give evidence of significant levels of leading-edge thrust. The consequent unusually high levels of aerodynamic performance should renew interest in supersonic-cruise vehicle design in general and in cruise-speed selection in particular.

Robins, A. W.; Carlson, H. W.

1979-01-01

92

SIMS chemical analysis of extended impacts on the leading and trailing edges of LDEF experiment AO187-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous 'extended impacts' found in both leading and trailing edge capture cells were successfully analyzed for the chemical composition of projectile residues by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Most data were obtained from the trailing edge cells where 45 of 58 impacts were classified as 'probably natural' and the remainder as 'possibly man-made debris.' This is in striking contrast to leading edge cells where 9 of 11 impacts so far measured are definitely classified as orbital debris. Although all the leading edge cells had lost their plastic entrance foils during flight, the rate of foil failure was similar to that of the trailing edge cells, 10 percent of which were recovered intact. Ultraviolet embrittlement is suspected as the major cause of failure on both leading and trailing edges. The major impediment to the accurate determination of projectile chemistry is the fractionation of volatile and refractory elements in the hypervelocity impact and redeposition processes. This effect had been noted in a simulation experiment but is more pronounced in the LDEF capture cells, probably due to the higher average velocities of the space impacts. Surface contamination of the pure Ge surfaces with a substance rich in Si, but also containing Mg and Al, provides an additional problem for the accurate determination of impactor chemistry. The effect is variable, being much larger on surfaces that were exposed to space than in those cells that remained intact. Future work will concentrate on the analyses of more leading edge impacts and the development of new SIMS techniques for the measurement of elemental abundances in extended impacts.

Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Swan, P.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Lange, G.

1993-01-01

93

Dynamic Impact Tolerance of Shuttle RCC Leading Edge Panels using LS-DYNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a research program conducted to enable accurate prediction of the impact tolerance of the shuttle Orbiter leading-edge wing panels using 'physics-based- codes such as LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. The shuttle leading-edge panels are constructed of Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composite material, which issued because of its thermal properties to protect the shuttle during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate predictions of impact damage from insulating foam and other debris strikes that occur during launch required materials characterization of expected debris, including strain-rate effects. First, analytical models of individual foam and RCC materials were validated. Next, analytical models of individual foam cylinders impacting 6-in. x 6-in. RCC flat plates were developed and validated. LS-DYNA pre-test models of the RCC flat plate specimens established the impact velocity of the test for three damage levels: no-detectable damage, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) detectable damage, or visible damage such as a through crack or hole. Finally, the threshold of impact damage for RCC on representative Orbiter wing panels was predicted for both a small through crack and for NDE-detectable damage.

Fasanella, Edwin; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jones, Lisa E.; Hardy, Robin C.; Spellman, Regina L.; Carney, Kelly S.; Melis, Matthew E.; Stockwell, Alan E.

2008-01-01

94

Dynamics Impact Tolerance of Shuttle RCC Leading Edge Panels Using LS-DYNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a research program conducted to enable accurate prediction of the impact tolerance of the shuttle Orbiter leading-edge wing panels using physics-based codes such as LS-DYNA, a nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code. The shuttle leading-edge panels are constructed of Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composite material, which is used because of its thermal properties to protect the shuttle during reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate predictions of impact damage from insulating foam and other debris strikes that occur during launch required materials characterization of expected debris, including strain-rate effects. First, analytical models of individual foam and RCC materials were validated. Next, analytical models of foam cylinders impacting 6- in. x 6-in. RCC flat plates were developed and validated. LS-DYNA pre-test models of the RCC flat plate specimens established the impact velocity of the test for three damage levels: no-detectable damage, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) detectable damage, or visible damage such as a through crack or hole. Finally, the threshold of impact damage for RCC on representative Orbiter wing panels was predicted for both a small through crack and for NDE-detectable damage.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jones, Lisa E.; Hardy, Robin C.; Spellman, Regina L.; Carney, Kelly S.; Melis, Matthew E.; Stockwell, Alan E.

2005-01-01

95

Study of supersonic wings employing the attainable leading-edge thrust concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical study was made of supersonic wing geometries at Mach 1.8, using the attainable leading-edge thrust concept. The attainable thrust method offers a powerful means to improve overall aerodynamic efficiency by identifying wing leading-edge geometries that promote attached flow and by defining a local angle-of-attack range over which attached flow may be obtained. The concept applies to flat and to cambered wings, which leads to the consideration of drooped-wing leading edges for attached flow at high lift coefficients.

Middleton, W. D.

1982-01-01

96

SIMS chemical analysis of extended impacts on the leading and trailing edges of LDEF experiment AO187-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment AO187-2 consisted of 237 capture cells, 120 on the leading edge and 117 on the trailing edge. Each cell was made of polished Ge plates covered with 2.5 micron thick mylar foil at 200 microns from the Ge. Although all leading edge cells and 105 trailing edge cells had lost their plastic covers during flight, optical and electron microscope examination revealed extended impacts in bare cells from either edge that apparently were produced by high velocity projectiles while the plastic foils were still in place. Detailed optical scanning yielded 53 extended impacts on 100 bare cells from the trailing edge that were selected for SIMS chemical analysis. Lateral multi-element ion probe profiles were obtained on 40 of these impacts. Material that can be attributed to the incoming projectiles was found in all analyzed extended compact features and most seem to be associated with cosmic dust particles. However, LDEF deposits are systematically enriched in the refractory elements Al, Ca, and Ti relative to Mg and Fe when compared to IDP's collected in the stratosphere and to chondritic compositions. These differences are most likely due to elemental fractionation effects during the high velocity impact but real differences between interplanetary particles captured on LDEF and stratospheric IDP's cannot be excluded. Recently we extended our studies to cells from the leading edge and the covered cells from the trailing edge. The 12 covered cells contain 20 extended impact candidates. Ion probe analysis of 3 yielded results similar to those obtained for impacts on the bare cells from the trailing edge. Optical scanning of the bare leading edge cell also reveals many extended impacts (42 on 22 cells scanned to date), demonstrating that the cover foils remained intact at least for some time. However, SIMS analysis showed elements that can reasonably be attributed to micrometeoroids in only 2 out of 11 impacts. Eight impacts have residues dominated by Al and one dominated by Ti, indicating a preponderance of orbital debris in leading edge impacts.

Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Simon, Charles G.; Swan, P.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Jessberger, E. K.; Lange, G.; Stadermann, F.

1992-01-01

97

Analysis of edge impact stresses in composite plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-plane edge impact of composite plates, with or without a protection strip, is investigated. A computational analysis based on the Fast Fourier Transform technique is presented. The particular application of the present method is in the understanding of the foreign object damage problem of composite fan blades. The method is completely general and may be applied to the study of other stress wave propagation problems in a half space. Results indicate that for the protective strip to be effective in reducing impact stresses in the composite the thickness must be equal or greater than the impact contact dimension. Large interface shear stresses at the strip - composite boundary can be induced under impact.

Moon, F. C.; Kang, C. K.

1974-01-01

98

Simulated airline service experience with laminar-flow control leading-edge systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first JetStar leading edge flight test was made November 30, 1983. The JetStar was flown for more than 3 years. The titanium leading edge test articles today remain in virtually the same condition as they were in on that first flight. No degradation of laminar flow performance has occurred as a result of service. The JetStar simulated airline service flights have demonstrated that effective, practical leading edge systems are available for future commercial transports. Specific conclusions based on the results of the simulated airline service test program are summarized.

Maddalon, Dal V.; Fisher, David F.; Jennett, Lisa A.; Fischer, Michael C.

1987-01-01

99

Effect of leading-edge load constraints on the design and performance of supersonic wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of leading-edge load constraints on supersonic wing design and performance. In the effort to delay flow separation and the formation of leading-edge vortices, two constrained, linear-theory optimization approaches were used to limit the loadings on the leading edge of a variable-sweep planform design. Experimental force and moment tests were made on two constrained camber wings, a flat uncambered wing, and an optimum design with no constraints. Results indicate that vortex strength and separation regions were mildest on the severely and moderately constrained wings.

Darden, C. M.

1985-01-01

100

Hydrodynamic effects of leading-edge tubercles on control surfaces and in flapping foil propulsion  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the hydrodynamic effects of biologically-inspired leading-edge tubercles. Two complementary studies examine the performance of three-dimensional hydrofoils based on the pectoral flippers of the ...

Stanway, Michael Jordan

2008-01-01

101

User's manual for interfacing a leading edge, vortex rollup program with two linear panel methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sufficient instructions are provided for interfacing the Mangler-Smith, leading edge vortex rollup program with a vortex lattice (POTFAN) method and an advanced higher order, singularity linear analysis for computing the vortex effects for simple canard wing combinations.

Desilva, B. M. E.; Medan, R. T.

1979-01-01

102

Manipulation of upstream rotor leading edge vortex and its effects on counter rotating propeller noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The leading edge vortex of a counter rotating propeller (CRP) model was altered by using shrouds and by turning the upstream rotors to a forward sweep configuration. Performance, flow, and acoustic data were used to determine the effect of vortex impingement on the noise signature of the CRP system. Forward sweep was found to eliminate the leading edge vortex of the upstream blades. Removal of the vortex had little effect on the tone noise at the forward and rear blade passing frequencies (BPF's) but significantly altered both the sound pressure level and directivity of the interaction tone which occurs at the sum of the two BPF's. A separate manipulation of the leading edge vortex performed by installing shrouds of various inlet length on the CRP verified that diverting the vortex path increases the noise level of the interaction tone. An unexpected link has been established between the interaction tone and the leading edge vortex-blade interaction phenomenon.

Squires, Becky

1993-01-01

103

Metallic Concepts for Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Space Shuttle Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia accident has focused attention on the critical need for on-orbit repair concepts for wing leading edges in the event that potentially catastrophic damage is incurred during Space Shuttle Orbiter flight. The leading edge of the space shuttle wings consists of a series of eleven panels on each side of the orbiter. These panels are fabricated from reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) which is a light weight composite with attractive strength at very high temperatures. The damage that was responsible for the loss of the Colombia space shuttle was deemed due to formation of a large hole in one these RCC leading edge panels produced by the impact of a large piece of foam. However, even small cracks in the RCC are considered as potentially catastrophic because of the high temperature re-entry environment. After the Columbia accident, NASA has explored various means to perform on-orbit repairs in the event that damage is sustained in future shuttle flights. Although large areas of damage, such as that which doomed Columbia, are not anticipated to re-occur due to various improvements to the shuttle, especially the foam attachment, NASA has also explored various options for both small and large area repair. This paper reports one large area repair concept referred to as the "metallic over-wrap." Environmental conditions during re-entry of the orbiter impose extreme requirements on the RCC leading edges as well as on any repair concepts. These requirements include temperatures up to 3000 F (1650 C) for up to 15 minutes in the presence of an extremely oxidizing plasma environment. Figure 1 shows the temperature profile across one panel (#9) which is subject to the highest temperatures during re-entry. Although the RCC possesses adequate mechanical strength at these temperatures, it lacks oxidation resistance. Oxidation protection is afforded by converting the outer layers of the RCC to SiC by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). At high temperatures in an oxidizing environment, the SiC layer forms a protective SiO2 scale. However, CVD processing to form the SiC layer can result in the formation of small cracks in the outer surface. Hence, as a final fabrication step, a sodium silicate glass, known as "Type A," is applied as a sealant to fill any surface porosity and/or cracks in the coating and the outer portions of the RCC[1]. At relatively low temperatures, the Type A glass melts and flows into the cracks providing oxidation protection at the higher temperatures. In addition, the Type A coating, provides a "dark" coating with a high emissivity. This high emissivity allows the RCC to transfer heat by radiating outward to space as well as dispersing heat within the leading edge cavity. Lastly, the Type A possesses low catalycity which reduces surface temperatures by limiting oxygen recombination on the surface during re-entry.

Ritzert, Frank; Nesbitt, James

2007-01-01

104

Design and fabrication of a high temperature leading edge heating array, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during a Phase 1 program to design a high temperature heating array is reported for environmentally testing full-scale shuttle leading edges (30 inch span, 6 to 15 inch radius) at flight heating rates and pressures. Heat transfer analyses of the heating array, individual modules, and the shuttle leading edge were performed, which influenced the array design, and the design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype heater module.

1972-01-01

105

An experimental investigation of leading edge vortical flow about a delta wing during wing rock  

E-print Network

in the water tunnel had more curvature above the wing than did their wind tunnel counterparts. However, the leading edge vortices were not quantified during the wind tunnel tests, only relative motion data were gathered. Arena', Nelson, and Schiff...AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LEADING EDGE VORTICAL FLOW ABOUT A DELTA WING DURING WING ROCK A Thesis by MICHAEL DENIS NELSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Nelson, Michael Denis

1991-01-01

106

Connection between leading-edge sweep, vortex lift, and vortex strength for delta wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort is made to clarify the effect of leading-edge sweep on the vortex lift and leading-edge vortex strength of a slender wing; while it is often assumed that increasing sweep enhances vortex lift and strength, the opposite is the case. The suction analogy is used in association with numerical and experimental data to derive simple formulas yielding the actual relationship for delta wings. The difference between vortex lift and nonlinear lift is highlighted.

Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.

1990-01-01

107

Formation of Leading-Edge Pinholes in the Space Shuttle Wings Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle wing leading edge and nose cap are composed of a carbon/carbon composite that is protected by silicon carbide. The coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch leads to cracks in the silicon carbide. The outer coating of the silicon carbide is a sodium-silicate-based glass that becomes fluid at the shuttles high reentry temperatures and fills these cracks. Small pinholes roughly 0.1 mm in diameter have been observed on these materials after 12 or more flights. These pinholes have been investigated by researchers at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Rockwell International, the Boeing Company, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to determine the possible sources and the extent of damage. A typical pinhole is illustrated in the photomicrographs. These pinholes are found primarily on the wing leading edges and not on the nose cap, which is covered when the orbiter is on the launch pad. The pinholes are generally associated with a bead of zincrich glass. Examination of the orbiter and launch structure indicates that weathering paint on the launch structure leads to deposits of zinc-containing paint flakes on the wing leading edge. These may become embedded in the crevices of the wing leading edge and form the observed zinc-rich glass. Laboratory experiments indicate that zinc oxide reacts vigorously with the glass coating on the silicon carbide. Thus, it is likely that this is the reaction that leads to pinhole formation (Christensen, S.V.: Reinforced Carbon/Carbon Pin Hole Formation Through Zinc Oxide Attack. Rockwell International Internal Letter, RDW 96 057, May 1996). Cross-sectional examination of pinholes suggests that they are enlarged thermal expansion mismatch cracks. This is illustrated in the photomicrographs. A careful microstructural analysis indicates that the pinhole walls consist of layers of zinc-containing glass. Thus, pinholes are likely formed by zinc oxide particles lodging in crevices and forming a corrosive zinc-rich glass that enlarges existing cracks. Having established the likely source of the pinholes, we next needed to model the damage. Our concern was that if a pinhole went through the silicon carbide to the carbon/carbon substrate, oxygen would have a clear path to oxidize the carbon at high temperatures. This possibility was examined with studies in a laboratory furnace. An ultrasonic drill was used to make artificial pinholes in a sample of protected carbon/carbon. After exposure, the specimens were weighed and cross-sectioned to quantify the extent of oxidation below the pinhole. The results at higher temperatures showed good agreement with a simple diffusion-control model. This model is based on the two-step oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The fluxes are illustrated in the final figure. The model indicates a strong dependence on pinhole diameter. For smaller diameters and short times, the oxidation of carbon is very limited.

Jacobson, Nathan S.

2000-01-01

108

Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.

Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.

1994-01-01

109

An experimental investigation of leading-edge vortex augmentation by blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effects of over-the-wing blowing as a means of augmenting the leading-edge vortex flow of several pointed-tip, sharp-edged planforms. Arrow, delta, and diamond wings with leading-edge sweeps of 30 and 45 degrees were mounted on a body-of-revolution fuselage and tested in a low-speed wind tunnel at a Mach number of 0.2. Nozzle location data, pitch data, and flow-visualization pictures were obtained for a range of blowing rates. Results show pronounced increases in vortex lift due to the blowing.

Bradley, R. G.; Wray, W. O.; Smith, C. W.

1974-01-01

110

Evaluation of cloud detection instruments and performance of laminar-flow leading-edge test articles during NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summary evaluations of the performance of laminar-flow control (LFC) leading edge test articles on a NASA JetStar aircraft are presented. Statistics, presented for the test articles' performance in haze and cloud situations, as well as in clear air, show a significant effect of cloud particle concentrations on the extent of laminar flow. The cloud particle environment was monitored by two instruments, a cloud particle spectrometer (Knollenberg probe) and a charging patch. Both instruments are evaluated as diagnostic aids for avoiding laminar-flow detrimental particle concentrations in future LFC aircraft operations. The data base covers 19 flights in the simulated airline service phase of the NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test (LEFT) Program.

Davis, Richard E.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.; Fisher, David F.; Young, Ronald

1989-01-01

111

The three-dimensional leading-edge vortex of a 'hovering' model hawkmoth  

PubMed Central

Recent flow visualisation experiments with the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, revealed small but clear leading-edge vortex and a pronounced three-dimensional flow. Details of this flow pattern were studied with a scaled-up, robotic insect ('the flapper') that accurately mimicked the wing movements of a hovering hawkmoth. Smoke released from the leading edge of the flapper wing confirmed the existence of a small, strong and stable leading-edge vortex, increasing in size from wingbase to wingtip. Between 25 and 75 per cent of the wing length, its diameter increased approximately from 10 to 50 per cent of the wing chord. The leading-edge vortex had a strong axial flow veolocity, which stabilized it and reduced its diamater. The vortex separated from the wing at approximately 75 per cent of the wing length and thus fed vorticity into a large, tangled tip vortex. If the circulation of the leading-edge vortex were fully used for lift generation, it could support up to two-thirds of the hawkmoth's weight during the downstroke. The growth of this circulation with time and spanwise position clearly identify dynamic stall as the unsteady aerodynamic mechanism responsible for high lift production by hovering hawkmoths and possibly also by many other insect species.

Berg, C. van den; Ellington, C.P.

1997-01-01

112

Subsonic balance and pressure investigation of a 60 deg delta wing with leading edge devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low supersonic wave drag makes the thin highly swept delta wing the logical choice for use on aircraft designed for supersonic cruise. However, the high-lift maneuver capability of the aircraft is limited by severe induced-drag penalties attributed to loss of potential flow leading-edge suction. This drag increase may be alleviated through leading-edge flow control to recover lost aerodynamic thrust through either retention of attached leading-edge flow to higher angles of attack or exploitation of the increased suction potential of separation-induced vortex flow. A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was undertaken to examine the high-lift devices such as fences, chordwise slots, pylon vortex generators, leading-edge vortex flaps, and sharp leading-edge extensions. The devices were tested individually and in combinations in an attempt to improve high-alpha drag performance with a minimum of low-alpha drag penalty. This report presents an analysis of the force, moment, and static pressure data obtained in angles of attack up to 23 deg, at Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.16 and 3.85 x 10 to the 6th power per meter, respectively. The results indicate that all the devices produced drag and longitudinal/lateral stability improvements at high lift with, in most cases, minor drag penalties at low angles of attack.

Tingas, S. A.; Rao, D. M.

1982-01-01

113

Transonic flight test of a laminar flow leading edge with surface excrescences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight experiment, conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, investigated the effects of surface excrescences, specifically gaps and steps, on boundary-layer transition in the vicinity of a leading edge at transonic flight conditions. A natural laminar flow leading-edge model was designed for this experiment with a spanwise slot manufactured into the leading-edge model to simulate gaps and steps like those present at skin joints of small transonic aircraft wings. The leading-edge model was flown with the flight test fixture, a low-aspect ratio fin mounted beneath an F-104G aircraft. Test points were obtained over a unit Reynolds number range of 1.5 to 2.5 million/ft and a Mach number range of 0.5 to 0.8. Results for a smooth surface showed that laminar flow extended to approximately 12 in. behind the leading edge at Mach number 0.7 over a unit Reynolds number range of 1.5 to 2.0 million/ft. The maximum size of the gap-and-step configuration over which laminar flow was maintained consisted of two 0.06-in. gaps with a 0.02-in. step at a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million/ft.

Zuniga, Fanny A.; Drake, Aaron; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.; Westphal, Russell V.

1994-01-01

114

The Influence of Clocking Angle of the Projectile on the Simulated Impact Response of a Shuttle Leading Edge Wing Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was conducted to determine the influence of clocking angle of a foam projectile impacting a space shuttle leading edge wing panel. Four simulations were performed using LS-DYNA. The leading edge panels are fabricated of multiple layers of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The RCC material was represented using Mat 58, which is a material property that can be used for laminated composite fabrics. Simulations were performed of a rectangular-shaped foam block, weighing 0.23-lb., impacting RCC Panel 9 on the top surface. The material properties of the foam were input using Mat 83. The impact velocity was 1,000 ft/s along the Orbiter X-axis. In two models, the foam impacted on a corner, in one model the foam impacted the panel initially on the 2-in.-long edge, and in the last model the foam impacted the panel on the 7-in.- long edge. The simulation results are presented as contour plots of first principal infinitesimal strain and time history plots of contact force and internal and kinetic energy of the foam and RCC panel.

Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.

2005-01-01

115

Leading edge sweep effects in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational and experimental study of generic 3D sidewall compression inlets is conducted to examine the effects of fore and aft leading edge sweep on the internal shock structure. Inlets with leading edge sweeps of +30 deg and -30 deg with sidewall compression angles of 6 deg were tested in the NASA Langley Mach 4 air tunnel at a geometric contraction ratio of 1.87. The principal difference in performance was determined to be in the mass capture. Spillage was identified as having two components: a pressure induced component and a sweep induced component. It was found that while the direction of the leading edge sweep had a large influence on the spillage, the pressure effects were more important.

Cozart, Aaron B.; Holland, Scott D.; Trexler, Carl A.; Perkins, John N.

1992-01-01

116

Test and Analysis Correlation of Form Impact onto Space Shuttle Wing Leading Edge RCC Panel 8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soon after the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) began their study of the space shuttle Columbia accident, "physics-based" analyses using LS-DYNA were applied to characterize the expected damage to the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) leading edge from high-speed foam impacts. Forensic evidence quickly led CAIB investigators to concentrate on the left wing leading edge RCC panels. This paper will concentrate on the test of the left-wing RCC panel 8 conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the correlation with an LS-DYNA analysis. The successful correlation of the LS-DYNA model has resulted in the use of LS-DYNA as a predictive tool for characterizing the threshold of damage for impacts of various debris such as foam, ice, and ablators onto the RCC leading edge for shuttle return-to-flight.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan; Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly

2004-01-01

117

Membrane tension maintains cell polarity by confining signals to the leading edge during neutrophil migration  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Little is known about how neutrophils and other cells establish a single zone of actin assembly during migration. A widespread assumption is that the leading edge prevents formation of additional fronts by generating long-range diffusible inhibitors or by sequestering essential polarity components. We use morphological perturbations, cell severing experiments, and computational simulations to show that diffusion-based mechanisms are not sufficient for long-range inhibition by the pseudopod. Instead, plasma membrane tension could serve as a long-range inhibitor in neutrophils. We find that membrane tension doubles during leading edge protrusion, and increasing tension is sufficient for long-range inhibition of actin assembly and Rac activation. Furthermore, reducing membrane tension causes uniform actin assembly. We suggest that tension, rather than diffusible molecules generated or sequestered at the leading edge, is the dominant source of long-range inhibition that constrains the spread of the existing front and prevents the formation of secondary fronts. PMID:22265410

Houk, Andrew R.; Jilkine, Alexandra; Mejean, Cecile O.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Dufresne, Eric R.; Angenent, Sigurd B.; Altschuler, Steven J.; Wu, Lani F.; Weiner, Orion D.

2012-01-01

118

A flight test of laminar flow control leading-edge systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for development of a laminar flow technology base for application to commercial transports has made significant progress since its inception in 1976. Current efforts are focused on development of practical reliable systems for the leading-edge region where the most difficult problems in applying laminar flow exist. Practical solutions to these problems will remove many concerns about the ultimate practicality of laminar flow. To address these issues, two contractors performed studies, conducted development tests, and designed and fabricated fully functional leading-edge test articles for installation on the NASA JetStar aircraft. Systems evaluation and performance testing will be conducted to thoroughly evaluate all system capabilities and characteristics. A simulated airline service flight test program will be performed to obtain the operational sensitivity, maintenance, and reliability data needed to establish that practical solutions exist for the difficult leading-edge area of a future commercial transport employing laminar flow control.

Fischer, M. C.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Wagner, R. D.

1983-01-01

119

Influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps is analysed in the present paper. Three sets of blade angle distribution along leading edge for three blade inlet angles are chosen to design nine centrifugal pump impellers. The RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model are employed to simulate the cavitation flows in centrifugal pumps with different impellers and the same volute. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data, and the comparison proves that the numerical simulation can accurately predict the cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps. On the basis of the numerical simulations, the pump head variations with pump inlet pressure, and the flow details in centrifugal pump are revealed to demonstrate the influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performances of centrifugal pumps.

Xu, Y.; Tan, L.; Cao, S. L.; Wang, Y. C.; Meng, G.; Qu, W. S.

2015-01-01

120

An analytical design procedure for the determination of effective leading edge extensions on thick delta wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical design procedure for leading edge extensions (LEE) was developed for thick delta wings. This LEE device is designed to be mounted to a wing along the pseudo-stagnation stream surface associated with the attached flow design lift coefficient of greater than zero. The intended purpose of this device is to improve the aerodynamic performance of high subsonic and low supersonic aircraft at incidences above that of attached flow design lift coefficient, by using a vortex system emanating along the leading edges of the device. The low pressure associated with these vortices would act on the LEE upper surface and the forward facing area at the wing leading edges, providing an additional lift and effective leading edge thrust recovery. The first application of this technique was to a thick, round edged, twisted and cambered wing of approximately triangular planform having a sweep of 58 deg and aspect ratio of 2.30. The panel aerodynamics and vortex lattice method with suction analogy computer codes were employed to determine the pseudo-stagnation stream surface and an optimized LEE planform shape.

Ghaffari, F.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

1984-01-01

121

Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 Deg Delta Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at subsonic speeds (M = 0.4) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

Luckring, J. M.

2002-01-01

122

Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 65 degree delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at subsonic speeds (M = 0.4) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

Luckring, J. M.

2002-01-01

123

Thermoviscoplastic analysis of engine cowl leading edge subjected to oscillating shock-shock interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element thermoviscoplastic analysis method, which employs a unified constitutive model proposed by Bodner and Partom, is used to predict rate-dependent nonlinear structural behavior. The method is evaluated by predicting stress-strain behavior of a uniaxially loaded bar of nickel-based superalloy (B1900 + Hf) material. The method is used to predict the time-dependent thermoviscoplastic response of a B1900 + Hf leading edge subjected to oscillating shock-shock interaction loading. Viscoplastic analysis shows that the leading edge experiences significant plastic straining. The plastic region increases with cyclic loading in the high heat flux area.

Pandey, Ajay K.

1992-01-01

124

Experimental study of delta wing leading-edge devices for drag reduction at high lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drag reduction devices selected for evaluation were the fence, slot, pylon-type vortex generator, and sharp leading-edge extension. These devices were tested on a 60 degree flatplate delta (with blunt leading edges) in the Langley Research Center 7- by 10-foot high-speed tunnel at low speed and to angles of attack of 28 degrees. Balance and static pressure measurements were taken. The results indicate that all the devices had significant drag reduction capability and improved longitudinal stability while a slight loss of lift and increased cruise drag occurred.

Johnson, T. D., Jr.; Rao, D. M.

1982-01-01

125

Summary of past experience in natural laminar flow and experimental program for resilient leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of natural laminar flow for significant drag reduction and improved efficiency for aircraft is assessed. Past experience with natural laminar flow as reported in published and unpublished data and personal observations of various researchers is summarized. Aspects discussed include surface contour, waviness, and smoothness requirements; noise and vibration effects on boundary layer transition, boundary layer stability criteria; flight experience with natural laminar flow and suction stabilized boundary layers; and propeller slipstream, rain, frost, ice and insect contamination effects on boundary layer transition. The resilient leading edge appears to be a very promising method to prevent leading edge insect contamination.

Carmichael, B. H.

1979-01-01

126

Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M=0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

Luckring, J. M.

2003-01-01

127

Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M = 0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading- edge vortex separation.

Luckring, J. M.

2003-01-01

128

Reynolds Number, Compressibility, and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on Delta-Wing Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of Reynolds number, compressibility, and leading edge bluntness effects is presented for a 65 degree delta wing. The results of this study address both attached and vortex-flow aerodynamics and are based upon a unique data set obtained in the NASA-Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) for i) Reynolds numbers ranging from conventional wind-tunnel to flight values, ii) Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to transonic speeds, and iii) leading-edge bluntness values that span practical slender wing applications. The data were obtained so as to isolate the subject effects and they present many challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies.

Luckring, James M.

2004-01-01

129

Effect of leading-edge geometry on boundary-layer receptivity to freestream sound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The receptivity to freestream sound of the laminar boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is simulated numerically. The incompressible flow past the flat plate is computed by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. A finite-difference method which is second-order accurate in space and time is used. Spatial and temporal developments of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave in the boundary layer, due to small-amplitude time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream velocity that closely simulate a sound wave travelling parallel to the plate, are observed. The effect of leading-edge curvature is studied by varying the aspect ratio of the ellipse. The boundary layer over the flat plate with a sharper leading edge is found to be less receptive. The relative contribution of the discontinuity in curvature at the ellipse-flat-plate juncture to receptivity is investigated by smoothing the juncture with a polynomial. Continuous curvature leads to less receptivity. A new geometry of the leading edge, a modified super ellipse, which provides continuous curvature at the juncture with the flat plate, is used to study the effect of continuous curvature and inherent pressure gradient on receptivity.

Lin, Nay; Reed, Helen L.; Saric, W. S.

1991-01-01

130

Lead isotopic compositions of ash sourced from Australian bushfires.  

PubMed

This study identifies natural and industrial lead remobilized in ash deposits from three bushfires in relatively pristine areas of Australia in 2011 using lead isotopic compositions ((208)Pb/(207)Pb; (206)Pb/(207)Pb). Lead concentrations in the ash ranged from 1 to 36 mg/kg, bracketing the range of lead (4-23 mg/kg) in surface soils (0-2 cm), subsurface (40-50 cm) soils and rocks. The lead isotopic compositions of ash and surface soil samples were compared to subsurface soils and local bedrock samples. The data show that many of the ash and surface soil lead isotopic compositions were a mixture of natural lead and legacy industrial lead depositions (such as leaded petrol combustion). However, some of the ash samples at each of the sites had lead isotopic compositions that did not fit a simple two end-member mixing model, indicating other, unidentified sources. PMID:24763391

Kristensen, Louise J; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Odigie, Kingsley O; Hibdon, Sharon A; Flegal, A Russell

2014-07-01

131

Interlaminar stress singularities at a straight free edge in composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quasi three dimensional finite element analysis was used to analyze the edge stress problem in four-ply, composite laminates. Convergence studies were made to explore the existence of stress singularities near the free edge. The existence of stress singularities at the intersection of the interface and the free edge is confirmed.

Raju, I. S.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

1980-01-01

132

Leading Edge Cell 125, May 5, 2006 2006 Elsevier Inc. 435  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Minireview Cell 125, May 5, 2006 ©2006 Elsevier Inc. 435 Introduction The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is vital for inverte- brate and vertebrate embryonic development, and mis- regulation of the pathway is responsible for many human congenital defects and cancers (McMahon et al., 2003). Hh acts

Chuang, Pao-Tien

133

Heat flux from a diffusion flame leading edge to an adjacent surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the attachment of diffusion flames (DFs) near cold, chemically inert surfaces. A two-dimensional model based on the examination of the diffusion flame leading edge is constructed. Two matching procedures give separate models, the simplified model and the detailed model. A quench-distance formula is produced by the simplified model, which correlates the numerical results in terms of the reduced

I. S. Wichman; Z. Pavlova; B. Ramadan; G. Qin

1999-01-01

134

Integrin-mediated Protein Kinase A Activation at the Leading Edge of Migrating Cells  

PubMed Central

cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is important in processes requiring localized cell protrusion, such as cell migration and axonal path finding. Here, we used a membrane-targeted PKA biosensor to reveal activation of PKA at the leading edge of migrating cells. Previous studies show that PKA activity promotes protrusion and efficient cell migration. In live migrating cells, membrane-associated PKA activity was highest at the leading edge and required ligation of integrins such as ?4?1 or ?5?1 and an intact actin cytoskeleton. ?4 integrins are type I PKA-specific A-kinase anchoring proteins, and we now find that type I PKA is important for localization of ?4?1 integrin-mediated PKA activation at the leading edge. Accumulation of 3? phosphorylated phosphoinositides [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) is an early event in establishing the directionality of migration; however, polarized PKA activation did not require PI3-kinase activity. Conversely, inhibition of PKA blocked accumulation of a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding protein, the AKT-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, at the leading edge; hence, PKA is involved in maintaining cell polarity during migration. In sum, we have visualized compartment-specific PKA activation in migrating cells and used it to reveal that adhesion-mediated localized activation of PKA is an early step in directional cell migration. PMID:18784251

Lim, Chinten J.; Kain, Kristin H.; Tkachenko, Eugene; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Gutierrez, Edgar; Allen, Michael D.; Groisman, Alex; Zhang, Jin

2008-01-01

135

Integrin-mediated protein kinase A activation at the leading edge of migrating cells.  

