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Sample records for compositionally simple lipopolysaccharide

  1. A Sensitive and simple macrophage-based electrochemical biosensor for evaluating lipopolysaccharide cytotoxicity of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Zhu, Pei; Pi, Fuwei; Jiang, Hui; Shao, Jingdong; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-07-15

    In this study, a sensitive and simple electrochemical murine macrophage (Ana-1) cell sensor has been developed for early detection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to evaluate the toxicity of pathogenic bacteria. Magnetic glassy carbon electrode (MGCE), which possesses excellent reproducibility and regeneration qualities, was modified with a nanocomposite to improve electrochemical signals and enhance the sensitivity. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were internalized into murine macrophages, which completed the immobilization of macrophages onto the modified electrode for evaluating the cytotoxicity of LPS by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The MNPs facilitated reusability of the proposed sensor by allowing removal of the magnetic core from the electrode. Our results indicated that LPS caused a marked decrease in electrochemical impedance in a dose-dependent manner in range of 1-5μg/mL. By SEM, we found that microvilli on the plasma membrane became scarce and the membrane became smooth on cells incubated with LPS, which lessens the absorption of cells to reduce the impedance. And biological assay indicated that EIS patterns were correlated with the calcium concentration in cells, and suggested that [Ca(2+)]i production increased in cells incubated with LPS and its mobilization altered electrochemical signals. Compared with conventional methods, this electrochemical test is inexpensive, highly sensitive, and has a quick response, and thus provides a new avenue for evaluating the cytotoxicity of pathogens. PMID:26991601

  2. Chemical composition of lipopolysaccharides isolated from various endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Herbaspirillum.

    PubMed

    Serrato, R V; Sassaki, G L; Cruz, L M; Carlson, R W; Muszyński, A; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Iacomini, M

    2010-04-01

    Bacteria from the genus Herbaspirillum are endophytes responsible for nitrogen fixation in gramineous plants of economic importance such as maize, sugarcane, sorghum, rice, and wheat. Some species are known to produce plant growth substances. In contrast, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strains are known to be mild plant pathogens. The molecular communication between the plant and the microbes might involve lipopolysaccharides present in the outer membrane of these gram-negative bacteria. Phenol-water extraction was used to obtain lipopolysaccharides from 7 strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae (SmR1, Z67, Z78, ZA95, and M2) and H. rubrisubalbicans (M1 and M4). The electrophoretic profiles and chemical composition of the lipopolysaccharides obtained in the phenol and aqueous extracts were shown herein. PMID:20453901

  3. A simple model for examining composition effects in eutectic nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Jiang, Feng; Liaw, Peter K

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple thermodynamic calculation for a strongly partitioning eutectic system, to examine how the critical nucleus energy changes, depending upon assumptions of the chemical diffusion. The calculations show that for strongly partitioning systems, the maximum undercooling may occur at a composition significantly different than the eutectic composition, particularly if the rate of diffusion is slow in the undercooled state. These simple calculations emphasize the role that partitioning and composition may play in determining optimal compositions in metallic glass systems, which typically occur near (but not at) deep eutectic compositions.

  4. Prediction of composite hygral behavior made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A convenient procedure is described to determine the hygral behavior (moisture expansion coefficients and moisture stresses) of angleplied fiber composites using a pocket calculator. The procedure consists of equations and appropriate graphs for various (+ or - theta) ply combinations. These graphs present reduced stiffness and moisture expansion coefficients as functions of (+ or - theta) in order to simplify and expedite the use of the equations. The procedure is applicable to all types of balanced, symmetric fiber composites including interply and intraply hybrids. The versatility and generality of the procedure is illustrated using several step-by-step numerical examples.

  5. Prediction of composite thermal behavior made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient procedure is described to determine the thermal behavior (thermal expansion coefficients and thermal stresses) of angleplied fiber composites using a pocket calculator. The procedure consists of equations and appropriate graphs for various ( + or - theta) ply combinations. These graphs present reduced stiffness and thermal expansion coefficients as functions of (+ or - theta) in order to simplify and expedite the use of the equations. The procedure is applicable to all types of balanced, symmetric fiber composites including interply and intraply hybrids. The versatility and generality of the procedure is illustrated using several step-by-step numerical examples.

  6. Prediction of composite hygral behavior made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A convenient procedure is described to determine the hygral behavior (moisture expansion coefficients and moisture stresses) of angleplied fiber composites using a pocket calculator. The procedure consists of equations and appropriate graphs for various (+ or - theta) ply combinations. These graphs present reduced stiffness and moisture expansion coefficients as functions of (+ or - theta) in order to simplify and expedite the use of the equations. The procedure is applicable to all types of balanced, symmetric fiber composites including interply and intraply hybrids. The versatility and generality of the procedure is illustrated using several step-by-step numerical examples. Previously announced in STAR as N82-16181

  7. Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.

  8. Simple Elasticity Modeling and Failure Prediction for Composite Flexbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makeev, Andrew; Armanios, Erian; OBrien, T. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simple 2D boundary element analysis, suitable for developing cost effective models for tapered composite laminates, is presented. Constant stress and displacement elements are used. Closed-form fundamental solutions are derived. Numerical results are provided for several configurations to illustrate the accuracy of the model.

  9. Simple stressed-skin composites using paper reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the composite reinforcement concept in a hands-on manner, using readily available materials; to demonstrate the consequences of certain defects in these structures; and to quantify the gains made by engineering composite construction, using a simple measurement of Young's modulus of electricity. The materials used were foam rubber beams, beams reinforced on one side by bonding with heavy paper, a beam reinforced on both sides by bonding with heavy paper, and a beam with a defect caused by using a piece of waxed paper midway to prevent bonding of the paper. The experiment is designed to teach students at the high school level or above the concept of Young's modulus, a measure of a material's stiffness. 2 figs. (BM)

  10. Influence of bovine temperament, transportation, and lipopolysaccharide challenge on ultrasound body composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of bovine temperament on ultrasound body composition traits in response to transportation and endotoxin challenge. Brahman bulls (10 months of age) were selected based on temperament score which was an average of exit velocity (EV; objective measure...

  11. Simple torsion test for shear moduli determination of orthotropic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumsion, H. T.; Rajapakse, Y. D. S.

    1978-01-01

    By means of torsion tests performed on test specimens of the same material having a minimum of two different cross sections (flat sheet of different widths), the effective in-plane (G13) and out-of-plane (G23) shear moduli were determined for two composite materials of uniaxial and angleply fiber orientations. Test specimens were 16 plies (nominal 2 mm) thick, 100 mm in length, and in widths of 6.3, 9.5, 12.5, and 15.8 mm. Torsion tests were run under controlled deflection (constant angle of twist) using an electrohydraulic servocontrolled test system. In-plane and out-of-plane shear moduli were calculated from an equation derived in the theory of elasticity which relates applied torque, the torsional angle of twist, the specimen width/thickness ratio, and the ratio of the two shear moduli G13/G23. Results demonstrate that torsional shear moduli, G23 as well as G13, can be determined by simple torsion tests of flat specimens of rectangular cross section. Neither the uniaxial nor angleply composite material were transversely isotropic.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Raetz, Christian R. H.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Summary Since lipopolysaccharide endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria were last reviewed in this series in 1990, much has been learned about the assembly and signaling functions of these remarkable glycoconjugates. Lipopolysaccharides typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a non-repeating “core” oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). The flood of recent genomic data has made it possible to study lipopolysaccharide assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and to create mutants or hybrid constructs with novel properties. Unexpectedly, key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have also been found in higher plants, indicating that eucaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. The carbohydrate diversity of lipopolysaccharides is better appreciated now than ten years ago, but much remains to be learned about function. Sequence comparisons suggest that extensive lateral transfer of genes for the assembly of O-antigens has occurred among bacteria. The most significant finding in the field of endotoxin biology since 1990 has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. The latter belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors, all of which possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking the inflammatory side effects of sepsis. Future progress will require insights into lipopolysaccharide-protein recognition at the atomic level, greater understanding of intra- and inter-cellular lipopolysaccharide trafficking, and incisive biological approaches that combine the tools of bacterial and animal genetics. PMID:12045108

  13. Simple torsion test for shear moduli determination of orthotropic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumsion, H. T.; Rajapakse, Y. D. S.

    1978-01-01

    The shear moduli G13 and G23 for two different composites (AS/3501 and T300/5209) of uniaxial and cross-ply fiber orientations were determined by torsion testing of flat specimens of rectangular cross section. Torsion tests were run under controlled angle of twist in an electro-hydraulic servo-controlled test system. Both laser and potentiometer methods of measuring the angle of twist were used. The in-plane shear modulus was calculated with a formula for transversally isotropic materials and a formula for orthotropic materials, while the out-of-plane shear modulus was calculated from the orthotropic material formula. Neither the uniaxial nor the angle-ply composite materials studied were transversely isotropic. The degree of anisotropy for the angle-ply materials was several times greater than that of the uniaxial composites. For specimens of uniaxial fiber orientation, the in-plane shear moduli could be calculated to a good approximation by using the isotropic formula and test machine deflection data.

  14. Prediction of fiber composite mechanical behavior made simple. [using a rocket calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The elastic properties and failure stresses of angleplied fiber composite laminates were determined using a pocket calculator. The procedure uses simple equations and appropriate graphs of elastic properties versus angle plies, and can handle all types of fiber composites including hybrids. The versatility and generality of the method is illustrated in several step-by-step numerical examples.

  15. Statistical optimization of medium composition and culture condition for the production of recombinant anti-lipopolysaccharide factor of Eriocheir sinensis in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Lei

    2011-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are important antimicrobial peptides that are isolated from some aquatic species. In a previous study, we isolated ALF genes from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we optimized the production of a recombinant ALF by expressing E. sinensis ALF genes in Escherichia coli maintained in shake-flasks. In particular, we focused on optimization of both the medium composition and the culture condition. Various medium components were analyzed by the Plackett-Burman design, and two significant screened factors, (NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4, were further optimized via the central composite design (CCD). Based on the CCD analysis, we investigated the induction start-up time, the isopropylthio-D-galactoside (IPTG) concentration, the post-induction time, and the temperature by response surface methodology. We found that the highest level of ALF fusion protein was achieved in the medium containing 1.89 g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 3.18 g/L KH2PO4, with a cell optical density of 0.8 at 600 nm before induction, an IPTG concentration of 0.5 mmol/L, a post-induction temperature of 32.7°C, and a post-induction time of 4 h. Applying the whole optimization strategy using all optimal factors improved the target protein content from 6.1% (without optimization) to 13.2%. We further applied the optimized medium and conditions in high cell density cultivation, and determined that the soluble target protein constituted 10.5% of the total protein. Our identification of the economic medium composition, optimal culture conditions, and details of the fermentation process should facilitate the potential application of ALF for further research.

  16. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when usedmore » in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.« less

  17. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.

  18. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes. PMID:26015293

  19. Design and construction of a tensile tester for the testing of simple composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borst, Mark A.; Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1994-01-01

    The following is a design for a tensile tester which will be used to test the tensile strength and anisotropic properties of simple composites. These simple composites are suspected to be anisotropic primarily in a single plane. When the composites undergo a tensile force, they will undergo deformation, causing movement either to the left or right. The composites are suspect due to their method of construction. Each sample has a single layer of unidirectional continuous fibers embedded in a rubbery resin. It has been well established that a serious limitation of unidirectional fiber composites is the very large in-plane anisotropy. The design presented here incorporates a single degree of freedom such that distortion (to the left or right) due to anisotropic tendencies may be measured. The device will spend the vast majority of its time in an undergraduate materials lab. As a result, ease of use and durability are valued more highly than research grade accuracy. Additional concerns focus on the fact that this machine will be built as a student project. Issues which are dealt with during this design include: specimen configuration or shape; a method of applying consistent, linear tension force; a method of gripping specimen without affecting its overall properties; a method of collecting data; repeatability of data; ease of use; ease of construction; and cost. After the device has been constructed, it will be used to test the simple composites which were fabricated in house. A comparison will be made between composites manufactured using aluminum screening as the strengthening fibers and those manufactured using fiberglass screening.

  20. The flushing of Ligeia: Composition variations across Titan's seas in a simple hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2014-08-01

    We use a simple box model to explore possible differences in the liquid composition of Titan's seas. Major variations in the abundance of involatile ethane, somewhat analogous to salinity in terrestrial waters, arise from the hydrological cycle, which introduces more "fresh" methane rainfall at the highest latitudes in summer. The observed composition of Ligeia Mare, flushed by methane rainfall and exporting its solutes to Kraken via a narrow labyrinth of channels, may have a methane-rich (>~80%) composition, well out of thermodynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, whereas the basins of Kraken are relatively well mixed and will have an ethane-dominated (~60%) composition. These variations, analogous to Earth's salinity gradient between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, may be detectable with Cassini measurements and are important for future exploration.

  1. The Flushing of Ligeia: Composition variations in a simple hydrological model of Titan's Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    I use a simple box model to explore possible differences in the liquid composition of Titan’s seas. Major variations in the abundance of involatile ethane, somewhat analogous to salinity in terrestrial waters, arise from the hydrological cycle, which introduces more “fresh” methane rainfall at the highest latitudes in summer. The observed composition of Ligeia Mare, flushed by methane rainfall and exporting its solutes to Kraken via a narrow labyrinth of channels, may have a methane-rich (>80%)composition, well out of thermodynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, whereas the basins of Kraken are relatively well mixed and will have an ethane-dominated (60%)composition. These variations, analogous to Earth’s salinity gradient between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, may be detectable with Cassini measurements and are important for future exploration.

  2. a Simple Method to Prepare Nanoporous Sn:Pb Composite Metal Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandi, Majid; Amirhoseiny, Maryam; Mosayyebi, Abolghasem

    2015-03-01

    A novel and simple approach for preparing nanoporous binder free Sn:Pb composite metal foam has been demonstrated. The anodized metallic composite block was functionalized and also found a nanoporous structure. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result shows that the nanoflake-like arrangement has synthesized. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the nanoporous structure of the Sn/Pb foam after etching with 6 M NaOH. The prepared Sn:Pb metal foam is able to be used as a super capacitors electrode to offer large areal capacitance with regards to the synergic integration of Sn and Pb metals and the unique nanoporous structure.