PubMed

cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is important in processes requiring localized cell protrusion, such as cell migration and axonal path finding. Here, we used a membrane-targeted PKA biosensor to reveal activation of PKA at the leading edge of migrating cells. Previous studies show that PKA activity promotes protrusion and efficient cell migration. In live migrating cells, membrane-associated PKA activity was highest at the leading edge and required ligation of integrins such as alpha4beta1 or alpha5beta1 and an intact actin cytoskeleton. alpha4 integrins are type I PKA-specific A-kinase anchoring proteins, and we now find that type I PKA is important for localization of alpha4beta1 integrin-mediated PKA activation at the leading edge. Accumulation of 3' phosphorylated phosphoinositides [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)] products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) is an early event in establishing the directionality of migration; however, polarized PKA activation did not require PI3-kinase activity. Conversely, inhibition of PKA blocked accumulation of a PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)-binding protein, the AKT-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, at the leading edge; hence, PKA is involved in maintaining cell polarity during migration. In sum, we have visualized compartment-specific PKA activation in migrating cells and used it to reveal that adhesion-mediated localized activation of PKA is an early step in directional cell migration. PMID:18784251

Lim, Chinten J; Kain, Kristin H; Tkachenko, Eugene; Goldfinger, Lawrence E; Gutierrez, Edgar; Allen, Michael D; Groisman, Alex; Zhang, Jin; Ginsberg, Mark H

2008-11-01

136

A leading edge heating array and a flat surface heating array - operation, maintenance and repair manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general description of the leading edge/flat surface heating array is presented along with its components, assembly instructions, installation instructions, operation procedures, maintenance instructions, repair procedures, schematics, spare parts lists, engineering drawings of the array, and functional acceptance test log sheets. The proper replacement of components, correct torque values, step-by-step maintenance instructions, and pretest checkouts are described.

1975-01-01

137

Spanwise gradients in flow speed help stabilize leading-edge vortices on revolving wings.  

PubMed

While a leading-edge vortex on an infinite translating wing is shed after a short distance of travel, its counterpart on a finite span revolving insect wing or maple seed membrane exhibits robust attachment. The latter explains the aerodynamic lift generated by such biological species. Here we analyze the mechanisms responsible for leading-edge vortex attachment. We compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the flow past a finite span wing (i) embedded in a uniform oncoming flow, (ii) embedded in a spanwise varying oncoming flow, and (iii) revolving about its root. We show that over flapping amplitudes typical of insect flight (? = 120°), the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed may suffice in maintaining leading-edge vortex attachment. We correlate this result with the development of spanwise flow, driven by the spanwise gradient of pressure, and we evaluate the sensitivity of such a mechanism to the Reynolds number. It is noted, however, that leading-edge vortex attachment through the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed does not promote large lift, which ultimately arises from centrifugal and Coriolis effects. PMID:25122373

Jardin, T; David, L

2014-07-01

138

Effects of Fin Leading Edge Sweep on Shock-Shock Interaction at Mach 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of fin leading edge sweep on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interaction have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The shock interaction was produced by the intersection of a planar incident shock (16.8 deg shock angle relative to the freestream, generated by a 9 deg wedge) with the bow shock formed around a O.5-inch diameter cylindrical leading edge fin. Heating distributions along the leading edge stagnation line have been obtained using densely spaced thin film resistive-type sensors. Schlieren images were obtained to illustrate the very complex shock-shock interactions. The fin leading edge sweep angle was varied from 15-degrees swept back to 45-degrees swept forward for a freestream unit Reynolds number of 2 x 10(exp 6)/ft. Two models were utilized during the study, one with 0.025-inch spacing between gage centers, and the other 0.015-inch spacing. Gage spatial resolution on the order of 0.015-in appeared to accurately capture the narrow spike in heating. Peak heating due to shock interaction was maximized when the fin was swept forward 15 deg and 25 deg, both promoting augmentations about 7 times the baseline value. The schlieren images for these cases revealed Type 4 and Type 3 interactions, respectively.

Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.

1996-01-01

139

APRIL 1998 THE LEADING EDGE 461 ncreases in computing power and advances in mathe-  

E-print Network

resistivity and induced polarization, gravity, and magnetics. Before embarking upon examples, we presentAPRIL 1998 THE LEADING EDGE 461 ncreases in computing power and advances in mathe- matical such as electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, charge- ability, or density. Our goal is to find the m

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

140

The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Participant Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed for participants in "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." It provides the 27 participant handouts for the six workshops in the series. The first in the series, "Setting the Stage: The Changing World of Work," is a workshop to clarify what is occurring in the world of work and apply that…

Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

141

1092 The Leading Edge September 2008 The SEG Foundation's Summer Field Camp grant  

E-print Network

1092 The Leading Edge September 2008 The SEG Foundation's Summer Field Camp grant program received and funds to strengthen the Foundation's efforts to promote the quality and number of summer field camps the number of summer field camps offered to students each year is increasing. We are excited to provide

142

A role for actin arcs in the leading edge advance of migrating cells  

PubMed Central

The migration of epithelial cells requires coordination of two actin modules at the leading edge: one in the lamellipodium and one in the lamella. How the two modules connect mechanistically to regulate directed edge motion is not understood. Using a combination of live-cell imaging and photoactivation approaches, we demonstrate that the actin network of the lamellipodium evolves spatio-temporally into the lamella. This occurs during the retraction phase of edge motion when myosin II redistributes to the cell edge and condenses the lamellipodial-actin into an arc-like bundle (i.e., actin arc) parallel to the edge. The newly formed actin arc moves rearward and couples to focal adhesions as it enters the lamella. We propose net edge extension occurs by nascent focal adhesions advancing the site at which new actin arcs slow down and form the base of the next protrusion event. The actin arc thus serves as a structural element underlying the temporal and spatial connection between the lamellipodium and lamella to drive directed cell motion. PMID:21423177

Burnette, Dylan T.; Manley, Suliana; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Sougrat, Rachid; Davidson, Michael W.; Kachar, Bechara; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

2013-01-01

143

X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Study of Lead Sorption on Phosphate-Treated Kaolinite  

SciTech Connect

Presorbed phosphate significantly increases Pb sorption on the phyllosilicate kaolinite in the pH range from 4 to 8. The sorbed Pb-to-P molar ratios over this pH range stray little from the molar ratio found in the mineral pyromorphite, suggesting sorbed phosphate reacts with soluble Pb to form a surface precipitate similar to pyromorphite. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) studies at the Pb L{sub 3}-edge support this interpretation. In particular, the fine structure of first-derivative Pb L{sub 3}-edge XANES spectra of Pb species sorbed to phosphate-treated kaolinite samples covering a pH range extending from 4 to 10 match the fine structure of the spectrum of pyromorphite. Although the product is structurally and compositionally similar to pyromorphite, the ion activity product in the pH range 4-6 was undersaturated with respect to the solubility product of pyromorphite.

Taylor, R.; Bleam, W; Ranatunga, T; Schulthess, C; Senwo, Z; Ranatunga, D

2009-01-01

144

Spanwise flow and the attachment of the leading-edge vortex on insect wings.  

PubMed

The flow structure that is largely responsible for the good performance of insect wings has recently been identified as a leading-edge vortex. But because such vortices become detached from a wing in two-dimensional flow, an unknown mechanism must keep them attached to (three-dimensional) flapping wings. The current explanation, analogous to a mechanism operating on delta-wing aircraft, is that spanwise flow through a spiral vortex drains energy from the vortex core. We have tested this hypothesis by systematically mapping the flow generated by a dynamically scaled model insect while simultaneously measuring the resulting aerodynamic forces. Here we report that, at the Reynolds numbers matching the flows relevant for most insects, flapping wings do not generate a spiral vortex akin to that produced by delta-wing aircraft. We also find that limiting spanwise flow with fences and edge baffles does not cause detachment of the leading-edge vortex. The data support an alternative hypothesis-that downward flow induced by tip vortices limits the growth of the leading-edge vortex. PMID:11507639

Birch, J M; Dickinson, M H

2001-08-16

145

A Reduced-Complexity Investigation of Blunt Leading-Edge Separation Motivated by UCAV Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced complexity investigation for blunt-leading-edge vortical separation has been undertaken. The overall approach is to design the fundamental work in such a way so that it relates to the aerodynamics of a more complex Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) concept known as SACCON. Some of the challenges associated with both the vehicle-class aerodynamics and the fundamental vortical flows are reviewed, and principles from a hierarchical complexity approach are used to relate flow fundamentals to system-level interests. The work is part of roughly 6-year research program on blunt-leading-edge separation pertinent to UCAVs, and was conducted under the NATO Science and Technology Organization, Applied Vehicle Technology panel.

Luckring, James M.; Boelens, Okko J.

2015-01-01

146

Navier-Stokes computation of wing leading edge tangential blowing for a tilt rotor in hover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a thin tangential jet located at the leading edge of the wing of a tilt rotor configuration in hover is computed using the thin-layer Navier-stokes equations. Computations showed that leading edge tangential blowing is effective in reducing the download caused by the impingement of the rotor download caused by the impingement of the rotor downwash on the wing. Results from the numerical model support previous experimental findings that download reduction is due mainly to a decrease in upper surface pressure and not an increase in pressure on the lower surface. The numerical solution clearly shows that because of the three-dimensionality of the flow field, the download could be reduced further by allowing a spanwise variation in blowing strength.

Fejtek, Ian; Roberts, Leonard

1992-01-01

147

Test and Analysis of a Hyper-X Carbon-Carbon Leading Edge Chine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During parts production for the X43A Mach 10 hypersonic vehicle nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of a leading edge chine detected on imbedded delamination near the lower surface of the part. An ultimate proof test was conducted to verify the ultimate strength of this leading edge chine part. The ultimate proof test setup used a pressure bladder design to impose a uniform distributed pressure field over the bi-planar surface of the chine test article. A detailed description of the chine test article and experimental test setup is presented. Analysis results from a linear status model of the test article are also presented and discussed. Post-test inspection of the specimen revealed no visible failures or areas of delamination.

Smith, Russell W.; Sikora, Joseph G.; Lindell, Michael C.

2005-01-01

148

Unsteady vortex-dominated flow around wings with oscillating leading-edge flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady vortex-dominated flow around delta wings with oscillating leading-edge flaps represents an important classs of problems for supermaneuverability and flow control of advanced aircraft. The problem is solved using time accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the unsteady, linearized, Navier-displacement equations. Starting with an initial configuration of the wing and its flaps, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved on an initial structured grid for the steady flow. The forced oscillation of the flaps is then applied, and the problem is solved accurately in time. The Navier-displacement equations are solved for the grid deformation and the Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the flowfield. Symmetric and anti-symmetric flaps oscillations are presented to study the effect of the flaps oscillation on the leading-edge vortical flow.

Kandil, Osama A.; Salman, Ahmed A.

1991-01-01

149

Effects of leading-edge flap oscillation on unsteady delta wing flow and rock control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isolated and interdisciplinary problems of unsteady fluid dynamics and rigid-body dynamics and control of delta wings with and without leading-edge flap oscillation are considered. For the fluid dynamics problem, the unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which are written relative to a moving frame of reference, are solved along with the unsteady, linearized, Navier-displacement (ND) equations. The NS equations are solved for the flowfield using an implicit finite-volume scheme. The ND equations are solved for the grid deformation, if the leading-edge flaps oscillate, using an ADI scheme. For the dynamics and control problem, the Euler equation of rigid-body rolling motion for a wing and its flaps are solved interactively with the fluid dynamics equations for the wing-rock motion and subsequently for its control. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used to explicitly integrate the dynamics equation.

Kandil, Osama A.; Salman, Ahmed A.

1991-01-01

150

Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness levels found on in service vanes (Bons, et al., 2001, up to 300 microns) flow blockage in first stage turbine nozzles can easily reach 1 to 2 percent in conventional turbines. Deposition levels in syngas fueled gas turbines are expected to be even more problematic. The likelihood of significant deposition to the leading edge of vanes in a syngas environment indicates the need to examine this effect on the leading edge cooling problem. It is critical to understand the influence of leading edge geometry and turbulence on deposition rates for both internally and showerhead cooled leading edge regions. The expected level of deposition in a vane stagnation region not only significantly changes the heat transfer problem but also suggests that cooling arrays may clog. Addressing the cooling issue suggests a need to better understand stagnation region heat transfer with realistic roughness as well as the other variables affecting transport near the leading edge. Also, the question of whether leading edge regions can be cooled internally with modern cooling approaches should also be raised, thus avoiding the clogging issue. Addressing deposition in the pressure side throat region of the nozzle is another critical issue for this environment. Issues such as examining the protective effect of slot and full coverage discrete-hole film cooling on limiting deposition as well as the influence of roughness and turbulence on effectiveness should be raised. The objective of this present study is to address these technical challenges to help enable the development of high efficiency syngas tolerant gas turbine engines.

Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

2014-09-30

151

Aerothermal Performance Constraints for Hypervelocity Small Radius Unswept Leading Edges and Nosetips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small radius leading edges and nosetips were utilized to minimize wave drag in early hypervelocity vehicle concepts until further analysis demonstrated that extreme aerothermodynamic heating would cause severe ablation or blunting of the available thermal protection system materials. Recent studies indicate that ultrahigh temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials are shape stable at temperatures approaching 3033 K and will be available for use as sharp UHTC leading edge components in the near future. Aerothermal performance constraints for sharp components made from these materials are presented in this work to demonstrate the effects of convective blocking, surface catalycity, surface emissivity, and rarefied flow effects on steady state operation at altitudes from sea level to 90 km. These components are capable of steady state operation at velocities up to 7.9 km/s at attitudes near 90 km.

Kolodziej, Paul

1997-01-01

152

Fracture Mechanics Analyses of the Slip-Side Joggle Regions of Wing-Leading-Edge Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle wing-leading edge consists of panels that are made of reinforced carbon-carbon. Coating spallation was observed near the slip-side region of the panels that experience extreme heating. To understand this phenomenon, a root-cause investigation was conducted. As part of that investigation, fracture mechanics analyses of the slip-side joggle regions of the hot panels were conducted. This paper presents an overview of the fracture mechanics analyses.

Raju, Ivatury S.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Phillips, Dawn R.

2011-01-01

153

Visualization of leading edge vortices on a series of flat plate delta wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of flow visualization data obtained as part of NASA Grant NAG2-258 is presented. During the course of this study, many still and high speed motion pictures were taken of the leading edge vortices on a series of flat plate delta wings at varying angles of attack. The purpose is to present a systematic collection of photographs showing the state of vortices as a function of the angle of attack for the four models tested.

Payne, Francis M.; Ng, T. Terry; Nelson, Robert C.

1991-01-01

154

Effects of Nose Radius and Aerodynamic Loading on Leading Edge Receptivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of the effects of airfoil thickness and mean aerodynamic loading on boundary-layer receptivity in the leading-edge region. The case of acoustic free-stream disturbances, incident on a thin cambered airfoil with a parabolic leading edge in a low Mach number flow, is considered. An asymptotic analysis based on large Reynolds number is developed, supplemented by numerical results. The airfoil thickness distribution enters the theory through a Strouhal number based on the nose radius of the airfoil, S = (omega)tau(sub n)/U, where omega is the frequency of the acoustic wave and U is the mean flow speed. The influence of mean aerodynamic loading enters through an effective angle-of-attack parameter ti, related to flow around the leading edge from the lower surface to the upper. The variation of the receptivity level is analyzed as a function of S, mu, and characteristics of the free-stream acoustic wave. For an unloaded leading edge, a finite nose radius dramatically reduces the receptivity level compared to that for a flat plate, the amplitude of the instability waves in the boundary layer being decreased by an order of magnitude when S = 0.3. Modest levels of aerodynamic loading are found to further decrease the receptivity level for the upper surface of the airfoil, while an increase in receptivity level occurs for the lower surface. For larger angles of attack close to the critical angle for boundary layer separation, a local rise in the receptivity level occurs for the upper surface, while for the lower surface the receptivity decreases. The effects of aerodynamic loading are more pronounced at larger values of S. Oblique acoustic waves produce much higher receptivity levels than acoustic waves propagating downstream parallel to the airfoil chord.

Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.

1998-01-01

155

Analysis of leading edge separation using a low order panel method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of the potential flow computer code VSAERO to model leading edge separation over a delta wing is examined. Recent improvements to the code suggest that it may be capable of predicting pressure coefficients on the body. Investigation showed that although that code does predict the vortex roll-up, the pressure coefficients have significant error. The program is currently unsatisfactory, but with some additional development it may become a useful tool for this application.

Sandlin, Doral R.

1989-01-01

156

Utilizing ISAR imagery to analyze the diffraction effects from leading and trailing edges of a target  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we analyze the effect of leading and trailing edge diffractions on two-dimensional (2-D) inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a complex target. The well-known shooting-bouncing ray (SBR) method combined with physical theory of diffraction (PTD) technique is employed to estimate the far-field scattered electric field from the target as a whole. The PTD method used in

U. Saynak; A. C?olak; D. Bo?lu?kbas; I. H. Tayyar; C. O?zdemir

2010-01-01

157

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Personalization Strategic Designs: 9. MetWest High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

158

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 2. Noble Street Charter High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

159

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 7. TechBoston Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

160

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 8. High Tech High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

161

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 1. Academy of the Pacific Rim  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

162

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 3. University Park Campus School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

163

Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 5. Life Academy of Health and Bioscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high schools across the…

Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

2008-01-01

164

A Reynolds Number Study of Wing Leading-Edge Effects on a Supersonic Transport Model at Mach 0.3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A representative supersonic transport design was tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) in its original configuration with small-radius leading-edge flaps and also with modified large-radius inboard leading-edge flaps. Aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of Reynolds numbers at a Mach number of 0.3 and angles of attack up to 16 deg. Increasing the radius of the inboard leading-edge flap delayed nose-up pitching moment to a higher lift coefficient. Deflecting the large-radius leading-edge flap produced an overall decrease in lift coefficient and delayed nose-up pitching moment to even higher angles of attack as compared with the undeflected large- radius leading-edge flap. At angles of attack corresponding to the maximum untrimmed lift-to-drag ratio, lift and drag coefficients decreased while lift-to-drag ratio increased with increasing Reynolds number. At an angle of attack of 13.5 deg., the pitching-moment coefficient was nearly constant with increasing Reynolds number for both the small-radius leading-edge flap and the deflected large-radius leading-edge flap. However, the pitching moment coefficient increased with increasing Reynolds number for the undeflected large-radius leading-edge flap above a chord Reynolds number of about 35 x 10 (exp 6).

Williams, M. Susan; Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Chu, Julio

1999-01-01

165

Material Modeling of Space Shuttle Leading Edge and External Tank Materials For Use in the Columbia Accident Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon the commencement of the analytical effort to characterize the impact dynamics and damage of the Space Shuttle Columbia leading edge due to External Tank insulating foam, the necessity of creating analytical descriptions of these materials became evident. To that end, material models were developed of the leading edge thermal protection system, Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC), and a low density

Kelly Carney; Matthew Melis; Edwin L. Fasanella; Karen H. Lyle; Jonathan Gabrys

166

Numerical investigation of rarefaction effects in the vicinity of a sharp leading edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of rarefaction effect on hypersonic flow over a sharp leading edge. Both continuum approach and kinetic method: a widely spread commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics-Navior-Stokes-Fourier (CFD-NSF) software - Fluent together with a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code developed by the authors are employed for simulation of transition regime with Knudsen number ranging from 0.005 to 0.2. It is found that Fluent can predict the wall fluxes in the case of hypersonic argon flow over the sharp leading edge for the lowest Kn case (Kn = 0.005) in current paper while for other cases it also has a good agreement with DSMC except at the location near the sharp leading edge. Among all of the wall fluxes, it is found that coefficient of pressure is the most sensitive to rarefaction while heat transfer is the least one. A parameter based on translational nonequilibrium and a cut-off value of 0.34 is proposed for continuum breakdown in this paper. The structure of entropy and velocity profile in boundary layer is analyzed. Also, it is found that the ratio of heat transfer coefficient to skin friction coefficient remains uniform along the surface for the four cases in this paper.

Pan, Shaowu; Gao, Zhenxun; Lee, Chunhian

2014-12-01

167

Simulation of Flow Through Breach in Leading Edge at Mach 24  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline solution for CFD Point 1 (Mach 24) in the STS-107 accident investigation was modified to include effects of holes through the leading edge into a vented cavity. The simulations were generated relatively quickly and early in the investigation by making simplifications to the leading edge cavity geometry. These simplifications in the breach simulations enabled: 1) A very quick grid generation procedure; 2) High fidelity corroboration of jet physics with internal surface impingements ensuing from a breach through the leading edge, fully coupled to the external shock layer flow at flight conditions. These simulations provided early evidence that the flow through a 2 inch diameter (or larger) breach enters the cavity with significant retention of external flow directionality. A normal jet directed into the cavity was not an appropriate model for these conditions at CFD Point 1 (Mach 24). The breach diameters were of the same order or larger than the local, external boundary-layer thickness. High impingement heating and pressures on the downstream lip of the breach were computed. It is likely that hole shape would evolve as a slot cut in the direction of the external streamlines. In the case of the 6 inch diameter breach the boundary layer is fully ingested.

Gnoffo, Peter A.; Alter, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

168

Controlled vortical flow on delta wings through unsteady leading edge blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vortical flow over a delta wing contributes an important part of the lift - the so called nonlinear lift. Controlling this vortical flow with its favorable influence would enhance aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack. Several previous studies have shown that control of the vortical flow field is possible through the use of blowing jets. The present experimental research studies vortical flow control by applying a new blowing scheme to the rounded leading edge of a delta wing; this blowing scheme is called Tangential Leading Edge Blowing (TLEB). Vortical flow response both to steady blowing and to unsteady blowing is investigated. It is found that TLEB can redevelop stable, strong vortices even in the post-stall angle of attack regime. Analysis of the steady data shows that the effect of leading edge blowing can be interpreted as an effective change in angle of attack. The examination of the fundamental time scales for vortical flow re-organization after the application of blowing for different initial states of the flow field is studied. Different time scales for flow re-organization are shown to depend upon the effective angle of attack. A faster response time can be achieved at angles of attack beyond stall by a suitable choice of the initial blowing momentum strength. Consequently, TLEB shows the potential of controlling the vortical flow over a wide range of angles of attack; i.e., in both for pre-stall and post-stall conditions.

Lee, K. T.; Roberts, Leonard

1990-01-01

169

LFC leading edge glove flight: Aircraft modification design, test article development and systems integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reduction of skin friction drag by suction of boundary layer air to maintain laminar flow has been known since Prandtl's published work in 1904. The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. This report documents the Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments in designing and fabricating a leading-edge flight test article incorporating boundary layer suction slots to be flown by NASA on their modified JetStar aircraft. Lockheed-Georgia Company performed as the integration contractor to design the JetStar aircraft modification to accept both a Lockheed and a McDonnell Douglas flight test article. McDonnell Douglas uses a porous skin concept. The report describes aerodynamic analyses, fabrication techniques, JetStar modifications, instrumentation requirements, and structural analyses and testing for the Lockheed test article. NASA will flight test the two LFC leading-edge test articles in a simulated commercial environment over a 6 to 8 month period in 1984. The objective of the flight test program is to evaluate the effectiveness of LFC leading-edge systems in reducing skin friction drag and consequently improving fuel efficiency.

Etchberger, F. R.

1983-01-01

170

Material Modeling of Space Shuttle Leading Edge and External Tank Materials For Use in the Columbia Accident Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upon the commencement of the analytical effort to characterize the impact dynamics and damage of the Space Shuttle Columbia leading edge due to External Tank insulating foam, the necessity of creating analytical descriptions of these materials became evident. To that end, material models were developed of the leading edge thermal protection system, Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC), and a low density polyurethane foam, BX-250. Challenges in modeling the RCC include its extreme brittleness, the differing behavior in compression and tension, and the anisotropic fabric layup. These effects were successfully included in LS-DYNA Material Model 58, *MAT_LAMINATED_ COMPOSITE_ FABRIC. The differing compression and tension behavior was modeled using the available damage parameters. Each fabric layer was given an integration point in the shell element, and was allowed to fail independently. Comparisons were made to static test data and coupon ballistic impact tests before being utilized in the full scale analysis. The foam's properties were typical of elastic automotive foams; and LS-DYNA Material Model 83, *MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM, was successfully used to model its behavior. Material parameters defined included strain rate dependent stress-strain curves for both loading and un-loading, and for both compression and tension. This model was formulated with static test data and strain rate dependent test data, and was compared to ballistic impact tests on load-cell instrumented aluminum plates. These models were subsequently utilized in analysis of the Shuttle leading edge full scale ballistic impact tests, and are currently being used in the Return to Flight Space Shuttle re-certification effort.

Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan

2004-01-01

171

Composition of White Lead and Paints.  

E-print Network

the nature of the material purchased without an expensive analysis, a number of States have passed laws governing the composition of paints offered for sale in their borders. The first of these was North Dakota. JIinneso.la, South Dakota, and Iowa have... cent water, and another sample to contain as much as 22 per cent. A small amount of water may occur naturally in paints. Since the passage of the North Dakota law water is no longer PI brands which formerly contained water when sold in North Dakota...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1908-01-01

172

Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.

Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan

2004-01-01

173

Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

2004-01-01

174

Flow visualization of vortices locked by spanwise blowing over wings featuring a unique leading and trailing-edge flap system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow visualization studies were conducted to qualitatively determine the effects of active generation and augmentation of vortex flow over wings by blowing a discrete jet in a spanwise direction in the channel formed by extension of upper surface leading- and trailing-edge flaps. Spanwise blowing from a reflection plane over a rectangular wing was found to generate and lock a dual corotating vortex system within the channel and, at sufficient blowing rates, cause the separated flow off the upper end of the leading-edge flap to reattach to the trailing-edge flap. Test parameters included wing angle of attack, jet momentum coefficient, leading- and trailing-edge flap deflection angle, and jet location above the wing surface. Effects due to removal of the leading- and trailing-edge flap were also investigated.

Erickson, G. E.; Campbell, J. F.

1975-01-01

175

Wind-tunnel tests of a Clark Y wing with 'Maxwell' leading-edge slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic force tests of a Clark Y wing equipped with "Maxwell" type leading-edge slots were conducted in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot tunnel to ascertain the aerodynamic characteristics, which involved the determination of the best slot-gap opening, the effects of slat width, and the effect of a trailing-edge flap. The Maxwell wing with a wide-chord slat (0.30 c(sub w)) and with a 0.211 c(sub w) split flap deflected 60 degrees had a C(sub L sub max) of 2.53 or about twice that of the plain wing. The wing with the wide slat also had, in general, improved aerodynamic characteristics over those of the Maxwell wing with slat, and had about the same aerodynamic characteristics as a Handley Page slotted wing with approximately the same size of slat.

Gauvain, William E

1937-01-01

176

Hypersonic aerospace vehicle leading-edge cooling using heat-pipe, transpiration and film-cooling techniques  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of cooling hypersonic-vehicle leading-edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heat fluxes was studied, using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipes and surface-mass-transfer cooling techniques. A generalized, transient, finite-difference-based hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed that incorporated these effects and was demonstrated on an assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section and a SCRAMJET engine inlet leading-edge section. The hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed using an existing, experimentally verified heat-pipe model. Then the existing heat-pipe model was modified by adding both transpiration and film-cooling options as new surface boundary conditions. The models used to predict the leading-edge surface heat-transfer reduction effects of the transpiration and film cooling were modifications of more-generalized, empirically based models obtained from the literature. It is concluded that cooling leading-edge structures exposed to severe hypersonic-flight environments using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipe, surface transpiration, and film cooling methods appears feasible.

Modlin, J.M.

1991-01-01

177

Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum: Numerical and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.

1992-01-01

178

Flexible Metallic Overwrap Concept Developed for On-Orbit Repair of Space Shuttle Orbiter Leading Edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia accident has focused attention on the critical need for on-orbit repair concepts for leading edges in the event that damage is incurred during space shuttle orbiter flight. Damage that is considered as potentially catastrophic for orbiter leading edges ranges from simple cracks to holes as large as 16 in. in diameter. NASA is particularly interested in examining potential solutions for areas of larger damage since such a problem was identified as the cause for the Columbia disaster. One possible idea for the on-orbit repair of the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) leading edges is an overwrap concept that would use a metallic sheet flexible enough to conform to the contours of the orbiter and robust enough to protect any problem area from catastrophic failure during reentry. The simplified view of the application of a refractory metal sheet over a mockup of shuttle orbiter panel 9, which experiences the highest temperatures on the shuttle during reentry is shown. The metallic overwrap concept is attractive because of its versatility as well as the ease with which it can be included in an onboard repair kit. Reentry of the orbiter into Earth's atmosphere imposes extreme requirements on repair materials. Temperatures can exceed 1650 C for up to 15 min in the presence of an extremely oxidizing plasma environment. Several other factors are critical, including catalysity, emissivity, and vibrational and aerodynamic loads. Materials chosen for this application will need to be evaluated with respect to high-temperature capability, resistance to oxidation, strength, coefficient of thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. The temperature profile across panel 9 during reentry as well as a schematic of the overwrap concept itself is shown.

Ritzert, Frank J.; Nesbitt, James A.

2005-01-01

179

Subsonic balance and pressure investigation of a 60-deg delta wing with leading-edge devices (data report)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drag reduction potential of leading edge devices on a 60 degree delta wing at high lift was examined. Geometric variations of fences, chordwise slots, pylon type vortex generators, leading edge vortex flaps, and sharp leading edge extensions were tested individually and in specific combinations to improve high-alpha drag performance with a minimum of low-alpha drag penalty. The force, moment, and surface static pressure data for angles of attack up to 23 degrees, at Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.16 and 3.85 x 10 to the 6th power per meter are documented.

Rao, D. M.; Tingas, S. A.

1981-01-01

180

Measurement of Leading Edge Vortices from a Delta Wing Using a Three Component Laser Velocimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration of the capabilities of a three component laser velocimeter to provide a detailed experimental database of a complex flow field i s presented. The orthogonal three component laser velocimeter was used to measure the leading edge vortex flow field above a 75 degrees delta wing at angles-of-attack of 20.5 degrees and 40.0 degrees. The resulting mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements are presented. The laser velocimeter is described in detail including a description of the data processing algorithm. A full error analysis was conducted and the results presented.

Meyers, James F.; Hepner, Timothy E.

1988-01-01

181

Compilation of Information on the Transonic Attachment of Flows at the Leading Edges of Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schlieren photographs have been compiled of the two-dimensional flow at transonic speeds past 37 airfoils. These airfoils have variously shaped profiles, and some are related in thickness and camber. The data for these airfoils were analyzed to provide basic information on the flow changes involved and to determine factors affecting transonic-flow attachment, which is a transition from separated to unseparated flow at the leading edges of two-dimensional airfoils at fixed angles as the subsonic Mach number is increased.

Lindsey, Walter F; Landrum, Emma Jean

1958-01-01

182

Initial development of an ablative leading edge for the Space Shuttle orbiter.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state-of-the-art preliminary design for typical wing areas is developed. Seven medium-density ablators (with/without honeycomb, flown on Apollo, Prime, X15A2) are evaluated. The screening tests include (1) leading-edge models sequentially subjected to ascent heating, cold soak, entry heating, post-entry pressure fluctuations, and touchdown shock, and (2) virgin/charred models subjected to bondline strains. Four materials (none molded) are found acceptable. The ESA 3560 HF and MOD 7 Hc (an AVCO 30 pcf elastomer) are selected. Roughness/recession degradation of low speed aerodynamics appears acceptable. The design, including attachments, substructure and joints, is presented.

Daforno, G.; Graham, J.; Tompkins, S.

1973-01-01

183

The Leading Edge 250: Oblique wing aircraft configuration project, volume 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a high speed transport aircraft using the oblique wing concept as a part of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft study is the Leading Edge 250 capable of travelling at Mach 4 with 250 passengers and has a 6,500 nautical mile range. Its innovation lies within its use of the unconventional oblique wing to provide efficient flight at any Mach number. Wave drag is kept to a minimum at high speed, while high lift is attained during critical takeoff and landing maneuvers by varying the sweep of the wing.

Schmidt, Andre; Moore, Peri; Nguyen, Dan; Oganesyan, Petros; Palmer, Charles

1988-01-01

184

Initial development of an ablative leading edge for the space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A state-of-the-art preliminary design for typical wing areas is developed. Seven medium-density ablators (with/without honeycomb, flown on Apollo, Prime, X15A2) are evaluated. The screening tests include: (1) leading-edge models sequentially subjected to ascent heating, cold soak, entry heating, post-entry pressure fluctuations, and touchdown shock, and (2) virgin/charred models subjected to bondline strains. Two honeycomb reinforced 30 pcf elastomeric ablators were selected. Roughness/recession degradation of low speed aerodynamics appears acceptable. The design, including attachments, substructure and joints, is presented.

Daforno, G.; Rose, L.; Graham, J.; Roy, P.

1974-01-01

185

Dual leading-edge vortex structure for flow over a simplified butterfly model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dye visualization experiments show that a dual leading-edge vortex (LEV) structure exists on the suction side of a simplified butterfly model of Papilio ulysses at ? = 8°-12°. Furthermore, the results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement indicate that the axial velocity of the primary (outer) vortex core reaches the lower extreme value while a transition from a "wake-like" to a "jet-like" axial velocity profile occurs. The work reveals for the first time the existence of dual LEV structure on the butterfly-like forward-sweep wing configuration.

Hu, Y.; Wang, J. J.

2011-05-01

186

Estimating Blade Section Airloads from Blade Leading-Edge Pressure Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tilt-Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) test in the Duitse-Nederlandse Wind (DNW) Tunnel acquired blade pressure data for forward flight test conditions of a tiltrotor in helicopter mode. Chordwise pressure data at seven radial locations were integrated to obtain the blade section normal force. The present investigation evaluates the use of linear regression analysis and of neural networks in estimating the blade section normal force coefficient from a limited number of blade leading-edge pressure measurements and representative operating conditions. These network models are subsequently used to estimate the airloads at intermediate radial locations where only blade pressure measurements at the 3.5% chordwise stations are available.

vanAken, Johannes M.