  3. Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Ryo; Murase, Kenya; Takata, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type) hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments. PMID:23629669

  4. [Characterization of Budvicia aquatica lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Varbanets', L D; Brovars'ka, O S; Pokhil, S Y

    2011-01-01

    For the first time lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of 6 Budvicia aquatica strains--representatives of new Enterobacteriaceae species have been isolated. It was shown that the yield of LPS ranged from 0.9 to 7.0 % of cells dry weight. On the basis of monosaccharide composition LPS of tested strains may be referred to 3 groups. The serological studies indicated the immunochemical heterogeneity of B. aquatica species: LPS interacted only in homological system and showed no cross-reactivity with heterological antisera. PMID:21809684

  5. The Flushing of Ligeia : Composition Variations Across Titan's Seas in a Simple Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    I use a simple box model to explore possible differences in the liquid composition of Titan's seas. Major variations in the abundance of involatile ethane, somewhat analogous to salinity in terrestrial waters, arise from the hydrological cycle, which introduces more "fresh" methane rainfall at the highest latitudes in summer and keeps the system 'off balance'. Comparing the precipitation and evaporation fluxes with likely tidal mixing fluxes, I find the composition of Ligeia Mare to be substantially flushed by methane rainfall which causes it to export its solutes to Kraken via a narrow labyrinth of channels. Ligeia therefore may have a methane-rich (~80%) composition, well out of thermodynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, whereas the basins of Kraken are relatively well-mixed and will be ethane-dominated (~60%). These composition variations, analogous to Earth's salinity gradient between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (or the Baltic and the North Sea) may be detectable with Cassini measurements and are important for future exploration. Comparing the depth of Ligeia measured at 160m with the annual rainfall predicted by Global Circulation Models of about 10m at the highest latitudes, and assuming a modest catchment area, suggests that Ligeia Mare should undergo only modest seasonal changes in composition, assuming surface 'waters' are mixed into the depths.

  6. Post-buckling and Large Amplitude Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams: Simple Intuitive Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, Jagadish Babu; Venkateswara Rao, Gundabathula

    2016-04-01

    Post-buckling and large amplitude free vibration analysis of composite beams with axially immovable ends is investigated in the present study using a simple intuitive formulation. Geometric nonlinearity of Von-Karman type is considered in the analysis which accounts for mid-plane stretching action of the beam. Intuitive formulation uses only two parameters: the critical bifurcation point and the axial stretching force developed due to membrane stretching action of the beam. Hinged-hinged, clamped-clamped and clamped-hinged boundary conditions are considered. Numerical accuracy of the proposed analytical closed-form solutions obtained from the intuitive formulation are compared to available finite element solutions for symmetric and asymmetric layup schemes of laminated composite beam which indicates the confidence gained on the present formulation.

  7. Simple method for high-performance stretchable composite conductors with entrapped air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Dae-Gon; Jang, Nam-Su; Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-12-01

    We integrate air bubbles into conductive elastic composite-based stretchable conductors to make them mechanically less stiff and electrically more robust against physical deformations. A surfactant facilitates both the formation and maintenance of air bubbles inside the elastic composites, leading to a simple fabrication of bubble-entrapped stretchable conductors. Based on the unique bubble-entrapped architecture, the elastic properties are greatly enhanced and the resistance change in response to tensile strains can clearly be controlled. The bubble-entrapped conductor achieves ~80 % elongation at ~3.4 times lower stress and ~44.8 % smaller change in the electrical resistance at 80 % tensile strain, compared to bare conductor without air bubbles. PMID:26754940

  8. Lipopolysaccharide recognition, CD14, and lipopolysaccharide receptors.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, R R; Heine, H; Lien, E; Yoshimura, A; Golenbock, D

    1999-06-01

    The ability of a host to sense invasion by a pathogenic organism, and to respond appropriately to control infection, is paramount to survival. To that end, an array of receptors and binding proteins has evolved as part of the innate immune system to detect Gram-negative bacteria. This article reviews the role of CD14, other LPS binding proteins, and the Toll family of receptors in the innate recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. PMID:10340170

  9. Compression-based distance (CBD): a simple, rapid, and accurate method for microbiota composition comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal tract-related diseases. The alleviation of symptoms has been achieved using treatments that alter the gastrointestinal tract microbiota toward that of healthy individuals. Identifying differences in microbiota composition through the use of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable tag sequencing has profound health implications. Current computational methods for comparing microbial communities are usually based on multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, making them time consuming and requiring exceptional expertise and computational resources. As sequencing data rapidly grows in size, simpler analysis methods are needed to meet the growing computational burdens of microbiota comparisons. Thus, we have developed a simple, rapid, and accurate method, independent of multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, to support microbiota comparisons. Results We create a metric, called compression-based distance (CBD) for quantifying the degree of similarity between microbial communities. CBD uses the repetitive nature of hypervariable tag datasets and well-established compression algorithms to approximate the total information shared between two datasets. Three published microbiota datasets were used as test cases for CBD as an applicable tool. Our study revealed that CBD recaptured 100% of the statistically significant conclusions reported in the previous studies, while achieving a decrease in computational time required when compared to similar tools without expert user intervention. Conclusion CBD provides a simple, rapid, and accurate method for assessing distances between gastrointestinal tract microbiota 16S hypervariable tag datasets. PMID:23617892

  10. Quick and simple estimation of bacteria using a fluorescent paracetamol dimer-Au nanoparticle composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2012-02-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination is critical for safeguarding public health and the environment. Herein, we report an easy method of detection as well as enumeration of the bacterial cell number on the basis of fluorescence quenching of a non-antibacterial fluorescent nanocomposite, consisting of paracetamol dimer (PD) and Au nanoparticles (NPs), in the presence of bacteria. The composite was synthesized by reaction of paracetamol (p-hydroxyacetanilide) with HAuCl4. The Au NPs of the composite were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction analysis. The paracetamol dimer in the composite showed emission peak at 435 nm when excited at 320 nm. The method successfully detected six bacterial strains with a sensitivity of 100 CFU mL-1. The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria quenched the fluorescence of the composite differently, making it possible to distinguish between the two. The TEM analysis showed interaction of the composite with bacteria without any apparent damage to the bacteria. The chi-square test established the accuracy of the method. Quick, non-specific and highly sensitive detection of bacteria over a broad range of logarithmic dilutions within a short span of time demonstrates the potential of this method as an alternative to conventional methods.Rapid, simple and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination is critical for safeguarding public health and the environment. Herein, we report an easy method of detection as well as enumeration of the bacterial cell number on the basis of fluorescence quenching of a non-antibacterial fluorescent nanocomposite, consisting of paracetamol dimer (PD) and Au nanoparticles (NPs), in the presence of bacteria. The composite was synthesized by reaction of paracetamol (p-hydroxyacetanilide) with HAuCl4. The Au NPs of the composite were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy

  11. Use of the Simple Infiltrated Microstructure Polarization Loss Estimation (SIMPLE) model to describe the performance of nano-composite solid oxide fuel cell cathodes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Jason D; Wang, Lin; Call, Ann V; Barnett, Scott A

    2012-11-28

    Nano-composite Sm(0.5)Sr(0.5)CoO(3-δ) (SSC)-Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) (GDC) and La(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) (LSCF)-GDC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) cathodes with various infiltrate loading levels were prepared through multiple nitrate solution infiltrations into porous GDC ionic conducting (IC) scaffolds. Microstructural analyses indicated that the average SSC and average LSCF hemispherical particle radii remained roughly constant, at 25 nm, across multiple infiltration-gelation-firing sequences. Comparisons between symmetric cell polarization resistance measurements and Simple Infiltrated Microstructure Polarization Loss Estimation (SIMPLE) model predictions showed that the SIMPLE model was able to predict the performance of heavily infiltrated SSC-GDC and LSCF-GDC cathodes with accuracies better than 55% and 70%, respectively (without the use of fitting parameters). Poor electronic conduction between mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) infiltrate particles was found in lightly infiltrated cathodes. Since these electronic conduction losses were not accounted for by the SIMPLE model, larger discrepancies between the SIMPLE-model-predicted and measured polarization resistances were observed for lightly infiltrated cathodes. This work demonstrates that the SIMPLE model can be used to quickly determine the lowest possible polarization resistance of a variety of infiltrated MIEC on IC nano-composite cathodes (NCC's) when the NCC microstructure and an experimentally-applicable set of intrinsic MIEC oxygen surface resistances and IC bulk oxygen conductivities are known. Currently, this model is the only one capable of predicting the polarization resistance of heavily infiltrated MIEC on IC NCC's as a function of temperature, cathode thickness, nano-particle size, porosity, and composition. PMID:23060257

  12. A simple higher order shear deformation theory for mechanical behavior of laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adim, Belkacem; Daouadji, Tahar Hassaine; Rabahi, Aberezak

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the static, buckling, and free vibration of laminated composite plates is examined using a refined shear deformation theory and developed for a bending analysis of orthotropic laminated composite plates. These models take into account the parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses and satisfy the condition of zero shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates. The most interesting feature of this theory is that it allows for parabolic distributions of transverse shear stresses across the plate thickness and satisfies the conditions of zero shear stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The number of independent unknowns in the present theory is four, as against five in other shear deformation theories. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained through the use of Hamilton's principle. The accuracy of the analysis presented is demonstrated by comparing the results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static, the buckling, and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.

  13. A simple higher order shear deformation theory for mechanical behavior of laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adim, Belkacem; Daouadji, Tahar Hassaine; Rabahi, Aberezak

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the static, buckling, and free vibration of laminated composite plates is examined using a refined shear deformation theory and developed for a bending analysis of orthotropic laminated composite plates. These models take into account the parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses and satisfy the condition of zero shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates. The most interesting feature of this theory is that it allows for parabolic distributions of transverse shear stresses across the plate thickness and satisfies the conditions of zero shear stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The number of independent unknowns in the present theory is four, as against five in other shear deformation theories. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained through the use of Hamilton's principle. The accuracy of the analysis presented is demonstrated by comparing the results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static, the buckling, and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.

  14. A Simple Buckling Analysis Method for Airframe Composite Stiffened Panel by Finite Strip Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, Yoshitsugu

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have been used in structural components for newly developed aircraft and spacecraft. The main structures of an airframe, such as the fuselage and wings, are essentially composed of stiffened panels. Therefore, in the structural design of airframes, it is important to evaluate the buckling strength of the composite stiffened panels. Widely used finite element method (FEM) can analyzed any stiffened panel shape with various boundary conditions. However, in the early phase of airframe development, many studies are required in structural design prior to carrying out detail drawing. In this phase, performing structural analysis using only FEM may not be very efficient. This paper describes a simple buckling analysis method for composite stiffened panels, which is based on finite strip method. This method can deal with isotropic and anisotropic laminated plates and shells with several boundary conditions. The accuracy of this method was verified by comparing it with theoretical analysis and FEM analysis (NASTRAN). It has been observed that the buckling coefficients calculated via the present method are in agreement with results found by detail analysis methods. Consequently, this method is designed to be an effective calculation tool for the buckling analysis in the early phases of airframe design.

  15. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:23185319

  16. A geometrically nonlinear shell element for hygrothermorheologically simple linear viscoelastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERAND,DANIEL C.; KAPANIA,RAKESH K.

    2000-05-01

    A triangular flat shell element for large deformation analysis of linear viscoelastic laminated composites is presented. Hygrothermorheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Recurrence relations are developed and implemented for the evaluation of the viscoelastic memory loads. The nonlinear deformation process is computed using an incremental/iterative approach with the Newton-Raphson Method used to find the incremental displacements in each step. The presented numerical examples consider the large deformation and stability of linear viscoelastic structures under deformation-independent mechanical loads, deformation-dependent pressure loads, and thermal loads. Unlike elastic structures that have a single critical load value associated with a given snapping of buckling instability phenomenon, viscoelastic structures will usually exhibit a particular instability for a range of applied loads over a range of critical times. Both creep buckling and snap-through examples are presented here. In some cases, viscoelastic results are also obtained using the quasielastic method in which load-history effects are ignored, and time-varying viscoelastic properties are simply used in a series of elastic problems. The presented numerical examples demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the formulation.

  17. A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Simon J.; Bradley, Robert J.; Purssell, Christopher P.; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes (‘rapid prototyping’) before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term ‘carbomorph’ and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:23185319

  18. A Simple Zn2+ Complex-Based Composite System for Efficient Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Yanjie; Meng, Xianggao; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Liu, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Metal complexes might become a new type of promising gene delivery systems because of their low cytotoxicity, structural diversity, controllable aqua- and lipo-solubility, and appropriate density and distribution of positive charges. In this study, Zn2+ complexes (1-10) formed with a series of ligands contained benzimidazole(bzim)were prepared and characterized. They were observed to have different affinities for DNA, dependent on their numbers of positive charges, bzim groups, and coordination structures around Zn2+. The binding induced DNA to condensate into spherical nanoparticles with ~ 50 nm in diameter. The cell transfection efficiency of the DNA nanoparticles was poor, although they were low toxic. The sequential addition of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) TAT(48-60) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) resulted in the large DNA condensates (~ 100 nm in diameter) and the increased cellular uptake. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis was found to be a key cellular uptake pathway of the nanoparticles formed with or without TAT(48-60) or/and PEG. The DNA nanoparticles with TAT(48-60) and PEG was found to have the cell transfection efficiency up to 20% of the commercial carrier Lipofect. These results indicated that a simple Zn2+-bzim complex-based composite system can be developed for efficient and low toxic gene delivery through the combination with PEG and CPPs such as TAT. PMID:27433798

  19. A Simple Zn2+ Complex-Based Composite System for Efficient Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Yanjie; Meng, Xianggao; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Liu, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Metal complexes might become a new type of promising gene delivery systems because of their low cytotoxicity, structural diversity, controllable aqua- and lipo-solubility, and appropriate density and distribution of positive charges. In this study, Zn2+ complexes (1–10) formed with a series of ligands contained benzimidazole(bzim)were prepared and characterized. They were observed to have different affinities for DNA, dependent on their numbers of positive charges, bzim groups, and coordination structures around Zn2+. The binding induced DNA to condensate into spherical nanoparticles with ~ 50 nm in diameter. The cell transfection efficiency of the DNA nanoparticles was poor, although they were low toxic. The sequential addition of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) TAT(48–60) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) resulted in the large DNA condensates (~ 100 nm in diameter) and the increased cellular uptake. The clathrin-mediated endocytosis was found to be a key cellular uptake pathway of the nanoparticles formed with or without TAT(48–60) or/and PEG. The DNA nanoparticles with TAT(48–60) and PEG was found to have the cell transfection efficiency up to 20% of the commercial carrier Lipofect. These results indicated that a simple Zn2+-bzim complex-based composite system can be developed for efficient and low toxic gene delivery through the combination with PEG and CPPs such as TAT. PMID:27433798

  20. Effects of a simple or a complex starter microbiota on intestinal microbiota composition in caesarean derived piglets.

    PubMed

    Jansman, A J M; Zhang, J; Koopmans, S J; Dekker, R A; Smidt, H

    2012-12-01

    The present study was designed to develop a model in piglets that allows the investigation of the effects of postnatal association with a simple or a complex microbiota on gut health and development. Thirty piglets from 2 sows were obtained by caesarean delivery (day 0) and were equally divided over 2 treatment groups housed in separate clean, nonsterile rooms. All piglets received orally a simple microbiota consisting of Lactobacillus amylovorus, Clostridium glycolicum, and Parabacteroides spp. on days 1, 2, and 3 after birth. On day 3 and 4 the piglets received either a complex microbiota by providing them with a fecal inoculant of an adult sow [complex association (CA)] or a placebo inoculant [simple association (SA)]. Fecal microbiota composition, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by pig intestinal tract chip (PITChip) analysis of 16S rRNA genes (days 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28), was less diverse in the SA group compared to the CA group. A difference in fecal microbiota composition between treatments persisted until the end of the study. It was concluded that the composition of microbiota in feces of cesarean delivery-derived piglets is influenced by bacterial association in the first days after birth. Differences in fecal microbiota composition between piglets exposed to a simple or complex inoculum at early age persisted for at least 3 wk. PMID:23365401

  1. Simple and mass-produced mechanochemical preparation of graphene nanosheet/polyaniline composite assisted with bifunctional ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiangjun; Dou, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Graphene nanosheet/polyaniline (GNS/PANI) composite was prepared by a simple and mass-produced mechanochemical method, where the functionalized ionic liquid 1-(3-sulfonic acid) propyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate conducts as not only the dispersant of GNS but also the dopant of PANI. The GNS/PANI composite characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectra, UV-Vis spectra and X-ray diffraction shows that the resulting PANI in composite is in its doped, conductive emeraldine oxidation state. Scanning electron microscope images reveal that the GNS/PANI composite with PANI uniformly coated on the surface of GNS is randomly stacking. Compared with pure PANI, the GNS/PANI composite has higher electrical conductivity, better thermal stability and electrochemical activity due to the presence of GNS.

  2. N-Acetylneuraminic acid: a constituent of the lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella toucra.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, B

    1978-11-15

    The composition of lipopolysaccharide and polysaccharides isolated after acidic or alkaline degradation of lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella toucra has been investigated. The following analytical methods were used in this study: gel-filtration and ion-exchange techniques, paper and gas-liquid chromatography as well as spectrophotometric analysis. The products of the lipopolysaccharide degradation were fractionated on the Sephadex G-25 and Sephadex G-50 columns. Lipopolysaccharide and products of its degradation besides glucosamine, galactose, glucose, heptose(s) and 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate described as 'basal' sugars, also contained N-acetylneuraminic acid and an unidentified amino sugar. PMID:729582

  3. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations. PMID:26250427

  4. Simple Formulas and Results for Buckling-Resistance and Stiffness Design of Compression-Loaded Laminated-Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Simple formulas for the buckling stress of homogeneous, specially orthotropic, laminated-composite cylinders are presented. The formulas are obtained by using nondimensional parameters and equations that facilitate general validation, and are validated against the exact solution for a wide range of cylinder geometries and laminate constructions. Results are presented that establish the ranges of the nondimensional parameters and coefficients used. General results, given in terms of the nondimensional parameters, are presented that encompass a wide range of geometries and laminate constructions. These general results also illustrate a wide spectrum of behavioral trends. Design-oriented results are also presented that provide a simple, clear indication of laminate composition on critical stress, critical strain, and axial stiffness. An example is provided to demonstrate the application of these results to thin-walled column designs.

  5. [Characterization of Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Brovarskaya, O S; Bulygina, T N; Garkavaya, E G; Zhitkevich, N V

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from seven Pantoea agglomerans strains isolated from various plants were purified and chemically identified. LPS of the studied P. agglomerans strains were heterogeneous in monosaccharide composition. Thus, the LPS of P. agglomerans 8606 differed considerably from the LPSs of other strains, containing mannose as the predominant monosaccharide (69.8%), as well as ribose (15.1%) and xylose (12.6%), while the content of rhamnose, one of the predominant monosaccharides in other LPS samples, was 2.5%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed the presence of C12-C16 acids. In lipids A of all the studied strains, 3-OH-C14:0 was the predominant acid (31.7 to 39.1%, depending on the strain). C12:0 (8.2 to 31.5%), C14:0 (12.9 to 30.8%), and C16:0 acids (3.4 to 16.9%) were also revealed. The studied P. agglomerans strains fell into three groups according to their fatty acid composition. The differences stemmed from the presence or absence of two fatty acids, 2-OH-C14:0 and C16:1. Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion in agar revealed that all the LPS under study exhibited antigenic activity in homologous systems. The results of serological cross reactions indicated immunochemical heterogeneity of the species P. agglomerans. Comparative investigation of the complex of parameters of peripheral blood cells from a healthy donor before and after treatment with LPS solutions showed that the values of no parameters exceeded the normal range. PMID:25941715

  6. Current composite-feature classification methods do not outperform simple single-genes classifiers in breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, Christine; Cadot, Sidney; Györffy, Balázs; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Klau, Gunnar W.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating gene expression data with secondary data such as pathway or protein-protein interaction data has been proposed as a promising approach for improved outcome prediction of cancer patients. Methods employing this approach usually aggregate the expression of genes into new composite features, while the secondary data guide this aggregation. Previous studies were limited to few data sets with a small number of patients. Moreover, each study used different data and evaluation procedures. This makes it difficult to objectively assess the gain in classification performance. Here we introduce the Amsterdam Classification Evaluation Suite (ACES). ACES is a Python package to objectively evaluate classification and feature-selection methods and contains methods for pooling and normalizing Affymetrix microarrays from different studies. It is simple to use and therefore facilitates the comparison of new approaches to best-in-class approaches. In addition to the methods described in our earlier study (Staiger et al., 2012), we have included two prominent prognostic gene signatures specific for breast cancer outcome, one more composite feature selection method and two network-based gene ranking methods. Employing the evaluation pipeline we show that current composite-feature classification methods do not outperform simple single-genes classifiers in predicting outcome in breast cancer. Furthermore, we find that also the stability of features across different data sets is not higher for composite features. Most stunningly, we observe that prediction performances are not affected when extracting features from randomized PPI networks. PMID:24391662

  7. Simple, scalable, and economical preparation of sulfur-PAN composite cathodes for Li/S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konarov, Aishuak; Gosselink, Denise; Doan, The Nam Long; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Chen, P.

    2014-08-01

    The preparation of a sulfur/dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile (S/DPAN) composite by manual mixing followed by heat treatment at 300 °C in argon atmosphere is described. Electron microscopy analysis reveals very different morphology before and after heat treatment of the composites. Manually mixed S/DPAN cathode composites containing 48 wt% of sulfur exhibit a stable discharge capacity of 1050 mAh g-1 after 80 galvanostatic discharge-charge cycles at 0.2C, and good C-rate performance with up to 770 mAh g-1 at 1C. Results indicate that the long chains of polyacrylonitrile are retained during synthesis and may contribute to the enhanced electronic conductivity of the composite.

  8. Microcrystalline-cellulose and polypropylene based composite: A simple, selective and effective material for microwavable packaging.

    PubMed

    Ummartyotin, S; Pechyen, C

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose based composite was successfully designed as active packaging with additional feature of microwavable properties. Small amount of cellulose with 10 μm in diameter was integrated into polypropylene matrix. The use of maleic anhydride was employed as coupling agent. Thermal and mechanical properties of cellulose based composite were superior depending on polypropylene matrix. Crystallization temperature and compressive strength were estimated to be 130 °C and 5.5 MPa. The crystal formation and its percentage were therefore estimated to be 50% and it can be predicted on the feasibility of microwavable packaging. Morphological properties of cellulose based composite presented the good distribution and excellent uniformity. It was remarkable to note that cellulose derived from cotton can be prepared as composite with polypropylene matrix. It can be used as packaging for microwave application. PMID:26917383

  9. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations. PMID:26965479

  10. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations.

  11. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations. PMID:26965479

  12. Lipopolysaccharide rolls out the barrel

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Two crystal structures of the LptD–LptE protein complex reveal how the cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide is delivered and inserted into the external leaflet of the bacterial outer membrane. PMID:24990738

  13. A simple model for characterizing non-uniform fibre-based composites and networks.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Avik P

    2011-04-20

    A mean-field model is presented that describes non-uniformities in the spatial distribution of fibres in networks and composites in terms of fluctuations in the local composition. The mean pore radius, specific surface area, lineal path function, and chord length probability density are expressed as functions of the fibre volume fraction within a heuristic formalism. The impact of statistical heterogeneities in the fibre distribution upon the elastic moduli is assessed within the semi-empirical Reuss-Voigt-Hill averaging scheme. Results from illustrative calculations suggest that such macroscopically averaged material properties are particularly sensitive to variations in the mean pore radius. PMID:21436504

  14. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm−1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m−1 K−2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat. PMID:26728992

  15. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm-1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m-1 K-2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  16. Simple parametric model for intensity calibration of Cassini composite infrared spectrometer data.

    PubMed

    Brasunas, J; Mamoutkine, A; Gorius, N

    2016-06-10

    Accurate intensity calibration of a linear Fourier-transform spectrometer typically requires the unknown science target and the two calibration targets to be acquired under identical conditions. We present a simple model suitable for vector calibration that enables accurate calibration via adjustments of measured spectral amplitudes and phases when these three targets are recorded at different detector or optics temperatures. Our model makes calibration more accurate both by minimizing biases due to changing instrument temperatures that are always present at some level and by decreasing estimate variance through incorporating larger averages of science and calibration interferogram scans. PMID:27409028

  17. A simple optical index shows spatial and temporal heterogeneity in phytoplankton community composition during the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinić, I.; Perry, M. J.; D'Asaro, E.; Briggs, N.; Poulton, N.; Sieracki, M. E.; Lee, C. M.

    2015-04-01

    The ratio of two in situ optical measurements - chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl F) and optical particulate backscattering (bbp) - varied with changes in phytoplankton community composition during the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment in the Iceland Basin in 2008. Using ship-based measurements of Chl F, bbp, chlorophyll a (Chl), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigments, phytoplankton composition and carbon biomass, we found that oscillations in the ratio varied with changes in plankton community composition; hence we refer to Chl F/bbp as an "optical community index". The index varied by more than a factor of 2, with low values associated with pico- and nanophytoplankton and high values associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton communities. Observed changes in the optical index were driven by taxa-specific chlorophyll-to-autotrophic carbon ratios and by physiological changes in Chl F associated with the silica limitation. A Lagrangian mixed-layer float and four Seagliders, operating continuously for 2 months, made similar measurements of the optical community index and followed the evolution and later demise of the diatom spring bloom. Temporal changes in optical community index and, by implication, the transition in community composition from diatom to post-diatom bloom communities were not simultaneous over the spatial domain surveyed by the ship, float and gliders. The ratio of simple optical properties measured from autonomous platforms, when carefully validated, provides a unique tool for studying phytoplankton patchiness on extended temporal scales and ecologically relevant spatial scales and should offer new insights into the processes regulating patchiness.

  18. Simple solutions of the free-edge effects in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, W.

    1993-01-01

    Intense and localized interlaminar stresses generally occur in a narrow boundary region near the free edge of a multilayered anisotropic laminate under mechanical and temperature loads. Quantitative measures of interlaminar action across interfaces may be readily obtained, through purely algebraic operations, even if nonlinear and inelastic material behavior becomes significant in the boundary region due to severe strain concentration. These measures are the limiting values of the Lekhnitskii stress functions F and psi (and of the normal derivative of F) along interfaces and toward the interior region of the laminate. In the present work, they are used as the basis of an exceedingly simple and efficient method of interlaminar stress analysis that is potentially applicable to free-edge problems involving nonlinear thermoelastic constitutive relations. 11 refs.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Engineering in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Elder; Hamstra, Hendrik-Jan; Meiring, Hugo; van der Ley, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic pathway offers the potential to obtain modified derivatives with optimized adjuvant properties. Neisseria meningitidis strain H44/76 was modified by expression of the pagL gene encoding lipid A 3-O-deacylase from Bordetella bronchiseptica and by inactivation of the lgtB gene encoding the terminal oligosaccharide galactosyltransferase. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified mutant LPS was used for detailed compositional analysis of all present molecular species. This determined that the modified LPS was mainly pentaacylated, demonstrating high efficiency of conversion from the hexaacyl to the 3-O-deacylated form by heterologous lipid A 3-O-deacylase (PagL) expression. MS analyses also provided evidence for expression of only one major oligosaccharide glycoform, which lacked the terminal galactose residue as expected from inactivation of the lgtB gene. The immunomodulatory properties of PagL-deacylated LPS were compared with another pentaacyl form obtained from an lpxL1− mutant, which lacks the 2′ secondary acyl chain. Although both LPS mutants displayed impaired capacity to induce production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6, induction of the Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β-dependent chemokine interferon-γ-induced protein 10 was largely retained only for the lgtB−/pagL+ mutant. Removal of remaining hexaacyl species exclusively present in lgtB−/pagL+ LPS demonstrated that these minor species potentiate but do not determine the activity of this LPS. These results are the first to indicate a qualitatively different response of human innate cells to pentaacyl lpxL1− and pagL+ LPS and show the importance of detailed structure-function analysis when working with modified lipid A structures. The pagL+ LPS has significant potential as immune modulator in humans. PMID:24492609

  20. Enhanced osteogenic activity of a poly(butylene succinate)/calcium phosphate composite by simple alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Arphavasin, Suphakit; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Ngamviriyavong, Patcharee; Janvikul, Wanida; Meesap, Preeyapan; Patntirapong, Somying