2003-01-01

187

Leading-edge receptivity to a vortical freestream disturbance: A numerical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The receptivity to freestream vorticity of the boundary layer over a flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is investigated numerically. The flow is simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes system in general curvilinear coordinates with the vorticity and stream function as dependent variables. A finite-difference scheme which is second-order accurate in both space and time is used. As a first step, the steady basic-state solution is computed. Then a small amplitude vortical disturbance is introduced at the upstream boundary and the governing equations are solved time-accurately to evaluate the spatial and temporal growth of the perturbations leading to instability waves (Tollmien-Schlichting waves) inside the boundary layer. Preliminary results for a symmetric, 2-D disturbance reveal the presence of Tollmien-Schlichting waves aft of the flat-plate/ellipse juncture.

Buter, Thomas A.; Reed, Helen L.

1991-01-01

188

Dynamic Stall Measurements and Computations for a VR-12 Airfoil with a Variable Droop Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High density-altitude operations of helicopters with advanced performance and maneuver capabilities have lead to fundamental research on active high-lift system concepts for rotor blades. The requirement for this type of system was to improve the sectional lift-to-drag ratio by alleviating dynamic stall on the retreating blade while simultaneously reducing the transonic drag rise of the advancing blade. Both measured and computational results showed that a Variable Droop Leading Edge (VDLE) airfoil is a viable concept for application to a rotor high-lift system. Results are presented for a series of 2D compressible dynamic stall wind tunnel tests with supporting CFD results for selected test cases. These measurements and computations show a dramatic decrease in the drag and pitching moment associated with severe dynamic stall when the VDLE concept is applied to the Boeing VR-12 airfoil. Test results also show an elimination of the negative pitch damping observed in the baseline moment hysteresis curves.

Martin, P. B.; McAlister, K. W.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Geissler, W.

2003-01-01

189

Leading edge vortex dynamics on a pitching delta wing. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The leading edge flow structure was investigated on a 70 deg flat plate delta wing which was pitched about its 1/2 chord position, to increase understanding of the high angle of attack aerodynamics on an unsteady delta wing. The wing was sinusoidally pitched at reduced frequencies ranging from k being identical with 2pi fc/u = 0.05 to 0.30 at chord Reynolds numbers between 90,000 and 350,000, for angle of attack ranges of alpha = 29 to 39 deg and alpha = 0 to 45 deg. The wing was also impulsively pitched at an approximate rate of 0.7 rad/s. During these dynamic motions, visualization of the leading edge vorticies was obtained by entraining titanium tetrachloride into the flow at the model apex. The location of vortex breakdown was recorded using 16mm high speed motion picture photography. When the wing was sinusoidally pitched, a hysteresis was observed in the location of breakdown position. This hysteresis increased with reduced frequency. The velocity of breakdown propagation along the wing, and the phase lag between model motion and breakdown location were also determined. When the wing was impulsively pitched, several convective times were required for the vortex flow to reach a steady state. Detailed information was also obtained on the oscillation of breakdown position in both static and dynamic cases.

Lemay, Scott P.

1988-01-01

190

Navier-Stokes analysis of airfoils with leading edge ice accretions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical analysis of the flowfield characteristics and the performance degradation of an airfoil with leading edge ice accretions was performed. The important fluid dynamic processes were identified and calculated. Among these were the leading edge separation bubble at low angles of attack, complete separation on the low pressure surface resulting in premature shell, drag rise due to the ice shape, and the effects of angle of attack on the separated flow field. Comparisons to experimental results were conducted to confirm these calculations. A computer code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, ARC2D, was used to perform the calculations. A Modified Mixing Length turbulence model was developed to produce grids for several ice shape and airfoil combinations. Results indicate that the ability to predict overall performance characteristics, such as lift and drag, at low angles of attack is excellent. Transition location is important for accurately determining separation bubble shape. Details of the flowfield in and downstream of the separated regions requires some modifications. Calculations for the stalled airfoil indicate periodic shedding of vorticity that was generated aft of the ice accretion. Time averaged pressure values produce results which compare favorably with experimental information. A turbulence model which accounts for the history effects in the flow may be justified.

Potapczuk, Mark G.

1993-01-01

191

Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

2010-01-01

192

Two functionally distinct sources of actin monomers supply the leading edge of lamellipodia.  

PubMed

Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin) regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin). Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer-binding protein thymosin ?4 (T?4) for optimal leading-edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of T?4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. T?4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it does not interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions. PMID:25865895

Vitriol, Eric A; McMillen, Laura M; Kapustina, Maryna; Gomez, Shawn M; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Zheng, James Q

2015-04-21

193

The effect of undulating leading-edge modifications on NACA 0021 airfoil characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of its mammoth physical size, the humpback whale's manoeuvrability in hunting has captured the attention of biologists as well as fluid mechanists. It has now been established that the protrusions on the leading-edges of the humpback's pectoral flippers, known as tubercles, account for this species' agility and manoeuvrability. In the present work, Prandtl's nonlinear lifting-line theory was employed to propose a hypothesis that the favourable traits observed in the performance of tubercled lifting bodies are not exclusive to this form of leading-edge configuration. Accordingly, a novel alternative to tubercles was introduced and incorporated into the design of four airfoils that underwent wind tunnel force and pressure measurement tests in the transitional flow regime. In addition, a Computation Fluid Dynamics study was performed using the Shear Stress Transport transitional model in the context of unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes at several attack angles. The results from the numerical investigation are in reasonable agreement with those of the experiments, and suggest the presence of features that are also observed in flows over tubercled foils, most notably a distinct pair of streamwise vortices for each wavelength of the tubercle-like feature.

Rostamzadeh, N.; Kelso, R. M.; Dally, B. B.; Hansen, K. L.

2013-11-01

194

Analytical observations on the aerodynamics of a delta wing with leading edge flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a leading edge flap on the aerodynamics of a low aspect ratio delta wing is studied analytically. The separated flow field about the wing is represented by a simple vortex model composed of a conical straight vortex sheet and a concentrated vortex. The analysis is carried out in the cross flow plane by mapping the wing trace, by means of the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation into the real axis of the transformed plane. Particular attention is given to the influence of the angle of attack and flap deflection angle on lift and drag forces. Both lift and drag decrease with flap deflection, while the lift-to-drag ratioe increases. A simple coordinate transformation is used to obtain a closed form expression for the lift-to-drag ratio as a function of flap deflection. The main effect of leading edge flap deflection is a partial suppression of the separated flow on the leeside of the wing. Qualitative comparison with experiments is presented, showing agreement in the general trends.

Oh, S.; Tavella, D.

1986-01-01

195

The effects of leading edge and downstream film cooling on turbine vane heat transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress under contract NAS3-24619 toward the goal of establishing a relevant data base for use in improving the predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes, including the effect of downstream film cooling with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling. Experimental measurements were made in a two-dimensional cascade previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-22761 and leading edge showerhead film cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-23695. The principal independent parameters (Mach number, Reynolds number, turbulence, wall-to-gas temperature ratio, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio) were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions and the test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. Data provide a data base for downstream film cooled turbine vanes and extends the data bases generated in the two previous studies. The vane external heat transfer obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The data obtained and presented illustrate the interaction of the variables and should provide the airfoil designer and computational analyst the information required to improve heat transfer design capabilities for film cooled turbine airfoils.

Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.

1988-01-01

196

Experimental Study of Shock Wave Interference Heating on a Cylindrical Leading Edge. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of shock wave interference heating on a cylindrical leading edge representative of the cowl of a rectangular hypersonic engine inlet at Mach numbers of 6.3, 6.5, and 8.0 is presented. Stream Reynolds numbers ranged from 0.5 x 106 to 4.9 x 106 per ft. and stream total temperature ranged from 2100 to 3400 R. The model consisted of a 3" dia. cylinder and a shock generation wedge articulated to angles of 10, 12.5, and 15 deg. A fundamental understanding was obtained of the fluid mechanics of shock wave interference induced flow impingement on a cylindrical leading edge and the attendant surface pressure and heat flux distributions. The first detailed heat transfer rate and pressure distributions for two dimensional shock wave interference on a cylinder was provided along with insight into the effects of specific heat variation with temperature on the phenomena. Results show that the flow around a body in hypersonic flow is altered significantly by the shock wave interference pattern that is created by an oblique shock wave from an external source intersecting the bow shock wave produced in front of the body.

Wieting, Allan R.

1987-01-01

197

Experimental investigation of the transonic flow around the leading edge of an eroded fan airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of leading edge modification on the time-averaged and instantaneous flow around a fan airfoil is investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV), schlieren imaging and high-speed shock shadowgraphs in a transonic cascade windtunnel. In addition to a global characterization of the time-averaged flow using PIV, the instantaneous passage shock position was extracted from single-shot PIV measurements by matching the tracer velocity across the normal shock with an exponential fit. The instantaneous shock positions are assigned to a probability density distribution in order to obtain the average position and the range of fluctuations of the eroded and reference leading edge. The profiles are used to estimate the response time of the particles to the normal shock which was found to be in the sub-microsecond range. Averaged PIV measurements and the probability density of shock position from both geometries are obtained at near stall and choked conditions. In order to extract the frequency range of the shock motion, the shadow of the shock wave was tracked using high-speed shadowgraphy. The paper also provides details on the experimental implementation such as a specifically designed light-sheet probe.

Klinner, Joachim; Hergt, Alexander; Willert, Christian

2014-09-01

198

Effect of canard position and wing leading-edge flap deflection on wing buffet at transonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized wind-tunnel model, with canard and wing planform typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested. The addition of a canard above the wing chord plane, for the configuration with leading-edge flaps undeflected, produced substantially higher total configuration lift coefficients before buffet onset than the configuration with the canard off and leading-edge flaps undeflected. The wing buffet intensity was substantially lower for the canard-wing configuration than the wing-alone configuration. The low-canard configuration generally displayed the poorest buffet characteristics. Deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps substantially improved the wing buffet characteristics for canard-off configurations. The addition of the high canard did not appear to substantially improve the wing buffet characteristics of the wing with leading-edge flaps deflected.

Gloss, B. B.; Henderson, W. P.; Huffman, J. K.

1974-01-01

199

Particle Image Velocimetry Near the Leading Edge of a Sikorsky SSC-A09 Wing During Dynamic Stall  

E-print Network

PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY NEAR THE LEADING EDGE OF A SIKORSKY SSC-A09 WING DURING DYNAMIC STALL A Thesis by RACHEL RENEE VANNELLI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Copyright 2011 Rachel Renee Vannelli PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY NEAR THE LEADING EDGE OF A SIKORSKY SSC-A09 WING DURING DYNAMIC STALL A Thesis by RACHEL RENEE VANNELLI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Vannelli, Rachel Renee

2012-02-14

200

Investigation of leading-edge flap performance on delta and double-delta wings at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the aerodynamic performance of leading-edge flaps on three clipped delta and three clipped double-delta wing planforms with aspect ratios of 1.75, 2.11, and 2.50 was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, and 2.16. A primary set of fullspan leading-edge flaps with similar root and tip chords were investigated on each wing, and several alternate flap planforms were investigated on the aspect-ratio-1.75 wings. All leading-edge flap geometries were effective in reducing the drag at lifting conditions over the range of wing aspect ratios and Mach numbers tested. Application of a primary flap resulted in better flap performance with the double-delta planform than with the delta planform. The primary flap geometry generally yielded better performance than the alternate flap geometries tested. Trim drag due to flap-induced pitching moments was found to reduce the leading-edge flap performance more for the delta planform than for the double-delta planform. Flow-visualization techniques showed that leading-edge flap deflection reduces crossflow shock-induced separation effects. Finally, it was found that modified linear theory consistently predicts only the effects of leading-edge flap deflection as related to pitching moment and lift trends.

Covell, Peter F.; Wood, Richard M.; Miller, David S.

1987-01-01

201

A computer program for calculating aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect-ratio wings with partial leading-edge separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessary information for using a computer program to predict distributed and total aerodynamic characteristics for low aspect ratio wings with partial leading-edge separation is presented. The flow is assumed to be steady and inviscid. The wing boundary condition is formulated by the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice method. The leading edge separated vortices are represented by discrete free vortex elements which are aligned with the local velocity vector at midpoints to satisfy the force free condition. The wake behind the trailing edge is also force free. The flow tangency boundary condition is satisfied on the wing, including the leading and trailing edges. The program is restricted to delta wings with zero thickness and no camber. It is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC 6600 computer.

Mehrotra, S. C.; Lan, C. E.

1978-01-01

202

Aerodynamic Forces and Loadings on Symmetrical Circular-Arc Airfoils with Plain Leading-Edge and Plain Trailing-Edge Flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel and in the Langley two-dimensional low-pressure tunnel of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections at low Mach numbers and several Reynolds numbers. The airfoils were equipped with 0.15-chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plan trailing-edge flaps. The section lift and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for both airfoils with the flaps deflected individually and in combination. The section drag characteristics were obtained for the 6-percent-thick airfoil with the flaps partly deflected as low-drag-control flaps and for airfoils with the flaps neutral. Surface pressures were measured on the 6-percent-thick airfoil section with the flaps deflected either individually or in appropriate combination to furnish flap load and hinge-moment data applicable to the structural design of the airfoil. A generalized method is developed that permits the determination of the chordwise pressure distribution over sharp-edge airfoils with plain leading-edge flaps and plain trailing-edge flaps of arbitrary size and deflection.

Cahill, Jones F; Underwood, William J; Nuber, Robert J; Cheesman, Gail A

1953-01-01

203

Synthesis of Lead–Fly-Ash Composites by Squeeze Infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the squeeze infiltration process is employed to synthesize a lead–fly-ash composite. Infiltration was achieved by forcing molten lead to penetrate a fly-ash preform. Among the variables investigated is the ratio of urea to birch sawdust in the induced porosity of the preform. Experimental results show that the squeeze casting technique can be successfully used in the synthesis

Wang Deqing; Shi Ziyan; Gao Hong; H. F. Lopez

2001-01-01

204

Application of superplastically formed and diffusion bonded aluminum to a laminar flow control leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. Laminar flow control was one such technology. Two approaches for achieving laminar flow were designed and manufactured under NASA sponsored programs: the perforated skin concept used at McDonnell Douglas and the slotted design used at Lockheed-Georgia. Both achieved laminar flow, with the slotted design to a lesser degree (JetStar flight test program). The latter design had several fabrication problems concerning springback and adhesive flow clogging the air flow passages. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments is documented in designing and fabricating a small section of a leading edge article addressing a simpler fabrication method to overcome the previous program's manufacturing problems, i.e., design and fabrication using advanced technologies such as diffusion bonding of aluminum, which has not been used on aerospace structures to date, and the superplastic forming of aluminum.

Goodyear, M. D.

1987-01-01

205

Multiple leading edge vortices of unexpected strength in freely flying hawkmoth  

PubMed Central

The Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) is a universal mechanism enhancing lift in flying organisms. LEVs, generally illustrated as a single vortex attached to the wing throughout the downstroke, have not been studied quantitatively in freely flying insects. Previous findings are either qualitative or from flappers and tethered insects. We measure the flow above the wing of freely flying hawkmoths and find multiple simultaneous LEVs of varying strength and structure along the wingspan. At the inner wing there is a single, attached LEV, while at mid wing there are multiple LEVs, and towards the wingtip flow separates. At mid wing the LEV circulation is ~40% higher than in the wake, implying that the circulation unrelated to the LEV may reduce lift. The strong and complex LEV suggests relatively high flight power in hawmoths. The variable LEV structure may result in variable force production, influencing flight control in the animals. PMID:24253180

Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Kelber, Almut; Heerenbrink, Marco Klein; Hedenström, Anders

2013-01-01

206

Leading edge serrations which reduce the noise of low-speed rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic effects of serrated brass strips attached near the leading edges of two different size rotors were investigated. The two bladed rotors were tested in hover. Rotor rotational speed, blade angle, serration shape, and serration position were varied. The serrations were more effective as noise suppressors at rotor tip speeds less than 135 m/sec (444 ft/sec) than at higher speeds. high frequency noise was reduced but the low frequency rotational noise was little affected. Noise reductions from 4 to 8 db overall sound pressure level and 3 to 17 db in the upper octave bands were achieved on the 1.52 m (5.0 ft) diameter rotor. Noise reductions up to 4 db overall sound pressure level were measured for the 2.59 m (8.5 ft) diameter rotor at some conditions.

Soderman, P. T.

1973-01-01

207

Effect of leading edge sweep on shock-shock interference at Mach 8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These Mach 8 experimental results are applicable to the details of a shock-shock interference that may occur on an engine inlet of a hypersonic vehicle from a swept forebody shock interacting with a swept cowl leading edge bow shock or from a swept splitter plate shock interacting with a swept fuel injection strut bow shock. Peak surface pressure and heat transfer rate on the cylinder were about 10 and 30 times the undisturbed flow stagnation point value, respectively, for the 0 deg sweep test. A comparison of the 15 deg and 30 deg swept results with the 0 deg swept results shows that peak pressure was reduced about 13 percent and 44 percent, respectively, and peak heat transfer rate was reduced about 7 percent and 27 percent, respectively.

Glass, Christopher E.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

1989-01-01

208

Comparison of two leading uniform theories of edge diffraction with the exact uniform asymptotic solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffraction of an arbitrary cylindrical wave by a half-plane has been treated by Rahmat-Samii and Mittra who used a spectral domain approach. In this paper, their exact solution for the total field is expressed in terms of a new integral representation. For large wave number k, two rigorous procedures are described for the exact uniform asymptotic expansion of the total field solution. The uniform expansions obtained are valid in the entire space, including transition regions around the shadow boundaries. The final results are compared with the formulations of two leading uniform theories of edge diffraction, namely, the uniform asymptotic theory and the uniform theory of diffraction. Some unique observations and conclusions are made in relating the two theories.

Boersma, J.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

1980-01-01

209

Multiple leading edge vortices of unexpected strength in freely flying hawkmoth.  

PubMed

The Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) is a universal mechanism enhancing lift in flying organisms. LEVs, generally illustrated as a single vortex attached to the wing throughout the downstroke, have not been studied quantitatively in freely flying insects. Previous findings are either qualitative or from flappers and tethered insects. We measure the flow above the wing of freely flying hawkmoths and find multiple simultaneous LEVs of varying strength and structure along the wingspan. At the inner wing there is a single, attached LEV, while at mid wing there are multiple LEVs, and towards the wingtip flow separates. At mid wing the LEV circulation is ~40% higher than in the wake, implying that the circulation unrelated to the LEV may reduce lift. The strong and complex LEV suggests relatively high flight power in hawmoths. The variable LEV structure may result in variable force production, influencing flight control in the animals. PMID:24253180

Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Kelber, Almut; Heerenbrink, Marco Klein; Hedenström, Anders

2013-01-01

210

Calibration of sonic valves for the laminar flow control, leading-edge flight test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sonic needle valves were calibrated to measure and control airflow in the suction system for the leading-edge flight test. The procedure and results for the calibration flow test of 4:41 flight valves are given. Mass-flow rates, which ranged from 0.001 to 0.012 lbm/sec, and maximum back pressure were measured for total temperatures from -30 F to 75 F and total pressures from 120 to 540 psf. Correlating equations are obtained for mass-flow rate as a function of total pressure, total temperature, and valve opening length. The most important aspect of flow measurement and control is found to be the measurement of valve opening length.

Petley, D. H.; Alexander, W., Jr.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Vallas, M.

1985-01-01

211

Cavitation on a semicircular leading-edge plate and NACA0015 hydrofoil: Visualization and velocity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-speed visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV), cavitating flows near a plane plate with a rounded leading edge and NACA0015 hydrofoil at angles of attack from 0° to 9° are studied. In the experiments, several known types of cavitation, as well as some differences, were detected with variation of the cavitation number. In particular, at small angles of attack (up to 3°), cavitation on the plate appears in the form of a streak array; on the hydrofoil, it appears in the form of individual bubbles. For the NACA0015 hydrofoil, isolated and intermittent streaks are divided and grow in regimes with developed cavitation; then, however, they merge in bubble clouds and form an extremely regular cellular structure. With an increase in the angle of attack to 9°, the structure of the cavitation cavity on the hydrofoil is changed by the streak structure, like in the case with the plate. In this work, it is shown that PIV permits one to measure the velocity in cavitating flows, in particular, within the gas-vapor phase. It was established from the analysis of distributions of the average flow velocity and moments of velocity fluctuations that the cavitation generation is caused by the development of the carrier fluid flow near the leading edge of the hydrofoil. Down the stream, however, the flow structure strongly depends on the cavitation regime, which is seen from the comparison of the distributions with the case of a single-phase flow. The presented measurements qualitatively verify general trends and show some quantitative distinctions for the two considered flowpast bodies.

Kravtsova, A. Yu.; Markovich, D. M.; Pervunin, K. S.; Timoshevskii, M. V.; Hanjali?, K.

2014-12-01

212

A mechanism for mitigation of blade-vortex interaction using leading edge blowing flow control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of a vortical unsteady flow with structures is often encountered in engineering applications. Such flow structure interactions (FSI) can be responsible for generating significant loads and can have many detrimental structural and acoustic side effects, such as structural fatigue, radiated noise and even catastrophic results. Amongst the different types of FSI, the parallel blade-vortex interaction (BVI) is the most common, often encountered in helicopters and propulsors. In this work, we report on the implementation of leading edge blowing (LEB) active flow control for successfully minimizing the parallel BVI. Our results show reduction of the airfoil vibrations up to 38% based on the root-mean-square of the vibration velocity amplitude. This technique is based on displacing an incident vortex using a jet issued from the leading edge of a sharp airfoil effectively increasing the stand-off distance of the vortex from the body. The effectiveness of the method was experimentally analyzed using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TRDPIV) recorded at an 800 Hz rate, which is sufficient to resolve the spatio-temporal dynamics of the flow field and it was combined with simultaneous accelerometer measurements of the airfoil, which was free to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the freestream. Analysis of the flow field spectra and a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the TRDPIV data of the temporally resolved planar flow fields indicate that the LEB effectively modified the flow field surrounding the airfoil and increased the convecting vortices stand-off distance for over half of the airfoil chord length. It is shown that LEB also causes a redistribution of the flow field spectral energy over a larger range of frequencies.

Weiland, Chris; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

2009-09-01

213

Insect Residue Contamination on Wing Leading Edge Surfaces: A Materials Investigation for Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests have shown that residue from insect strikes on aircraft wing leading edge surfaces may induce localized transition of laminar to turbulent flow. The highest density of insect populations have been observed between ground level and 153 m during light winds (2.6 -- 5.1 m/s), high humidity, and temperatures from 21 -- 29 C. At a critical residue height, dependent on the airfoil and Reynolds number, boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent results in increased drag and fuel consumption. Although this represents a minimal increase in fuel burn for conventional transport aircraft, future aircraft designs will rely on maintaining laminar flow across a larger portion of wing surfaces to reduce fuel burn during cruise. Thus, insect residue adhesion mitigation is most critical during takeoff and initial climb to maintain laminar flow in fuel-efficient aircraft configurations. Several exterior treatments investigated to mitigate insect residue buildup (e.g., paper, scrapers, surfactants, flexible surfaces) have shown potential; however, implementation has proven to be impractical. Current research is focused on evaluation of wing leading edge surface coatings that may reduce insect residue adhesion. Initial work under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program focused on evaluation of several commercially available products (commercial off-the-shelf, COTS), polymers, and substituted alkoxy silanes that were applied to aluminum (Al) substrates. Surface energies of these coatings were determined from contact angle data and were correlated to residual insect excrescence on coated aluminum substrates using a custom-built "bug gun." Quantification of insect excrescence surface coverage was evaluated by a series of digital photographic image processing techniques.

Lorenzi, Tyler M.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.

2011-01-01

214

Effect of leading- and trailing-edge flaps on clipped delta wings with and without wing camber at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of thin, moderately swept fighter wings has been conducted to evaluate the effect of camber and twist on the effectiveness of leading- and trailing-edge flaps at supersonic speeds in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The study geometry consisted of a generic fuselage with camber typical of advanced fighter designs without inlets, canopy, or vertical tail. The model was tested with two wing configurations an uncambered (flat) wing and a cambered and twisted wing. Each wing had an identical clipped delta planform with an inboard leading edge swept back 65 deg and an outboard leading edge swept back 50 deg. The trailing edge was swept forward 25 deg. The leading-edge flaps were deflected 4 deg to 15 deg, and the trailing-edge flaps were deflected from -30 deg to 10 deg. Longitudinal force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, and 2.16 for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.16 x 10(exp 6) per foot and for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Vapor screen, tuft, and oil flow visualization data are also included.

Hernandez, Gloria; Wood, Richard M.; Covell, Peter F.

1994-01-01

215

A Three-Dimensional Solution of Flows over Wings with Leading-Edge Vortex Separation. Part 1: Engineering Document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of predicting forces, moments, and detailed surface pressures on thin, sharp-edged wings with leading-edge vortex separation in incompressible flow is presented. The method employs an inviscid flow model in which the wing and the rolled-up vortex sheets are represented by piecewise, continuous quadratic doublet sheet distributions. The Kutta condition is imposed on all wing edges. Computed results are compared with experimental data and with the predictions of the leading-edge suction analogy for a selected number of wing planforms over a wide range of angle of attack. These comparisons show the method to be very promising, capable of producing not only force predictions, but also accurate predictions of detailed surface pressure distributions, loads, and moments.

Brune, G. W.; Weber, J. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Lu, P.; Rubbert, P. E.

1975-01-01

216

A Mesh Refinement Study on the Impact Response of a Shuttle Leading-Edge Panel Finite Element Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to examine the influence of varying mesh density on an LS-DYNA simulation of a rectangular-shaped foam projectile impacting the space shuttle leading edge Panel 6. The shuttle leading-edge panels are fabricated of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. During the study, nine cases were executed with all possible combinations of coarse, baseline, and fine meshes of the foam and panel. For each simulation, the same material properties and impact conditions were specified and only the mesh density was varied. In the baseline model, the shell elements representing the RCC panel are approximately 0.2-in. on edge, whereas the foam elements are about 0.5-in. on edge. The element nominal edge-length for the baseline panel was halved to create a fine panel (0.1-in. edge length) mesh and doubled to create a coarse panel (0.4-in. edge length) mesh. In addition, the element nominal edge-length of the baseline foam projectile was halved (0.25-in. edge length) to create a fine foam mesh and doubled (1.0-in. edge length) to create a coarse foam mesh. The initial impact velocity of the foam was 775 ft/s. The simulations were executed in LS-DYNA for 6 ms of simulation time. Contour plots of resultant panel displacement and effective stress in the foam were compared at four discrete time intervals. Also, time-history responses of internal and kinetic energy of the panel, kinetic and hourglass energy of the foam, and resultant contact force were plotted to determine the influence of mesh density.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.

2006-01-01

217

Theory and experiment for flutter of a rectangular plate with a fixed leading edge in three-dimensional axial flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores cantilevered beam flutter for both clamped and pinned leading edge boundary conditions. Specifically, a three-dimensional vortex lattice panel method is coupled with a classical Lagrangian one-dimensional beam structural model to predict the linear flutter boundary for finite size rectangular plates. The paper explores the change in flutter characteristics as a function of the fluid to structure mass ratio and the structural aspect ratio. The paper also presents an exploration of the non-monotonic transition in flutter velocity between the pinned-free and clamped-free boundary conditions which is modeled using a leading edge torsional spring. The theoretical results are compared to vibration and aeroelastic test results collected in the Duke University wind tunnel as well as previous theoretical and experimental results for the leading edge clamped configuration. The aeroelastic experiments confirmed the validity of the three-dimensional vortex lattice aerodynamic model over a subset of mass ratios.

Chad Gibbs, S.; Wang, Ivan; Dowell, Earl

2012-10-01

218

Preservation of wing leading edge suction at the plane of symmetry as a factor in wing-fuselage design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most fuselage geometries cover a portion of the wing leading edge near the plane of symmetry, and it seems reasonable to expect that a large fraction of the leading edge suction which would be developed by the covered wing at high angles of attack is not developed on the fuselage. This is one of the reasons that the Oswald span efficiency factor for the wing body combination fails to approach the value predicted by lifting line theory for the isolated wing. Some traditional and recent literature on wing-body interference is discussed and high Reynolds number data on wing-body-nacelle drag are reviewed. An exposed central leading edge geometry has been developed for a sailplane configuration. Low Reynolds number tests have not validated the design concept.

Larrabee, E. E.

1975-01-01

219

{alpha}-Crystallin localizes to the leading edges of migrating lens epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

{alpha}-crystallin ({alpha}A and {alpha}B) is a major lens protein, which belongs to the small heat-shock family of proteins and binds to various cytoskeletal proteins including actin, vimentin and desmin. In this study, we investigated the cellular localization of {alpha}A and {alpha}B-crystallins in migrating epithelial cells isolated from porcine lens. Immunofluorescence localization and confocal imaging of {alpha}B-crystallin in confluent and in migrating subconfluent cell cultures revealed a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution. While {alpha}B-crystallin localization was predominantly cytoplasmic in confluent cultures, it was strongly localized to the leading edges of cell membrane or the lamellipodia in migrating cells. In accordance with this pattern, we found abundant levels of {alpha}B-crystallin in membrane fractions compared to cytosolic and nuclear fractions in migrating lens epithelial cells. {alpha}A-crystallin, which has 60% sequence identity to {alpha}B-crystallin, also exhibited a distribution profile localizing to the leading edge of the cell membrane in migrating lens epithelial cells. Localization of {alpha}B-crystallin to the lamellipodia appears to be dependent on phosphorylation of residue serine-59. An inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase (SB202190), but not the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059, was found to diminish localization of {alpha}B-crystallin to the lamellipodia, and this effect was found to be associated with reduced levels of Serine-59 phosphorylated {alpha}B-crystallin in SB202190-treated migrating lens epithelial cells. {alpha}B-crystallin localization to the lamellipodia was also altered by the treatment with RGD (Arg-Ala-Asp) peptide, dominant negative N17 Rac1 GTPase, cytochalasin D and Src kinase inhibitor (PP2), but not by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 or the myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Additionally, in migrating lens epithelial cells, {alpha}B-crystallin exhibited a clear co-localization with the actin meshwork, {beta}-catenin, WAVE-1, a promoter of actin nucleation, Abi-2, a component of WAVE-1 protein complex and Arp3, a protein of the actin nucleation complex, suggesting potential interactions between {alpha}B-crystallin and regulatory proteins involved in actin dynamics and cell adhesion. This is the first report demonstrating specific localization of {alpha}A and {alpha}B-crystallins to the lamellipodia in migrating lens epithelial cells and our findings indicate a potential role for {alpha}-crystallin in actin dynamics during cell migration.

Maddala, Rupalatha [Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Vasantha Rao, P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710 (United States) and Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: rao00011@mc.duke.edu

2005-05-15

220

Mass loss of TEOS-coated RCC subjected to the environment at the shuttle wing leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coated, reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. The mass loss characteristics of RCC specimens coated with tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) were determined for conditions which simulated the entry environment expected at the stagnation area of the wing leading edge. Maximum specimen temperature was 1632 K. Specimens were exposed for up to 100 missions. Stress levels up to 8.274 MPa caused an average increase in oxidation of 6 percent over unstressed specimens. Experimentally determined mass losses were compared with those predicted by an existing empirical analysis.

Stroud, C. W.; Rummler, D. R.

1981-01-01

221

Lead and zinc dust depositions from ore trains characterised using lead isotopic compositions.  

PubMed

This study investigates an unusual source of environmental lead contamination - the emission and deposition of lead and zinc concentrates along train lines into and out of Australia's oldest silver-lead-zinc mine at Broken Hill, Australia. Transport of lead and zinc ore concentrates from the Broken Hill mines has occurred for more than 125 years, during which time the majority was moved in uncovered rail wagons. A significant amount of ore was lost to the adjoining environments, resulting in soil immediately adjacent to train lines elevated with concentrations of lead (695 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (2230 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of lead and zinc decreased away from the train line and also with depth shown in soil profiles. Lead isotopic compositions demonstrated the soil lead contained Broken Hill ore in increasing percentages closer to the train line, with up to 97% apportioned to the mined Broken Hill ore body. SEM examination showed ceiling dusts collected from houses along the train line were composed of unweathered galena particles, characteristic of the concentrate transported in the rail wagons. The loss of ore from the uncovered wagons has significantly extended the environmental footprint of contamination from local mining operations over an area extending hundreds of kilometres along each of the three train lines. PMID:25627173

Kristensen, L J; Taylor, M P; Morrison, A L

2015-03-11

222

A practical study of the aerodynamic impact of wind turbine blade leading edge erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During operation wind turbine blades are exposed to a wide variety of atmospheric and environmental conditions; inspection reports for blades that have been operating for several years show varying degrees of leading edge erosion. It is important to be able to estimate the impact of different stages of erosion on wind turbine performance, but this is very difficult even with advanced CFD models. In this study, wind tunnel testing was used to evaluate a range of complex erosion stages. Erosion patterns were transferred to thin films that were applied to 18% thick commercial wind turbine aerofoils and full lift and drag polars were measured in a wind tunnel. Tests were conducted up to a Reynolds number of 2.20 × 106 scaling based on the local roughness Reynolds number was used in combination with different film thicknesses to simulate a variety of erosion depths. The results will be very useful for conducting cost/benefit analyses of different methods of blade protection and repair, as well as for defining the appropriate timescales for these processes.

Gaudern, N.