    2013-10-01

    Bone engineering offers the prospect of alternative therapies for clinically relevant skeletal defects. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polyester which may possess some limitations in clinical use due to its hydrophobicity. In order to overcome these limitations and increase the bioactivity, a simple and convenient surface hydrolysis of PBSu, PBSu/hydroxyapatite and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) films was performed. The resulting surfaces (i.e., HPBSu, HPBSu/HA and HPBSu/TCP) were tested for their physicochemical property, biocompatibility and osteogenic potency. The results showed that surface hydrolysis significantly increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the composites, with the HPBSu/TCP possessing the most pronounced results. All the materials appeared to be biocompatible and supported in vitro growth and osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs, and the alkaline hydrolysis significantly enhanced the hMSC cell proliferation and the osteogenic potency of PBSu/TCP compared with the non-hydrolyzed sample. In conclusion, the HPBSu/TCP possessed better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and osteogenic potency in vitro, suggesting that this simple and convenient alkaline hydrolysis could be used to augment the biological property of PBSu-based composites for bone engineering in vivo. PMID:24057872

  1. A Simple Technique for Creating Regional Composites of Sea Surface Temperature from MODIS for Use in Operational Mesoscale NWP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knievel, Jason C.; Rife, Daran L.; Grim, Joseph A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hacker, Joshua P.; Ge, Ming; Fisher, Henry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for creating regional, high-resolution, daytime and nighttime composites of sea surface temperature (SST) for use in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). The composites are based on observations from NASA s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua and Terra. The data used typically are available nearly in real time, are applicable anywhere on the globe, and are capable of roughly representing the diurnal cycle in SST. The composites resolution is much higher than that of many other standard SST products used for operational NWP, including the low- and high-resolution Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses. The difference in resolution is key because several studies have shown that highly resolved SSTs are important for driving the air sea interactions that shape patterns of static stability, vertical and horizontal wind shear, and divergence in the planetary boundary layer. The MODIS-based composites are compared to in situ observations from buoys and other platforms operated by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) off the coasts of New England, the mid-Atlantic, and Florida. Mean differences, mean absolute differences, and root-mean-square differences between the composites and the NDBC observations are all within tenths of a degree of those calculated between RTG analyses and the NDBC observations. This is true whether or not one accounts for the mean offset between the skin temperatures of the MODIS dataset and the bulk temperatures of the NDBC observations and RTG analyses. Near the coast, the MODIS-based composites tend to agree more with NDBC observations than do the RTG analyses. The opposite is true away from the coast. All of these differences in point-wise comparisons among the SST datasets are small compared to the 61.08C accuracy of the NDBC SST sensors. Because skin-temperature variations from land to water so strongly affect the development and life cycle of the sea breeze, this

  2. [Comparative characterisation of lipopolysaccharides of Rahnella aquatills].

    PubMed

    Skokliuk, L B; Varbanets', L D; Pokhyl, S I

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of eight strains of R. aquatilis isolated from different sources have been studied. The studies of neutral monosaccharide composition evidence that all of LPS contain galactose (13.4-68.5%), glucose (5.7-29.8%) and heptose (2.6-8.3%) (depending on strains). Some monosaccharides, such as ribose (95U007), rhamnose (95U011, 95U012, 96U036), fucose (95U003, 95U004, 95U007) and mannose (95U012, 96U035, 96U036, 96U037) were absent in LPS. Arabinose was present in two strains--95U003 and 95U007. On the basis of monosaccharide composition all investigated LPS can be divided into six groups. It was shown by double immunodiffusion in agar that all R. aquatilis LPS displayed antigenic activity in homological systems. The results of serological cross reactions indicate the immunochemical heterogeneity of R. aquatilis species. PMID:20455427

  3. Simple solutions of the free-edge stresses in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wan-Lee )

    1994-01-01

    Intense and localized interlaminar stresses generally occur in a narrow boundary region near the free edge of a multilayered anisotropic laminate under mechanical and temperature loads. Quantitative measures of interlaminar action across interfaces may be readily obtained through purely algebraic operations, even if nonlinear and inelastic material behavior becomes significant in the boundary region due to severe strain concentration. These measures are the limiting values of the Lekhnitskii stress functions F and Psi (and of the normal derivative of F) along interfaces and toward the interior region of the laminate. In the present work, they are used as the basis of an exceedingly simple and efficient method of interlaminar stress analysis that is potentially applicable to free-edge problems involving nonlinear thermoelastic constitutive relations. Example solutions are obtained for symmetric, four-layer, cross-ply, and angle-ply laminates under a temperature load and two different types of strain loads, and the results are found to be in reasonable agreement with the existing numerical and analytical solutions based on elaborate analysis methods. 13 refs.

  4. A simple composite protective layer coating that enhances the cycling stability of lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hongkyung; Lee, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun-Jung; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-06-01

    Metallic lithium is the most promising negative electrode for high-energy rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high specific capacity and its extremely low redox potential. However, the low cycle efficiency and lithium dendrite formation during the charge/discharge processes consistently hinder its practical application. In this report, we present a stabilized Li electrode on which a Li+ ion conductive inorganic/organic composite protective layer (CPL) is coated. With the introduction of the CPL, the Li dendrite growth and electrolyte decomposition are effectively suppressed; consequently, stable Li plating/stripping at high current densities up to 10 mA cm-2 is possible. Nanoindentation tests demonstrate that the shear modulus of the CPL at narrow indentations is 1.8 times higher than that of the Li metal, which provides a theoretical understanding for its efficacy. Moreover, the LiCoO2/Li cell incorporating CPL exhibits excellent cycling stability up to 400 cycles at 1 mA cm-2 (1 C-rate), which demonstrates practical applicability in Li ion batteries through replacing the graphite anode with a CPL-coated Li metal anode.

  5. Simple Anthropometrics Are More Correlated with Health Variables than Are Estimates of Body Composition in Yup’ik People

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Maria; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Knowler, William C.; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett; Brage, Søren; Stanhope, Kimber; Havel, Peter J.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to: 1) evaluate the relationships between several indices of obesity with obesity-related risk factors; 2) compare the accuracy of body composition estimates derived from anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) to estimates of body composition assessed by doubly-labeled water (DLW); and 3) establish equations for estimating fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percent body fat (PBF) in Yup’ik Eskimo people. Participants included 1056 adult Yup’ik People from 11 communities in Southwestern Alaska. In a substudy of 30 participants, we developed population-specific linear regression models for estimating FM, FFM, and PBF from anthropometrics, age, sex, and BIA against criterion measures derived from total body water assessed with DLW. These models were then used with the population cohort and we analyzed the relationships between obesity indices and several health-related and disease status variables: 1. fasting plasma lipids, 2. glucose, 3. HbA1c, 4. adiponectin, 5. blood pressure, 6) diabetes (DM), and 7) cerebrocoronary vascular disease (CCVD) which includes stroke and heart disease. The best model for estimating FM in the substudy used only three variables – sex, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference and had multiple R2=0.9730. FFM and PBF were calculated from FM and body weight. WC and other anthropometrics were more highly correlated with a number of obesity-related risk factors than were direct estimates of body composition. We conclude that body composition in Yup’ik People can be accurately estimated from simple anthropometrics. PMID:23666898

  6. Conception axiomatique des joints hybrides a recouvrement simple en materiaux composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, Marc

    Minimizing weight is a primary objective in every system design in the aerospace and automotive industry. Therefore, the use of composite materials has become an integral part of the design of mechanical components. However, in composite structure design, their complexity normally makes it impossible to design them as a single part. This leads to the necessity of using joints. Sadly, these joints introduce discontinuities in the stress distribution within the components and are often the sites of stress concentration. Therefore, they may limit the performance of a structure, in addition to increasing the overall mass significantly due to the use of mechanical fasteners such as bolts and rivets. This is why bonded joints are increasingly popular. They are much lighter than bolted or riveted joints and are often more rigid. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to inspect a bonded joint for defects since the presence of cracks in the adhesive cannot be observed with the naked eye. The main objective of this work is to propose a new design methodology for hybrid joints. To accomplish this, it is necessary to establish reliable analysis tools to improve our understanding of the behavior of these joints when subjected to an external force. A better understanding of the interactions between the parameters is also required. To improve our knowledge on the subject, a literature review was conducted. This review was structured as to emphasize on the behavior of hybrid single lap joints when subjected to an external force in tension. Following this literature review, an analysis of the stress distribution within the joint was carried out using a finite element model. The model and the results were compared with those from two papers in order to validate the quality of representation. Subsequently, a modification was made to an existing analytical model in order to add the bolts' preload as a parameter. These two models, namely the finite element model and the analytical model

  7. Injectable Chitin-Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Nanohydroxyapatite Composite Microgels Prepared by Simple Regeneration Technique for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, R; Sivashanmugam, A; Deepthi, S; Iseki, Sachiko; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-05-13

    Injectable gel systems, for the purpose of bone defect reconstruction, have many advantages, such as controlled flowability, adaptability to the defect site, and increased handling properties when compared to the conventionally used autologous graft, scaffolds, hydroxyapatite blocks, etc. In this work, nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) incorporated chitin-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based injectable composite microgels has been developed by a simple regeneration technique for bone defect repair. The prepared microgel systems were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composite microgel, with the incorporation of nHAp, showed an increased elastic modulus and thermal stability and had shear-thinning behavior proving the injectability of the system. The protein adsorption, cytocompatibility, and migration of rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) were also studied. Chitin-PCL-nHAp microgel elicited an early osteogenic differentiation compared to control gel. The immunofluorescence studies confirmed the elevated expression of osteogenic-specific markers such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin in chitin-PCL-nHAp microgels. Thus, chitin-PCL-nHAp microgel could be a promising injectable system for regeneration of bone defects which are, even in deeper planes, irregularly shaped and complex in nature. PMID:25893690

  8. A Simple Test to Determine the Effectiveness of Different Braze Compositions for Joining Ti-Tubes to C/C Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah; Asthana, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    A simple tube-plate joint tensile test was implemented to compare the effectiveness of commercial brazes, namely, TiCuNi, TiCuSil, and Cu-ABA, used for bonding Ti-tubes joined to C-C composite plates. The different braze systems yielded different; yet, repeatable results. The Cu-ABA system proved to have about twice the load-carrying ability of the other two systems due to the fact that the bonded area between the braze material and the C-C plate was largest for this system. The orientation of the surface fiber tows also had a significant effect on load-carrying ability with tows oriented perpendicular to the tube axis displaying the highest failure loads. Increasing the process load and modifying the surface of the C-C plate by grooving out channels for the Ti-Tube to nest in resulted in increased load-carrying ability for the TiCuSil and Cu-ABA systems due to increased bonded area and better penetration of the braze material into the C-C composite.

  9. Characterization of five typical agave plants used to produce mezcal through their simple lipid composition analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan Fco; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2009-03-11

    Five agave plants typically used in Mexico for making mezcal in places included in the Denomination of Origin (Mexican federal law that establishes the territory within which mezcal can be produced) of this spirit were analyzed: Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina, A. salmiana var. salmiana, Agave angustifolia, Agave cupreata, and Agave karwinskii. Fatty acid and total simple lipid profiles of the mature heads of each plant were determined by means of a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction and gas chromatography. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, from capric to lignoceric, ranging from 0.40 to 459 microg/g of agave. Identified lipids include free fatty acids, beta-sitosterol, and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, their total concentration ranging from 459 to 992 microg/g of agave. Multivariate analyses performed on the fatty acid profiles showed a close similarity between A. cupreata and A. angustifolia. This fact can be ascribed to the taxa themselves or differences in growing conditions, an issue that is still to be explored. These results help to characterize the agaves chemically and can serve to relate the composition of mezcals from various states of Mexico with the corresponding raw material. PMID:19216532

  10. [Characterization of the lipopolysaccharides of serogroup II Azospirillum].

    PubMed

    Sigida, E N; Fedonenko, Iu P; Zdorovenko, É L; Butygin, G L; Konnova, S A; Ignatov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides of six Azospirillum strains (A. brasilense SR50, SR80, SR88, SR109, SR111, SR115, and A. lipoferum SR 42) isolated from the rhizosphere of cereal plants of Saratov oblast, Russia and assigned to serogroup II by serological analysis were studied. In the lipid A fatty acid composition, the lipopolysaccharides under study were similar to those of other Azospirillum strains and were characterized by predominance of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, and octadecenoic acids. Monosaccharide analysis of the O-specific polysaccharides (including determination of the absolute configurations, methylation analysis, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy) revealed the presence of two types of repeating units in varying ratios. High degree of serological similarity between the strains under study was shown to result from the presence of repeating units with identical structure in their O antigens. PMID:25844452

  11. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  12. Facile synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide composite via simple solvothermal route and their photocatalytic activity on methylene blue degradation.

    PubMed

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Karthikeyan, Dhanapalan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide (ZnO@GO) composite was synthesized by simple solvothermal method where zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized via simple thermal oxidation and Hummers method, respectively. The obtained materials were thoroughly characterized by various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectrum shows the intensity of D to G value was close to one which confirms the obtained GO and ZnO@GO composite possesses moderate graphitization. TEM images shows the ZnO nanoparticles mean size of 15±5nm were dispersed over the wrinkled graphene layers. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO@GO composite on degradation of methylene blue (MB) is investigated and the results show that the GO plays an important role in the enhancement of photocatalytic performance. The synthesized ZnO@GO composite achieves a maximum degradation efficiency of 98.5% in a neutral solution under UV-light irradiation for 15min as compared with pure ZnO (degradation efficiency is 49% after 60min of irradiation) due to the increased light absorption, the reduced charge recombination with the introduction of GO. Moreover, the resulting ZnO@GO composite possesses excellent degradation efficiency as compared to ZnO nanoparticles alone on MB. PMID:27459420

  13. Spontaneous release of lipopolysaccharide by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cadieux, J E; Kuzio, J; Milazzo, F H; Kropinski, A M

    1983-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO grown in glucose mineral salts medium released lipopolysaccharide which was chemically and immunologically similar to the cellular lipopolysaccharide. In addition, it possessed identical phage E79-inactivating properties. Through neutralization of phage activity and hemolysis inhibition assays, the organism was found to liberate lipopolysaccharide at a constant rate during log-phase growth equivalent to 1.3 to 2.2 ng/10(8) cells over a growth temperature range of 25 to 42 degrees C. At 19 degrees C, a lipopolysaccharide was released which was deficient in phage-inactivating activity but retained its immunological properties. Chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide extracted from cells grown at 19 degrees C showed a deficiency in the O-side-chain component fucosamine. Gel exclusion chromatography of the polysaccharide fraction derived from lipopolysaccharide isolated from cells grown at 19 degrees C exhibited a decreased content of side-chain polysaccharide as well as a difference in the hexosamine:hexose ratio. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis confirmed these results as well as establishing that an essentially normal distribution of side-chain repeating unit lengths were to be found in the 19 degrees C preparation. These results suggest a decrease in the frequency of capping R-form lipopolysaccharide at 19 degrees C. Images PMID:6409883

  14. Performance Considerations for the SIMPL Single Photon, Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter as Applied to Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Harding, David J.; Valett, Susan R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Yu, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a multi-beam, micropulse airborne laser altimeter that acquires active and passive polarimetric optical remote sensing measurements at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. SIMPL was developed to demonstrate advanced measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved, more efficient spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL data have been acquired for wide diversity of forest types in the summers of 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the potential of its novel capabilities for characterization of vegetation structure and composition. On each of its four beams SIMPL provides highly-resolved measurements of forest canopy structure by detecting single-photons with 15 cm ranging precision using a narrow-beam system operating at a laser repetition rate of 11 kHz. Associated with that ranging data SIMPL provides eight amplitude parameters per beam unlike the single amplitude provided by typical laser altimeters. Those eight parameters are received energy that is parallel and perpendicular to that of the plane-polarized transmit pulse at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near IR), for both the active laser backscatter retro-reflectance and the passive solar bi-directional reflectance. This poster presentation will cover the instrument architecture and highlight the performance of the SIMPL instrument with examples taken from measurements for several sites with distinct canopy structures and compositions. Specific performance areas such as probability of detection, after pulsing, and dead time, will be highlighted and addressed, along with examples of their impact on the measurements and how they limit the ability to accurately model and recover the canopy properties. To assess the sensitivity of SIMPL's measurements to canopy properties an instrument model has been implemented in the FLIGHT radiative transfer code, based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport. SIMPL data collected in 2010 over

  15. Simple fabrication of carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes showing dual functions with adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji Hyuk; Yang, Seung Jae; Yun, Chang Hun; Park, Chong Rae

    2012-01-27

    Carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were fabricated via a very simple electrospinning process and their dual functionalities of adsorptivity and photocatalytic activity were evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model organic pollutant. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution was directly electrospun into a coagulation bath containing titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution so that PVA-core/TiO2-shell composite nanofibers were formed through the in situ sol-gel reaction of TTIP. The carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were then fabricated by heat treatment of composite nanofibers under nitrogen atmosphere. By using several characterization methods, we confirmed that the resultant nanotubes consisted of anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. The prepared nanotubes exhibited fast adsorption of RhB with high capacity compared with a commercial porous carbon, and they also showed the photocatalytic decomposition activity for the dye molecules under UV irradiation comparable to the degradation by P-25 and ST-01 (commercial TiO2). Finally, the carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes exhibited several cycle performances of adsorption-photodegradation for RhB. This indicates that the composite nanotubes can adsorb and photodecompose organic pollutants repeatedly without additional activating processes. PMID:22172680

  16. Simple fabrication of carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes showing dual functions with adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ji Hyuk; Yang, Seung Jae; Yun, Chang Hun; Park, Chong Rae

    2012-01-01

    Carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were fabricated via a very simple electrospinning process and their dual functionalities of adsorptivity and photocatalytic activity were evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model organic pollutant. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution was directly electrospun into a coagulation bath containing titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution so that PVA-core/TiO2-shell composite nanofibers were formed through the in situ sol-gel reaction of TTIP. The carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes were then fabricated by heat treatment of composite nanofibers under nitrogen atmosphere. By using several characterization methods, we confirmed that the resultant nanotubes consisted of anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. The prepared nanotubes exhibited fast adsorption of RhB with high capacity compared with a commercial porous carbon, and they also showed the photocatalytic decomposition activity for the dye molecules under UV irradiation comparable to the degradation by P-25 and ST-01 (commercial TiO2). Finally, the carbon/TiO2 composite nanotubes exhibited several cycle performances of adsorption-photodegradation for RhB. This indicates that the composite nanotubes can adsorb and photodecompose organic pollutants repeatedly without additional activating processes.

  17. Physical properties of defined lipopolysaccharide salts

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.T.; Haug, A.; McGroarty, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    The electron spin resonance probes 5-doxylstearate and 4-(dodecyldimethylammonia)-1-oxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine bromide were used to characterize the fluidity of the acyl chain and head-group regions, respectively, of defined salts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli K12. The removal of the weakly bound divalent cations from native LPS by electrodialysis and their replacement by sodium had little effect on the midpoint of the lipid-phase transition or on head-group mobility. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide acyl chain mobility increased following electrodialysis. The replacement of most of the remaining cations with sodium resulted in a further dramatic increase in mobility in both the polar and nonpolar regions of lipopolysaccharide. Head-group mobility of the sodium salt of LPS was shown to be reduced with the addition of divalent cations. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that low magnesium concentrations may induce phase separations in the sodium salt. The magnesium salt of lipopolysaccharide closely resembled the native form in both head-group and acyl chain mobility although the cation charge to phosphorus ratio in the magnesium salt was greater than that detected in the native isolate. Analyses of other lipopolysaccharide salts support our hypothesis that many of the observed differences in the physical and pathological properties of lipopolysaccharide salts may simply be explained by the degree of charge neutralization.

  18. Physical properties of defined lipopolysaccharide salts.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, R T; Haug, A; McGroarty, E J

    1983-04-12

    The electron spin resonance probes 5-doxylstearate and 4-(dodecyldimethylammonio)-1-oxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine bromide were used to characterize the fluidity of the acyl chain and head-group regions, respectively, of defined salts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli K12. The removal of the weakly bound divalent cations from native LPS by electrodialysis and their replacement by sodium had little effect on the midpoint of the lipid-phase transition or on head-group mobility. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide acyl chain mobility increased following electrodialysis. The replacement of most of the remaining cations with sodium resulted in a further dramatic increase in mobility in both the polar and nonpolar regions of lipopolysaccharide. Head-group mobility of the sodium salt of LPS was shown to be reduced with the addition of divalent cations. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that low magnesium concentrations may induce phase separations in the sodium salt. The magnesium salt of lipopolysaccharide closely resembled the native form in both head-group and acyl chain mobility although the cation charge to phosphorus ratio in the magnesium salt was greater than that detected in the native isolate. Analyses of other lipopolysaccharide salts support our hypothesis that many of the observed differences in the physical and pathological properties of lipopolysaccharide salts may simply be explained by the degree of charge neutralization. PMID:6303400

  19. Use Of Superacids To Digest Chrysotile And Amosite Asbestos In Simple Mixtures Or Matrices Found In Building Materials Compositions

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, Leon; Webster, Ronald P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a flouro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP(O)(OH).sub.2, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided

  20. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  1. A simple laminate theory using the orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress. I - In-plane stress-strain relationships for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krempl, Erhard; Hong, Bor Zen

    1989-01-01

    A macromechanics analysis is presented for the in-plane, anisotropic time-dependent behavior of metal matrix laminates. The small deformation, orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress represents lamina behavior in a modified simple laminate theory. Material functions and constants can be identified in principle from experiments with laminae. Orthotropic invariants can be repositories for tension-compression asymmetry and for linear elasticity in one direction while the other directions behave in a viscoplastic manner. Computer programs are generated and tested for either unidirectional or symmetric laminates under in-plane loading. Correlations with the experimental results on metal matrix composites are presented.

  2. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a simple tool to determine the phospholipid/glycolipid composition of sperm: pheasant spermatozoa as one selected example.

    PubMed

    Teuber, Kristin; Schiller, Jürgen; Jakop, Ulrike; Lüpold, Stefan; Orledge, Josephine M; Blount, Jonathan D; Royle, Nick J; Hoodless, Andrew; Müller, Karin

    2011-02-01

    Cellular membranes are composed of highly variable lipid molecules, mainly cholesterol and phospholipids (PLs). The cholesterol moiety and the saturation degree of the fatty acyl residues of PL determine the fluidity of the membrane, which is particularly important for sperm because they have to undergo characteristic membrane-dependent processes (acrosomal exocytosis and fusion with the oocyte). Glycolipids are an essential part of the membrane surface acting as key mediators in the interactions of sperm with components of the female genital tract. Although the lipid composition of many mammalian spermatozoa has already been determined, the lipid composition of avian spermatozoa has scarcely been investigated. Using spermatozoa extracts of the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) as a selected example, this work demonstrates that matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a simple and fast method to determine spermatozoal lipid compositions. The lipid compositions of pheasant spermatozoa have not yet been investigated. In addition to common membrane (primarily diacyl) PL (sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine), remarkable variation of different sulfoglycolipids (sulfogalactocerebrosides) was identified. This is in strong contrast to all other animal species investigated so far which nearly exclusively contain the sulfoglycolipid seminolipid (sulfogalactoalkylacylglycerol). We emphasize that the MALDI MS approach allows the characterization of sulfoglycolipids of sperm within a few minutes without the necessity for previous chromatographic separation. PMID:21295419

  3. A simple synthesis of hollow carbon nanofiber-sulfur composite via mixed-solvent process for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Fang, Jing; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    A hollow carbon nanofiber supported sulfur (HCNF-S) composite cathode material is prepared by a mixed-solvent (DMF/CS2) process in an organic solution for lithium-sulfur batteries. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations show the hollow structures of the HCNF and the homogeneous distribution of sulfur in the composite. The performance of the HCNF-S cathode is evaluated in lithium-sulfur batteries using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the HCNF-S cathode shows perfect cycling stability. The results exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 1090 mAh g-1 and retains 600 mAh g-1 after 100 discharge/charge cycles at a high rate of 1 C. The excellent electrochemical properties benefit from the hollow and highly conductive network-like structure of HCNFs, which contribute to disperse sulfur and absorb polysulfides, and suppress the formation of residual Li2S layer.

  4. Introduction à une théorie des systèmes composites : exemples simples de matériaux lamellaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akjouj, A.; Sylla, B.; Dobrzynski, L.

    This review paper is mostly an introduction to the linear response theory for composite systems. The composite materials are defined here as being formed by different homogeneous parts connected together by interfaces. This type of material can be constructed with the help of homogeneous "bricks" cuted out from infinite materials. This cutting procedures are realized with the help of cleavage operators. The "bricks" are then put together by a coupling operator. This construction manner enables to obtain for any composite system a general equation relating the composite response function (called also Green's function) to the elements of the infinite material response functions and to the cleavage and coupling operators. A general and unified formulation valid as well in matrix algebra as in the algebra of differential equations results from this approach. Any general theory is abstract ; simple examples help very much to understand it. The principal aim of this review paper is the introduction of a general theory for composite systems through simple and analytical examples from the fields of phonons, magnons and electrons in the lamellar composite materials. In order to achieve this goal, the algebra of the examples is as explicit as possible. The references of what was already realized in theory of composite response are discussed also. A prospective and non exhaustive study of all the fields where such a theory can prove to be helpful is given also in this review paper. Cet article de revue est essentiellement une introduction à la théorie de la réponse linéaire dans les systèmes composites. Les matériaux composites sont définis ici comme étant formés de parties homogènes différentes reliées par des interfaces. Ce type de matériaux peut être construit à partir de "briques" homogènes découpées dans des matériaux infinis. Ces opérations de découpage sont effectuées par l'intermédiaire d'opérateurs de clivage. Les "briques" sont ensuite

  5. A simple HPLC-MS method for the quantitative determination of the composition of bacterial medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Grubelnik, Andreas; Wiesli, Luzia; Furrer, Patrick; Rentsch, Daniel; Hany, Roland; Meyer, Veronika R

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) vary in the composition of their monomeric units. Besides saturated side-chains, unsaturated ones can also be found. The latter leads to unwanted by-products (THF ester, secondary alcohols) during acidic cleavage of the polymer backbone in the conventional analytical assays. To prevent these problems, we developed a new method for the reductive depolymerization of medium chain-length PHAs, leading to monomeric diols that can be separated and quantified by HPLC/MS. Reduction is performed at room temperature with lithium aluminum hydride within 5-15 min. The new method is faster and simpler than the previous ones and is quantitative. The results are consistent with the ones obtained by quantitative (1)H NMR. PMID:18461645

  6. Directly Writing Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor to Composite Functional Circuits: A Super-Simple Way for Alternative Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background The current strategies for making electronic devices are generally time, water, material and energy consuming. Here, the direct writing of composite functional circuits through comprehensive use of GaIn10-based liquid metal inks and matching material is proposed and investigated, which is a rather easy going and cost effective electronics fabrication way compared with the conventional approaches. Methods Owing to its excellent adhesion and electrical properties, the liquid metal ink was demonstrated as a generalist in directly making various basic electronic components such as planar resistor, inductor and capacitor or their combination and thus composing circuits with expected electrical functions. For a precise control of the geometric sizes of the writing, a mask with a designed pattern was employed and demonstrated. Mechanisms for justifying the chemical components of the inks and the magnitudes of the target electronic elements so as to compose various practical circuits were disclosed. Results Fundamental tests on the electrical components including capacitor and inductor directly written on paper with working time up to 48 h and elevated temperature demonstrated their good stability and potential widespread adaptability especially when used in some high frequency circuits. As the first proof-of-concept experiment, a typical functional oscillating circuit including an integrated chip of 74HC04 with a supply voltage of 5 V, a capacitor of 10 nF and two resistors of 5 kΩ and 1 kΩ respectively was directly composed on paper through integrating specific electrical elements together, which presented an oscillation frequency of 8.8 kHz. Conclusions The present method significantly extends the roles of the metal ink in recent works serving as only a single electrical conductor or interconnecting wires. It opens the way for directly writing out complex functional circuits or devices on different substrates. Such circuit composition strategy has

  7. The effect of composition on the viscosity, crystallization and dissolution of simple borate glasses and compositional design of borate based bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetschius, Kathryn Lynn

    Borate glasses have recently been developed for a variety of medical applications, but much less is known about their structures and properties than more common silicate glasses. Melt properties and crystallization tendency for compositions in the Na2O-CaO-B2O3 system were characterized using differential thermal analysis and viscosity measurements. Characteristic viscosity (isokom) temperatures varied with the ratio between the modifier content (Na2O+CaO) and B2O3, particularly at lower temperatures, consistent with the changes in the relative concentrations of tetrahedral borons in the glass structure. Similar glasses were used to study dissolution processes in water. These alkali-alkaline earth glasses dissolve congruently and follow linear dissolution kinetics. The dissolution rates were dependent on the glass structure, with slower rates associated with greater fractions of four-coordinated boron. For glasses with a fixed alkaline earth identity, the dissolution rates increased in the order Licomposition-property relationships to optimize the properties of new borate-based bioactive compositions for specific applications. Melt viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient, liquidus temperature and crystallization tendency were determined, as were dissolution rates in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  8. Monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, B; Rosén, A; Holme, T