2014-06-01

223

The structure of separated flow regions occurring near the leading edge of airfoils, including transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data was obtained for the NACA 663-018 airfoil in order to assess the advantages of tripping the boundary layer very near the leading edge for chord Reynolds numbers between 40,000 and 200,000. Single element trips were made from tape 2.5 mm wide and 0.15 mm thick. The unmodified tape trip in five thicknesses was placed across the span at 1.1% chord and the results of lift and drag measurements compared with the smooth airfoil case. Saw tooth geometry trips were also cut from tape and studied using five thicknesses. The saw tooth trips were placed across the span with the sharp points facing upstream at 1.1% chord and with the valley of the teeth at the 2.5% chord position. A large number of bumps and wiggles were produced in the lift coefficient versus angle of attack curves with various combinations of Reynolds number, thickness, and type of trips. The main result in the drag coefficient was an increase in C sub d min with increase in trip thickness.

Mueller, T. J.

1983-01-01

224

Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

2012-01-01

225

Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Wing-Leading-Edge Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture mechanics analyses of subsurface defects within the joggle regions of the Space Shuttle wing-leading-edge RCC panels are performed. A 2D plane strain idealized joggle finite element model is developed to study the fracture behavior of the panels for three distinct loading conditions - lift-off and ascent, on-orbit, and entry. For lift-off and ascent, an estimated bounding aerodynamic pressure load is used for the analyses, while for on-orbit and entry, thermo-mechanical analyses are performed using the extreme cold and hot temperatures experienced by the panels. In addition, a best estimate for the material stress-free temperature is used in the thermo-mechanical analyses. In the finite element models, the substrate and coating are modeled separately as two distinct materials. Subsurface defects are introduced at the coating-substrate interface and within the substrate. The objective of the fracture mechanics analyses is to evaluate the defect driving forces, which are characterized by the strain energy release rates, and determine if defects can become unstable for each of the loading conditions.

Raju, Ivatury S.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan

2010-01-01

226

Thermostructural Evaluation of Joggle Region on the Shuttle Orbiter's Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was initiated to determine the cause of coating spallation occurring on the Shuttle Orbiter's wing leading edge panels in the slip-side joggle region. The coating spallation events were observed, post flight, on differing panels on different missions. As part of the investigation, the high re-entry heating occurring on the joggles was considered here as a possible cause. Thus, a thermostructural evaluation was conducted to determine the detailed state-of-stress in the joggle region during re-entry and the feasibility of a laboratory test on a local joggle specimen to replicate this state-of-stress. A detailed three-dimensional finite element model of a panel slip-side joggle region was developed. Parametric and sensitivity studies revealed significant stresses occur in the joggle during peak heating. A critical interlaminar normal stress concentration was predicted in the substrate at the coating interface and was confined to the curved joggle region. Specifically, the high interlaminar normal stress is identified to be the cause for the occurrence of failure in the form of local subsurface material separation occurring in the slip-side joggle. The predicted critical stresses are coincident with material separations that had been observed with microscopy in joggle specimens obtained from flight panels.

Walker, Sandra P.; Warren, Jerry E.

2012-01-01

227

Mechanism of Water Droplet Breakup Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. The airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Droplet deformation is defined and studied against main parameters. The high speed imaging allowed observation of the actual mechanism of breakup and identification of the sequence of configurations from the initiation of the breakup to the disintegration of the droplet. Results and comparisons are presented for droplets of diameters in the range of 500 to 1800 microns, and airfoil velocities of 70 and 90 m/sec.

Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida, Garcia

2012-01-01

228

Effect of Impact Location on the Response of Shuttle Wing Leading Edge Panel 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to compare the results of several simulations performed to determine the worst-case location for a foam impact on the Space Shuttle wing leading edge. The simulations were performed using the commercial non-linear transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. These simulations represent the first in a series of parametric studies performed to support the selection of the worst-case impact scenario. Panel 9 was selected for this study to enable comparisons with previous simulations performed during the Columbia Accident Investigation. The projectile for this study is a 5.5-in cube of typical external tank foam weighing 0.23 lb. Seven locations spanning the panel surface were impacted with the foam cube. For each of these cases, the foam was traveling at 1000 ft/s directly aft, along the orbiter X-axis. Results compared from the parametric studies included strains, contact forces, and material energies for various simulations. The results show that the worst case impact location was on the top surface, near the apex.

Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.; Hardy, Robin C.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

2005-01-01

229

Suppression of dynamic stall with a leading-edge slat on a VR-7 airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VR-7 airfoil was experimentally studied with and without a leading-edge slat at fixed angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg at Re = 200,000 and for unsteady pitching motions described by alpha equals alpha(sub m) + 10 deg(sin(wt)). The models were two dimensional, and the test was performed in a water tunnel at Ames Research Center. The unsteady conditions ranged over Re equals 100,000 to 250,000, k equals 0.001 to 0.2, and alpha(sub m) = 10 deg to 20 deg. Unsteady lift, drag, and pitching-moment measurements were obtained along with fluorescent-dye flow visualizations. The addition of the slat was found to delay the static-drag and static-moment stall by about 5 degrees and to eliminate completely the development of a dynamic-stall vortex during unsteady motions that reached angles as high as 25 degrees. In all of the unsteady cases studied, the slat caused a significant reduction in the force and moment hysteresis amplitudes. The reduced frequency was found to have the greatest effect on the results, whereas the Reynolds number had little effect on the behavior of either the basic or the slatted airfoil. The slat caused a slight drag penalty at low angles of attack, but generally increased the lift/drag ratio when averaged over the full cycle of oscillation.

Mcalister, K. W.; Tung, C.

1993-01-01

230

Mechanism of Water Droplet Breakup near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de T cnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. The airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Droplet deformation is defined and studied against main parameters. The high speed imaging allowed observation of the actual mechanism of breakup and identification of the sequence of configurations from the initiation of the breakup to the disintegration of the droplet. Results and comparisons are presented for droplets of diameters in the range of 500 to 1800 micrometers, and airfoil velocities of 70 and 90 meters/second.

Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida Garcia

2012-01-01

231

Development of Detectability Limits for On-Orbit Inspection of Space Shuttle Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the conclusion of the Columbia Accident Investigation, one of the recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was that NASA develop and implement an inspection plan for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components of the Space Shuttle. To address these issues, a group of scientists and engineers at NASA Langley Research Center proposed the use of an IR camera to inspect the RCC. Any crack in an RCC panel changes the thermal resistance of the material in the direction perpendicular to the crack. The change in thermal resistance can be made visible by introducing a heat flow across the crack and using an IR camera to image the resulting surface temperature distribution. The temperature difference across the crack depends on the change in the thermal resistance, the length of the crack, the local thermal gradient, and the rate of radiation exchange with the environment. This paper describes how the authors derived the minimum thermal gradient detectability limits for a through crack in an RCC panel. This paper will also show, through the use of a transient, 3-dimensional, finite element model, that these minimum gradients naturally exist on-orbit. The results from the finite element model confirm that there are sufficient thermal gradient to detect a crack on 96% of the RCC leading edge.

Stephan, Ryan A.; Johnson, David G.; Mastropietro, A. J.; Ancarrow, Walt C.

2005-01-01

232

Prediction and Assessment of Reynolds Number Sensitivities Associated with Wing Leading-Edge Radius Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of this study were to expand the data base showing the effects of LE radius distribution and corresponding . sensitivity to Rn at subsonic and transonic conditions, and to assess the predictive capability of CFD for these effects. Several key elements led to the initiation of this project: 1) the necessity of meeting multipoint design requirements to enable a viable HSCT, 2) the demonstration that blunt supersonic leading-edges can be associated with performance gain at supersonic speeds , and 3) limited data. A test of a modified Reference H model with the TCA planform and 2 LE radius distributions was performed in the NTF, in addition to Navier-Stokes analysis for an additional 3 LE radius distributions. Results indicate that there is a tremendous potential to improve high-lift performance through the use of a blunt LE across the span given an integrated, fully optimized design, and that low Rn data alone is probably not sufficient to demonstrate the benefit.

Wahls, Richard A.; Rivers, Melissa B.; Owen, Lewis R., Jr.

1999-01-01

233

Prediction and Assessment of Reynolds Number Sensitivities Associated with Wing Leading-Edge Radius Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of this study were to expand the data base showing the effects of LE radius distribution and corresponding sensitivity to Rn at subsonic and transonic conditions, and to assess the predictive capability of CFD for these effects. Several key elements led to the initiation of this project: 1) the necessity of meeting multipoint design requirements to enable a viable HSCT, 2) the demonstration that blunt supersonic leading-edges can be associated with performance gain at supersonic speeds , and 3) limited data. A test of a modified Reference H model with the TCA planform and 2 LE radius distributions was performed in the NTF, in addition to Navier-Stokes analysis for an additional 3 LE radius distributions. Results indicate that there is a tremendous potential to improve high-lift performance through the use of a blunt LE across the span given an integrated, fully optimized design, and that low Rn data alone is probably not sufficient to demonstrate the benefit.

Wahls, Richard A.; Rivers, Melissa B.; Owens, Lewis R., Jr.

1999-01-01

234

Development of composite materials for non-leaded gloves for use in radiological hand protection.  

PubMed

Lead is a hazardous material, and the U.S. Congress has mandated the rapid reduction of all hazardous waste generation as a matter of national policy. With the large amount of plutonium handling in numerous projects including the development of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, 238Pu power sources, etc., hand glove protection for the emitted alpha, beta, and low energy photons is an important issue. Leaded gloves are the prime shields used for radiological hand protection. U.S. Department of Energy laboratories require a substitute material for the lead oxide in the gloves as a way to reduce mixed waste. To solve this problem, a new blend of non-hazardous materials that have the same radiological properties and approximately the same cost of production have been investigated. The investigations have produced alternative materials using calculations and experiments. The selection of the constituent compounds for the new composite materials was based on the k-absorption edge energy of the main constituent element(s) in the compounds. The formulations of these composites were fashioned on the principle of blending Neoprene rubber formulation with several constituent compounds. Calculations based on the Lambert-Beer attenuation law together with the mass attenuation coefficient values from the XCOM cross section database program were used to determine the transmission fractions of these proposed composite materials. Selected composite materials that compared favorably with the leaded-Neoprene were fabricated. These fabricated composite materials were tested with attenuation experiments and the results were in excellent agreement with the calculations using the Lambert-Beer attenuation law. PMID:12822583

Dodoo-Amoo, David N A; Landsberger, Sheldon; MacDonald, John M; Castro, Julio M

2003-06-01

235

Numerical evaluations of the effect of leading-edge protuberances on the static and dynamic stall characteristics of an airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavy leading edge modifications of airfoils through imitating humpback whale flippers has been considered as a viable passive way to control flow separation. In this paper, flows around a baseline 634-021 airfoil and one with leading-edge sinusoidal protuberances were simulated using S-A turbulence model. When studying the static stall characteristics, it is found that the modified airfoil does not stall in the traditional manner, with increasing poststall lift coefficients. At high angles of attack, the flows past the wavy leading edge stayed attached for a distance, while the baseline foil is in a totally separated flow condition. On this basis, the simulations of pitch characteristic were carried out for both foils. At high angles of attack mild variations in lift and drag coefficients of the modified foil can be found, leading to a smaller area of hysteresis loop. The special structure of wavy leading edge can help maintain high consistency of the flow field in dynamic pitching station within a particular range of angles of attack.

Cai, C.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Wang, F. B.

2013-12-01

236

Quantum transport in honeycomb lattice ribbons with armchair and zigzag edges coupled to semi-infinite linear chain leads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum transport in honeycomb lattice ribbons with either armchair or zigzag edges. The ribbons are coupled to semi-infinite linear chains serving as the input and output leads and we use a tight-binding Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor hops. The input and output leads are coupled to the ribbons through bar contacts. In narrow ribbons we find transmission gaps for both types of edges. The appearance of this gap is due to the enhanced quantum interference coming from the multiple channels in bar contacts. The center of the gap is at the middle of the band in ribbons with armchair edges. This particle-hole symmetry is because bar contacts do not mix the two sublattices of the underlying bipartite honeycomb lattice when the ribbon has armchair edges. In ribbons with zigzag edges the gap center is displaced to the right of the band center. This breakdown of particle-hole symmetry is the result of bar contacts now mixing the two sublattices. We also find transmission oscillations and resonances within the transmitting region of the band for both types of edges. Extending the length of a ribbon does not affect the width of the transmission gap, as long as the ribbon’s length is longer than a critical value when the gap can form. Increasing the width of the ribbon, however, changes the width of the gap. In ribbons with zigzag edges the gap width systematically shrinks as the width of the ribbon is increased. In ribbons with armchair edges the gap is not well-defined because of the appearance of transmission resonances. We also find only evanescent waves within the gap and both evanescent and propagating waves in the transmitting regions.

Cuansing, E.; Wang, J.-S.

2009-06-01

237

Subsonic Investigation of a Leading-Edge Boundary Layer Control Suction System on a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation of a leading edge boundary layer control system was conducted on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.08 to 0.27, with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.79 x 10(exp 6) to 5.76 x 10(exp 6). Variations in the amount of suction, as well as the size and location of the suction area, were tested with outboard leading edge flaps deflected 0 and 30 deg and trailing-edge flaps deflected 0 and 20 deg. The longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic data are presented without analysis. A complete tabulated data listing is also presented herein.

Campbell, Bryan A.; Applin, Zachary T.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Owens, D. Bruce; Gile, Brenda E.; Parikh, Pradip G.; Smith, Don

1999-01-01

238

Effects of leading-edge devices on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept arrow-wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Texas A&M University 7 by 10 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to provide a direct comparison of the effect of several leading edge devices on the aerodynamic performance of a highly swept wing configuration. Analysis of the data indicates that for the configuration with undeflected leading edges, vortex separation first occurs on the outboard wing panel for angles of attack of approximately 2, and wing apex vorticies become apparent for alpha or = 4 deg. However, the occurrence of the leading edge vortex flow may be postponed with leading edge devices. Of the devices considered, the most promising were a simple leading edge deflection of 30 deg and a leading edge slat system. The trailing edge flap effectiveness was found to be essentially the same for the configuration employing either of these more promising leading edge devices. Analysis of the lateral directional data showed that for all of the concepts considered, deflecting leading edge downward in an attempt to postpone leading edge vortex flows, has the favorable effect of reducing the effective dihedral.

Scott, S. J.; Nicks, O. W.; Imbrie, P. K.

1985-01-01

239

Edge stress intensity functions in 3-D anisotropic composites Zohar Yosibash a,*, Netta Omer a  

E-print Network

or interface cracks between plies lead most frequently to catastrophic failures in cross-ply laminates. Many of these laminates are made of brittle anisotropic materials and occupy three-dimensional (3-D) domains, therefore been provided and the quasi-dual function method was proposed for the extraction of edge stress

Yosibash, Zohar

240

An evaluation of leading-edge flap performance on delta and double-delta wings at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of leading-edge flaps on three delta double-delta wing planforms having aspect ratios of 1.75, 2.11, and 2.50, have been investigated experimentally. The wings were mounted on a generic fuselage without an inlet canopy, or a vertical tail. The Mach numbers of the flow over the wings were 1.60, 1.90 and 2.16. A primary set of full-span leading-edge flaps with similar root and tip chords were tested on each wing, and several alternate flap planforms were tested on the aspect ratio 1.75 wings. It is found that all leading edge geometries were effective in reducing drag lifting over the range of wing aspect ratios and Mach numbers tested. Greater flap performance was obtained when primary flaps were applied to the delta planform. In general, the primary flap geometry yielded better performance than the alternative geometries tested. Flow visualization techniques were found to be useful for identifying the beneficial effects of leading-edge flap deflection on flow separation as well as fuselage interference effects. Black and white photographs of the delta and double-delta planforms are provided.

Covell, P. F.; Miller, D. S.; Wood, R. M.

1986-01-01

241

"Partners in Science": A Model Cooperative Program Introducing High School Teachers and Students to Leading-Edge Pharmaceutical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Partners in Science" is a cooperative program between Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and area high schools in the community surrounding our Connecticut campus. It is a two-phase program that introduces high school students and teachers to the world of drug discovery and leading-edge pharmaceutical research. Phase 1 involves a series…

Woska, Joseph R., Jr.; Collins, Danielle M.; Canney, Brian J.; Arcario, Erin L.; Reilly, Patricia L.

2005-01-01

242

Preliminary thermal/structural analysis of a carbon-carbon/refractory-metal heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents preliminary thermal/structural analyses of a carbon-carbon/refractory-metal heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge concept designed for an air breathing single-stage-to-orbit hypersonic vehicle. The concept features chordwise (i.e., normal to the leading edge) and spanwise (i.e., parallel to the leading edge) refractory-metal heat pipes which are completely embedded within a carbon-carbon primary structure. Studies of the leading edge were performed using nonlinear thermal and linear structural three-dimensional finite element analyses. The concept was shown to be thermally feasible within the limits of the assumptions made in the analyses when internal radiative cooling is present during ascent, and a three-dimensional carbon-carbon architecture is used. In addition, internal radiative cooling was found not to be necessary during descent. The linear stress analysis indicated excessively large thermal stresses in the rafractory metal walls of the heat pipes even though a soft layer of carbon was included between the heat pipe and the carbon-carbon structure in an attempt to reduce the thermal stresses. A nonlinear structural analysis may be necessary to properly model the response of the refractory-metal heat pipes.

Glass, David E.; Camarda, Charles J.

1990-01-01

243

Turbulent Vortex-Flow Simulation Over a 65 deg Sharp and Blunt Leading-Edge Delta Wing at Subsonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbulent thin-layer, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, based on a multi-block structured grid, are presented for a 65 deg delta wing having either a sharp leading edge (SLE) or blunt leading edge (BLE) geometry. The primary objective of the study is to assess the prediction capability of the method for simulating the leading-edge flow separation and the ensuing vortex flow characteristics. Computational results are obtained for two angles of attack of approximately 13 and 20 deg, at free-stream Mach number of 0.40 and Reynolds number of 6 million based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The effects of two turbulence models of Baldwin-Lomax with Degani-Schiff (BL/DS) and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) on the numerical results are also discussed. The computations also explore the effects of two numerical flux-splitting schemes, i.e., flux difference splitting (fds) and flux vector splitting (fvs), on the solution development and convergence characteristics. The resulting trends in solution sensitivity to grid resolution for the selected leading-edge geometries, angles of attack, turbulence models and flux splitting schemes are also presented. The validity of the numerical results is evaluated against a unique set of experimental wind-tunnel data that was obtained in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

Ghaffari, Farhad

2005-01-01

244

Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge materials from uncertain experimental data  

E-print Network

Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge and imprecise information. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Helicopter rotors are more susceptible to icing than fixed-wing vehicles. Rotors impact more super-cooled water particles per sec- ond

Granada, Universidad de

245

Measuring forces at the leading edge: a force assay for cell motility  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells become mobile by remodelling their cytoskeleton to form migratory structures. This transformation is dominated by actin assembly and disassembly (polymerisation and depolymerisation) in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of filamentous actin produces a force at the leading edge that pushes the plasma membrane forward. We describe an assay to measure the restoring force of the membrane in response to forces generated within the cytoplasm adjacent to the membrane. A laser trap is used to form a long membrane nanotube from a living cell and to measure the axial membrane force at the end of the tube. When the tube, resembling a filopodium, is formed and in a relaxed state the axial membrane force exhibits a positive stationary value. This value reflects the influence of the cytoskeleton that acts to pull the tube back to the cell. A dynamic sawtooth force that rides upon the stationary value is also obseved. This force is sensitive to a toxin that affects actin assembly and disassembly, but not affected by agents that influence microtubules and myosin light chain kinase. We deduce from the magnitude and characteristics of dynamic force measurements that it originates from depolymerisation and polymerisation of F-actin. The on- and off-rates, the number of working filaments, and the force per filament (2.5 pN) are determined. We suggest the force-dependent transitions are thermodynamically uncoupled as both the on- and off-rates decrease exponentially with a compressive load. We propose kinetic schemes that require attachment of actin filaments to the membrane during depolymerisation. This demonstrates that actin kinetics can be monitored in a living cell by measuring force at the membrane, and used to probe the mobility of cells including cancer cells. PMID:23080534

Qian, Feng; Kolomeisky, Anatoly; Anvari, Bahman; Brownell, William E

2012-01-01

246

Free edge strain concentrations in real composite laminates: Experimental-theoretical correlation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnitude of the maximum shear strain at the free edge of axially loaded theta (2)/-theta(2)(s) and (+ or - theta(2) (s) composite laminates was investigated experimentally and numerically to ascertain the actual value of strain concentration in resin matrix laminates and to determine the accuracy of finite element results. Experimental results using moire interferometry show large, but finite, shear strain concentrations at the free edge of graphite-epoxy and graphite-polyimide laminates. Comparison of the experimental results with those obtained using several different finite element representations showed that a four node isoparametric finite element provided the best and most trouble free numerical results. The results indicate that the ratio of maxium shear strain at the free edge to applied axial strain varies with fiber orientation and does not exceed nine for the most critical angle which is 15 deg.

Herakovich, C. T.; Post, D.; Buczek, M. B.; Czarnek, R.

1984-01-01

247

Thermal Edge-Effects Model for Automated Tape Placement of Thermoplastic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional thermal models for automated tape placement (ATP) of thermoplastic composites neglect the diffusive heat transport that occurs between the newly placed tape and the cool substrate beside it. Such lateral transport can cool the tape edges prematurely and weaken the bond. The three-dimensional, steady state, thermal transport equation is solved by the Green's function method for a tape of finite width being placed on an infinitely wide substrate. The isotherm for the glass transition temperature on the weld interface is used to determine the distance inward from the tape edge that is prematurely cooled, called the cooling incursion Delta a. For the Langley ATP robot, Delta a = 0.4 mm for a unidirectional lay-up of PEEK/carbon fiber composite, and Delta a = 1.2 mm for an isotropic lay-up. A formula for Delta a is developed and applied to a wide range of operating conditions. A surprise finding is that Delta a need not decrease as the Peclet number Pe becomes very large, where Pe is the dimensionless ratio of inertial to diffusive heat transport. Conformable rollers that increase the consolidation length would also increase Delta a, unless other changes are made, such as proportionally increasing the material speed. To compensate for premature edge cooling, the thermal input could be extended past the tape edges by the amount Delta a. This method should help achieve uniform weld strength and crystallinity across the width of the tape.

Costen, Robert C.

2000-01-01

248

Subscale, hydrogen-burning, airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a water cooled strut airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water-cooled leading-edge design for an engine/airframe integrated scramjet model strut leading edge was evaluated. The cooling design employs a copper cooling tube brazed just downstream of the leading edge of a wedge-shaped strut which is constructed of oxygen-free copper. The survival of the strut leading edge during a series of tests at stagnation point heating rates confirms the practicality of the cooling design. A finite difference thermal model of the strut was also proven valid by the reasonable agreement of calculated and measured values of surface temperature and cooling-water heat transfer.

Pinckney, S. Z.; Guy, R. W.; Beach, H. L., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.

1975-01-01

249

Exploratory study of the effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the stall/spin behavior of a light general aviation airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Configurations with full-span and segmented leading-edge flaps and full-span and segmented leading-edge droop were tested. Studies were conducted with wind-tunnel models, with an outdoor radio-controlled model, and with a full-scale airplane. Results show that wing-leading-edge modifications can produce large effects on stall/spin characteristics, particularly on spin resistance. One outboard wing-leading-edge modification tested significantly improved lateral stability at stall, spin resistance, and developed spin characteristics.

1979-01-01

250

A general aerodynamic approach to the problem of decaying or growing vibrations of thin, flexible wings with supersonic leading and trailing edges and no side edges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indicial aerodynamic influence coefficients were evaluated from potential theory for a thin, flexible wing with supersonic leading and trailing edges only. The analysis is based on the use of small surface areas in which the downwash is assumed uniform. Within this limitation, the results are exact except for the restriction of linearized theory. The areas are not restricted either to square boxes or Mach boxes. A given area may be any rectangle or square which may or may not be cut by the Mach forecone, and any area can be used anywhere in the forecone without loss of accuracy.

Warner, R. W.

1975-01-01

251

Penetration of carbon-fabric-reinforced composites by edge cracks during thermal aging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) test results are significantly influenced by the formation and growth or presence of interlaminar and interlaminar cracks in the cut edges of all carbon-fiber-crosslinked high-temperature polymer matrix composites(exp 1-5) (i.e., unidirectional, crossplied, angle-plied, and fabric composites). The thermo-oxidative degradation of these composites is heavily dependent on the surface area that is exposed to the harmful environment and on the surface-to-volume ratio of the structure under study. Since the growth of cracks and voids on the composite surfaces significantly increases the exposed surface areas, it is imperative that the interaction between the aging process and the formation of new surface area as the aging time progresses be understood.

Bowles, Kenneth J.; Kamvouris, John E.

1994-01-01

252

The aerodynamics of Manduca sexta: digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the leading-edge vortex.  

PubMed

Here we present the first digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) analysis of the flow field around the wings of an insect (the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, tethered to a 6-component force-moment balance in a wind tunnel). A leading-edge vortex (LEV) is present above the wings towards the end of the downstroke, as the net upward force peaks. Our DPIV analyses and smoke visualisations match the results of previous flow visualisation experiments at midwing, and we extend the experiments to provide the first analysis of the flow field above the thorax. Detailed DPIV measurements show that towards the end of the downstroke, the LEV structure is consistent with that recently reported in free-flying butterflies and dragonflies: the LEV is continuous across the thorax and runs along each wing to the wingtip, where it inflects to form the wingtip trailing vortices. The LEV core is 2-3 mm in diameter (approximately 10% of local wing chord) both at the midwing position and over the centreline at 1.2 m s(-1) and at 3.5 m s(-1) flight speeds. At 1.2 m s(-1) the measured LEV circulation is 0.012+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) (mean +/-S.D.) at the centreline and 0.011+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) halfway along the wing. At 3.5 m s(-1) LEV circulation is 0.011+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) at the centreline and 0.020+/-0.004 m(2) s(-1) at midwing. The DPIV measurements suggest that if there is any spanwise flow in the LEV towards the end of the downstroke its velocity is less than 1 m s(-1). Estimates of force production show that the LEV contributes significantly to supporting body weight during bouts of flight at both speeds (more than 10% of body weight at 1.2 m s(-1) and 35-65% of body weight at 3.5 m s(-1)). PMID:15767309

Bomphrey, Richard J; Lawson, Nicholas J; Harding, Nicholas J; Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R

2005-03-01

253

Influence of airfoil geometry on delta wing leading-edge vortices and vortex-induced aerodynamics at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the influence of airfoil geometry on delta wing leading edge vortex flow and vortex induced aerodynamics at supersonic speeds is discussed. A series of delta wing wind tunnel models were tested over a Mach number range from 1.7 to 2.0. The model geometric variables included leading edge sweep and airfoil shape. Surface pressure data, vapor screen, and oil flow photograph data were taken to evaluate the complex structure of the vortices and shocks on the family of wings tested. The data show that airfoil shape has a significant impact on the wing upper surface flow structure and pressure distribution, but has a minimal impact on the integrated upper surface pressure increments.

Wood, Richard M.; Byrd, James E.; Wesselmann, Gary F.

1992-01-01

254

Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations  

SciTech Connect

The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

2009-08-01

255

Two and three-dimensional shock-shock interactions on the blunt leading edges of the hypersonic inlets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of shock impingement on the blunt leading edges of the top and sidewall compression type inlet of a scramjet engine is studied numerically. The impinging shock is caused by the vehicle forebody. The interaction of this forebody shock with the inlet leading edge shock results in a very complex flowfield containing local regions of high pressure and intense heating. This complex flowfield in calculated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using a finite volume flux splitting technique due to van Leer. To resolve the finer details of the flow structure as well as to predict the surface heat transfer accurately, adaptive grid technique is used in the analysis. Results of the present numerical study are compared with available experimental results.

Singh, D. J.; Kumar, Ajay; Tiwari, S. N.

1991-01-01

256

Calculation of the 3-D viscous flow at the endwall leading edge region of an axial annular turbine cascade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional viscous computer code (VANS/MD) was employed to calculate the turbulent flow field at the end wall leading edge region of a 20 inch axial annular turbine cascade. The initial boundary layer roll-up and formation of the end wall vortices were computed at the vane leading edge. The calculated flow field was found to be periodic with a frequency of approximately 1600 Hz. The calculated size of the separation region for the hub endwall vortex compared favorably with measured endwall oil traces. In an effort to determine the effects of the turbulence model on the calculated unsteadiness, a laminar calculation was made. The periodic nature of the calculated flow field persisted with the frequency essentially unchanged.

Walitt, L.

1984-01-01

257

Wind-Tunnel Tests on Various Types of Dive Brakes Mounted in Proximity of the Leading Edge of the Wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present report is concerned with a series of tests on a model airplane fitted with four types of dive flaps of various shapes, positions, and incidence located near the leading edge of the wing (from 5 to 20 percent of the wing chord). Tests were also made on a stub airfoil fitted with a ventral dive (located at 8 percent of the wing chord). The hinge moments of the dive flaps were measured.

Lattanzi, Bernardino; Bellante, Erno

1949-01-01

258

A Unit-Problem Investigation of Blunt Leading-Edge Separation Motivated by AVT-161 SACCON Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research effort has been initiated to examine in more detail some of the challenging flow fields discovered from analysis of the SACCON configuration aerodynamics. This particular effort is oriented toward a diamond wing investigation specifically designed to isolate blunt leading-edge separation phenomena relevant to the SACCON investigations of the present workshop. The approach taken to design this new effort is reviewed along with the current status of the program.

Luckring, James M.; Boelens, Okko J.

2011-01-01

259

Transfer of New Earth Science Understandings to Classroom Teaching: Lessons Learned From Teachers on the Leading Edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE) provided a field-based teacher professional development program that explored the active continental margin geology of the Pacific Northwest during a two-week field workshop that traversed Oregon from the Pacific Coast to the Snake River. The seventeen teachers on this journey of geological discovery experienced regional examples of subduction-margin geology and examined the critical role

R. Butler; C. Ault; E. Bishop; T. Southworth-Neumeyer; B. Magura; C. Hedeen; R. Groom; K. Shay; R. Wagner

2006-01-01

260

Icing tunnel tests of a glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system on a general aviation airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center to determine the characteristics of an ice protection system that distributes a glycol solution onto the leading edge of an airfoil through a porous surface material. Minimum fluid flow rates required to achieve anti-icing (no ice formation) were determined for various flight conditions and angles of attack. The ability of the system to remove ice formed on the airfoil before system activation was also investigated.

Kohlman, D. L.; Schweikhard, W. G.; Evanich, P.

1981-01-01

261

Prediction of STS107 Hypervelocity Flow Fields about the Shuttle Orbiter with Various Wing Leading Edge Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computations were performed for damaged configurations of the Shuttle Orbiter in support of the STS-107 Columbia accident investigation. Two configurations with missing wing leading-edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels were evaluated at conditions just prior to the peak heating trajectory point. The initial configuration modeled the Orbiter with an approximate missing RCC panel 6 to determine whether this damage could result

Maria V. Pulsonetti; Richard A. Thompson; Stephen J. Alter

2003-01-01

262

Thelma and Louise Do Religious Education: A Dialogue from the Edge for Leading with Hope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1991 movie Thelma and Louise and its protagonists continue to be cultural icons for many women of all ages. With quotations, song lyrics, the metaphor of the edge from the film, and collected wisdom from pedagogy, two religious educators reflect on their vocations and leadership drawing implications for the teaching ministry. The themes…

Meyers, Patty; Willhauck, Susan

2003-01-01

263

KNN-NTK composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was successfully densified. It exhibited an enhanced electromechanical coupling factor of kp = 0.52, a piezoelectric constant d33 = 252 pC/N, and a frequency constant Np = 3170 Hz m because of the incorporation of an elaborate secondary phase composed primarily of KTiNbO5. The ceramic's nominal composition was 0.92K0.42Na0.44Ca0.04Li0.02Nb0.85O3-0.047K0.85Ti0.85Nb1.15O5-0.023BaZrO3-0.0017Co3O4-0.002Fe2O3-0.005ZnO, abbreviated herein as KNN-NTK composite. The KNN-NTK ceramic exhibited a dense microstructure with few microvoids which significantly degraded its piezoelectric properties. Elemental maps recorded using transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS) revealed regions of high concentrations of Co and Zn inside the NTK phase. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that a small portion of the NTK phase was converted into K2(Ti,Nb,Co,Zn)6O13 or CoZnTiO4 by a possible reaction between Co and Zn solutes and the NTK phase during a programmed sintering schedule. TEM studies also clarified a distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces. Such an NTK phase filled voids between KNN particles, resulting in an improved chemical stability of the KNN ceramic. The manufacturing process was subsequently scaled to 100 kg per batch for granulated ceramic powder using a spray-drying technique. The properties of the KNN-NTK composite ceramic produced using the scaled-up method were confirmed to be identical to those of the ceramic prepared by conventional solid-state reaction sintering. Consequently, slight changes in the NTK phase composition and the distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces affected the KNN-NTK composite ceramic's piezoelectric characteristics.

Matsuoka, T.; Kozuka, H.; Kitamura, K.; Yamada, H.; Kurahashi, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K.

2014-10-01

264

Flight test operations using an F-106B research airplane modified with a wing leading-edge vortex flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests of an F-106B aircraft equipped with a leading-edge vortex flap, which represented the culmination of a research effort to examine the effectiveness of the flap, were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the flight tests was to establish a data base on the use of a wing leading-edge vortex flap as a means to validate the design and analysis methods associated with the development of such a vortical flow-control concept. The overall experiment included: refinements of the design codes for vortex flaps; numerous wind tunnel entries to aid in verifying design codes and determining basic aerodynamic characteristics; design and fabrication of the flaps, structural modifications to the wing tip and leading edges of the test aircraft; development and installation of an aircraft research instrumentation system, including wing and flap surface pressure measurements and selected structural loads measurements; ground-based simulation to assess flying qualities; and finally, flight testing. This paper reviews the operational aspects associated with the flight experiment, which includes a description of modifications to the research airplane, the overall flight test procedures, and problems encountered. Selected research results are also presented to illustrate the accomplishments of the research effort.

Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Brown, Philip W.; Hallissy, James B.

1992-01-01

265

Force production and flow structure of the leading edge vortex on flapping wings at high and low Reynolds numbers.  

PubMed

The elevated aerodynamic performance of insects has been attributed in part to the generation and maintenance of a stable region of vorticity known as the leading edge vortex (LEV). One explanation for the stability of the LEV is that spiraling axial flow within the vortex core drains energy into the tip vortex, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex analogous to the flow structure generated by delta wing aircraft. However, whereas spiral flow is a conspicuous feature of flapping wings at Reynolds numbers (Re) of 5000, similar experiments at Re=100 failed to identify a comparable structure. We used a dynamically scaled robot to investigate both the forces and the flows created by a wing undergoing identical motion at Re of approximately 120 and approximately 1400. In both cases, motion at constant angular velocity and fixed angle of attack generated a stable LEV with no evidence of shedding. At Re=1400, flow visualization indicated an intense narrow region of spanwise flow within the core of the LEV, a feature conspicuously absent at Re=120. The results suggest that the transport of vorticity from the leading edge to the wake that permits prolonged vortex attachment takes different forms at different Re. PMID:14978049

Birch, James M; Dickson, William B; Dickinson, Michael H

2004-03-01

266

Low-Speed Aerodynamic Data for an 0.18-Scale Model of an F-16XL with Various Leading-Edge Modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the F-16XL as a test-bed, two strategies for improving the low-speed flying characteristics that had minimal impact on high-speed performance were evaluated. In addition to the basic F-16XL configuration several modifications to the baseline configuration were tested in the Langley 30- X 60-Foot Tunnel: 1) the notched area at the wing leading edge and fuselage juncture was removed resulting in a continuous 70 deg leading-edge sweep on the inboard portion of the wing; 2) an integral attached-flow leading-edge flap concept was added to the continuous leading edge; and 3) a deployable vortex flap concept was added to the continuous leading edge. The purpose of this report is simply to document the test configurations, test conditions, and data obtained in this investigation for future reference and analysis. No analysis is presented herein and the data only appear in tabulated format.

Hahne, Daniel E.

1999-01-01

267

Asian anthropogenic lead contamination in the North Pacific Ocean as evidenced by stable lead isotopic compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation work determined the changing scope of lead (Pb) contamination in the North Pacific Ocean since the phase-out of leaded gasoline in most of the world. Chapters 1 and 2 consisted of validating our method for determining Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in seawater. Chapter 3 established a baseline of Pb isotopic compositions (PbICs) in the western and central North Pacific in 2002. This was an ideal time to establish such a baseline because China had recently (mid-2000) ceased their use of leaded gasoline and simultaneously began consuming increasingly large amounts of coal, known to have relatively high Pb concentrations. We found subsurface waters were contaminated with Asian industrial Pb, predominantly Chinese coal emissions. In contrast, the abyssal waters were a mix of Asian industrial Pb and background (i.e., natural) Pb. Chapter 4 revisited the western and central North Pacific in 2009 -- 2011 to determine what, if any, changes had occurred in this short time period. We found that Pb in subsurface and abyssal waters of the western North Pacific were similar to Chinese aerosols. Such a large change in the PbICs of abyssal water in 9 years was unanticipated and attributed to the relatively large flux of particle-bound Pb from the euphotic zone to the deep ocean, which was in isotopic equilibrium with the reservoir of dissolved Pb. In contrast, the central North Pacific abyssal water PbICs were similar to values previously reported because of the relatively lower particulate export. Based on comparisons to baseline PbIC data, we determined that abyssal waters in the western and central North Pacific would be isotopically indistinguishable from surface waters in the next three decades. Sources of Pb to coastal California waters were reevaluated in Chapter 5. Prior studies had found that surface waters of the California Current System (CCS) were isotopically consistent with both Asian industrial Pb and US leaded gasoline, still in use at that point in time. In 2010 and 2011, we found that surface and subsurface waters of the CCS were isotopically similar to Asian industrial emissions. However, remobilized US gasoline Pb from sediments in the San Francisco Bay, California, were accumulating in the "mud belt" on the continental shelf and changing the isotopic composition of overlying waters. During periods of intense upwelling, this historic Pb was brought to the surface of the water. However, the much larger quantity of Pb from Asian industrial emissions made the isotopic composition of Pb from historic US gasoline unidentifiable in off-shore waters. A secondary research focus of this dissertation was to improve my own teaching abilities. Chapter 6 explored the intersection of system thinking and aquatic toxicology in undergraduate education. Among a wealth of information, I found that group concept mapping was no more useful to student learning than the same activity done individually. This was due to poor implementation of team learning strategies by me and inadequate time for students to adjust to non-traditional instruction methodologies.

Zurbrick, Cheryl M.

268

Numerical Simulation of Fluctuations Leading to Noise in a Flap-Edge Flowfield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we develop an approximate computational framework for simulation of the fluctuating flowfield associated with the complex vortex system seen at the side edge of a flap in a multi-element high-lift airfoil system. The eventual goal of these simulations is to provide an estimate of the spectral content of these fluctuations, in order that the spectrum of the noise generated by such flowfields may be estimated. Results from simulations utilizing this computational framework are shown.

Streett, C. L.

1998-01-01

269

Scapolite: a tracer for the initial lead isotopic composition in sulfide deposits with later additions of radiogenic lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial lead isotopic composition of metamorphosed and tectonically reworked sulfide deposits is not always preserved, as sulfides easily change their lead isotopic composition through incorporation of lead derived from external fluids or redistribution and recrystallization of the deposit. Sulfide trace-lead and in cases even galena-lead from such deposits may show exceedingly radiogenic lead isotopic compositions. Thus, the initial lead isotopic composition has to be estimated from other minerals. Scapolite, which is a common phase in alteration haloes associated with epigenetic sulfide deposits in northern Sweden, has very low uranium-contents. Therefore, its trace-lead contents could preserve the initial isotopic composition of the ore-forming fluids. As scapolite is more resistant to recrystallization, it is more likely to reflect the original lead isotope signature of the deposit. This is illustrated using scapolite and sulfides from the Pahtohavare Cu-Au deposit in northern Sweden, which is hosted by Palaeoproterozoic mafic tuffites and graphitic schists and was affected by a mild thermal metamorphism during the Caledonian orogeny.

Romer, R. L.; Martinsson, O.; Perdahl, J.-A.

1996-01-01

270

Leading Edge 218 Cell 141, April 16, 2010 2010 Elsevier Inc.  

E-print Network

influx of Ca2+ ions leads to low-level activity of tranglutaminase (TG) and the metalloprotease ADAM17. ADAM17 releases low levels of TGF-, which lead to a low level of EGFR activation. Subsequent of TG and ADAM17 activity, which releases high levels of TGF-. Induction of high EGFR activity promotes

Xu, Haoxing

271

Co:GGG edge cladding with adjusted absorption coefficients in composite crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gadolinium Gallium Garnet single crystals doped with cobalt ions are used for suppression of parasitic as edge cladding layers in Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd:GGG) crystal amplifier plates for heat capacity and other high power solid-state laser applications. Co:GGG absorbs at the lasing wavelength of 1062 nm. Nd:GGG amplifier plates with edge cladding of Co:GGG of adjusted absorption coefficient at 1062 nm will be used as adhesive-free bonded (AFB) composite crystal components in a heat capacity laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Composite formation of Nd:GGG and Co:GGG involves heat treatment. The absorption coefficient of the as-grown Co:GGG single crystal changes as function of heat treatment. We report on a method of reversibly adjusting the absorption coefficient of Co:GGG in a certain range, e.g. for a specific Co ion concentration of 0.0046% between 0.45/cm and 0.95/cm. The interpretation of the reversible adjustment of absorption coefficients based on absorption spectra, site symmetry and cobalt ion valency will be presented

Lee, Huai-Chuan; Meissner, Helmuth E.; Meissner, Oliver R.

2004-07-01

272

Experimental study of flow separation control on a low- Re airfoil using leading-edge protuberance method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of flow separation control on a low- Re c airfoil was presently investigated using a newly developed leading-edge protuberance method, motivated by the improvement in the hydrodynamics of the giant humpback whale through its pectoral flippers. Deploying this method, the control effectiveness of the airfoil aerodynamics was fully evaluated using a three-component force balance, leading to an effectively impaired stall phenomenon and great improvement in the performances within the wide post-stall angle range (22°-80°). To understand the flow physics behind, the vorticity field, velocity field and boundary layer flow field over the airfoil suction side were examined using a particle image velocimetry and an oil-flow surface visualization system. It was found that the leading-edge protuberance method, more like low-profile vortex generator, effectively modified the flow pattern of the airfoil boundary layer through the chordwise and spanwise evolutions of the interacting streamwise vortices generated by protuberances, where the separation of the turbulent boundary layer dominated within the stall region and the rather strong attachment of the laminar boundary layer still existed within the post-stall region. The characteristics to manipulate the flow separation mode of the original airfoil indicated the possibility to further optimize the control performance by reasonably designing the layout of the protuberances.

Zhang, M. M.; Wang, G. F.; Xu, J. Z.

2014-04-01

273

Effects of Wing Leading Edge Penetration with Venting and Exhaust Flow from Wheel Well at Mach 24 in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline solution for CFD Point 1 (Mach 24) in the STS-107 accident investigation was modified to include effects of: (1) holes through the leading edge into a vented cavity; and (2) a scarfed, conical nozzle directed toward the centerline of the vehicle from the forward, inboard corner of the landing gear door. The simulations were generated relatively quickly and early in the investigation because simplifications were made to the leading edge cavity geometry and an existing utility to merge scarfed nozzle grid domains with structured baseline external domains was implemented. These simplifications in the breach simulations enabled: (1) a very quick grid generation procedure; and (2) high fidelity corroboration of jet physics with internal surface impingements ensuing from a breach through the leading edge, fully coupled to the external shock layer flow at flight conditions. These simulations provided early evidence that the flow through a two-inch diameter (or larger) breach enters the cavity with significant retention of external flow directionality. A normal jet directed into the cavity was not an appropriate model for these conditions at CFD Point 1 (Mach 24). The breach diameters were of the same order or larger than the local, external boundary-layer thickness. High impingement heating and pressures on the downstream lip of the breach were computed. It is likely that hole shape would evolve as a slot cut in the direction of the external streamlines. In the case of the six-inch diameter breach the boundary layer is fully ingested. The intent of externally directed jet simulations in the second scenario was to approximately model aerodynamic effects of a relatively large internal wing pressure, fueled by combusting aluminum, which deforms the corner of the landing gear door and directs a jet across the windside surface. These jet interactions, in and of themselves, were not sufficiently large to explain observed aerodynamic behavior.

Gnoffo, Peter A.

2003-01-01

274

Leading Edge Cell 125, June 30, 2006 2006 Elsevier Inc. 1241  

E-print Network

lacking efficient respiration to use pyruvate produced by glycolysis. Excess pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, which enters the bloodstream. Given that all mtDNA diseases lead to respiratory defects

Chan, David

275

Use of a discontinuous wing leading-edge modification to enhance spin resistance for general aviation airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spin resistance of two typical general aviation airplanes has been studied. Improvement in spin resistance due to an outboard wing leading-edge modification was evaluated through wind-tunnel and flight tests. The basic airplanes would readily enter a spin; however, with the wing modification the airplanes were highly spin resistant. Spin resistance has been related to the angle of attack of the outer wing panel and the yaw rate as a step toward development of guidelines for design of more spin resistant airplanes.

Dicarlo, D. J.; Glover, K. E.; Stewart, E. C.; Stough, H. P.

1984-01-01

276

A Survey of Factors Affecting Blunt Leading-Edge Separation for Swept and Semi-Slender Wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey is presented of factors affecting blunt leading-edge separation for swept and semi-slender wings. This class of separation often results in the onset and progression of separation-induced vortical flow over a slender or semi-slender wing. The term semi-slender is used to distinguish wings with moderate sweeps and aspect ratios from the more traditional highly-swept, low-aspect-ratio slender wing. Emphasis is divided between a selection of results obtained through literature survey a section of results from some recent research projects primarily being coordinated through NATO s Research and Technology Organization (RTO). An aircraft context to these studies is included.

Luckring, James M.

2010-01-01

277

Quantitative visualization of the leading-edge vortices on a delta wing by using pressure-sensitive paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leading-edge vortices on a simple delta wing were visualized by using pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). PSP is an optical pressure\\u000a measurement technique based on oxygen quenching of luminescent molecules. In the present study, we used PSP composed of platinum\\u000a octaethylporphyrine (PtOEP) and fluoropolymer (poly-IBM-co-TFEM [Poly (isobutylmethacrtlate-co-trifluoroethylate)]). This\\u000a new paint has higher sensitivity to pressure and lower sensitivity to temperature than previous

Y. Egami; Y. Iijima; Y. Amao; K. Asai; A. Fuji; N. Teduka; M. Kameda

2001-01-01

278

Studies Conducted of Sodium Carbonate Contaminant Found on the Wing Leading Edge and the Nose Cap of the Space Shuttle Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In early 2001, three of the space shuttle orbiters were found to have a sodium carbonate contaminant on the wing leading edge and nose cap. These parts are made of a reinforced carbon/carbon material protected by silicon carbide (SiC) and a glass coating. The glass coating is known as Type A and is primarily sodium silicate with particles of SiC. NASA Glenn Research Center's Environmental Durability Branch was asked to determine the chemistry of this deposit formation and assess any possible detrimental effects. At low temperatures, the reverse reaction is favorable. Previous studies of the corrosion of glass show that carbon dioxide in the presence of water does form sodium carbonate on sodium silicate glass (ref. 1). It is quite likely that a similar scenario exists for the orbiter wing leading edge. All three orbiters that formed sodium carbonate were exposed to rain. This formation of sodium carbonate was duplicated in the laboratory. The Type A glass, which coats the wing leading edge and nose cap, was made in a freestanding form and exposed to water in two separate experiments. In one set of experiments, the coating was placed in a petri dish filled with water. As the water evaporated, sodium carbonate formed. In another case, water was slowly dripped on the coating and sodium carbonate formed. The sodium carbonate was detected by chemical analysis and, in some cases, xray diffraction showed a hydrated sodium carbonate. The next step was to examine possible detrimental effects of this sodium carbonate. There are three likely scenarios for the sodium carbonate deposit: (1) it may be removed with a simple rinse, (2) it may remain and flow back into the Type A glass after heating during reentry, or (3) it may remain and flow onto unprotected SiC and/or other parts after heating during reentry. The effect of case 1 is to remove the Na2O constituent from the Type A glass, thus decreasing its effectiveness as a sealant. Even so, overall, it is probably the best approach and was used by the NASA Kennedy Space Center when the deposits were first observed. The effect of case 2 is minimal and would actually restore the the Type A glass to its composition before carbonate formation. However, the problem with allowing the carbonate to remain leads to the third scenario, the deposit flowing onto other parts. A series of tests were conducted on unprotected SiC, and minimal effects were found in the short-term, but other ceramic and metal parts could be damaged by the molten sodium carbonate and would require close monitoring.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Palou, Jaime J.

2003-01-01

279

Leading Edge Cell 127, November 3, 2006 2006 Elsevier Inc. 447  

E-print Network

are poorly imitated by the detergents used to isolate and/or study membrane pro- teins, leading signal transduction may not be easily studied. Differences between Lipid Bilayers and Detergent Micelles- tron microscopy. In many cases, the detergents used for this purpose do not represent the properties

280

Young Children of Immigrants: The Leading Edge of America's Future. Brief No. 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children of immigrants have nearly doubled as a share of pre-K to 3rd grade students since 1990. The share of children under age 8 with immigrant parents stood at 24 percent in 2008, up from 13 percent in 1990. Young children of immigrants account for more than 30 percent of children in seven states, with California leading the nation at 50…

Fortuny, Karina; Hernandez, Donald J.; Chaudry, Ajay

2010-01-01

281

AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

282

Temperate forest fragments maintain aboveground carbon stocks out to the forest edge despite changes in community composition.  

PubMed

Edge effects are among the primary mechanisms by which forest fragmentation can influence the link between biodiversity and ecosystem processes, but relatively few studies have quantified these mechanisms in temperate regions. Carbon storage is an important ecosystem function altered by edge effects, with implications for climate change mitigation. Two opposing hypotheses suggest that aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks at the forest edge will (a) decrease due to increased tree mortality and compositional shifts towards smaller, lower wood density species (e.g., as seen in tropical systems) or, less often, (b) increase due to light/temperature-induced increases in diversity and productivity. We used field-based measurements, allometry, and mixed models to investigate the effects of proximity to the forest edge on AGC stocks, species richness, and community composition in 24 forest fragments in southern Quebec. We also asked whether fragment size or connectivity with surrounding forests altered these edge effects. AGC stocks remained constant across a 100 m edge-to-interior gradient in all fragment types, despite changes in tree community composition and stem density consistent with expectations of forest edge effects. We attribute this constancy primarily to compensatory effects of small trees at the forest edge; however, it is due in some cases to the retention of large trees at forest edges, likely a result of forest management. Our results suggest important differences between temperate and tropical fragments with respect to mechanisms linking biodiversity and AGC dynamics. Small temperate forest fragments may be valuable in conservation efforts based on maintaining biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services. PMID:25185776

Ziter, Carly; Bennett, Elena M; Gonzalez, Andrew

2014-11-01

283

Clathrin-independent carriers form a high capacity endocytic sorting system at the leading edge of migrating cells  

PubMed Central

Although the importance of clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytic pathways has recently emerged, key aspects of these routes remain unknown. Using quantitative ultrastructural approaches, we show that clathrin-independent carriers (CLICs) account for approximately three times the volume internalized by the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, forming the major pathway involved in uptake of fluid and bulk membrane in fibroblasts. Electron tomographic analysis of the 3D morphology of the earliest carriers shows that they are multidomain organelles that form a complex sorting station as they mature. Proteomic analysis provides direct links between CLICs, cellular adhesion turnover, and migration. Consistent with this, CLIC-mediated endocytosis of key cargo proteins, CD44 and Thy-1, is polarized at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts, while transient ablation of CLICs impairs their ability to migrate. These studies provide the first quantitative ultrastructural analysis and molecular characterization of the major endocytic pathway in fibroblasts, a pathway that provides rapid membrane turnover at the leading edge of migrating cells. PMID:20713605

Howes, Mark T.; Kirkham, Matthew; Riches, James; Cortese, Katia; Walser, Piers J.; Simpson, Fiona; Hill, Michelle M.; Jones, Alun; Lundmark, Richard; Lindsay, Margaret R.; Hernandez-Deviez, Delia J.; Hadzic, Gordana; McCluskey, Adam; Bashir, Rumasia; Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul; McMahon, Harvey; Robinson, Phillip J.; Hancock, John F.; Mayor, Satyajit

2010-01-01

284

Translation initiation factors and active sites of protein synthesis co-localize at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Cell migration is a highly controlled essential cellular process, often dysregulated in tumour cells, dynamically controlled by the architecture of the cell. Studies involving cellular fractionation and microarray profiling have previously identified functionally distinct mRNA populations specific to cellular organelles and architectural compartments. However, the interaction between the translational machinery itself and cellular structures is relatively unexplored. To help understand the role for the compartmentalization and localized protein synthesis in cell migration, we have used scanning confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence and a novel ribopuromycylation method to visualize translating ribosomes. In the present study we show that eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors) localize to the leading edge of migrating MRC5 fibroblasts in a process dependent on TGN (trans-Golgi network) to plasma membrane vesicle transport. We show that eIF4E and eIF4GI are associated with the Golgi apparatus and membrane microdomains, and that a proportion of these proteins co-localize to sites of active translation at the leading edge of migrating cells. PMID:21539520

Willett, Mark; Brocard, Michele; Davide, Alexandre; Morley, Simon J

2011-08-15

285

DENND2B activates Rab13 at the leading edge of migrating cells and promotes metastatic behavior.  

PubMed

The small guanosine triphosphatase Rab13 functions in exocytic vesicle trafficking in epithelial cells. Alterations in Rab13 activity have been observed in human cancers, yet the mechanism of Rab13 activation and its role in cancer progression remain unclear. In this paper, we identify the DENN domain protein DENND2B as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab13 and develop a novel Förster resonance energy transfer-based Rab biosensor to reveal activation of Rab13 by DENND2B at the leading edge of migrating cells. DENND2B interacts with the Rab13 effector MICAL-L2 at the cell periphery, and this interaction is required for the dynamic remodeling of the cell's leading edge. Disruption of Rab13-mediated trafficking dramatically limits the invasive behavior of epithelial cells in vitro and the growth and migration of highly invasive cancer cells in vivo. Thus, blocking Rab13 activation by DENND2B may provide a novel target to limit the spread of epithelial cancers. PMID:25713415

Ioannou, Maria S; Bell, Emily S; Girard, Martine; Chaineau, Mathilde; Hamlin, Jason N R; Daubaras, Mark; Monast, Anie; Park, Morag; Hodgson, Louis; McPherson, Peter S

2015-03-01

286

The Influence of Projectile Trajectory Angle on the Simulated Impact Response of a Shuttle Leading Edge Wing Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of recommendations by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, a team has been studying the effect of debris impacting the reinforced carbon-carbon panels of the shuttle leading edge. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying parameters of the debris trajectory on the damage tolerance. Impacts at the upper and lower surface and the apex of the leading edge were examined. For each location, trajectory variances included both the alpha and beta directions. The results of the analysis indicated in all cases the beta sweep decreased the amount of damage to the panel. The increases in alpha resulted in a significant increase in damage to the RCC panel. In particular, for the lower surface, where the alpha can increase by 10 degrees, there was a nearly 40% increase in the impulse. As a result, it is recommended that for future analyses, a 10 degree offset in alpha from the nominal trajectory is included for impacts on the lower surface. It is also recommended to assume a straight aft, or zero beta, trajectory for a more conservative analysis.

Spellman, Regina L.; Jones, Lisa E.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

2005-01-01

287

Application of digital particle image velocimetry to insect aerodynamics: measurement of the leading-edge vortex and near wake of a Hawkmoth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some insects use leading-edge vortices to generate high lift forces, as has been inferred from qualitative smoke visualisations of the flow around their wings. Here we present the first Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) data and quantitative analysis of an insect’s leading-edge vortex and near wake at two flight speeds. This allows us to describe objectively 2D slices through the flow field of a tethered Tobacco Hawkmoth ( Manduca sexta). The near-field vortex wake appears to braodly resemble elliptical vortex loops. The presence of a leading-edge vortex towards the end of the downstroke is found to coincide with peak upward force production measured by a six-component force-moment balance. The topology of Manduca’s leading-edge vortex differs from that previously described because late in the downstroke, the structure extends continuously from wingtip across the thorax to the other wingtip.

Bomphrey, Richard J.; Lawson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Graham K.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

2006-04-01

288

A leading edge heating array and a flat surface heating array: Final design. [for testing the thermal protection system of the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heating array is described for testing full-scale sections of the leading edge and lower fuselage surfaces of the shuttle. The heating array was designed to provide a tool for development and acceptance testing of leading edge segments and large flat sections of the main body thermal protection system. The array was designed using a variable length module concept to meet test requirements using interchangeable components from one test configuration in another configuration. Heat generating modules and heat absorbing modules were employed to achieve the thermal gradient around the leading edge. A support was developed to hold the modules to form an envelope around a variety of leading edges; to supply coolant to each module; the support structure and to hold the modules in the flat surface heater configuration. An optical pyrometer system mounted within the array was designed to monitor specimen surface temperatures without altering the test article's surface.

1975-01-01

289

Effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on a full-scale, low-wing general aviation airplane: Wind-tunnel investigation of high-angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics. [conducted in Langley 30- by 60-foot tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wing-leading-edge modifications included leading-edge droop and slat configurations having full-span, partial-span, or segmented arrangements. Other devices included wing-chord extensions, fences, and leading-edge stall strips. Good correlation was apparent between the results of wind-tunnel data and the results of flight tests, on the basis of autorotational stability criterion, for a wide range of wing-leading-edge modifications.

Newsom, W. A., Jr.; Satran, D. R.; Johnson, J. L., Jr.

1982-01-01

290

Air forces and moments on triangular and related wings with subsonic leading edges oscillating in supersonic potential flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This analysis treats the air forces and moments in supersonic potential flow on oscillating triangular wings and a series of sweptback and arrow wings with subsonic leading edges and supersonic trailing edges. For the wings undergoing sinusoidal torsional oscillations simultaneously with vertical translations, the linearized velocity potential is derived in the form of a power series in terms of a frequency parameter. This method can be useful for treatment of similar problems for other plan forms and for wings undergoing other sinusoidal motions. For triangular wings, as many terms of such a series expansion as may be derived can be determined; however, the terms after the first few become very cumbersome. Closed expressions that include the reduced frequency to the fifth power, an order which is sufficient for a large class of practical application, are given for the velocity potential and for the components of chordwise section force and moment coefficients. These wings are found to exhibit the possibility of undamped torsional oscillations for certain ranges of Mach number and locations of the axis of rotation. The ranges of these parameters are delineated for triangular wings.

Watkins, Charles E; Berman, Julian N

1952-01-01

291

An improved panel method for the solution of three-dimensional leading-edge vortex flows. Volume 1: Theory document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved panel method for the solution of three dimensional flow and wing and wing-body combinations with leading edge vortex separation is presented. The method employs a three dimensional inviscid flow model in which the configuration, the rolled-up vortex sheets, and the wake are represented by quadratic doublet distributions. The strength of the singularity distribution as well as shape and position of the vortex spirals are computed in an iterative fashion starting with an assumed initial sheet geometry. The method calculates forces and moments as well as detail surface pressure distributions. Improvements include the implementation of improved panel numerics for the purpose of elimination the highly nonlinear effects of ring vortices around double panel edges, and the development of a least squares procedure for damping vortex sheet geometry update instabilities. A complete description of the method is included. A variety of cases generated by the computer program implementing the method are presented which verify the mathematical assumptions of the method and which compare computed results with experimental data to verify the underlying physical assumptions made by the method.

Johnson, F. T.; Lu, P.; Tinoco, E. N.

1980-01-01

292

AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading-and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroacoustic measurements of the 11 % scale full-span AMELIA CESTOL model with leading- and trailing-edge slot blowing circulation control (CCW) wing were obtained during a recent test in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 40- by 80-Ft. Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, Sound levels and spectra were acquired with seven in-flow microphones and a 48-element phased microphone array for a variety of vehicle configurations, CCW slot flow rates, and forward speeds, Corrections to the measurements and processing are in progress, however the data from selected configurations presented in this report confirm good measurement quality and dynamic range over the test conditions, Array beamform maps at 40 kts tunnel speed show that the trailing edge flap source is dominant for most frequencies at flap angles of 0deg and 60deg, The overall sound level for the 60deg flap was similar to the 0deg flap for most slot blowing rates forward of 90deg incidence, but was louder by up to 6 dB for downstream angles, At 100 kts, the in-flow microphone levels were louder than the sensor self-noise for the higher blowing rates, while passive and active background noise suppression methods for the microphone array revealed source levels as much as 20 dB lower than observed with the in-flow microphones,

Horne, Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

293

The formation mechanism and impact of streamwise vortices on NACA 0021 airfoil's performance with undulating leading edge modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wings with tubercles have been shown to display advantageous loading behavior at high attack angles compared to their unmodified counterparts. In an earlier study by the authors, it was shown that an undulating leading-edge configuration, including but not limited to a tubercled model, induces a cyclic variation in circulation along the span that gives rise to the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices. While the aerodynamic benefits of full-span tubercled wings have been associated with the presence of such vortices, their formation mechanism and influence on wing performance are still in question. In the present work, experimental and numerical tests were conducted to further investigate the effect of tubercles on the flow structure over full-span modified wings based on the NACA 0021 profile, in the transitional flow regime. It is found that a skew-induced mechanism accounts for the formation of streamwise vortices whose development is accompanied by flow separation in delta-shaped regions near the trailing edge. The presence of vortices is detrimental to the performance of full-span wings pre-stall, however renders benefits post-stall as demonstrated by wind tunnel pressure measurement tests. Finally, primary and secondary vortices are identified post-stall that produce an enhanced momentum transfer effect that reduces flow separation, thus increasing the generated amount of lift.

Rostamzadeh, N.; Hansen, K. L.; Kelso, R. M.; Dally, B. B.

2014-10-01

294

Predictive process simulation of cryogenic implants for leading edge transistor design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cryogenic implant TCAD-modules have been developed: (i) A continuum-based compact model targeted towards a TCAD production environment calibrated against an extensive data-set for all common dopants. Ion-specific calibration parameters related to damage generation and dynamic annealing were used and resulted in excellent fits to the calibration data-set. (ii) A Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model including the full time dependence of ion-exposure that a particular spot on the wafer experiences, as well as the resulting temperature vs. time profile of this spot. It was calibrated by adjusting damage generation and dynamic annealing parameters. The kMC simulations clearly demonstrate the importance of the time-structure of the beam for the amorphization process: Assuming an average dose-rate does not capture all of the physics and may lead to incorrect conclusions. The model enables optimization of the amorphization process through tool parameters such as scan speed or beam height.

Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Zographos, Nikolas; Park, Hugh; Colombeau, Benjamin; Parrill, Thomas; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Borges, Ricardo; Gull, Ronald; Erokhin, Yuri

2012-11-01

295

Predictive process simulation of cryogenic implants for leading edge transistor design  

SciTech Connect

Two cryogenic implant TCAD-modules have been developed: (i) A continuum-based compact model targeted towards a TCAD production environment calibrated against an extensive data-set for all common dopants. Ion-specific calibration parameters related to damage generation and dynamic annealing were used and resulted in excellent fits to the calibration data-set. (ii) A Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model including the full time dependence of ion-exposure that a particular spot on the wafer experiences, as well as the resulting temperature vs. time profile of this spot. It was calibrated by adjusting damage generation and dynamic annealing parameters. The kMC simulations clearly demonstrate the importance of the time-structure of the beam for the amorphization process: Assuming an average dose-rate does not capture all of the physics and may lead to incorrect conclusions. The model enables optimization of the amorphization process through tool parameters such as scan speed or beam height.

Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Zographos, Nikolas; Park, Hugh; Colombeau, Benjamin; Parrill, Thomas; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Borges, Ricardo; Gull, Ronald; Erokhin, Yuri [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States); Synopsys Switzerland LLC, Thurgauerstrasse 40, 8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States); Synopsys Inc., 1101 Slater Road, Durham, NC 27703 (United States); Synopsys Switzerland LLC, Thurgauerstrasse 40, 8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States)

2012-11-06

296

Composite vertices that lead to soft form factors  

E-print Network

The momentum-space cut-off parameter $\\Lambda$ of hadronic vertex functions is studied in this paper. We use a composite model where we can measure the contributions of intermediate particle propagations to $\\Lambda$. We show that in many cases a composite vertex function has a much smaller cut-off than its constituent vertices, particularly when light constituents such as pions are present in the intermediate state. This suggests that composite meson-baryon-baryon vertex functions are rather soft, i.e., they have \\Lambda considerably less than 1 GeV. We discuss the origin of this softening of form factors as well as the implications of our findings on the modeling of nuclear reactions.

L. C. Liu; Q. Haider; J. T. Londergan

1995-03-09

297

Turbine vane gas film cooling with injection in the leading edge region from a single row of spanwise angled holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of gas film cooling was conducted on a 3X size model turbine vane. Injection in the leading edge region was from a single row of holes angled in a spanwise direction. Measurements of the local heat flux downstream from the row of coolant holes, both with and without film coolant flow, were used to determine the film cooling performance presented in terms of the Stanton number ratio. Results for a range of coolant blowing ratio, M = 0 to 2.0, indicate a reduction in heat flux of up to 15 to 30 percent at a point 10 to 11 hole diameters downstream from injection. An optimum coolant blowing ratio corresponds to a coolant-to-freestream velocity ratio in the range of 0.5. The shallow injection angle resulted in superior cooling performance for injection closest to stagnation, while the effect of injection angle was insignificant for injection further from stagnation.

Lecuyer, M. R.; Hanus, G. J.

1976-01-01

298

The low frequency oscillation in the flow over a NACA0012 airfoil with an 'iced' leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusually low frequency oscillation in the wake of an airfoil is explored experimentally as well as computationally for a NACA0012 airfoil with a glaze ice accretion at the leading edge. Experimentally, flow oscillations were observed at low frequencies that correspond to a Strouhal number of about 0.02. This occurred in the angle of attack range of 8 to 9 deg, near the onset of static stall for this airfoil. With a Navier-Stokes computation, limit-cycle oscillations in the flow and in the aerodynamic forces were also observed at low Strouhal numbers. However, the occurrence of the oscillation is found to depend on the turbulence model in use as well as the Reynolds number.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Potapczuk, M. G.

1989-01-01

299

The low frequency oscillation in the flow over a NACA0012 airfoil with an iced leading edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusually low frequency oscillation in the wake of an airfoil is explored experimentally as well as computationally for a NACA0012 airfoil with a glaze ice accretion at the leading edge. Experimentally, flow oscillations were observed at low frequencies that correspond to a Strouhal number of about 0.02. This occurred in the angle of attack range of 8 to 9 deg, near the onset of static stall for this airfoil. With a Navier-Stokes computation, limit-cycle oscillations in the flow and in the aerodynamic forces were also observed at low Strouhal numbers. However, the occurrence of the oscillation is found to depend on the turbulence model in use as well as the Reynolds number.

Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Potapczuk, M. G.

1989-01-01

300

Sensitivity of F-106B Leading-Edge-Vortex Images to Flight and Vapor-Screen Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test was undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center with vapor-screen and image-enhancement techniques to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about near-field vortex flows above the wings of fighter aircraft. In particular, the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on the vortex system over an angle-of-attack range were sought. The relevance of these flows stems from their present and future use at many points in the flight envelope, especially during transonic maneuvers. The aircraft used in this flight program was the F-106B because it was available and had sufficient wing sweep (60 deg) to generate a significant leading-edge vortex system. The sensitivity of the visual results to vapor screen hardware and to onset flow changes is discussed.

Lamar, John E.; Johnson, Thomas D., Jr.

1988-01-01

301

An Experimental Investigation of NACA Submerged Inlets at High Subsonic Speeds I: Inlets Forward of the Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the first part of an experimental investigation of NACA submerged inlets at four locations on the fuselage of a fighter airplane model for Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.875. Data are presented showing the characteristics of the model without inlets and with inlets 16.7 percent of the root chord forward of the wing-root leading edge and equipped with small boundary-layer deflectors. The data show that variations in the mass of air entering the inlet had a large effect on the ram-recovery ratio. Representative values of ram-recovery ratio were 0.50 with zero flow, 0.90 with 0.6 mass-flow coefficient, and 0.95 with 1.00 mass-flow coefficient. Variations in Mach number and angle of attack, in general, caused less than a 0.03 variation in the ram-recovery ratio.

Hall, Charles F; Barclay, F Dorn

1948-01-01

302

Icing tunnel tests of a glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system on a general aviation airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system was tested. Results show that the system is very effective in preventing ice accretion (anti-ice mode) or removing ice from an airfoil. Minimum glycol flow rates required for anti-icing are a function of velocity, liquid water content in the air, ambient temperature, and droplet size. Large ice caps were removed in only a few minutes using anti-ice flow rates. It was found that the shed time is a function of the type of ice, size of the ice cap, angle of attack, and glycol flow rate. Wake survey measurements show that there is no significant drag penalty for the installation or operation of the system tested.

Kohlman, D. L.; Schweikhard, W. G.; Albright, A. E.; Evanich, P.

1981-01-01

303

CFD Analysis of the Aerodynamics of a Business-Jet Airfoil with Leading-Edge Ice Accretion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For rime ice - where the ice buildup has only rough and jagged surfaces but no protruding horns - this study shows two dimensional CFD analysis based on the one-equation Spalart-Almaras (S-A) turbulence model to predict accurately the lift, drag, and pressure coefficients up to near the stall angle. For glaze ice - where the ice buildup has two or more protruding horns near the airfoil's leading edge - CFD predictions were much less satisfactory because of the large separated region produced by the horns even at zero angle of attack. This CFD study, based on the WIND and the Fluent codes, assesses the following turbulence models by comparing predictions with available experimental data: S-A, standard k-epsilon, shear-stress transport, v(exp 2)-f, and differential Reynolds stress.

Chi, X.; Zhu, B.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Addy, H. E.; Choo, Y. K.

2004-01-01

304

General Method for Determination of the Surface Composition in Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts from the L Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectra  

SciTech Connect

Bimetallic PtPd on silica nano-particle catalysts have been synthesized and their average structure determined by Pt L3 and Pd K-edge extended X-ray absorption finestructure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The bimetallic structure is confirmed from elemental line scans by STEM for the individual 1-2 nm sized particles. A general method is described to determine the surface composition in bimetallic nanoparticles even when both metals adsorb, for example, CO. By measuring the change in the L3 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra with and without CO in bimetallic particles and comparing these changes to those in monometallic particles of known size the fraction of surface atoms can be determined. The turnover rates (TOR) and neopentane hydrogenolysis and isomerization selectivities based on the surface composition suggest that the catalytic and spectroscopic properties are different from those in monometallic nano-particle catalysts. At the same neo-pentane conversion, the isomerization selectivity is higher for the PtPd catalyst while the TOR is lower than that of both Pt and Pd. As with the catalytic performance, the infrared spectra of adsorbed CO are not a linear combination of the spectra on monometallic catalysts. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Pt-CO adsorption enthalpy increases while the Pd-CO bond energy decreases. The ability to determine the surface composition allows for a better understanding of the spectroscopic and catalytic properties of bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts.

Wu, Tiapin; Childers, David; Gomez, Carolina; Karim, Ayman M.; Schweitzer, Neil; Kropf, Arthur; Wang, Hui; Bolin, Trudy B.; Hu, Yongfeng; Kovarik, Libor; Meyer, Randall; Miller, Jeffrey T.

2012-10-31

305

Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff. PMID:23851351

Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

2013-09-01

306

An experimental analysis of critical factors involved in the breakdown process of leading edge vortex flows. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental crosswire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Survey grids were taken normal to the platform at a series of chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core as well as on chordwise location was examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data was made. The circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows approximately linearly in the chordwise direction. For regions of the flow outside of the vortex subcore, the circulation at any chordwise station was observed to vary logarithmically with distance from the vortex axis. The circulation was also found to increase linearly with angle of incidence at a given chordwise station. A reduction in the local circulation about the vortex axis occurred at breakdown. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity was severely altered through the breakdown region and the spanwise distribution of axial vorticity present appeared to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The local concentration of axial vorticity about the vortex axis was reduced while the magnitude of the azimuthal vorticity decreased throughout the breakdown zone. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, found in the secondary vortex, remained unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. The inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter indicated that the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows were similar at corresponding radii from the vortex axis. It was concluded that the flow over a delta wing, upstream of the breakdown regions and away from the apex and trailing edge regions, is conical. In addition, the dominating factors leading to the onset of breakdown are felt to be the local circulation of the vortex and the accompanying pressure field.

Visser, Kenneth D.

1991-01-01

307

Rate and topography of peptidoglycan synthesis during cell division in Escherichia coli: Concept of a leading edge  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which the peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli is synthesized during the division cycle was studied with two methods. One method involved synchronization of E. coli MC4100 lysA cultures by centrifugal elutriation and subsequent pulse-labeling of the synchronously growing cultures with (meso-{sup 3}H)diaminopimelic acid (({sup 3}H)Dap). The second method was autoradiography of cells pulse-labeled with ({sup 3}H)Dap. It was found that the peptidoglycan is synthesized at a more or less exponentially increasing rate during the division cycle with a slight acceleration in this rate as the cells start to constrict. Apparently, polar cap formation requires synthesis of extra surface components, presumably to accommodate for a change in the surface-to-volume ratio. Furthermore, it was found that the pool size of Dap was constant during the division cycle. Close analysis of the topography of ({sup 3}H)Dap incorporation at the constriction site revealed that constriction proceeded by synthesis of peptidoglycan at the leading edge of the invaginating cell envelope. During constriction, no reallocation of incorporation occurred, i.e., the incorporation at the leading edge remained high throughout the process of constriction. Impairment of penicillin-binding protein 3 by mutation or by the specific {beta}-lactam antibiotic furazlocillin did not affect ({sup 3}H)Dap incorporation during initiation of constriction. However, the incorporation at the constriction site was inhibited in later stages of the constriction process. It is concluded that during division at least two peptidoglycan-synthesizing systems are operating sequentially.

Wientjes, F.B.; Nanninga, N. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1989-06-01

308

Structural Evidence for the Leading Edge of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in the Kathmandu Region, Central Nepal Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current models for the tectonic evolution of the Himalaya - wedge extrusion, channel flow, and tectonic wedging - make divergent predictions for the terminations of major faults and tectonic units. To test these models, field mapping was conducted along the northern margin of the Kathmandu Nappe in central Nepal. This work reveals the leading edge of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex, i.e., the high grade crystalline core of the Himalaya. The Kathmandu Nappe is dominated by three sequences that are folded in a syncline and bounded below by the Main Central thrust. These sequences are: (1) a southward tapering wedge of kyanite-bearing gneisses overlain by (2) garnet-bearing pelitic and psammitic metamorphic rocks succeeded along a sedimentary contact by (3) unmetamorphosed Lower Paleozoic Tethyan strata. Structural mapping along the contact between the kyanite-bearing gneisses and the garnet-bearing metamorphic rocks reveals a dominantly top-north shear zone (featuring S-C mylonite, extensional crenulation cleavage, and shear band fabrics) that intersects the Main Central thrust to the south. This shear zone is interpreted as the southern extension of the South Tibet detachment. It follows that (1) the kyanite gneiss wedge represents the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex and (2) the intersection line of the South Tibet detachment with the Main Central thrust represents the leading edge of this unit. The intersection line has also been recently identified in the western Himalaya, so this line appears subparallel to the arc of the orogen. As the South Tibet detachment is generally sub-horizontal to north-dipping and its southern tip (the intersection line) is locally preserved in the central and western Himalaya, this structure was not exposed during its active motion. Only tectonic wedging models can accommodate the 3-D geometry of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex in the central and western Himalaya.

Webb, A. G.

2008-12-01

309

Analysis of fracture process in single-edge-notched laminated composites based on the high amplitude acoustic emission events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to analyze the fracture process of single-edge-notched (SEN) laminated composites with different lay-up configurations and different fiber composite systems based on the behavior of high amplitude acoustic emission (AE) signals. The classification of signal type according to the dominant frequency band and its magnitude via FFT, combined with the microscopic observations under reflection and

Sung-Choong Woo; Nak-Sam Choi

2007-01-01

310

Effects of Outboard Thickened and Blunted Leading Edges on the Wave Drag of a 45 Degree Swept-Wing and Body Combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to evaluate the effects of thickened and blunted leading-edge modifications on the wave drag of a swept wing has been made at Mach numbers from 0.65 to 2.20 and at a Reynolds number of 2,580,000 based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the basic wing. Two leading-edge designs were investigated and they are referred to as the thickened and the blunted modifications although both sections had equally large leading-edge radii. The thickened leading edge was formed by increasing the thickness over the forward 40 percent of the basic wing section. The blunted modification was formed by reducing the wing chords about 1 percent and by increasing the section thickness slightly over the forward 6 percent of the basic section in a manner to keep the wing sweep and volume essentially equal to the respective values for the basic wing. The basic wing had an aspect ratio of 3, a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg., a taper ratio of 0.4, and NACA 64AO06 sections perpendicular to a line swept back 39.45 deg., the quarter-chord line of these sections. Test results indicated that the thickened modification resulted in an increase in zero-lift drag coefficient of from 0.0040 to 0.0060 over values for the basic model at Mach numbers at which the wing leading edge was sonic or supersonic. Although drag coefficients of both the basic and thickened models were reduced at all test Mach numbers by body indentations designed for the range of Mach numbers from 1.00 to 2.00, the greater drag of the thickened model relative to that of the basic model was not reduced. The blunted model, however, had less than one quarter of the drag penalty of the thickened model relative to the basic model at supersonic leading-edge conditions (M greater or equal to root-2).

Holdaway, George H.; Lazzeroni, Frank A.; Hatfield, Elaine W.

1959-01-01

311

Dielectric behavior and magnetoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate\\/Co-ferrite particulate composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetoelectric (ME) composites of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Co-ferrite with various compositions were prepared by using conventional ceramic sintering process. The variation of dielectric behavior of the composites with frequency in the range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature was studied. The ME coefficient was investigated at various bias fields and frequency. The maximum ME voltage

Jun Yi Zhai; Ning Cai; Li Liu; Yuan Hua Lin; Ce Wen Nan

2003-01-01

312

Glass composition development for stabilization of lead based paints  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to lead can lead to adverse health affects including permanent damage to the central nervous system. Common means of exposure to lead are from ingestion of lead paint chips or breathing of dust from deteriorating painted surfaces. The U.S. Army has over 101 million square feet of buildings dating to World War II or earlier. Many of these structures were built before the 1978 ban on lead based paints. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL is developing technologies to remove and stabilize lead containing organic coatings. Promising results have been achieved using a patented flame spray process that utilizes a glass frit to stabilize the hazardous constituents. When the glass frit is sprayed onto the paint containing substrate, differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the frit and the paint results in spalling of the paint from the substrate surface. The removed fragments are then collected and remelted to stabilize the hazardous constituents and allow for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Similar successful results using a patented process involving microwave technology for paint removal have also been achieved. In this process, the painted surface is coated with a microwave coupling compound that when exposed to microwave energy results in the spalling of the hazardous paint from the surface. The fragments can again be accumulated and remelted for stabilization and disposal.

Marra, J.C.

1996-10-01

313

Lead content and isotopic composition in submound and recent soils of the Volga Upland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature data on the historical reconstructions of the atmospheric lead deposition in Europe and the isotopic composition of the ores that are potential sources of the anthropogenic lead in the atmospheric deposition in the lower Volga steppes during different time periods have been compiled. The effect of the increasing anthropogenic lead deposition recorded since the Bronze Age on the level of soil contamination has been investigated. For the first time paleosol buried under a burial mound of the Bronze Age has been used as a reference point to assess of the current contamination level. The contents and isotopic compositions of the mobile and total lead have been determined in submound paleosols of different ages and their recent remote and roadside analogues. An increase in the content and fraction of the mobile lead and a shift of its isotopic composition toward less radiogenic values (typical for lead from the recent anthropogenic sources) has been revealed when going from a Bronze-Age paleosol to a recent soil. In the Bronze-Age soil, the isotopic composition of the mobile lead is inherited from the parent rock to a greater extent than in the modern soils, where the lead is enriched with the less radiogenic component. The effect of the anthropogenic component is traced in the analysis of the mobile lead, but it is barely visible for the total lead. An exception is provided by the recent roadside soils characterized by increased contents and the significantly less radiogenic isotopic composition of the mobile and total lead.

Pampura, T. V.; Probst, A.; Ladonin, D. V.; Demkin, V. A.

2013-11-01

314

Planform curvature effects on flutter characteristics of a wing with 56 deg leading-edge sweep and panel aspect ratio of 1.14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical investigation was initiated to determine the effects of planform curvature (curving the leading and trailing edges of a wing in the X-Y plane) on the transonic flutter characteristics of a series of three moderately swept wing models. Experimental flutter results were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel for Mach numbers from 0.60-1.00, with air as the test medium. The models were semispan cantilevered wings with a 3 percent biconvex airfoil and a panel aspect ratio of 1.14. The baseline model had straight leading and trailing edges (i.e., no planform curvature). The radii of curvature of the leading edges for these two models were 200 and 80 inches. The radii of curvature of the leading edges of the other two models were determined so that the root and tip chords were identical for all three models. Experimental results showed that flutter-speed index and flutter frequency ratio increased as planform curvature increase (radius of curvature of the leading edge was decreased) over the test range of Mach numbers. Analytical flutter results were calculated with a subsonic flutter-prediction program, and they agreed well with the experimental results.

Keller, Donald F.; Sandford, Maynard C.; Pinkerton, Theresa L.

1991-01-01

315

Numerical Analysis of Free-Edge Effect on Size-Influenced Mechanical Properties of Single-Layer Triaxially Braided Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of triaxially braided composites under transverse loads are found to be size-dependent, due to the presence of free-edge effect. Numerical studies of the mechanical behaviors of straight-sided coupon specimens and an infinitely large plate under both axial and transverse tension loads were conducted using a meso-scale finite element model. The numerical model correlates well with experimental results, successfully capturing the free-edge warping phenomena under transverse tension. Free-edge effect is observed as out-of-plane warping, and it can be correlated to the premature damage initiation in the affected area. The numerical results characterize the impact of free-edge effects on the global stress-strain response and local failure mechanisms. By conducting dimensional analysis, the relationships of effective stiffness and strength against specimen width are quantified using Weibull equations. The results of this study indicate that the free-edge effect is an inherent behavior of braided architecture. The free-edge effect produces significantly reduced transverse tension modulus and strength measurements.

Zhang, Chao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

2014-12-01

316

Leading Edge Book Review  

E-print Network

in humans, to wing patterns in butterflies, to sex determination in turtles. Yet, despite the broad scope. In turn, altered development results in different organismal form, sex, or behavior. Hormones, whose are required for the completion of differentiation. The same applies to the development of the immune system

Monteiro, Antónia

317

Leading Edge Book Review  

E-print Network

continue to be felt in today's scientific, popular, religious, and even political discourse. After reading title, which is a direct translation of the title of one of the works by the great Spanish writer Miguel

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

318

Leading Edge Perspective  

E-print Network

.03.001 The flood of genome-wide data generated by high-throughput technologies currently provides biol- ogists provided biologists with an extensive, although still incomplete, list of these cellular parts of rapamycin (mTOR) is critical for cell growth, and its activity is aberrant in most cancers; hence

Pe'er, Dana

319

Magnetoelectric effect in lead-free BNKLBT ceramic/terfenol-D continue fiber composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

A magnetostrictive-piezoelectric laminated composite has been developed by sandwiching a lead-free BNKLBT ceramic plate polarized in the thickness direction between two terfenol-D continuous fiber composite plates. This lead-free magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite has a large ME voltage sensitivity of 2.5 V/Oe at the resonance frequency of 130.9 kHz under a low magnetic bias field (H{sub Bias}) of 0.6 kOe. This work shows the potential of BNKLBT lead-free ceramics in ME sensing application.

Lo, C. Y.; Choy, S. H.; Or, S. W.; Chan, H. L. W. [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Centre, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom (Hong Kong)

2010-05-15

320

Turbine Vane External Heat Transfer. Volume 1: Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Surface Heat Transfer Distributions with Leading Edge Showerhead Film Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes was summarized. A two dimensional linear cascade (previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils) was used to examine the effect of leading edge shower head film cooling on downstream heat transfer. The data were used to develop and evaluate analytical models. Modifications to the two dimensional boundary layer model are described. The results were used to formulate and test an effective viscosity model capable of predicting heat transfer phenomena downstream of the leading edge film cooling array on both the suction and pressure surfaces, with and without mass injection.

Turner, E. R.; Wilson, M. D.; Hylton, L. D.; Kaufman, R. M.

1985-01-01

321

Simulator study of the stall departure characteristics of a light general aviation airplane with and without a wing-leading-edge modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation was developed for a two-place, single-engine, low-wing general aviation airplane for the stall and initial departure regions of flight. Two configurations, one with and one without an outboard wing-leading-edge modification, were modeled. The math models developed are presented simulation predictions and flight-test data for validation purposes and simulation results for the two configurations for various maneuvers and power settings are compared to show the beneficial influence of adding the wing-leading-edge modification.

Riley, D. R.

1985-01-01

322

Three-dimensional thermal-structural analysis of a swept cowl leading edge subjected to skewed shock-shock interference heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional flux-based thermal analysis method has been developed and its capability is demonstrated by predicting the transient nonlinear temperature response of a swept cowl leading edge subjected to intense three-dimensional aerodynamic heating. The predicted temperature response from the transient thermal analysis is used in a linear elastic structural analysis to determine thermal stresses. Predicted thermal stresses are compared with those obtained from a two-dimensional analysis which represents conditions along the chord where maximum heating occurs. Results indicate a need for a three-dimensional analysis to predict accurately the leading edge thermal stress response.

Polesky, Sandra P.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Glass, Christopher E.; Pandey, Ajay K.

1990-01-01

323

Effects of wing leading-edge deflection on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wing leading-edge deflection effects on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio highly swept arrow-wing configuration were determined. Static force tests were conducted in a V/STOL tunnel at a Reynolds number of about 2.5 x 1 million for an angle-of-attack range from -10 deg to 17 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -5 deg to 5 deg. Limited flow visualization studies were also conducted in order to provide a qualitative assessment of leading-edge upwash characteristics.

Coe, P. L., Jr.; Weston, R. P.

1978-01-01

324

First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project.  

SciTech Connect

FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

Cary, J. R.; Candy, J.; Cohen, R. H.; Krasheninnikov, S.; McCune, D. C.; Estep, D. J.; Larson, J.; Malony, A. D.; Pankin, A.; Worley, P. H.; Carlsson, J. A.; Hakim, A. H.; Hamill, P.; Kruger, S.; Miah, M.; Muzsala, S.; Pletzer, A.; Shasharina, S.; Wade-Stein, D.; Wang, N.; Balay, S.; McInnes, L.; Zhang, H.; Casper, T.; Diachin, L. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Tech-X Corp.); (General Atomics); (LLNL); (Univ. of California at San Diego); (Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.); (Colorado State Univ.); (ParaTools Inc.); (Lehigh Univ.); (ORNL)

2008-01-01

325

First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project  

SciTech Connect

FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

Cary, John R. [Tech-X Corporation; Candy, Jeff [General Atomics; Cohen, Ronald H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Krasheninnikov, Sergei [University of California, San Diego; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Estep, Donald J [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Larson, Jay [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Malony, Allen [University of Oregon; Pankin, A. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Carlsson, Johann [Tech-X Corporation; Hakim, A H [Tech-X Corporation; Hamill, P [Tech-X Corporation; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Miah, Mahmood [Tech-X Corporation; Muzsala, S [Tech-X Corporation; Pletzer, Alexander [Tech-X Corporation; Shasharina, Svetlana [Tech-X Corporation; Wade-Stein, D [Tech-X Corporation; Wang, N [Tech-X Corporation; Balay, Satish [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); McInnes, Lois [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhang, Hong [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Casper, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Diachin, Lori [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Epperly, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; Cobb, John W [ORNL; Morris, A [University of Oregon; Shende, Sameer [University of Oregon; Hammett, Greg [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Indireshkumar, K [Tech-X Corporation; Stotler, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Pigarov, A [University of California, San Diego

2008-01-01

326

Experimental Observations on the Deformation and Breakup of Water Droplets Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work presents the results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model placed at the end of the rotating arm was moved at speeds of 50 to 90 m/sec. A monosize droplet generator was employed to produce droplets that were allowed to fall from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil at a given location. High speed imaging was employed to observe the interaction between the droplets and the airfoil. The high speed imaging allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. A tracking software program was used to measure from the high speed movies the horizontal and vertical displacement of the droplet against time. The velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of a given droplet from beginning of deformation to breakup and/or hitting the airfoil. Results are presented for droplets with a diameter of 490 micrometers at airfoil speeds of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/sec

Vargas, Mario; Feo, Alex

2011-01-01

327

Goertler vortices in growing boundary layers: The leading edge receptivity problem, linear growth and the nonlinear breakdown stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goertler vortices are thought to be the cause of transition in many fluid flows of practical importance. A review of the different stages of vortex growth is given. In the linear regime, nonparallel effects completely govern this growth, and parallel flow theories do not capture the essential features of the development of the vortices. A detailed comparison between the parallel and nonparallel theories is given and it is shown that at small vortex wavelengths, the parallel flow theories have some validity; otherwise nonparallel effects are dominant. New results for the receptivity problem for Goertler vortices are given; in particular vortices induced by free stream perturbations impinging on the leading edge of the walls are considered. It is found that the most dangerous mode of this type can be isolated and it's neutral curve is determined. This curve agrees very closely with the available experimental data. A discussion of the different regimes of growth of nonlinear vortices is also given. Again it is shown that, unless the vortex wavelength is small, nonparallel effects are dominant. Some new results for nonlinear vortices of 0(1) wavelengths are given and compared to experimental observations.

Hall, Philip

1989-01-01

328

Three-dimensional flow structures and evolution of the leading-edge vortices on a flapping wing.  

PubMed

Following the identification and confirmation of the substructures of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) system on flapping wings, it is apparent that the actual LEV structures could be more complex than had been estimated in previous investigations. In this experimental study, we reveal for the first time the detailed three-dimensional (3-D) flow structures and evolution of the LEVs on a flapping wing in the hovering condition at high Reynolds number (Re=1624). This was accomplished by utilizing an electromechanical model dragonfly wing flapping in a water tank (mid-stroke angle of attack=60 degrees) and applying phase-lock based multi-slice digital stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (DSPIV) to measure the target flow fields at three typical stroke phases: at 0.125 T (T=stroke period), when the wing was accelerating; at 0.25 T, when the wing had maximum speed; and at 0.375 T, when the wing was decelerating. The result shows that the LEV system is a collection of four vortical elements: one primary vortex and three minor vortices, instead of a single conical or tube-like vortex as reported or hypothesized in previous studies. These vortical elements are highly time-dependent in structure and show distinct ;stay properties' at different spanwise sections. The spanwise flows are also time-dependent, not only in the velocity magnitude but also in direction. PMID:18375846

Lu, Yuan; Shen, Gong Xin

2008-04-01

329

Leading edge vortices in lesser long-nosed bats occurring at slow but not fast flight speeds.  

PubMed

Slow and hovering animal flight creates high demands on the lift production of animal wings. Steady state aerodynamics is unable to explain the forces required and the most commonly used mechanism to enhance the lift production is a leading edge vortex (LEV). Although LEVs increase the lift, they come at the cost of high drag. Here we determine the flow above the wing of lesser long-nosed bats at slow and cruising speed using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We find that a prominent LEV is present during the downstroke at slow speed, but not at cruising speed. Comparison with previously published LEV data from a robotic flapper inspired by lesser long-nosed bats suggests that bats should be able to generate LEVs at cruising speeds, but that they avoid doing so, probably to increase flight efficiency. In addition, at slow flight speeds we find LEVs of opposite spin at the inner and outer wing during the upstroke, potentially providing a control challenge to the animal. We also note that the LEV stays attached to the wing throughout the downstoke and does not show the complex structures found in insects. This suggests that bats are able to control the development of the LEV and potential control mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24855067

Muijres, Florian T; Christoffer Johansson, L; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

2014-06-01

330

Gene expression profiling of the leading edge of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): IL-24 driven MMP-7  

PubMed Central

The precise mechanisms governing invasion at the leading edge of SCC and its subsequent metastasis are not fully understood. We aimed to define the cancer related molecular changes that distinguish non-invasive tumor from invasive SCC. To this end, we combined laser capture microdissection with cDNA microarray analysis. We defined invasion-associated genes as those differentially regulated only in invasive SCC nests, but not in actinic keratosis or in situ SCC, compared to normal epidermis. There were 383 up- and 354 down-regulated genes in the “invasion set.” SCC invasion was characterized by aberrant expression of various proteolytic molecules. We noted increased expression of MMP7 and IL-24 in invasive SCC. IL-24 induced the expression of MMP7 in SCC cells in culture. In addition, blocking of MMP7 by a specific antibody significantly delayed the migration of SCC cells in culture. These results suggest a possible contribution of IL-24 to SCC invasion via enhancing focal expression of MMP7, though IL-24 has been suggested to have anti-tumor growth effects in other cancer types. Identification of regional molecular changes that regulate cancer invasion may facilitate the development of new targeted treatments for aggressive cancer. PMID:24270662

Mitsui, Hiroshi; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Gulati, Nicholas; Shah, Kejal R.; Cannizzaro, Maria Vittoria; Coats, Israel; Felsen, Diane; Krueger, James G.; Carucci, John A.

2014-01-01

331

Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of Compositional-Modulated Lead Telluride-Bismuth Telluride Nanowire  

E-print Network

for waste heat recovery1,2 and solid-state cooling3,4 with improved stability and reliability.5 The thermoSynthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of Compositional- Modulated Lead Telluride and precursors during the synthesis, the influence of composition on the thermoelectric properties

Ruan, Xiulin

332

Lead  

MedlinePLUS

... lead-based paint chips or playing in contaminated soil. Lead can damage the nervous system, kidneys, and ... settling to the ground. • Once lead falls onto soil, it usually sticks to soil particles. • Movement of ...

333

Determining the optical absorption edge in organic semiconductor composites with a bulk heterojunction by the constant photocurrent method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral dependences of photoconductivity in thin layers of polyconjugated polymers (PCDTBT, PTB7) and their composites with a fullerene derivative (PC70BM), which are promising for the development of organic solar cells, have been studied. It was found that the photoconductivity in the polymeric composite exceeds that in the polymer in the whole spectral range under study and the edge of the photoconductivity spectrum is shifted to the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. Use of the constant photocurrent method made it possible to obtain spectral dependences of the absorption coefficients and determine the optical gap width of the materials studied.

Malov, V. V.; Kazanskii, A. G.; Khenkin, M. V.; Tameev, A. R.

2014-09-01

334

New leading/trailing edge modulation strategies for two-stage AC/DC PFC adapters to reduce DC-link capacitor ripple current  

E-print Network

iii ABSTRACT New Leading/Trailing Edge Modulation Strategies for Two-Stage PFC AC/DC Adapters to Reduce DC-Link Capacitor Ripple Current. (May 2007) Jing Sun, B.E., Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr...

Sun, Jing

2007-09-17

335

An improved panel method for the solution of three-dimensional leading edge vortex flows Volume 2: User's guide and programmer's document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program developed for solving the subsonic, three dimensional flow over wing-body configurations with leading edge vortex separation is presented. Instructions are given for the proper set up and input of a problem into the computer code. Program input formats and output are described, as well as the overlay structure of the program. The program is written in FORTRAN.

Tinoco, E. N.; Lu, P.; Johnson, F. T.

1980-01-01

336

A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method was developed for predicting minimum flow rates required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge fluid ice protection system. The predicted flow rates compare with an average error of less than 10 percent to six experimentally determined flow rates from tests in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel on a general aviation wing section.

Kohlman, D. L.; Albright, A. E.

1983-01-01

337

A method of predicting flow rates required to achieve anti-icing performance with a porous leading edge ice protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of analytically predicting the minimum fluid flow rate required to provide anti-ice protection with a porous leading edge system on a wing under a given set of flight conditions is presented. Results of the proposed method are compared with the actual results of an icing test of a real wing section in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel.

Kohlman, D. L.

1983-01-01

338

Experimental study of pressure and heating rate on a swept cylindrical leading edge resulting from swept shock wave interference. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of cylindrical leading edge sweep on surface pressure and heat transfer rate for swept shock wave interference were investigated. Experimental tests were conducted in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 8, nominal unit Reynolds number of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power per foot, leading edge and incident shock generator sweep angles of 0, 15, and 30 deg, and incident shock generator angle-of-attack fixed at 12.5 deg. Detailed surface pressure and heat transfer rate on the cylindircal leading edge of a swept shock wave interference model were measured at the region of the maximum surface pressure and heat transfer rate. Results show that pressure and heat transfer rate on the cylindrical leading edge of the shock wave interference model were reduced as the sweep was increased over the range of tested parameters. Peak surface pressure and heat transfer rate on the cylinder were about 10 and 30 times the undisturbed flow stagnation point value, respectively, for the 0 deg sweep test. A comparison of the 15 and 30 deg swept results with the 0 deg swept results showed that peak pressure was reduced about 13 percent and 44 percent, respectively, and peak heat transfer rate was reduced about 7 percent and 27 percent, respectively.

Glass, Christopher E.

1989-01-01

339

Lead-free precussion primer mixes based on metastable interstitial composite (MIC) technology  

DOEpatents

A lead-free percussion primer composition and a percussion cup containing e composition. The lead-free percussion primer composition is comprised of a mixture of about 45 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and molybdenum trioxide powder or a mixture of about 50 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and polytetrafluoroethylene powder. The aluminum powder, molybdenum trioxide powder and polytetrafluoroethylene powder has a particle size of 0.1 .mu.m or less, more preferably a particle size of from about 200-500 angstroms.

Dixon, George P. (Alexandria, VA); Martin, Joe A. (Espanola, NM); Thompson, Don (Ridgecrest, CA)

1998-01-01

340

Compatibility of SiC and SiC Composites with Molten Lead  

SciTech Connect

The choice of structural material candidates to contain Lead at 1000 C are limited in number. Silicon carbide composites comprise one choice of possible containment materials. Short term screening studies (120 hours) were undertaken to study the behavior of Silicon Carbide, Silicon Nitride, elemental Silicon and various Silicon Carbide fiber composites focusing mainly on melt infiltrated composites. Isothermal experiments at 1000 C utilized graphite fixtures to contain the Lead and material specimens under a low oxygen partial pressure environment. The corrosion weight loss values (grams/cm{sup 2} Hr) obtained for each of the pure materials showed SiC (monolithic CVD or Hexoloy) to have the best materials compatibility with Lead at this temperature. Increased weight loss values were observed for pure Silicon Nitride and elemental Silicon. For the SiC fiber composite samples those prepared using a SiC matrix material performed better than Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a matrix material. Composites prepared using a silicon melt infiltration process showed larger corrosion weight loss values due to the solubility of silicon in lead at these temperatures. When excess silicon was removed from these composite samples the corrosion performance for these material improved. These screening studies were used to guide future long term exposure (both isothermal and non-isothermal) experiments and Silicon Carbide composite fabrication work.