    1982-01-01

    A cell line producing monoclonal antibodies directed against the core region of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide has been established. These antibodies were inhibited by lipopolysaccharide preparations of both O-group 1 vibrios and some non-O-group 1 vibrios as detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-inhibition experiments. Coagglutination experiments with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies adsorbed to protein A-carrying staphylococci were performed. All V. cholerae strains tested, regardless of serotype, were agglutinated when mixed with staphylococci coated with the monoclonal antibodies, whereas staphylococci coated with group-specific (O1) polyclonal antibodies only agglutinated with O-group 1 vibrios. Images PMID:6183214

  9. A simple and effective arsenic filter based on composite iron matrix: development and deployment studies for groundwater of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussam, Abul; Munir, Abul K M

    2007-10-01

    Drinking groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic is a worldwide public health issue. This work describes the research, development and distribution of a filter used by thousands of people in Bangladesh to obtain arsenic-free safe water. The filter removes arsenic species primarily by surface complexation reactions: =FeOH + H(2)AsO(4)(-) --> =FeHAsO(4)(-) + H(2)O (K=10(24)) and =FeOH + HAsO(4)(2-) --> =FeAsO(4)(2-) + H(2)O (K=10(29)) on a specially manufactured composite iron matrix (CIM). The filter water meets WHO and Bangladesh standards, has no breakthrough, works without any chemical treatment (pre- or post-), without regeneration, and without producing toxic wastes. It costs about $40/5 years and produce 20-30 L/hour for daily drinking and cooking need of 1-2 families. The spent material is completely non toxic-solid self contained iron-arsenate cement that does not leach in rainwater. Approved by the Bangladesh Government, about 30,000 SONO filters were deployed all over Bangladesh and continue to provide more than a billion liters of safe drinking water. This innovative filter was also recognized by the National Academy of Engineering-Grainger Challenge Prize for sustainability with the highest award for its affordability, reliability, ease of maintenance, social acceptability, and environmental friendliness, which met or exceeded the local government's guidelines for arsenic removal. PMID:17952788

  10. Fabrication and performance analysis of a simple, cost-effective copper oxide / zinc oxide semiconductors composite for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Rafael; Rivera, Manuel; Li, Eric; Feng, Peter

    We report on our studies of composite zinc oxide semiconductor (COS) nanoparticles as sensing materials for the development of high-performance gas sensors. The average diameter of the nanoparticles is 40 nm. The basic electrical properties of sensing materials have been measured. The morphologic surface and crystalline structures of COS are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering spectroscopy, respectively. By using synthesized COS of CuO-ZnO materials, prototypic highly sensitive gas sensors have been designed, fabricated and tested. Important stability and repeatability features have been obtained. The sensitivities of the COS based sensors to methane and hydrogen gases as a function of time and the gas concentrations have been determined. Various sensing parameters including the sensitivity, response time, recovery time, and thermal effect on the gas sensor performance have also been investigated in order to reveal the sensing ability. Analyses of experimental data indicate that the obtained response and recovery are almost 10 times faster than conventional sensors constructed solely from one material.

  11. Nanostructured exchange coupled hard/soft composites: From the local magnetization profile to an extended 3d simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russier, V.; Younsi, K.; Bessais, L.

    2012-03-01

    In nanocomposite magnetic materials the exchange coupling between phases plays a central role in the determination of the extrinsic magnetic properties of the material: coercive field,remanence magnetization. Exchange coupling is therefore of crucial importance in composite systems made of magnetically hard and soft grains or in partially crystallized media including nanosized crystallites in a soft matrix. It has been shown also to be a key point in the control of stratified hard/soft media coercive field in the research for optimized recording media. A signature of the exchange coupling due to the nanostructure is generally obtained on the magnetization curve M(H) with a plateau characteristic of the domain wall compression at the hard/soft interface ending at the depinning of the wall inside the hard phase. This compression/depinning behavior is clearly evidenced through one dimensional description of the interface, which is rigorously possible only in stratified media. Starting from a local description of the hard/soft interface in a model for nanocomposite system we show that one can extend this kind of behavior for system of hard crystallites embedded in a soft matrix.

  12. Structure and Function of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ralf R.; Leong, Steven R.; Flaggs, Gail W.; Gray, Patrick W.; Wright, Samuel D.; Mathison, John C.; Tobias, Peter S.; Ulevitch, Richard J.

    1990-09-01

    The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with cholesterol ester transport protein of the plasma. LBP may control the response to LPS under physiologic conditions by forming high-affinity complexes with LPS that bind to monocytes and macrophages, which then secrete tumor necrosis factor. The identification of this pathway for LPS-induced monocyte stimulation may aid in the development of treatments for diseases in which Gram-negative sepsis or endotoxemia are involved.

  13. A simple but efficient strategy to enhance hydrostability of intensely fluorescent Mg-based coordination polymer (CP) via forming a composite of CP with hydrophobic PVDF.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lu; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2016-02-28

    A coordination polymer (CP) of Mg(2+) with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (BTC(3-)) was synthesized using a solvothermal method. The Mg-CP, with a formula of Mg3(BTC)(HCOO)3(DMF)3, crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3[combining macron], with cell parameters of a = b = 13.972(5) Å, c = 8.090(5) Å and V = 1367.6(11) Å(3), and shows a lamella structure built from planar rosette-type hexanuclear architectures. The Mg-CP emits intense blue fluorescence arising from π* → π transition of intra-ligand of BTC(3-) with 21.69% quantum yield, yet it exhibits poor stability to water. The composites of Mg-CP with hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were sequentially prepared by mechanically mixed, tableted and annealed processes, which showed good compatibility between Mg-CP and PVDF, high hydrostability, and intense blue emission. This study suggests a simple but efficient method to solve the drawbacks of some functional CPs unstable to water and to promote them as practical applications in the field of functional materials. PMID:26790523

  14. [Phytotoxic properties of Ralstonia solanacearum lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Hrytsaĭ, R V; Iakovleva, L M; Varbanets', L D

    2014-01-01

    The study is dedicated to research of phytotoxic properties of Ralstonia solanacearum lipopolysaccharides. This causative agent is one of the most dangerous among potato bacterial diseases. It is revealed that the inhibitory effect of LPS solution on seedlings germination is more noticeable on crops susceptible to brown rot. Maximal total phytotoxic properties have been shown by LPS from strains 35, 52b, TX1 and TS3, which were characterized by relatively low rhamnose content. Relative to the control plants LPS may diminish and some ones--increase the root length, height and weight of seedlings, subject to particular strain. But the stimulation revealed is minor. PMID:25000727

  15. Interaction of uranium(VI) with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Barkleit, Astrid; Moll, Henry; Bernhard, Gert

    2008-06-01

    Bacteria have a great influence on the migration behaviour of heavy metals in the environment. Lipopolysaccharides form the main part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We investigated the interaction of the uranyl cation (UO2(2+)) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using potentiometric titration and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) over a wide pH and concentration range. Generally, LPS consists of a high density of different functionalities for metal binding such as carboxyl, phosphoryl, amino and hydroxyl groups. The dissociation constants and corresponding site densities of these functional groups were determined using potentiometric titration. The combination of both methods, potentiometry and TRLFS, show that at an excess of LPS uranyl phosphoryl coordination dominates, whereas at a slight deficit on LPS compared to uranyl, carboxyl groups also become important for uranyl coordination. The stability constants of one uranyl carboxyl complex and three different uranyl phosphoryl complexes and the luminescence properties of the phosphoryl complexes are reported. PMID:18478152

  16. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates hyperthermia-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Baik-Lin; Abraham, Jayne; Mlsna, Lauren; Kim, Min Jung; Koh, Sookyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. Methods The innate immune activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to postnatal day 14 rat (200 μg/kg) and mouse (100 μg/kg) pups 2–2.5 h prior to hyperthermic seizures (HT) induced by hair dryer or heat lamp. To determine whether simulation of infection enhances neuronal excitability, latency to seizure onset, threshold temperature and total number of seizures were quantified. Behavioral seizures were correlated with electroencephalographic changes in rat pups. Seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was assessed in blood samples at various time points after HT. Seizure-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus was quantified using Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice. Results Lipopolysaccharide priming increased susceptibility of rats and mice to hyperthemic seizures and enhanced seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation. Conclusions Peripheral inflammation appears to work synergistically with hyperthermia to potentiate seizures and to exacerbate seizure-induced immune responses. By simulating fever, a regulated increase in body temperature from an immune challenge, we developed a more clinically relevant animal model of prolonged FS. PMID:26357586

  17. Highly sensitive fluorescent stain for detecting lipopolysaccharides in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Ayi; Cai, Wanhui; Yu, Dongdong; Zhu, Zhongxin; Jiang, Chengxi; Jin, Litai

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive and simple technique was developed for the visualization of gel-separated lipopolysaccharides by using a hydrazide derivative, UGF202. As low as 0.5-1 ng total LPS could be detected by UGF202 stain, which is 2- and 16-fold more sensitive than that of the commonly used Pro-Q Emerald 300 and Keenan et al. developed silver stain, respectively. The results indicated that UGF202 stain could be a good choice for LPS determination in polyacrylamide gels. PMID:25930092

  18. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  19. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Coretti, Lorena; Pero, Raffaela; Lembo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the principal bacterial products known to elicit inflammation. Cells of myeloid lineage such as monocytes and macrophages, but also epithelial cells give rise to an inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. This phenomenon implies reprogramming of cell specific gene expression that can occur through different mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Given their intrinsic nature, epigenetic modifications may be involved both in the acute response to LPS and in the establishment of a preconditioned genomic state (epigenomic memory) that may potentially influence the host response to further contacts with microorganisms. Information has accumulated during the last years aimed at elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms which underlie the cellular LPS response. These findings, summarized in this chapter, will hopefully be a good basis for a definition of the complete cascade of LPS-induced epigenetic events and their biological significance in different cell types. PMID:26659265

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies to Shigella Lipopolysaccharide Are Useful for Vaccine Production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jisheng; Smith, Mark A; Benjamin, William H; Kaminski, Robert W; Wenzel, Heather; Nahm, Moon H

    2016-08-01

    There is a significant need for an effective multivalent Shigella vaccine that targets the most prevalent serotypes. Most Shigella vaccines under development utilize serotype-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) as a major component based on protection and epidemiological data. As vaccine formulations advance from monovalent to multivalent, assays and reagents need to be developed to accurately and reproducibly quantitate the amount of LPSs from multiple serotypes in the final product. To facilitate this effort, we produced 36 hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the O antigen on the LPS from Shigella flexneri 2a, Shigella flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei We used six of these monoclonal antibodies for an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), measuring LPSs with high sensitivity and specificity. It was also demonstrated that the Shigella serotype-specific MAbs were useful for bacterial surface staining detected by flow cytometry. These MAbs are also useful for standardizing the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) for Shigella Functional assays, such as the in vitro bactericidal assay, are necessary for vaccine evaluation and may serve as immunological correlates of immunity. An S. flexneri 2a-specific monoclonal antibody killed S. flexneri 2b isolates, suggesting that S. flexneri 2a LPS may induce cross-protection against S. flexneri 2b. Overall, the Shigella LPS-specific MAbs described have potential utility to the vaccine development community for assessing multivalent vaccine composition and as a reliable control for multiple immunoassays used to assess vaccine potency. PMID:27280622

  1. [Regulation of thyroid and pituitary functions by lipopolysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Iaglova, N V; Berezov, T T

    2010-01-01

    Activation of toll-like receptors-4 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide downregulates pituitary and thyroid function. Besides decrease of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion lipopolysaccharide affects secretion in follicular thyroid cells directly. The endotoxin partially activates and inhibits different phases of follicular thyrocytes' secretion. Lipopolysaccharide enhances thyroglobulin synthesis and exocytosis into follicular lumen and suppresses its resorbtion. It results in sharp drop of blood thyroxine concentration without decrease of deiodinases-mediated thiroxine to triiodothyronine conversion. Stimulation of the lipopolysaccharide-pretreated thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone increases resorbtion of thyroglobulin and thyroid hormone production. Combined stimulation of the thyroid gland increases protein bound thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration unlike only TSH stimulation resulting in increase of free thyroid hormone levels. It also proves that binding capacity of thyroid hormone serum transport proteins during nonthyroidal illness syndrome remains normal. PMID:21341506

  2. Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.; McCullough, R.L.; Pipes, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The degree of control over material properties that is typified by hybrid composites is transforming engineering design. In part because homogeneous materials such as metals and alloys do not offer comparable control, specifying a material and designing a component have traditionally taken place separately. As composites begin to replace traditional materials in fields and such as aerospace, component design and the specification of a material are merging and becoming aspects of a single process. The controllable microstructure of a composite allows it to be tailored to match the distribution of stresses to which it will be subject. At the same time components must come to reflect the distinctive nature of composites: their directional properties and the intricate forms they can be given through processes such as injection molding, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. The complexity inherent in conceiving components and their materials at the same time suggests engineering design will grow increasingly dependent on computers and multidisciplinary teams. Such an approach will harness the full potential of composites for the technologies of the future. 10 figures.

  3. [Modulation of immune response by bacterial lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Aldapa-Vega, Gustavo; Pastelín-Palacios, Rodolfo; Isibasi, Armando; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; López-Macías, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a molecule that is profusely found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is also a potent stimulator of the immune response. As the main molecule on the bacterial surface, is also the most biologically active. The immune response of the host is activated by the recognition of LPS through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and this receptor-ligand interaction is closely linked to LPS structure. Microorganisms have evolved systems to control the expression and structure of LPS, producing structural variants that are used for modulating the host immune responses during infection. Examples of this include Helicobacter pylori, Francisella tularensis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Salmonella spp. High concentrations of LPS can cause fever, increased heart rate and lead to septic shock and death. However, at relatively low concentrations some LPS are highly active immunomodulators, which can induce non-specific resistance to invading microorganisms. The elucidation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the recognition of LPS and its structural variants has been fundamental to understand inflammation and is currently a pivotal field of research to understand the innate immune response, inflammation, the complex host-pathogen relationship and has important implications for the rational development of new immunomodulators and adjuvants. PMID:27560917

  4. Structure and Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of mainly Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. The LPS molecules from marine and terrestrial bacteria show structural variations, even among strains within the same species living in the same environment. Cyanobacterial LPS has a unique structure, since it lacks heptose and 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (also known as keto-deoxyoctulosonate (KDO)), which are present in the core region of common Gram-negative LPS. In addition, the cyanobacterial lipid A region lacks phosphates and contains odd-chain hydroxylated fatty acids. While the role of Gram-negative lipid A in the regulation of the innate immune response through Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4 signaling is well characterized, the role of the structurally different cyanobacterial lipid A in TLR4 signaling is not well understood. The uncontrolled inflammatory response of TLR4 leads to autoimmune diseases such as sepsis, and thus the less virulent marine cyanobacterial LPS molecules can be effective to inhibit TLR4 signaling. This review highlights the structural comparison of LPS molecules from marine cyanobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. We discuss the potential use of marine cyanobacterial LPS as a TLR4 antagonist, and the effects of cyanobacterial LPS on humans and marine organisms. PMID:26198237

  5. Lipopolysaccharide induced conversion of recombinant prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Fozia; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Ladner, Carol L; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Ametaj, Burim N; Wishart, David S

    2014-01-01

    The conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the β-rich infectious isoform PrPSc is considered a critical and central feature in prion pathology. Although PrPSc is the critical component of the infectious agent, as proposed in the “protein-only” prion hypothesis, cellular components have been identified as important cofactors in triggering and enhancing the conversion of PrPC to proteinase K resistant PrPSc. A number of in vitro systems using various chemical and/or physical agents such as guanidine hydrochloride, urea, SDS, high temperature, and low pH, have been developed that cause PrPC conversion, their amplification, and amyloid fibril formation often under non-physiological conditions. In our ongoing efforts to look for endogenous and exogenous chemical mediators that might initiate, influence, or result in the natural conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, we discovered that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial membranes interacts with recombinant prion proteins and induces conversion to an isoform richer in β sheet at near physiological conditions as long as the LPS concentration remains above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). More significant was the LPS mediated conversion that was observed even at sub-molar ratios of LPS to recombinant ShPrP (90–232). PMID:24819168

  6. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - TiO{sub 2}-A simple sol-gel strategy to the synthesis of low temperature sintered alumina-aluminium titanate composites through a core-shell approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasankar, M.; Ananthakumar, S.; Mukundan, P.; Wunderlich, W.; Warrier, K.G.K.

    2008-10-15

    A simple sol-gel based core-shell approach for the synthesis of alumina-aluminium titanate composite is reported. Alumina is the core and titania is the shell. The coating of titania has been performed in aqueous medium on alumina particle by means of heterocoagulation of titanyl chloride. Further heat treatment results in low temperature formation of aluminium titanate as well as low temperature sintering of alumina-aluminium titanate composites. The lowering of the reaction temperature can be attributed to the maximisation of the contact surface between the reactants due to the core-shell approach involving nanoparticles. The mechanism of formation of aluminium titanate and the observations on densification features in the present process are compared with that of mixture of oxides under identical conditions. The sintered alumina-aluminium titanate composite has an average grain size of 2 {mu}m. - Graphical abstract: The article presents a simple sol-gel process through core-shell approach to the synthesis of low temperature sintered alumina-aluminium titanate. The lowering of the reaction temperature can be attributed to the maximisation of the contact surface between the reactant due to the core-shell approach. This material showed the better microstructure control compared to the standard solid-state mixing route.

  7. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  8. A novel simple one-step air jet spinning approach for deposition of poly(vinyl acetate)/hydroxyapatite composite nanofibers on Ti implants.

    PubMed

    Abdal-Hay, Abdalla; Hamdy, Abdel Salam; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Lim, Ju Hyun

    2015-04-01

    A biocompatible coating consists of a poly(vinyl acetate)/hydroxyapatite (PVAc/HA) composite nanofiber mat was applied to NaOH-treated titanium metal by means of a novel, facile and efficient air jet spinning (AJS) approach. Results showed that HA nanoparticles (NPs) strongly embedded onto the AJS single fiber surface resulting in a strong chemical interfacial bonding between the two phases due to the difference in kinetic energies. It was proven that AJS membrane coatings can provide significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of titanium substrate. Interestingly, the biocompatibility using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast to the PVAc/HA fiber composite layer coated on Ti was significantly higher than pure titanium-substrates. PMID:25686997

  9. A new simple synthesis of CdS nano-particles by composite-molten-salt method and their high photocatalytic degradation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Donghu; Zhu, Yabo; Cai, Cunjin; He, Zhanjun; Liu, Zhangsheng; Yin, Dagen; Luo, Jin

    2011-12-01

    Nano-CdS crystal has been succesfully synthesized by composite molten salt (CMS) method for the first time, using composite molten salt as a reaction solvent, sodium sulfide and cadmium nitrate hexahydrate as reactants at temperature of 200 °C for 24 h in the absence of organic dispersant or capping agents. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that the as-synthesized product were well crystallized and belonged to nano-scale. Their UV-vis absorption spectrum demonstrated a band gap of 2.49 eV corresponding to the absorption edge of 499 nm. The experimental result of photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange by the nano-CdS showed much better photocatalysis than that by the commercial CdS powder under the irradiation of ultraviolet light source.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  11. Lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind pig hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, M; Bégin, C; Jacques, M

    1995-01-01

    A previous study indicated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind two low-molecular-mass proteins, of approximately 10 and 11 kDa, present in porcine respiratory tract secretions (M. Bélanger, D. Dubreuil, and M. Jacques, Infect. Immun. 62:868-873, 1994). In the present study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of these two proteins, which revealed high homology with the alpha and beta chains of pig hemoglobin. Some isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were able to use hemoglobin from various animal species as well as other heme compounds as sole sources of iron for growth, while other isolates were unable to use them. Immunoelectron microscopy showed binding of pig hemoglobin at the surface of all A. pleuropneumoniae isolates as well as labeling of outer membrane blebs. We observed, using Western blotting (immunoblotting), that the lipid A-core region of LPS of all isolates was binding pig hemoglobin. Furthermore, lipid A obtained after acid hydrolysis of LPS extracted from A. pleuropneumoniae was able to bind pig hemoglobin and this binding was completely abolished by preincubation of lipid A with polymyxin B but was not inhibited by preincubation with glucosamines. Fatty acids constituting the lipid A of A. pleuropneumoniae, namely, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and octadecanoic acid, were also binding pig hemoglobin. Our results indicate that LPS of all A. pleuropneumoniae isolates tested bind pig hemoglobin and that lipid A is involved in this binding. Our results also indicate that some A. pleuropneumoniae isolates are, in addition, able to use hemoglobin for growth. Binding of hemoglobin to LPS might represent an important means by which A. pleuropneumoniae acquires iron in vivo from hemoglobin released from erythrocytes lysed by the action of its hemolysins. PMID:7822035

  12. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Membranes and Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Studied by Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, TP

    2006-12-01

    bilayers. A few simulation studies of outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria have been reported using simple lipid bilayers, even though this is not a realistic representation of the outer membrane environment. This contribution describes our recent molecular simulation studies of the rough lipopolysaccharide membrane of P. aeruginosa, which are the first and only reported studies to date for a complete, periodic lipopolysaccharide outer membrane. This also includes our current efforts in building on our initial and unique experience simulating the lipopolysaccharide membrane in the development and application of novel computational procedures and tools that allow molecular simulation studies of outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria to be carried out in realistic membrane models.

  14. Further characterization of a lipopolysaccharide from Coxiella burneti.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M L; McChesney, J; Paretsky, D

    1976-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide previously isolated from the rickettsial agent of Q fever, Coxiella burneti, phase I, has been further characterized. The sugar residues ribose, mannose, gluclose, D-glycero-D-mannoheptose, and L-glycerto-D-mannoheptose are present. Two sugars remain unidentified, one of which is a minor and the other a major constituent. Isomyristic, palmitic, and beta-hydroxymyristic acids are the major fatty acid residues of the 15 identified. The nature and content of other lipopolysaccharide constituents are presented. Images PMID:971947

  15. The Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from 140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition data of gases evaporated from the surface. Height profiles of molecular nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) were determined. Traces were detected on the surface of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane precipitation occurred recently. The methane mole fraction was (1.48+/-0.09) x 10(exp -2) in the lower stratosphere (139.8 km to 75.5 km) and (5.65+/-0.18) x 10(exp -2) near the surface (6.7 km to the surface). The molecular hydrogen mole fraction was (1.01+/-0.16) x 10(exp -3) in the atmosphere and (9.90+/-0.17) x 10(exp -4) on the surface. Isotope ratios were 167.7+/-0.6 for N-14/N-15 in molecular nitrogen, 91.1+/-1.4 for C-12/C-13 in methane and (1.35+/-0.30) x 10(exp -4) for D/H in molecular hydrogen. The mole fractions of Ar-36 and radiogenic Ar-40 are (2.1+/-0.8) x 10(exp -7) and (3.39 +/-0.12) x 10(exp -5) respectively. Ne-22 has been tentatively identified at a mole fraction of (2.8+/-2.1) x 10(exp -7) Krypton and xenon were below the detection threshold of 1 x 10(exp -8) mole fraction. Science data were not retrieved from the gas chromatograph subsystem as the abundance of the organic trace gases in the atmosphere and on the ground did not reach the detection threshold. Results previously published from the GCMS experiment are superseded by this publication.

  16. A simple one-step synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method and investigation on their comparative photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Donghu; Zhu, Yabo; He, Zhanjun; Liu, Zhangsheng; Luo, Jin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The TEM image shows that the as-synthesized ZnS particle size was estimated to be about 40 nm and this newly synthesized ZnS nanoparticles can be as a promising photocatalytic degradation material for the organic pollutant removal. Display Omitted Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles with cubic phase have been successfully synthesized via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method (SACM) for the first time and this method has not been found so far. ► Its band gap (E{sub g}) is a little bigger than commercial ZnS particle mainly due to quantum size effect. ► The as-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles show much more efficient photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange than commercial ZnS powder. -- Abstract: ZnS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized via salt-alkali-composited-mediated method (SACM) for the first time, using a mixture of LiNO{sub 3} and LiOH (LiNO{sub 3}/LiOH = 60.7:39.3) as a reaction solvent, sodium sulfide and zinc nitrate as reactants at temperature of 210 °C for 24 h in the absence of organic dispersant or capping agents. X-ray diffraction, environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the as-synthesized products were well crystallized and belonged to nano-scale. Their UV–vis absorption spectrum demonstrated a band gap of 3.6406 eV corresponding to the absorption edge of 340 nm. The experimental result of photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange by the nano-ZnS showed much better photocatalysis than that by the commercial ZnS powder under the irradiation of ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively.

  17. Studies of the polysaccharide fraction from the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas alcaligenes

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, James A.; Gray, George W.; Wilkinson, Stephen G.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain BR 1/2 were extended to the polysaccharide moiety. The crude polysaccharide, obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide, was fractionated by gel filtration. The major fraction was the phosphorylated polysaccharide, for which the approximate proportions of residues were; glucose (2), rhamnose (0.7), heptose (2–3), galactosamine (1), alanine (1), 3-deoxy-2-octulonic acid (1), phosphorus (5–6). The heptose was l-glycero-d-manno-heptose. The minor fractions from gel filtration contained free 3-deoxy-2-octulonic acid, Pi and PPi. The purified polysaccharide was studied by periodate oxidation, methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis, and dephosphorylation. All the rhamnose and part of the glucose and heptose occur as non-reducing terminal residues. Other glucose residues are 3-substituted, and most heptose residues are esterified with condensed phosphate residues, possibly in the C-4 position. Free heptose and a heptosylglucose were isolated from a partial hydrolysate of the polysaccharide. The location of galactosamine in the polysaccharide was not established, but either the C-3 or C-4 position appears to be substituted and a linkage to alanine was indicated. In its composition, the polysaccharide from Ps. alcaligenes resembles core polysaccharides from other pseudomonads: no possible side-chain polysaccharide was detected. PMID:4369226

  18. Efficient method for preparation of highly purified lipopolysaccharides by hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Muck, A; Ramm, M; Hamburger, M

    1999-09-10

    A method for the efficient preparation of highly purified lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) has been developed. The procedure can be used for the purification of cell wall bound LPSs after hot phenol-water extraction and for the isolation of extracellular LPSs from the supernatant, respectively. The method described has been tested with artificial mixtures containing LPSs, polysaccharide, protein and RNA and subsequently employed for the preparative purification of two LPSs of different origin, namely the extracellular LPS secreted by Escherichia coli E49 into the culture medium, and the cell wall bound LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa VA11465/1. Compared to currently used methods for LPS purification such as enzymatic digestion and ultracentrifugation, the chromatographic separation reported here combines superior purity with minimal loss of LPS, high reproducibility and simple handling. The removal of contaminants such as protein, RNA and polysaccharides and the recovery of LPSs were monitored by appropriate assays. PMID:10517220

  19. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides in plant and mammalian innate immunity.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Cristina; Holst, Otto; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Molinaro, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    This mini-review gives a structural view on the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), the endotoxin from Gram negative bacteria, paying attention on the features that are relevant for their activity as elicitors of the innate immune system of humans, animals and plants. PMID:22533617

  20. Proteomic changes in chicken plasma induced by Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria that cause inflammation and sickness through genetic and proteomic activation. The objective of our study was to identify the proteomic changes in plasma associated with inflammation induced by LPS treatment. Five-week-old ...

  1. Proteomic analysis of macrophage activated with salmonella lipopolysaccharide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophages play pivotal role in immunity. They are activated by many pathogen derived molecules such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which trigger the production of various proteins and peptides that drive and resolve inflammation. There are numerous studies on the effect of LPS at the genome level bu...