H Tunison

2006-03-07

341

Stress and strain field singularities, micro-cracks, and their role in failure initiation at the composite laminate free-edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A state-of-the-art multi-scale analysis was performed to predict failure initiation at the free-edge of an angle-ply laminate using the Strain Invariant Failure Theory (SIFT), and multiple improvements to this analysis methodology were proposed and implemented. Application of this analysis and theory led to the conclusion that point-wise failure criteria which ignore the singular stress and strain fields from a homogenized analysis and the presence of free-edge damage in the form of micro-cracking, may do so at the expense of failure prediction capability. The main contributions of this work then are made in the study of the laminate free-edge singularity and in the effects of micro-cracking at the composite laminate free-edge. Study of both classical elasticity and finite element solutions of the laminate free-edge stress field based upon the assumption of homogenized lamina properties reveal that the order of the free-edge singularity is sufficiently small such that the domain of dominance of this term away from the laminate free-edge is much smaller than the relevant dimensions of the microstructure. In comparison to a crack-tip field, these free-edge singularities generate stress and strain fields which are half as intense as those at the crack-tip, leading to the conclusion that existing flaws at the free-edge in the form of micro-cracks would be more prone to the initiation of free-edge failure than the existence of a singularity in the free-edge elasticity solutions. A methodical experiment was performed on a family of [±25°/90°] s laminates made of IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy composite, to both characterize micro-cracks present at the laminate free-edge and to study their behavior under the application of a uniform extensional load. The majority of these micro-cracks were of length on the order of a few fiber diameters, though larger micro-cracks as long as 100 fiber diameters were observed in thicker laminates. A strong correlation between the application of vacuum during cure and the presence of micro-cracks was observed. The majority of micro-cracks were located along ply interfaces, even along the interfaces of plies with identical orientation, further implicating processing methods and conditions in the formation of these micro-cracks and suggesting that a region of interphase is present between composite plies. No micro-cracks of length smaller than approximately 36 fiber diameters (180 µm) grew or interacted with the free-edge delamination or damage at ultimate laminate failure, and the median length of micro-cracks which did grow was approximately 50 fiber diameters (250 µm). While the internal depth of these free-edge cracks was unknown, the results of these experiments then suggests a critical free-edge crack-length in the [±25°/90°]s family of laminates of approximately 50 fiber diameters (250 µm, or 1.5 lamina thicknesses). A multi-scale analysis of free-edge micro-cracks using traditional displacement based finite element submodeling and XFEM was used to explain the experimental observation that micro-cracks did not grow unless they were of sufficient length. Analysis of the stress-intensity factors along the micro-crack front revealed that penny shaped micro-cracks in the 90° plies of the [±25°/90°] s family of laminates of length two fiber diameters or longer are under mode I dominated loading conditions when oriented parallel or perpendicular to the laminate loading direction. The maximum observed KI along the crack-front of these modeled micro-cracks was no larger than 26% of the ultimate KIC of the matrix material, under the application of a uniform temperature change (?T=-150°C) and uniform extension equal to the experimentally measured ultimate failure strain of the laminate. This indicates that insufficient energy is supplied to these small micro-cracks to facilitate crack growth, confirming what was experimentally observed. A method for estimating a critical micro-crack length based upon the results of the fracture mechanics analysis was developed, and predictions for this critical

Dustin, Joshua S.

342

Strain partitioning in the Helvetic thrust belt of eastern Switzerland from the leading edge to the internal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain and strain partitioning in the Helvetic thrust belt are analysed in order to determine their variation across the belt from the external, thin-skinned portion to the internal, thick-skinned portion, and in order to begin the detailed mechanical analysis of the entire fold-and-thrust belt. Coarse-grained limestones of Jurassic and Cretaceous age were chosen for analysis because they can be traced from the external to the internal zones. The strain within a bed is partitioned into three components: transgranular (pressure solution, microfaults, veins), twinning, granular and intragranular, exclusive of twinning (crystal-plasticity, associated with recrystallization). Transgranular strain was very important in the early history of the Helvetic nappes giving way to twinning at a later stage under tectonic burial. Twinning strain was early in the Infrahelvetic complex, giving way to intracrystalline deformation at the later stage of burial. The transition from transgranular- to intragranular-dominated strain occurred at a vitrinite reflectance value of 3.5%, significantly below the greenschist grade of metamorphism. In a large-scale fold at the leading edge of the Helvetic nappes, transgranular strains were associated with the buckling stage of the fold and twinning occurred during fold-tightening. In more internal parts of the Helvetic nappes twinning strains are also late with regard to transgranular strains, but here their pattern corresponds to the regional finite strain pattern. In the internal zone, the Infrahelvetic complex, twinning seems to have been an early event and records an initial layer-parallel shortening, followed by regional internal deformation with intragranular strains.

Groshong, Richard H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian; Pringle, Laurel R.

343

Prediction of STS-107 Hypervelocity Flow Fields about the Shuttle Orbiter with Various Wing Leading Edge Damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations were performed for damaged configurations of the Shuttle Orbiter in support of the STS-107 Columbia accident investigation. Two configurations with missing wing leading-edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels were evaluated at conditions just prior to the peak heating trajectory point. The initial configuration modeled the Orbiter with an approximate missing RCC panel 6 to determine whether this damage could result in anomalous temperatures measured during the STS-107 reentry. This missing RCC panel 6 computation was found to produce heating augmentation factors of 5 times the nominal heating rates on the side fuselage with lesser heat increases on the front of the OMS pod. This is consistent with the thermocouple and resistance temperature detector sensors from the STS-107 re-entry which observed off nominal high early in the re-entry trajectory. A second damaged configuration modeled the Orbiter with missing RCC panel 9 and included ingestion of the flow into the outboard RCC channel. This computation lowered the level (only 2 times nominal) and moved the location of the heating augmentation on the leeside fuselage relative to the missing RCC panel 6 configuration. The lesser heating augmentation for missing RCC panel 9 was confined near the wing fuselage juncture. Near nominal heating was predicted on the remainder of the side fuselage with some lower than nominal heating on the front surface of the OMS pod. These results for missing RCC panel 9 are consistent with data from the STS-107 re-entry where the heating augmentation was observed to move off the side fuselage and OMS pod sensors at later times in the trajectory. As this solution requires supersonic mass ingestion into the RCC channel, it is probably not an appropriate model prior to penetration of the flow through the spar into the wing structure. It may, however, be representative of the conditions at later times and could account for the movement of the heating signature on the side fuselage.

Pulsonetti, Maria V.; Thompson, Richard A.; Alter, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

344

Gamma-ray attenuation in the vicinity of the K edge in molybdenum, tin, lanthanum, gadolinium, tungsten, lead, and uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the values of gamma-ray buildup factors and attenuation coefficients that rise steeply as the source energy decreases near the K edge in heavy materials and discontinuously fall at the K edge. However, the exposure rate attenuation factor, A(E,r) = D(E)B(E,μr), given as a function of the penetration depth in centimeters, is relatively constant in the vicinity

Y. Harima; D. K. Trubey; Y. Sakomoto; S. Tanaka

1991-01-01

345

Relationship between Arp2/3 Complex and the Barbed Ends of Actin Filaments at the Leading Edge of Carcinoma Cells after Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100–200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1.5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1–1.5 ?m in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100–200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge. PMID:10209028

Bailly, Maryse; Macaluso, Frank; Cammer, Michael; Chan, Amanda; Segall, Jeffrey E.; Condeelis, John S.

1999-01-01

346

Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Large-Scale Unswept Wing-Body-Tail Configuration with Blowing Applied Over the Flap and Wind Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the effects of a blowing boundary-layer-control lift-augmentation system on the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale model of a fighter-type airplane. The wing was unswept at the 70-percent- chord station, had an aspect ratio of 2.86, a taper ratio of 0.40, and 4-percent-thick biconvex airfoil sections parallel to the plane of symmetry. The tests were conducted over a range of angles of attack from approximately -4 deg to 23 deg for a Reynolds number of approximately 5.2 x 10(exp 6) which corresponds to a Mach number of 0.08. Blowing rates were normally restricted to values just sufficient to control air-flow separation. The results of this investigation showed that wing leading-edge blowing in combination with large values of wing leading-edge-flap deflection was a very effective leading-edge flow-control device for wings having highly loaded trailing-edge flaps. With leading-edge blowing there was no hysteresis of the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics upon recovery from stall. End plates were found to improve the lift and drag characteristics of the test configuration in the moderate angle-of-attack range, and blockage to one-quarter of the blowing-slot area was not detrimental to the aerodynamic characteristics. Blowing boundary-layer control resulted in a considerably reduced landing speed and reduced landing and take-off distances. The ailerons were very effective lateral-control devices when used with blowing flaps.

McLemore, H. Clyde; Peterson, John B., Jr.

1960-01-01

347

Lead  

MedlinePLUS

... Lead Epidemiology Surveillance Program (ABLES) Lead in the environment Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Healthy Homes ...

348

Suppression of Chemotaxis by SSeCKS via Scaffolding of Phosphoinositol Phosphates and the Recruitment of the Cdc42 GEF, Frabin, to the Leading Edge  

PubMed Central

Chemotaxis is controlled by interactions between receptors, Rho-family GTPases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and cytoskeleton remodeling proteins. We investigated how the metastasis suppressor, SSeCKS, attenuates chemotaxis. Chemotaxis activity inversely correlated with SSeCKS levels in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), DU145 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. SSeCKS loss induced chemotactic velocity and linear directionality, correlating with replacement of leading edge lamellipodia with fascin-enriched filopodia-like extensions, the formation of thickened longitudinal F-actin stress fibers reaching to filopodial tips, relative enrichments at the leading edge of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3 (PIP3), Akt, PKC-?, Cdc42-GTP and active Src (SrcpoY416), and a loss of Rac1. Leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition in SSeCKS-null MEF could be restored by full-length SSeCKS or SSeCKS deleted of its Src-binding domain (?Src), but not by SSeCKS deleted of its three MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) polybasic domains (?PBD), which bind PIP2 and PIP3. The enrichment of activated Cdc42 in SSeCKS-null leading edge filopodia correlated with recruitment of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Frabin, likely recruited via multiple PIP2/3-binding domains. Frabin knockdown in SSeCKS-null MEF restores leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition. However, SSeCKS failed to co-immunoprecipitate with Rac1, Cdc42 or Frabin. Consistent with the notion that chemotaxis is controlled by SSeCKS-PIP (vs. -Src) scaffolding activity, constitutively-active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase could override the ability of the Src inhibitor, SKI-606, to suppress chemotaxis and filopodial enrichment of Frabin in SSeCKS-null MEF. Our data suggest a role for SSeCKS in controlling Rac1 vs. Cdc42-induced cellular dynamics at the leading chemotactic edge through the scaffolding of phospholipids and signal mediators, and through the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton controlling directional movement. PMID:25356636

Ko, Hyun-Kyung; Guo, Li-wu; Su, Bing; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H.

2014-01-01

349

Suppression of chemotaxis by SSeCKS via scaffolding of phosphoinositol phosphates and the recruitment of the Cdc42 GEF, Frabin, to the leading edge.  

PubMed

Chemotaxis is controlled by interactions between receptors, Rho-family GTPases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and cytoskeleton remodeling proteins. We investigated how the metastasis suppressor, SSeCKS, attenuates chemotaxis. Chemotaxis activity inversely correlated with SSeCKS levels in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), DU145 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. SSeCKS loss induced chemotactic velocity and linear directionality, correlating with replacement of leading edge lamellipodia with fascin-enriched filopodia-like extensions, the formation of thickened longitudinal F-actin stress fibers reaching to filopodial tips, relative enrichments at the leading edge of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3 (PIP3), Akt, PKC-?, Cdc42-GTP and active Src (SrcpoY416), and a loss of Rac1. Leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition in SSeCKS-null MEF could be restored by full-length SSeCKS or SSeCKS deleted of its Src-binding domain (?Src), but not by SSeCKS deleted of its three MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) polybasic domains (?PBD), which bind PIP2 and PIP3. The enrichment of activated Cdc42 in SSeCKS-null leading edge filopodia correlated with recruitment of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Frabin, likely recruited via multiple PIP2/3-binding domains. Frabin knockdown in SSeCKS-null MEF restores leading edge lamellipodia and chemotaxis inhibition. However, SSeCKS failed to co-immunoprecipitate with Rac1, Cdc42 or Frabin. Consistent with the notion that chemotaxis is controlled by SSeCKS-PIP (vs. -Src) scaffolding activity, constitutively-active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase could override the ability of the Src inhibitor, SKI-606, to suppress chemotaxis and filopodial enrichment of Frabin in SSeCKS-null MEF. Our data suggest a role for SSeCKS in controlling Rac1 vs. Cdc42-induced cellular dynamics at the leading chemotactic edge through the scaffolding of phospholipids and signal mediators, and through the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton controlling directional movement. PMID:25356636

Ko, Hyun-Kyung; Guo, Li-wu; Su, Bing; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H

2014-01-01

350

Numerical and experimental study on the ability of dynamic roughness to alter the development of a leading edge vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic stall is an unsteady aerodynamic phenomenon garnering much research interest because it occurs in a variety of applications. For example, dynamic stall is known to occur on helicopter rotor blades, wind turbines, high maneuvering military aircraft, and flapping wings. Dynamic stall occurs when an aerodynamic lifting device, such as an airfoil, wing, or turbomachine blade, undergoes a rapid pitching motion. It also occurs on lifting devices that are impulsively started at high angles of attack. Dynamic stall can "delay" aerodynamic stall to angles of attack that are significantly beyond the static stall angle of attack. During dynamic stall a large leading edge vortex (LEV) is formed, which creates greater fluid acceleration over the wing or airfoil, thus sustaining lift. As this vortex is shed downstream stall eventually occurs and there is an abrupt increase in drag and a large shift in pitching moment. Research has been performed to better understand the mechanisms occurring during dynamic stall in an effort to find ways to best take advantage of the increased lift associated with dynamic stall, but avoid the downfalls that occur once stall is initiated. Few attempts have been made to alter the LEV, and these attempts have used methods associated with laminar boundary layer separation control. Although these methods have shown promise, they suffer from the drawback that they exhaust more energy than is gained by flow control, while also only being effective at certain flight regimes. The research described herein documents the first study on the ability of dynamic roughness to alter the LEV encountered on a rapidly pitching airfoil. Both numerical and experimental studies were performed, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations as well as stereo and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. Evidence for the ability of small scale dynamic roughness to alter the development of the LEV was found in both the computational simulations and experiments. This research is the first of its kind to show both computationally and experimentally that dynamic roughness is a viable flow control method for both steady and unsteady aerodynamics.

Griffin, Christopher D.

351

Natural fibre high-density polyethylene and lead oxide composites for radiation shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study has been made of the radiation shielding provided by recycled agricultural fibre and industrial plastic wastes produced as composite materials. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra behind composites of fibre-plastic (rho=1.373gcm-3) and fibre-plastic-lead (rho=2.756gcm-3) have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and neutron-gamma spectrometer with a stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating technique based on the zero-cross-over method was

A. El-Sayed Abdo; M. A. M. Ali; M. R. Ismail

2003-01-01

352

Natural fibre high-density polyethylene and lead oxide composites for radiation shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study has been made of the radiation shielding provided by recycled agricultural fibre and industrial plastic wastes produced as composite materials. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra behind composites of fibre–plastic (?=1.373gcm?3) and fibre–plastic–lead (?=2.756gcm?3) have been measured using a collimated reactor beam and neutron–gamma spectrometer with a stilbene scintillator. The pulse shape discriminating technique based on the zero-cross-over method was

A El-Sayed Abdo; M. A. M Ali; M. R Ismail

2003-01-01

353

Giant magnetoelectric effects in layered composites of nickel zinc ferrite and lead zirconate titanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 40-fold increase in the strength of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is reported in layered samples of nickel ferrite (NFO)–lead zirconate titanate (PZT) compared to bulk composites. In bulk samples, the transverse and longitudinal couplings are weak and are of equal magnitude. The ME coupling strengthens by an order of magnitude when high-resistivity modified-NFO is used in the composite. A further

G. Srinivasan; V. M. Laletsin; R. Hayes; N. Puddubnaya; E. T. Rasmussen; D. J. Fekel

2002-01-01

354

Piezoelectric and Magnetoelectric Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate\\/Ni-Ferrite Particulate Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties of magnetoelectric particulate composites with Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Ni-ferrite were investigated. The maximum magnetoelectric voltage coefficient, (dE\\/dH)max, increased with higher sintering temperature up to 1250 ? C. Composites sintered at 1300 ? C, had dis- solution of Fe ions into PZT, or interdiffusion between PZT and ferrite. Connectivity of the ferrite particles and sintering

JUNGHO RYU; ALFREDO V ´ AZQUEZ CARAZO; KENJI UCHINO; HYOUN-EE KIM

2001-01-01

355

Enhanced lateral electromechanical coupling in lead-titanate-rod\\/polymer piezoelectric composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although modified lead-titanate ceramics exhibit a negligible d31 piezoelectric coefficient, piezoelectric-rod\\/polymer-matrix composites made from them exhibit a substantial d31. A theoretical analysis shows that the composite's enhanced d31 coefficient arises from lateral stress on the polymer phase being transferred to a longitudinal stress along the ceramic rods by the Poisson effect in the polymer, thus producing a charge through the

WALLACE ARDEN SMITH; AVNER A. SHAULOV; ROBERT Y. TING

1988-01-01

356

An instability at the edge of a tissue of collectively migrating cells can lead to finger formation during wound healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wound healing assays, a monolayer of epithelial cells is allowed to migrate onto empty surface area. When the motile cells close the artificial wound, the edge of the tissue does usually not move uniformly but characteristic fingerlike protrusions are observed. We model the collectively moving cells as a system of self-propelled particles using the Toner-Tu equations for an active fluid. A linear stability analysis of perturbations at the tissue edge reveals an instability in the disordered nonmoving state. The instability is purely due to spontaneous motility and velocity alignment between cells. It can account for finger formation in wound healing experiments.

Zimmermann, J.; Basan, M.; Levine, H.

2014-06-01

357

Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate/polyurethane composites  

SciTech Connect

0-3 composite ranging between 0 and 3, of ferroelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and thermoplastic elastomer polyurethane (PU) were fabricated. The pyroelectric and dielectric properties of the hot-pressed thin film samples of various PZT volume fractions were measured. The experimental dielectric permittivities and losses agreed reasonably well with the Bruggeman model. The room temperature pyroelectric coefficients of the composites were found to increase linearly with PZT volume fraction and substantially larger than expected. For example, for a composite with 30% PZT, its pyroelectric coefficient is about 90 {mu}C/m{sup 2}K at room temperature, which is more than tenfold of a PZT/PVDF composite of the same ceramic volume fraction. We propose a model in which the electrical conductivity of the composite system is taken into consideration to explain the linear relationship and the extraordinarily large pyroelectric coefficients obtained.

Lam, K.S.; Wong, Y.W.; Tai, L.S.; Poon, Y.M.; Shin, F.G. [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong (China)

2004-10-01

358

Effect of dielectrophoretic structuring on piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of lead titanate-epoxy composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional granular composites of lead titanate particles in an epoxy matrix prepared by dielectrophoresis show enhanced dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties compared to 0–3 composites for different ceramic volume content from 10% to 50%. Two structuring parameters, the interparticle distance and the percentage of 1–3 connectivity are used based on the Bowen model and the mixed connectivity model respectively. The degree of structuring calculated according to both models correlate well with the increase in piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensitivities of the composites. Higher sensitivity of the electroactive properties are observed at higher ceramic volume fractions. The effect of electrical conductivity of the matrix on the pyroelectric responsivity of the composites has been demonstrated to be a key parameter in governing the pyroelectric properties of the composites.

Khanbareh, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

2014-10-01

359

Isotopic Composition of Lead and Strontium from Ascension and Gough Islands.  

PubMed

Isotopic composition of lead and strontium has been determined in a series of rock samples from two islands on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Both interand intra-island variations exist in the abundance of radiogenic isotopes of both elements. Lead from basalt of Ascension Island has a Pb(206)-Pb(204) ratio of 19.5, while the corresponding ratio at Gough Island is only 18.4. The Pb(208)-Pb(204) ratios from the two islands do not differ. Conversely, strontium from basalt of Ascension Island is less radiogenic than that from Gough Island basalts. The trachytes of both islands have lead and strontium that is more radiogenic than that found in the basalts. The inter-island differences indicate the existence of regional variations in the uranium-lead and rubidium-strontium ratios of the upper mantle source of these rocks and show that isotope compositions are a means for investigating chemical heterogeneities in the mantle. PMID:17743662

Gast, P W; Tilton, G R; Hedge, C

1964-09-11

360

Isotopic composition of lead and strontium from Ascension and Gough Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isotopic composition of lead and strontium has been determined in a series of rock samples from two islands on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Both inter-and intra-island variations exist in the abundance of radiogenic isotopes of both elements. Lead from basalt of Ascension Island has a Pb206-Pb 204 ratio of 19.5, while the corresponding ratio at Gough Island is only 18.4. The Pb208-Pb204 ratios from the two islands do not differ. Conversely, strontium from basalt of Ascension Island is less radiogenic than that from Gough Island basalts. The trachytes of both islands have lead and strontium that is more radiogenic than that found in the basalts. The inter-island differences indicate the existence of regional variations in the uranium-lead and rubidium-strontium ratios of the upper mantle source of these rocks and show that isotope compositions are a means for investigating chemical heterogeneities in the mantle.

Gast, P.W.; Tilton, G.R.; Hedge, C.

1964-01-01

361

Experimental investigation of the self-induction theory of vortex breakdown and new observations in the transient development of a delta wing leading edge vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient development of the leading edge vortex of a 65-deg sweep delta wing is investigated in water tunnel experiments using flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The experiments were conducted at root chord Reynolds numbers from 0 to 3x10 4. The transient results provide experimental evidence supporting the self-induction theory of vortex breakdown. A core radius based circulation overshoot is discovered and attributed to transient development of the vortex core. The transient leading edge vortex core development indicates an initial conical vortex core along the axial direction that transitions to a cylindrical axial core. A passive device that asymmetrically extends the vortex breakdown location is discovered and the mechanisms describing the extension are proposed.

Thompson, Brad R.

362

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Rectangular Air-Duct Entrances in the Leading Edge of an NACA 23018 Wing, Special Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation of a number of duct entrances of rectangular shape installed in the leading edge of a wing was conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the external drag, the available pressure, the critical Mach numbers, and the effect on the maximum lift. The results showed that the most satisfactory entrances, which had practically no effect on the wing characteristics, had their lips approximately in the vertical plane of the leading edge of the wing. This requirement necessitated extending the lips outside the wing contour for all except the small entrances. Full dynamic pressure was found to be available over a fairly wide range of angle of attack. The critical Mach number for a small entrance was calculated to be as high as that for the plain wing but was slightly lower for the larger entrances tested.

Biermann, David; McLellan, Charles H.

1940-01-01

363

Integrated ablative and radiative heat shield panels and leading edges for high l\\/d reentry vehicles. Final technical report Jun 70Aug 73  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program analytically and experimentally investigates the design and thermostructural performance of integrated ablative\\/radiative thermal protection systems in two phases: CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND FULL-SCALE PANEL DEVELOPMENT. In Phase I, the program includes the investigation, analysis, and test of sub-scale specimens and various design concepts to determine design values for the full-scale panels and leading edges. Phase II covers the design

Kiger

1973-01-01

364

Heat transfer in leading and trailing edge cooling channels of the gas turbine blade under high rotation numbers  

E-print Network

at the highest rotation number of 0.58. Heat transfer coefficients are also experimentally measured in a wedge-shaped cooling channel (Dh =2.22cm, Ac=7.62cm2) to model an internal cooling passage near the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade where the coolant...

Liu, Yao-Hsien

2009-05-15

365

Heat-requirements for Ice Protection of a Cyclically Gas-heated, 36 Degree Swept Airfoil with Partial-span Leading-edge Slat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heating requirements for satisfactory cyclic de-icing over a wide range of icing and operating conditions have been determined for a gas-heated, 36deg swept airfoil of 6.9-foot chord with a partial-span leading-edge slat. Comparisons of heating requirements and effectiveness were made between the slatted and unslatted portions of the airfoil. Studies were also made comparing cyclic de-icing with continuous anti-icing, and cycll.cde-icing systems with and without leading-edge ice-free parting strips. De-icing heat requirements were approximately the same with either heated or unheated parting strips because of the aerodynamic effects of the 36deg sweep angle and the spanwise saw-tooth profile of leading-edge glaze-ice deposits. Cyclic de-icing heat-source requirements were found to be one-fourth or less of the heat requirements for complete anti-icing. The primary factors that affected the performance of the cyclic de-icing heating system were ambient air temperature, heat distribution, and thermal lag.

Gray, Vernon H; vonGlahn, Uwe H

1956-01-01

366

Effects of leading edge sweep angle and design lift coefficient on performance of a modified arrow wing at a design Mach number of 2.6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wing models were tested in the high-speed section of the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to study the effects of the leading-edge sweep angle and the design lift coefficient on aerodynamic performance and efficiency. The models had leading-edge sweep angles of 69.44 deg, 72.65 deg, and 75.96 deg which correspond to values of the design Mach-number-sweep-angle parameter (beta cotangent A) sub DES of 0.6, 0.75, and 0.9, respectively. For each sweep angle, camber surfaces having design lift coefficients of 0,0.08, and 0.12 at a design Mach number of 2.6 were generated. The wind-tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.3, 2.6, and 2.96 with a stagnation temperature of 338.7 K (150 F) and a Reynolds number per meter of 9.843 times 10 to the 6th power. The results of the tests showed that only a moderate sweeping of the wing leading edge aft of the Mach line along with a small-to-moderate amount of camber and twist was needed to significantly improve the zero-lift (flat camber surface) wing performance and efficiency.

Mack, R. J.

1974-01-01

367

Experimental study of wing leading-edge devices for improved maneuver performance of a supercritical maneuvering fighter configuration. [Langley 7- by 10-ft high speed tunnel tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted to examine the use of wing leading-edge devices for improved subsonic and transonic maneuver performance. These devices were tested on a fighter configuration which utilized supercritical-wing technology. The configuration had a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg and an aspect ratio of 3.28. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.85 with angles of attack from -0.5 deg to 22 deg. At both Mach numbers, sharp leading-edge flaps produced vortices which greatly altered the flow pattern on the wing and resulted in substantial reductions in drag at high lift. Underwing or pylon-type vortex generators also reduced drag at high lift. The vortex generators worked better at a Mach number of 0.60. The vortex generators gave the best overall results with zero toe-in angle and when mounted on either the outboard part of the wing or at both an outboard location and halfway out the semispan. Both the flaps and the vortex generators had a minor effect on the pitching moment. Fluorescent minitufts were found to be useful for flow visualization at transonic maneuver conditions.

Mann, M. J.; Huffman, J. K.; Fox, C. H., Jr.; Campbell, R. L.

1983-01-01

368

Effects of a modified leading edge on noise and boundary-layer transition in a rod-wall sound shield at Mach 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A version of a rod wall sound shield was tested in the Mach 5 pilot quiet tunnel over a range of unit Reynolds numbers from 10 to 35 million per meter. The model was modified by inclining the leading edge plates to produce an initial 2 deg expansion to ascertain the sensitivity of boundary layer transition to leading edge disturbances. Rod surface pitot pressures, mean free stream pitot pressures, and static pressures on the rods and plenum walls were measured. Hot-wire measurements were also made in the model and nozzle free stream at a unit Reynolds number of 15 million per meter. The surface pitot pressures indicated that transition was much farther forward than for the previous tests due to the leading edge modification and minor fabrication flaws in the model. Early boundary layer transition on the rods was confirmed by hot-wire measurements which showed much higher noise levels in the free stream shield flow when compared with results from previous tests. Mean pitot pressure surveys within the shielded region inside the model indicated that there was an overexpansion and recompression that would limit the streamwise length of undisturbed flow to about 13 cm along the centerline.

Creel, T. R., Jr.; Holley, B. B.; Beckwith, I. E.

1981-01-01

369

Lead effects on body composition and organ size of wintering canvasbacks Aythya valisineria in Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested whether lead exposure, as evidenced by liver lead concentration, affected body composition and organ sizes of canvasback ducks Aythya valisineria in Louisiana during winter 1987-88. After adjusting for body size, sex, age, and site and month of collection, we found decreases in ingesta-free body mass; breast, leg, and body protein; body fat; intestine length; and liver and gizzard masses associated with increased liver lead concentrations. There were no apparent associations between liver lead concentrations and testes and body ash masses, or caecal length. We used the concentration of 26.7 ppm of liver lead on a dry matter (dm) basis as indicative of lead toxicosis. We predicted that a canvasback with 26.7 ppm dm liver lead would weigh 209 g less and have 105 g less fat than an unexposed individual. Whereas many lead exposed canvasbacks may survive through winter, their subsequent survival, ability to reproduce and perform other annual cycle events may be compromised. We recommend management to make lead unavailable to waterfowl at major concentration areas and periodic monitoring of lead contamination in waterfowl populations.

Pace, R.M.; Hohman, W.L.; Custer, T.W.

1999-01-01

370

Robustness leads close to the edge of chaos in coupled map networks: toward the understanding of biological networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics in biological networks are, in general, robust against several perturbations. We investigate a coupled map network as a model motivated by gene regulatory networks and design systems that are robust against phenotypic perturbations (perturbations in dynamics), as well as systems that are robust against mutation (perturbations in network structure). To achieve such a design, we apply a multicanonical Monte Carlo method. Analysis based on the maximum Lyapunov exponent and parameter sensitivity shows that systems with marginal stability, which are regarded as systems at the edge of chaos, emerge when robustness against network perturbations is required. This emergence of the edge of chaos is a self-organization phenomenon and does not need a fine tuning of parameters.

Saito, Nen; Kikuchi, Macoto

2013-05-01

371

The isotopic composition of silver and lead in two iron meteorites - Cape York and Grant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalies in silver isotope composition in the metal phases of the Cape York (IIIA) and Grant (IIIB) iron meteorites are studied together with the lead isotopic composition of both the metal and sulfide phases of Cape York. Following extensive surface cleaning, the Ag-107/Ag-109 ratio in the metal phases of the meteorites is found to be in excess of the terrestrial ratio, and of that found in the sulfide phases. A definite correlation between the Ag-107/Ag-109 and Pd-108/Ag-109 ratios is observed for these meteorites, indicating the in situ decay of Pd-107 and supporting the widespread presence of Pd in the early universe. Lead, determined after cleaning and with chemical separations using low blank levels, is found to exist in variable proportions in the metal and sulfide phases. The sulfides appear to be dominated by radiogenic modern lead, which may be explained by terrestrial contamination or by late metamorphism in the meteorite parent body.

Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1983-10-01

372

The isotopic composition of silver and lead in two iron meteorites - Cape York and Grant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomalies in silver isotope composition in the metal phases of the Cape York (IIIA) and Grant (IIIB) iron meteorites are studied together with the lead isotopic composition of both the metal and sulfide phases of Cape York. Following extensive surface cleaning, the Ag-107/Ag-109 ratio in the metal phases of the meteorites is found to be in excess of the terrestrial ratio, and of that found in the sulfide phases. A definite correlation between the Ag-107/Ag-109 and Pd-108/Ag-109 ratios is observed for these meteorites, indicating the in situ decay of Pd-107 and supporting the widespread presence of Pd in the early universe. Lead, determined after cleaning and with chemical separations using low blank levels, is found to exist in variable proportions in the metal and sulfide phases. The sulfides appear to be dominated by radiogenic modern lead, which may be explained by terrestrial contamination or by late metamorphism in the meteorite parent body.

Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1983-01-01

373

Unsteady modes in the flowfield about an airfoil with a leading-edge horn-ice shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of unsteady modes present in the flowfield of an airfoil with a leading-edge horn-ice shape was performed in the current study. An NACA 0012 airfoil was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel at Re = 1.8 x 106. In addition to the clean configuration, the airfoil model was also tested with a set of boundary-layer trips, a two-dimensional extrusion of a horn-ice shape casting, and an array of simulated icing configurations created using simple geometries. Time-averaged and unsteady static pressure measurements were acquired about the airfoil surface, along with unsteady wake velocity and surface hot-film array measurements. Additionally, surface and off-body flow visualization techniques were used to visualize the airfoil flowfield. A technique was also developed to determine the unsteady shear-layer reattachment location of the ice-induced laminar separation bubble downstream of the horn-ice shape using the surface hot-film array measurements. The maximum amount of unsteadiness in the iced-airfoil flowfield was observed to increase with increasing angle of attack. For a fixed angle of attack prior to stall, a change in the feature height of the simulated ice shape led to a change in the distribution of flowfield unsteadiness, but did not change the maximum levels of unsteadiness present in the flowfield. The iced-airfoil flowfield unsteadiness was primarily associated with three different frequencies. The first was represented by an increase in spectral energy across a broad-band frequency range, and was observed just upstream of shear-layer reattachment as well as downstream of shear-layer reattachment. This increase in spectral energy was caused by the regular mode of unsteadiness due to vortical motion in the separated shear layer and vortex shedding from the separation bubble. The average Strouhal number of this regular mode corresponded to StL = 0.60, and the average vortex convection velocity was observed to be 0.45Uinfinity. These values were highly consistent with those reported elsewhere in the literature. The other two frequencies were much lower and were observed as narrow-band peaks in the spectral content of the acquired measurements that were primarily present in the region covered by the ice-induced separation bubble. The first was attributed to the shear-layer flapping phenomenon and was particularly dominant in the upstream portion of the separation bubble. The Strouhal number associated with this shear-layer flapping mode corresponded to St h = 0.0185, which was consistent with those reported in studies of separation bubbles about canonical geometries. The second frequency was lower than that of shear-layer flapping and was associated with a low-frequency mode of unsteadiness that can occur prior to static stall for airfoils of thin-airfoil stall type. This low-frequency mode was characterized by a low-frequency oscillation of the airfoil circulation, and it was clearly identified in the spectral content of the iced-airfoil lift coefficient. The resulting values of Strouhal number exhibited a dependence on the airfoil angle of attack and corresponded to a range that was consistent with the Strouhal number values reported in prior studies of the low-frequency mode in the literature. Using the method for determining the unsteady shear-layer reattachment location, the average time-dependent relationship between the reattachment location and the lift coefficient was calculated. It was discovered that at the low-frequency mode, the lift coefficient leads the shear-layer reattachment location by a phase of pi/2. This phase relationship occurred due to a feedback between the airfoil circulation and the separation bubble length. This improved understanding of the low-frequency mode in the iced-airfoil flowfield was utilized in a practical example to improve the predictive qualities of a hinge-moment-based stall prediction system. This improvement in the predictive qualities was performed by identifying the intermittent signature of the low-frequency mode in the wavelet transform of the hinge moment coeffic

Ansell, Phillip J.

374

Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of lead titanate-polyethylene oxide composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-ceramic composites with pyroelectric sensitivity are presented as promising candidates for infrared detection. Selection of the appropriate ceramic filler and the polymer matrix is one of the key parameters in the development of optimized materials for specific applications. In this work lead-titanate (PT) ceramic is incorporated into a flexible polymer matrix, polyethylene oxide (PEO) with relatively high electrical conductivity to develop sensitive and at the same time flexible composites. PT particles are dispersed in PEO at varying volume fractions, and composite materials cast in the form of films for the measurements. The dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties are measured. From these data the piezoelectric voltage coefficients as well as pyroelctric figures of merit of the composite films have been determined and values were compared with that of PT-epoxy composites in order to determine the effect of electrical conductivity of the polymer matrix on the poling efficiency and the final properties. It is found that, in general, both the piezoelectric and the pyroelectric figures of merit increase with concentration of PT; however, it is at the expense of mechanical flexibility of the material. Moreover PT-PEO composites show superior pyroelectric sensitivity compared to PT-Epoxy composites. Improving the electrical conductivity of the polymer phase enhances the poling process significantly.

Khanbareh, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

2014-11-01

375

A Method for Computing the Core Flow in Three-Dimensional Leading-Edge Vortices. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is presented for calculating the flow in the core of a separation-induced leading-edge vortex. The method is based on matching inner and outer representations of the vortex. The inner model of the vortex is based on the quasicylindrical Navier-Stokes equations; the flow is assumed to be steady, axially symmetric, and incompressible and in addition, gradients in the radial direction are assumed to be much larger then gradients in the axial direction. The outer model is based on the three-dimensional free-vortex-sheet theory, a higher-order panel method which solves the Prandtl-Glauert equation including nonlinear boundary conditions pertinent to the concentrated vorticity representation of the leading edge vortex. The resultant flow is evaluated a posteriori for evidence of incipient vortex breakdown and the critical helix angle concept, in conjunction with an adverse longitudinal pressure gradient, is found to correlate well with the occurrence of vortex breakdown at the trailing edge of delta, arrow, and diamond wings.

Luckring, J. M.

1985-01-01

376

Properties of whistler mode wave packets at the leading edge of steepened magnetosonic waves - Comet Giacobini-Zinner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical characteristics of high-frequency wave packets detected at the steepened edge of magnetosonic waves near Comet Giacobini-Zinner are explored, based on an examination of over 45 well-defined events. The results suggest that the wave packets play an important role in the reorientation and reduction in field magnitude from the steepened magnetosonic waves to the upstream ambient field. The observed properties of the wave packets are shown to be consistent with anomalously Doppler-shifted right-hand polarized waves.

Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Brinca, Armando L.; Thorne, Richard M.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

1989-01-01

377

Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.  

E-print Network

1 Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors-93 and 1998-2002) were analysed for their Pb isotopic composition. Fly ashes are more representative of solid@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________ Fly ash and flue gas residues from eight municipal solid waste combusters (MSWC) in France (1992

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Analysis of interlaminar stresses in thick composite laminates with and without edge delamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of laminate thickness on the interlaminar stresses in rectangular quasi-isotropic laminates under uniform axial strain was studied. Laminates from 8-ply to infinitely thick were analyzed. Thick laminates were synthesized by stacking (45/0/-45/90) ply groups, rather than grouping like plies. Laminates with and without delaminations were studied. In laminates without delaminations, the free-edge interlaminar normal stress distribution in the outer ply groups was insensitive to total laminate thickness. The interlaminar normal stress distribution for the interior ply groups was nearly the same as for an infinitely thick laminate. In contrast, the free-edge inter-laminar shear stress distribution was nearly the same for inner and outer ply groups and was insensitive to laminate thickness. In laminates with delaminations those delaminations near the top and bottom surfaces of a thick laminate have much larger total strain-energy-release rates (G sub t) and mode I-to-total (G sub t/G sub t) ratios than delaminations deep in the interior. Therefore, delaminations can be expected to grow more easily near the surfaces of a laminate than in the interior.

Whitcomb, J. D.; Raju, I. S.

1984-01-01

379

Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of conductive polyethylene oxide-lead titanate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-ceramic composites with pyroelectric sensitivity are presented as promising candidates for sensing applications. Selection of the appropriate ceramic filler and the polymer matrix is one of the key parameters in the development of optimized materials for specific applications. In this work lead-titanate (PT) ceramic particulate is incorporated into a polymer matrix, polyethylene oxide (PEO) with a relatively high electrical conductivity to develop sensitive and at the same time flexible composites. PT particles are dispersed in PEO at varying volume fractions, and composite materials are cast in the form of films to measure their dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. From these data the piezoelectric voltage coefficients as well as pyroelctric figures of merit of the composite films have been determined. In order to determine the effect of electrical conductivity of the polymer matrix on the poling efficiency and the final properties, a poling study has been performed. Improving the electrical conductivity of the polymer phase enhances the poling process significantly. It is found that both the piezoelectric and the pyroelectric figures of merit increase with concentration of PT. PT–PEO composites show superior pyroelectric sensitivity compared to other composites with less conductive polymer matrices.

Khanbareh, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

2015-04-01

380

[Effects of highway on the vegetation species composition along a distance gradient from road edge in southeastern margin of Tengeer Desert].  

PubMed

Aimed to examine the effects of highway on the vegetation species composition in arid desert area, forty-eight transects perpendicular to the provincial highway 201 from Shapotou to Jing-tai in the southeastern margin of Tengger Desert were installed, with the vegetation species distribution along a distance gradient from the road edge investigated. The results showed that with increasing distance from the road edge, the species number, coverage, biomass, and alpha-diversity of herbaceous plants declined, but had no significant differences with the control beyond 5 m. Within 0-6 m to the road edge, the herbaceous plant height was greater than that of the control, but their density had less change. Within 0-2 m to the road edge, the species turnover rate of herbaceous plants was lower; at 2-5m, this rate was the highest; while beyond 10 m, the species composition of herbaceous plants was similar to that of the control. The herbaceous plant community at the road edge was dominated by gramineous plants, with the disturbance-tolerant species Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Chloris virgata, and Agropyron cristatum accounting for 68.6% of the total. C. virgata beyond 1 m to the road edge had a rapid decrease in its individual number and presence frequency, P. centrasiaticum and A. cristatum beyond 2 m also showed a similar trend, while the composite plants Artemisia capillaris and A. frigida beyond 2 m from the road edge had a rapid increase in its individual number, accounting for 70% of the herbaceous plants. At the road edge, the coverage and density of shrubs were significantly lower than those of the control, but the species composition had no significant difference. PMID:21812282

Feng, Li; Li, Xin-Rong; Guo, Qun; Zhang, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Shan

2011-05-01

381

Prediction of turbulent flow and local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoils: the leading edge region  

E-print Network

The numerical method 3. 1 Partial Transformation 3. 2 The Finite-Analytic Method 3. 3 General Solution Procedure 4 Grid Generation 21 4. 1 Multi-Block or Composite Structured Grids 4. 2 Composite Overset Structured Grids: Chimera 22 22 5 Fully developed...-dimensional geometry and coordinate system 52 53 7. 3 Plenum-hole-airfoil Chimera intersection 7. 4 Plenum-hole-airfoil fully connected intersection . 55 7. 5 Normalized velocity magnitude contours on the spanwise symmetry plane for Ren = 25, 000 . 59 7. 6...

Pontaza, Juan Pablo

2013-02-22

382

Magnetoelectric behavior of Terfenol-D composite and lead zirconate titanate ceramic laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five magnetoelectric laminates of polymer-bonded Terfenol-D magnetostrictive composite (i.e., volume fractions (Vp) ranging from 0.16 to 0.48) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5H) piezoelectric ceramic were fabricated. The measured quasistatic magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (?E) increased gradually with increasing Vp and approached saturation for Vp>0.4 due to increased elastic modulus and piezomagnetic coefficient of the magnetostrictive phase. A maximum ?E of 2.7

Nersesse Nersessian; Siu Wing; G. P. Carman

2004-01-01

383

Aerodynamic Characteristics in Sideslip of a Large-Scale 49 deg Sweptback Wing-Body-Tail Configuration with Blowing Applied Over the Flaps and Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics in sideslip of a large-scale 490 sweptback wing-body-tail configuration having wing leading- edge and flap-blowing boundary-layer control. The wing and tails had an aspect ratio of 3.5, a taper ratio of 0.3, and NACA 65AO06 airfoil sections parallel to the plane of symmetry. The tests were conducted over a range of angles of attack of about -5 deg to 28 deg for sideslip angles of 0 deg, -5.06 deg, -10.15 deg, and -15.18 deg. Lateral and longitudinal stability and control characteristics were obtained for6a minimized blowing rate. The Reynolds number of the tests was 5.2 x 10(exp 6), corresponding to a Mach number of 0.08. The results of the investigation showed that sideslip to angles of about -15 deg did not require, from a consideration of the longitudinal characteristics, blowing rates over the wing leading edge or flap greater than that established as minimum at zero sideslip. The optimum configuration was laterally and directionally stable through the complete lift-coefficient range including the stall; however, maximum lift for sideslip angles greater than about 50 was seriously limited by a deficiency of lateral control. Blowing over the leading edge of the retreating wing in sideslip at a rate greater than that established as minimum at zero sideslip was ineffective in improving the lateral control characteristics. The optimum configuration at zero sideslip had no hysteresis of the aerodynamic parameters upon recovery from stall.

McLemore, H. Clyde

1958-01-01

384

Dynamic instability characteristics of laminated composite doubly curved panels subjected to partially distributed follower edge loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the study of vibration and dynamic instability characteristics of laminated composite doubly curved panels, subjected to non-uniform follower load, using finite element approach. First order shear deformation theory is used to model the doubly curved panels, considering the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. The formulation is based on the extension of dynamic, shear deformable

L. Ravi Kumar; P. K. Datta; D. L. Prabhakara

2005-01-01

385

Dynamic instability characteristics of laminated composite plates subjected to partial follower edge load with damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of vibration and dynamic instability behaviour of laminated composite plates subjected to partially distributed non-conservative follower forces is presented by using the finite element technique. The first-order shear deformation theory is used to model the plate, considering the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. The modal transformation technique is employed to the resulting equilibrium equation for subsequent

L. Ravi Kumar; P. K. Datta; D. L. Prabhakara

2003-01-01

386

Wind tunnel tests of a full-scale model of a light twin-engine airplane with fixed auxiliary airfoil or leading-edge slot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted by means of wind-tunnel tests of a full-scale mockup of a light twin-engine airplane configuration to determine the effects of outboard partial-span slots and of auxiliary airfoils ahead of the leading edge of the wing in improving aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack. Both of the stall-control devices gave considerable improvement in high angle-of-attack characteristics with the auxiliary airfoil giving the more favorable results, but neither device performed as well as might have been expected.

Fink, M. P.; Shivers, J. P.; White, L. C.

1974-01-01

387

High-attitude low-speed static aerodynamic characteristics of an F-4D fighter airplane model with leading edge slats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of two-position leading edge slats on the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a swept wing twin-jet supersonic fighter airplane model at high angle of attack and various Reynolds numbers. The investigation was performed at a Mach number of 0.20 over a range of angle of attack from 19 deg to 90 deg and angles of slideslip from -10 deg to 30 deg and Reynolds numbers from 1.97 to 13.12 million per meter.

Monfort, J. C.; Whitcomb, W. M.

1975-01-01

388

Surface-Pressure and Flow-Visualization Data at Mach Number of 1.60 for Three 65 deg Delta Wings Varying in Leading-Edge Radius and Camber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the effect of leading-edge radius, camber, Reynolds number, and boundary-layer state on the incipient separation of a delta wing at supersonic speeds was conducted at the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach number of 1.60 over a free-stream Reynolds number range of 1 x 106 to 5 x 106 ft-1. The three delta wing models examined had a 65 deg swept leading edge and varied in cross-sectional shape: a sharp wedge, a 20:1 ellipse, and a 20:1 ellipse with a -9.750 circular camber imposed across the span. The wings were tested with and without transition grit applied. Surface-pressure coefficient data and flow-visualization data indicated that by rounding the wing leading edge or cambering the wing in the spanwise direction, the onset of leading-edge separation on a delta wing can be raised to a higher angle of attack than that observed on a sharp-edged delta wing. The data also showed that the onset of leading-edge separation can be raised to a higher angle of attack by forcing boundary-layer transition to occur closer to the wing leading edge by the application of grit or the increase in free-stream Reynolds number.

McMillin, S. Naomi; Bryd, James E.; Parmar, Devendra S.; Bezos-OConnor, Gaudy M.; Forrest, Dana K.; Bowen, Susan

1996-01-01

389

Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode 3 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical and experimental investigation was carried out on G40-800/R6376 graphite epoxy laminates to evaluate the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) test as a candidate for a standard Mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness test for laminated composites. The ECT test consists of a (90/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/90))(sub s) laminate with a delamination introduced by a non-adhesive film at the mid-plane along one edge and loaded in a special fixture to create torsion along the length of the laminate. Dye penetrate enhanced X-radiograph of failed specimens revealed that the delamination initiated at the middle of the specimen length and propagated in a self similar manner along the laminate mid-plane. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed that indicated that a pure Mode 3 delamination exists at the middle of specimen length away from both ends. At the ends near the loading point a small Mode 2 component exists. However, the magnitude of this Mode 2 strain energy release rate at the loading point is small compared to the magnitude of Mode 3 component in the mid-section of the specimen. Hence, the ECT test yielded the desired Mode 3 delamination. The Mode 3 fracture toughness was obtained from a compliance calibration method and was in good agreement with the finite element results. Mode 2 End-Notched Flexure (ENF) tests and Mode 1 Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were also performed for the same composite material. The Mode 1 fracture toughness was much smaller than both the Mode 2 and Mode 3 fracture toughness. The Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to be 75% of the Mode 3 fracture toughness.

Li, Jian; Lee, Edward W.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

1996-01-01

390

Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers  

DOEpatents

Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

2014-12-16

391

Electrochemical Evaluation of Lead Base Composite Anodes Fabricated by Accumulative Roll Bonding Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulative roll bonding is used for the first time in lead systems to fabricate advanced lead base composite anodes. For this purpose, Ag as the most common and effective additive, Co as the best metallic immiscible substitution for Ag, and MnO2 as the ceramic and electrocatalytic agent have been used as additives to produce anodes. The accumulative roll bonding processed sheets have been fabricated under determined conditions. The electrochemical properties of the prepared samples are investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, Polarization tests, electrowinning tests, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results indicate that the ARB-processed composite lead sheets can be perfectly used as novel developed anodes. The advantages include 5.51 times increase of current density, in the Pb-pct0.5Ag 9-pass sample compared to pure lead anode, decreased charge transfer resistance from 56.31 (? cm2) in pure lead anode to 17.5 (? cm2) in the Pb-pct2MnO2 8-pass sample (72 pct lower), and decreased oxygen evolution potential from 1.95 (V/SHE) in pure lead anode to 1.77 (V/SHE) in the Pb-pct2MnO2 8-pass sample (0.18 (V/SHE) lower). Electrowinning tests results reveal Pb-2 pctMnO2 8-pass showed best anodic performance withsignificant lower compared corrosion rate (75 pct), product and electrolyte contamination, slime formation, energy consumption and higher Zn deposit and energy conservation (to 294 kWh/t-Zn). Finest Zn deposit morphology (effective reduced grain size corresponding to smoothness and compaction) has been supplied by Pb-2 pctMnO2 8-pass sample resulted from enhanced growth rate of Zn in lack of Pb contaminations that could act as suitable nucleation sites.

Karbasi, Maryam; Keshavarz Alamdari, Eskandar

2014-12-01

392

Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of shuttle heat pipe leading edge test modules. Volume 2: Technical report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development in the design of leading heat pipes for the space shuttle are reported. The analysis, design, and integration of the heat pipes into the module structure are described along with the recommended tests. Results indicate the design goals were meet.

1973-01-01

393

Lubricating Properties of Lead-Monoxide-Base Coatings of Various Compositions at Temperatures to 1250 F  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of ceramic coatings of different compositions containing lead monoxide (PbO) were studied to determine their relative merits as dry-film lubricants. Lead monoxide is known to be an effective solid lubricant at elevated temperatures, and this oxide was the main component in all compositions studied. Friction and wear properties were determined at temperatures from 750 to 1250 F, at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute, and at a normal load of 1 kilogram. In all of the coatings, PbO was the component primarily responsible for the lubricating properties. Oxides other than PbO had an indirect effect on lubrication by influencing such properties as adhesion, hardness, vitrifying or glaze-forming tendency, melting or softening point, and chemical stability of the coatings. Notable among these oxides were magnetite (Fe3O4.), which had generally a beneficial influence on ceramic- to-metal adhesion, and silica (SiO2), which inhibited the oxidation of PbO and enhanced the tendency for glaze formation on the sliding surfaces. Several of the compositions studied provided protection against metal-to-metal adhesive wear, galling, or seizure at test temperatures from 750 to 1250 F. Coating friction coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 at 75 F but were around 0.08 to 0.20 at temperatures of 1250 F.

Sliney, Harold E.

1959-01-01

394

Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb1-3x/2 SmxZr0.65Ti0.35O3-0.05Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P-E and M-H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field.

Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

2015-03-01

395

Analysis of a Circular Composite Disk Subjected to Edge Rotations and Hydrostatic Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural analysis results for a graphite/epoxy quasi-isotropic circular plate subjected to a forced rotation at the boundary and pressure is presented. The analysis is to support a specialized material characterization test for composite cryogenic tanks. Finite element models were used to ensure panel integrity and determine the pressure necessary to achieve a predetermined equal biaxial strain value. The displacement results due to the forced rotation at the boundary led to a detailed study of the bending stiffness matrix [D]. The variation of the bending stiffness terms as a function of angular position is presented graphically, as well as, an illustrative technique of considering the laminate as an I-beam.

Oliver, Stanley T.

2004-01-01

396

Reaction of YBa2Cu3O(7-beta) with Gold, Silver, Bismuth and Lead: Substitution Chemistry and Composite Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction of YBa2Cu3O(7-beta) with Au, Ag, Bi, and Ph ions or metal is described. Three types of materials were produced: a well-defined series of homogeneous superconductors was obtained for Au ion substitution with little effect on T(sub c); attempted Ag and Bi ion substitution resulted in multi-phase samples with slightly enhanced T(sub c); finally, attempts to produce superconducting metal/superconducting ceramic composites with Pb and Bi powders resulted in multi-phase samples with drastically diminished superconducting properties. For Au- substituted superconductors, YBa2(Cu(l-x)Au(x))3O(7-beta), a substitution series (x = 0 - 0.1) has been synthesized. For x = 0.1 there was no change in the a and b lattice parameters (a = 3.826 A and b = 3.889 A) but a 0.06 A c axis expansion to 11.75 A was observed. The valence of Cu and Au in YBa2Au(0.3)Cu(2.7)O(7-beta) was investigated using X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES). X-ray studies indicate that Au goes into the Cu(l) site and Cu K edge XANES shows that this has little effect on the oxidation state of the remaining copper. A small effect on T(sub c) is observed (T(sub c) = 89 K for x = 0.10). Ag and Bi addition results in a rise in T(sub c) and a decrease in (delta)T(sub c) at low levels (x = 0.10 Ag, T(sub c) = 94 K and (delta)T(sub c) = 0.5 K; x = 0.02 Bi, T(sub c) = 94 K and (delta)T(sub c) = 1K) relative to typical values for YBa2Cu3O(7-beta) (T(sub c) = 91 K, (delta)T(sub c) = 2 K). Attempts at fabrication of Pb- and Pb(1-x)Bi(x)-superconductor composites are described. Cold pressing followed by low temperature (200 C) sintering resulted in a composite which excluded flux below 90 K but did not show zero electrical resistance until the metal (alloy) superconducting transition. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of pervoskite and metal. Processing at moderate (450 C) or high (950 C) temperatures resulted in oxygen-depleted pervoskite and/or metal oxides. These materials displayed greatly degraded superconducting properties. Processing at 800 C resulted in high T(sub c) only for composites containing greater than 90% weight fraction ceramic. Reaction of metal with YBa2Cu3O(7-beta) formed superconducting lead/bismuth-based oxides and other binary oxides.

Hepp, Aloysius F.; Gaier, James R.

1993-01-01

397

Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. An ECT specimen is a rectangular laminate, containing an edge delamination at the laminate mid-plane. Torsion load is applied to the specimens, resulting in relative transverse shear sliding of the delaminated faces. The test data reduction schemes are intended to yield initiation values of critical mode III strain energy release rate, G(sub IIIc), that are constant with delamination length. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design as a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and specimens made from S2/8552 tape laminates. Several specimens, each with different delamination lengths are tested. Detailed, three-dimensional finite element analyses of the specimens were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode III-dominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of G(sub IIIc) exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Furthermore, there was a large amount of scatter in the data. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

Ratcliffe, James G.

2004-01-01

398

Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75-80K and 4.5K temperatures  

DOEpatents

A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K. and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizationl arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained.

Negm, Yehia (Braintree, MA); Zimmerman, George O. (South Hamilton, MA); Powers, Jr., Robert E. (East Boston, MA); McConeghy, Randy J. (Waxahachie, TX); Kaplan, Alvaro (Brookline, MA)

1994-12-27

399

Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures  

DOEpatents

A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

1994-12-27

400

Structure and composition dependence of oxygen K edge in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect

Experimental electron energy-loss spectroscopy of O K edge in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been studied in this work. The near edge fine structure of the O K edge has been interpreted with the aid of theoretical calculations in the ground-state approximation. It reveals that the features near the threshold are associated with the coordination of Ca polyhedra. Time-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy of O K edge further confirms that the selective elimination of high-order coordinated Ca by electron irradiation results in a threshold shift of the O K edge.

Jiang Nan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2006-07-01

401

Low-Speed Investigation of Upper-Surface Leading-Edge Blowing on a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

Banks, Daniel W.; Laflin, Brenda E. Gile; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.

1999-01-01

402

Effects of Horizontal-Control Planform and Wing-Leading-Edge Modification on Low-Speed Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Canard Airplane Configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation at low subsonic speeds has been conducted in the Langley 300-MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The basic wing had a trapezoidal planform, an aspect ratio of 3.0., a taper ratio of 0.143, and an unswept 80-percent-chord line. Modifications to the basic wing included deflectable full-span and partial-span leading-edge chord-extensions. A trapezoidal horizontal control similar in planform to the basic wing and a 60 deg sweptback delta horizontal control were tested in conjunction with the wing. The total planform area of each horizontal control was 16 percent of the total basic-wing area. Modifications to these horizontal controls included addition of a full-span chord-extension to the trapezoidal planform and a fence to the delta planform.

Spencer, Bernard, Jr.

1981-01-01

403

Quasi-Static 3-Point Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Bend Test and Analysis for Shuttle Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Damage Thresholds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static 3-point bend tests of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) were conducted to failure to provide data for additional validation of an LS-DYNA RCC model suitable for predicting the threshold of impact damage to shuttle orbiter wing leading edges. LS-DYNA predictions correlated well with the average RCC failure load, and were good in matching the load vs. deflection. However, correlating the detectable damage using NDE methods with the cumulative damage parameter in LS-DYNA material model 58 was not readily achievable. The difficulty of finding internal RCC damage with NDE and the high sensitivity of the mat58 damage parameter to the load near failure made the task very challenging. In addition, damage mechanisms for RCC due to dynamic impact of debris such as foam and ice and damage mechanisms due to a static loading were, as expected, not equivalent.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Sotiris, Kellas

2006-01-01

404

Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: Carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids' distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400??C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ???3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 142:520-542, 2002). It may represent the melting products of a fertile domain in the ambient upper mantle impinged upon and perturbed by the sustained plume source that feeds later shield-stage magmatism. ?? US Government 2009.

Sisson, T.W.; Kimura, J.-I.; Coombs, M.L.

2009-01-01

405

Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and S2/8552 tape laminates. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode IIIdominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of GIIIc exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

Ratcliffe, James G.

2004-01-01

406

Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.

1973-01-01

407

The design of a functionally graded composite for service in high temperature lead and lead-bismuth cooled nuclear reactors  

E-print Network

A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700°C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required ...

Short, Michael Philip

2010-01-01

408

Magnetoelectric interactions in hot-pressed nickel zinc ferrite and lead zirconante titanate composites  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis by hot pressing and wide-band (10 Hz-1 MHz) magnetoelectric (ME) characterization of bulk composites of nickel zinc ferrite Ni{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) (x=0-0.5) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are reported. Hot-pressed samples show an order of magnitude improvement in ME voltage coefficient compared to sintered samples. Frequency dependence of ME coefficients show a three order of magnitude enhancement at electromechanical resonance. The ME coupling is maximum for samples with equal volume of ferrite and PZT. The strongest ME interactions are measured for samples of NZFO (x=0.2) and PZT.

Srinivasan, G.; DeVreugd, C.P.; Flattery, C.S.; Laletsin, V.M.; Paddubnaya, N. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Minnesota 48309 (United States); Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 210717 Vitebsk (Belarus)

2004-09-27

409

Study of BNKLBT-1.5 lead-free ceramic/epoxy 1-3 composites  

SciTech Connect

Bismuth sodium titanate based lead-free ceramic fiber with the chemical formula of 0.885(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.05(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.015(Bi{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.5}= )TiO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3}, BNKLBT-1.5, has been fabricated by a powder-based extrusion method. The ceramic fibers with 400 {mu}m diameter were well crystallized after being calcined at 800 deg. C and sintered at 1170 deg. C. The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the single fiber were found to be 155 pC/N and {approx}34.5 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which is comparable with that in bulk sample. 1-3 ceramic/polymer composites were fabricated by two routes, including dice and filled method and fiber pick-and-place method. Theoretical models were used to calculate the piezoelectric properties of the composites and compared with experimental results.

Choy, S. H.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. K.; Lam, K. H.; Chan, H. L. W. [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Centre, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-12-01

410

Microstructure Characterization Of Lead-Free Solders Depending On Alloy Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue and crack nucleation in solder joints is basically associated with changes in the microstructure. Therefore the microstructure evolution of SnAgCu solder joints during solidification and subsequent application is an important subject for reliability investigations and physics of failure analysis. The scope of this study is a systematic overview of the as-cast microstructures in small sized lead-free SnAgCu solder spheres after solidification. A total of 32 alloy compositions have been investigated with varying Ag content from 0 to 5 wt.% and varying Cu content from 0 to 1.2 wt.%. The solder spheres had a diameter of approx. 270 ?m and were all manufactured under the similar conditions. Subsequent cross-sectioning was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure by optical and electron microscopy as well as Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The results allow a comprehensive overview of the dependence of the as-cast microstructure on the solder composition. It is shown that strong changes in microstructure can be caused by small changes in solder composition. In addition, a solidification phenomenon known as cyclic twinning has been found in the samples. Three different microstructures related to that phenomenon will be presented and detailed characterizations of these structures are given in this study. These microstructures differ in their appearance by solidification morphology, phase distribution as well as grain structure and can be described as follows: 1. large dentritic areas of different grain orientations which are characterized by approx. 60° twin boundaries; 2. areas of small ?-Sn cells with approx. 60° twin relation and larger intermetallic precipitates; 3. large grains consisting of a ?-Sn matrix with very fine intermetallic precipitates and high angle grain boundaries between adjacent grains.

Panchenko, Iuliana; Mueller, Maik; Wolter, Klaus-Juergen

2010-11-01

411

Effect of lead on lipid peroxidation, phospholipids composition, and methylation in erythrocyte of human.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metals on earth considered as number one environmental persistent toxin and health hazard affecting millions of people in all age groups. After entering bloodstream, 99% of Pb is accumulated in erythrocytes and causes poisoning. Toxic Pb effects on erythrocytes membrane's composition of phosphatidyl serine (PS), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl choline (PC), and sphingomyelin (SM), and phospholipids transmethylation were determined. Lipid peroxidation in Pb-exposed erythrocytes was evaluated as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in presence of Fe and vitamin E to understand severity of Pb toxicity and its mitigation. Pb (0.5-5.0 ?M) degraded PS (12 to 31%, P < 0.05-0.001) and elevated SM (19-51%, P < 0.05-0.001). Composition of PC and PE were diminished (22%) and elevated (29%), respectively, with higher Pb exposure (5.0 ?M, P < 0.001). Pb toxicity suppressed (P < 0.001) transmethylation of phospholipids in membranes (34, 41, and 50%, respectively, with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 ?M). Pb-induced dose-related MDA production (P < 0.05-0.001) in erythrocytes was obtained, which was accentuated in presence of Fe (P < 0.05-0.001). The vitamin E mitigated (P < 0.05-0.01) the severity of Pb-induced lipid peroxidation. The ratio PS/SM showed maximum change of -27 (P < 0.01), -30 (P < 0.01), and -54% (P < 0.001), respectively at 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 ?M Pb exposures. Ratios PC/SM and PS/PE were at the second, whereas PE/PS at the third order. The study suggests that the mechanisms underlying distortion of compositional phospholipids, inhibition of transmethylation, and exasperated phospholipid peroxidative damage are the active phenomena of Pb toxicity in erythrocytes. PMID:23846836

Shafiq-ur-Rehman

2013-09-01

412

Nonlinear absorption of laser radiation by zinc and lead phthalocyanines and zinc porphyrin in a nanoporous-glass/polymer composite  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the nonlinear absorption of nanosecond 532-nm laser pulses by zinc phthalocyanine (PcZn), lead phthalocyanine (PcPb) and zinc porphyrin (PrZn) incorporated into a nanoporous-glass/polymer composite and determined the basic nonlinear absorption characteristics of these compounds in the composite host. The composite is shown to be suitable for designing nonlinear optical elements activated with organic compounds. The correlation between the characteristics of the three compounds in the composite host and liquid solvents is analysed.

Dolotov, S M; Koldunov, L M; Koldunov, M F; Petukhov, A V; Sizyukhin, A V

2012-01-31

413

Leading Edge Integrating Biological Redesign  

E-print Network

biofuel production from photosynthetic systems to address the problems of global warming and energy selfWyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 3Howard Hughes Medical Institute

414

Leading Edge In This Issue  

E-print Network

, excess calories are converted to fatty acids (lipogenesis). During this process, tran-dependent activation of lipogenesis. Scaffolds Get In On the Catalytic Act PAGE 1085 Scaffold proteins are thought the catalytic constant (kcat) of Ste7-mediated phosphorylation. The dual requirement for Ste7 and the Ste5

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

415

Leading Edge In This Issue  

E-print Network

receptors (VEGFRIs). Also, aPlGF treatment does not switch on an angiogenic rescue program and safety of aPlGF suggest that aPlGF may provide a new approach for cancer treatment. Surface Proteins Go of insulin sensitivity and resistance to metabolic disease. Immune Evasion, Malaria Style PAGE 492 It has

Rohs, Remo

416

Leading Edge Behind the Movement  

E-print Network

. ``Nothing is more revealing than movement.''--Martha Graham As the Mars rover Curiosity begins its unmanned exploration of the surface of the Red Planet, Earth-bound scientists debate whether alien life can be recog

Economou, Tassos

417

Leading Edge Network Medicine Strikes  

E-print Network

behavior of cells during tumor develop- ment. However, signaling networks are highly complex, involving or attractors in cancer cells and to utilize these to prevent disease progression. Such understanding holds of Cell, Lee et al. (2012) from Mike Yaffe's team at MIT harness the immense power of systems biology

418

Lithospheric structure at the leading edge of the North American craton: Imaging the Shield-Cordillera transition in western Canada by teleseismic Rayleigh-wave analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonics of southwestern Canada is characterized by a transition from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogen to the Archean-Proterozoic craton, making this region an excellent natural laboratory to study episodic growth of continents. Here, we explore regional lithospheric structure using fundamental Rayleigh waves recorded by broadband seismometers from CNSN and various temporary networks (ATSN, CRANE, USArray) from 2006 to the present. Using a two-station cross-correlation technique, we extract phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 s to more than 200 s. Phase velocities for the region west of the deformation front are significantly lower than those of the region to the east, especially at periods of 30-200 s, reflecting strong lateral variations in lithosphere structure due to thermal and compositional differences. Our analysis is particularly focused on characterizing the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) across the transition, and identifying small-scale convection associated with the edge of the craton. Detailed 3-D lithospheric structural models developed in the near feature will shed more new lights on the transition from backarc to craton lithosphere and their geodynamical interactions.

Bao, X.; Eaton, D. W.

2013-12-01

419

Thermo-Active Behavior of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate | Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composites Examined by in Situ near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

NEXAFS spectroscopy was used to investigate the temperature dependence of thermally active ethylene-vinyl acetate | multiwall carbon nanotube (EVA|MWCNT) films. The data shows systematic variations of intensities with increasing temperature. Molecular orbital assignment of interplaying intensities identified the 1s ? ?*C=C and 1s ? ?*C=O transitions as the main actors during temperature variation. Furthermore, enhanced near-edge interplay was observed in prestrained composites. Because macroscopic observations confirmed enhanced thermal-mechanical actuation in prestrained composites, our findings suggest that the interplay of C=C and C=O ? orbitals may be instrumental to actuation. PMID:24803975

2015-01-01

420

Simulation of router action on a lathe to test the cutting tool performance in edge-trimming of graphite/epoxy composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predominant machining application with graphite/epoxy composite materials in aerospace industry is peripheral trimming. The computer numerically controlled (CNC) high speed routers required to do edge trimming work are generally scheduled for production work in industry and are not available for extensive cutter testing. Therefore, an experimental method of simulating the conditions of periphery trim using a lathe is developed in this paper. The validity of the test technique will be demonstrated by conducting carbide tool wear tests under dry cutting conditions. The experimental results will be analyzed to characterize the wear behavior of carbide cutting tools in machining the composite materials.

Ramulu, M.; Rogers, E.

1994-04-01