  2. Interaction of Lipopolysaccharide and Phospholipid in Mixed Membranes: Solid-State 31P-NMR Spectroscopic and Microscopic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kaoru; Inaba, Takehiko; Morigaki, Kenichi; Brandenburg, Klaus; Seydel, Ulrich; Kusumoto, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which constitutes the outermost layer of Gram-negative bacterial cells as a typical component essential for their life, induces the first line defense system of innate immunity of higher animals. To understand the basic mode of interaction between bacterial LPS and phospholipid cell membranes, distribution patterns were studied by various physical methods of deep rough mutant LPS (ReLPS) of Escherichia coli incorporated in phospholipid bilayers as simple models of cell membranes. Solid-state 31P-NMR spectroscopic analysis suggested that a substantial part of ReLPS is incorporated into 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid bilayers when multilamellar vesicles were prepared from mixtures of these. In egg L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg-PC)-rich membranes, ReLPS undergoes micellization. In phosphatidylethanolamine-rich membranes, however, micellization was not observed. We studied by microscopic techniques the location of ReLPS in membranes of ReLPS/egg-PC (1:10 M/M) and ReLPS/egg-PC/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) (1:9:1 M/M/M). The influence of ReLPS on the physicochemical properties of the membranes was studied as well. Microscopic images of both giant unilamellar vesicles and supported planar lipid bilayers showed that LPS was uniformly incorporated in the egg-PC lipid bilayers. In the egg-PC/POPG (9:1 M/M) lipid bilayers, however, ReLPS is only partially incorporated and becomes a part of the membrane in a form of aggregates (or as mixed aggregates with the lipids) on the bilayer surface. The lipid lateral diffusion coefficient measurements at various molar ratios of ReLPS/egg-PC/POPG indicated that the incorporated ReLPS reduces the diffusion coefficients of the phospholipids in the membrane. The retardation of diffusion became more significant with increasing POPG concentrations in the membrane at high ReLPS/phospholipid ratios. This work demonstrated that the phospholipid composition has critical

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide. PMID:25222322

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: Structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400 °C and 500 °C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm-1 can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm-1 are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide.

  5. Removal of lipopolysaccharides from protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes by nonflammable solvents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Miao-Fang; Williams, Christie; Murray, Michael V; Ropp, Philip A

    2005-02-25

    During the recovery of recombinant proteins from gram negative bacteria, many of the methods used to extract proteins from cells release lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) along with the protein of interest. In many instances, LPS will co-purify with the target protein due to specific or non-specific protein-LPS interactions. We have investigated the ability of alkanediols to effect the separation of LPS from protein-LPS complexes while the complexes are immobilized on ion exchange chromatographic resins. Proteins were complexed with fluorescently labeled LPS and bound to ion exchange resin. Alkanediol washes of the resins were preformed and the proteins eluted. Column eluates were monitored for LPS and protein by fluorescence and UV spectroscopy, respectively. Alkanediols were effective agents for dissociating LPS from protein-LPS complexes. The efficiency of LPS removal increased with increasing alkanediol chain length. The 1,2-alkanediol isomers were more effective than terminal alkanediol isomers in the separation of LPS from protein-LPS complexes, while the separation of LPS from protein-LPS complexes was more efficient on cation exchangers than on anion exchangers. In addition, it was noted during these investigations that the 1,2-alkanediols increased the retention time of the proteins on the ion exchange resins. Alkanediols provide a safer alternative to the use of other organics such as alcohols or acetonitrile for the separation of LPS from protein due to their lower toxicity and decreased inflammability. In addition, they are less costly than many of the detergents that have been used for similar purposes. PMID:15664347

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage for Klebsiella pneumoniae C3.

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J M; Jofre, J T

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriophage FC3-1 is one of several specific bacteriophages of Klebsiella pneumoniae C3 isolated in our laboratory. Unlike receptors for other Klebsiella phages, the bacteriophage FC3-1 receptor was shown to be lipopolysaccharide, specifically the polysaccharide fraction (O-antigen and core region). We concluded that capsular polysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, and lipid A were not involved in phage binding. Mutants resistant to this phage were isolated and were found to be devoid of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen by several criteria but to contain capsular material serologically identical to that of the wild type. The polysaccharide fraction was concluded to be the primary phage receptor, indicating that it is available to the phage. Images PMID:3888963

  7. Non-typhoidal Salmonella encephalopathy involving lipopolysaccharide in cattle.

    PubMed

    Xiong, N; Brewer, M T; Anderson, K L; Carlson, S A

    2013-02-22

    This study assessed the involvement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the non-typhoidal Salmonella encephalopathy (NTSE) caused by a unique isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Saint-paul (SstpNPG). NTSE was prevented by genetic (deletion of murE) or pharmacologic (polymyxin) disruption of LPS on SstpNPG although the disruption of LPS did not deter brain penetration of the strain. This is the first study to demonstrate that LPS is involved in the manifestations of NTSE. PMID:22939987

  8. [Serological characteristic of lipopolysaccharides of Ralstonia solanacearum].

    PubMed

    Hrytsaĭ, R V; Brovars'ka, O S; Zhytkevich, N V; Varbanets', L D

    2012-01-01

    By immunochemical investigations of eight strains of Ralstonia solanacearum six strains were attributed to four serogroups. Two of them are formed by pairs of R. solanacearum strains 4 and 526; 758 and 7954; two others are represented by single strains--TX1 Ta TS3, correspondingly. Antigenic structure of R. solanacearum 7954 O-polysaccharide unites antigenic epitopes of R. solanacearum strains 4, 35, 526, 749, however the absence of cross-reactivity does not permit uniting them into the same group. The latter, and also the fact that the antiserum to R. solanacearum 749 in the reaction with LPS of R solanacearum 526 forms two precipitation lines (while in the homological system it forms only one line) may be explained by differences in the component composition of heat-stable immunogens (which were used for antiserum obtaining), and also purified LPS which were utilized as antigens in immunochemical reactions. PMID:23120981

  9. Innate immunity probed by lipopolysaccharides affinity strategy and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Giangrande, Chiara; Colarusso, Lucia; Lanzetta, Rosa; Molinaro, Antonio; Pucci, Piero; Amoresano, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are ubiquitous and vital components of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to play a relevant role in the induction of the immune-system response. In animal and plant cells, innate immune defenses toward microorganisms are triggered by the perception of pathogen associated molecular patterns. These are conserved and generally indispensable microbial structures such as LPSs that are fundamental in the Gram-negative immunity recognition. This paper reports the development of an integrated strategy based on lipopolysaccharide affinity methodology that represents a new starting point to elucidate the molecular mechanisms elicited by bacterial LPS and involved in the different steps of innate immunity response. Biotin-tagged LPS was immobilized on streptavidin column and used as a bait in an affinity capture procedure to identify protein partners from human serum specifically interacting with this effector. The complex proteins/lipopolysaccharide was isolated and the protein partners were fractionated by gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. This procedure proved to be very effective in specifically binding proteins functionally correlated with the biological role of LPS. Proteins specifically bound to LPS essentially gathered within two functional groups, regulation of the complement system (factor H, C4b, C4BP, and alpha 2 macroglobulin) and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation (HRG and Apolipoproteins). The reported strategy might have important applications in the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in the LPSs-mediated molecular recognition and anti-infection responses. PMID:22752448

  10. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  11. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are simple ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs ...

  12. Heterogeneity of lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: analysis of lipopolysaccharide chain length.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M; Bryan, L E; Hancock, R E; McGroarty, E J

    1988-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from smooth strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 503, PAZ1, PAO1715, PAO1716, and Z61 was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography. LPS samples from the first four strains, all PAO1 derivatives, separated into three major size populations, whereas LPS from strain Z61, a Pac K799/WT mutant strain, separated into two size populations. When column fractions were applied to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels in their order of elution, molecules of decreasing size were resolved, and the ladder of molecules with different-length O antigens formed a diagonal across the gel. The LPS from the PAO1 derivatives contained two distinct sets of bands, distinguished on the gels as two sets of diagonals. The set of bands with the faster mobility, the B bands, was found in column fractions comprising the three major amino sugar-containing peaks. In the sample from strain 503, a fourth minor peak which contained B bands was resolved. The slower-moving set of bands, the A bands, were recovered in a minor peak. LPS from strain Z61 contained only one set of bands, with the higher-molecular-weight molecules eluting from the column in a volume similar to that of the B bands of the PAO1 strains. Analysis of the fractions of LPS from all strains indicated that less than 8% of the LPS molecules had a long, attached O antigen. Analysis of the peak that contained mainly A bands indicated a lack of reactive amino sugar and phosphate, although heptose and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid were detected. Reaction of isolated fractions with monoclonal antibody specific for the PAO1 O-antigen side chain indicated that only the B bands from the PAO1 strains were antigenically reactive. The bands from strain Z61 showed no reactivity. The data suggest that the A and B bands from the PAO1 strains are antigenically distinct. We propose that PAO1 strains synthesize two types of molecules that are antigenically different. Images PMID:3123455

  13. The symbiotic defect of Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants is suppressed by lpsZ sup + , a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.N.V.; Klein, S.; Signer, E.R. ); Hollingsworth, R.I. )

    1990-05-01

    exo mutants of Rhizobium meliloti SU47, which fail to secrete acidic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), induce Fix{sup {minus}} nodules on alfalfa. However, mutants of R. meliloti Rm41 carrying the same exo lesions induce normal Fix{sup +} nodules. The authors show that such induction is due to a gene from strain Rm41, which they call lpsZ{sup +}, that is missing in strain SU47. lpsZ{sup +} does not restore EPS production but instead alters the composition an structure of lipopolysaccharide. In both SU47 and Rm41, either lpsZ{sup +} or exo{sup +} is sufficient for normal nodulation. This suggests that in R. meliloti EPS and lipopolysaccharide can perform the same function in nodule development.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide as a target for brucellosis vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Gil-Ramírez, Yolanda; Iriarte, Maite; Grilló, María-Jesús; Gorvel, Jean Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella are facultative intracellular parasites that cause brucellosis, a world wide-distributed zoonotic disease that represents a serious problem for animal and human health. There is no human-to-human contagion and, since there is no human vaccine, animal vaccination is essential to control brucellosis. However, current vaccines (all developed empirically) do not provide 100% protection and are infectious in humans. Attempts to generate new vaccines by obtaining mutants lacking the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, in purine metabolism or in Brucella type IV secretion system have not been successful. Here we propose a new approach to develop brucellosis vaccines based on the concept that Brucella surface molecules evade efficient detection by innate immunity, thus delaying protective Th1 responses and opening a time window to reach sheltered intracellular compartments. We showed recently that a branch of the core oligosaccharide section of Brucella lipopolysaccharide hampers recognition by TLR4-MD2. Mutation of glycosyltransferase WadC, involved in the synthesis of this branch, results in a lipopolysaccharide that, while keeping the O-polysaccharide essential for optimal protection, shows a truncated core, is more efficiently recognized by MD2 and triggers an increased cytokine response. In keeping with this, the wadC mutant is attenuated in dendritic cells and mice. In the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines, the Brucella abortus wadC mutant conferred protection similar to that provided by S19, the best cattle vaccine available. The properties of the wadC mutant provide the proof of concept for this new approach and open the way for more effective brucellosis vaccines. PMID:23219811

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stach, Christopher S; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) is a defining characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus superantigens. At the time of this publication, there are 24 identified staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs), some of which have yet to be fully characterized. Testing the capacity of superantigens to potentiate LPS sensitivity is essential to characterize the role of these proteins in disease development. Here we describe how to perform studies of the enhancement of LPS-induced toxic shock syndrome in rabbits. This protocol also provides information on a second important activity of superantigens: the production of fever. PMID:26676037

  16. Computer Simulation of the Rough Lipopolysaccharide Membrane of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lins, Roberto D.; Straatsma, TP

    2001-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) form the major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and are believed to play a key role in processes that govern microbial metal binding, microbial adsorption to mineral surfaces, and microbe mediated oxidation/reduction reactions at the bacterial exterior surface. A computational modeling capability is being developed for the study of geochemical reactions at the outer bacterial envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. The understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for the development of successful environmental bioremediation strategies. A molecular model for the rough LPS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been designed based on available experimentally determined structural information.

  17. Gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide uptake and trafficking to adipose tissue: implications for inflammation and obesity.

    PubMed

    Hersoug, L-G; Møller, P; Loft, S

    2016-04-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota and excessive ingestion of high-fat diets (HFD) are considered to be important factors for development of obesity. In this review we describe a coherent mechanism of action for the development of obesity, which involves the composition of gut microbiota, HFD, low-grade inflammation, expression of fat translocase and scavenger receptor CD36, and the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI). SR-BI binds to both lipids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, which may promote incorporation of LPS in chylomicrons (CMs). These CMs are transported via lymph to the circulation, where LPS is transferred to other lipoproteins by translocases, preferentially to HDL. LPS increases the SR-BI binding, transcytosis of lipoproteins over the endothelial barrier,and endocytosis in adipocytes. Especially large size adipocytes with high metabolic activity absorb LPS-rich lipoproteins. In addition, macrophages in adipose tissue internalize LPS-lipoproteins. This may contribute to the polarization from M2 to M1 phenotype, which is a consequence of increased LPS delivery into the tissue during hypertrophy. In conclusion, evidence suggests that LPS is involved in the development of obesity as a direct targeting molecule for lipid delivery and storage in adipose tissue. PMID:26712364

  18. SIMPLE: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Frank L.

    Symbolic Interactive Matrix Processing Language (SIMPLE) is a conversational matrix-oriented source language suited to a batch or a time-sharing environment. The two modes of operation of SIMPLE are conversational mode and programing mode. This program uses a TAURUS time-sharing system and cathode ray terminals or teletypes. SIMPLE performs all…

  19. Novel change in the carbohydrate portion of Myxococcus xanthus lipopolysaccharide during development.

    PubMed Central

    Panasenko, S M; Jann, B; Jann, K

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the alterations in lipopolysaccharide during aggregation and early development in Myxococcus xanthus. The lipopolysaccharide was isolated and characterized from cells developing on agar during glycerol induction and vegetative growth. A methylated amino sugar was identified as 6-O-methylgalactosamine by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This novel sugar was enriched in cells developing on agar. Images PMID:2495265

  20. Striatins as plaque molecules of zonulae adhaerentes in simple epithelia, of tessellate junctions in stratified epithelia, of cardiac composite junctions and of various size classes of lateral adherens junctions in cultures of epithelia- and carcinoma-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Franke, Werner W; Rickelt, Steffen; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Dörflinger, Yvette; Kuhn, Caecilia; Frey, Norbert; Heid, Hans; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2015-03-01

    Proteins of the striatin family (striatins 1-4; sizes ranging from 90 to 110 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) are highly homologous in their amino acid sequences but can differ in their cell-type-specific gene expression patterns and biological functions. In various cell types, we have found one, two or three polypeptides of this evolutionarily old and nearly ubiquitous family of proteins known to serve as scaffold proteins for diverse protein complexes. Light and electron microscopic immunolocalization methods have revealed striatins in mammalian cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs). In simple epithelia, we have localized striatins as constitutive components of the plaques of the subapical zonulae adhaerentes of cells, including intestinal, glandular, ductal and urothelial cells and hepatocytes. Striatins colocalize with E-cadherin or E-N-cadherin heterodimers and with the plaque proteins α- and β-catenin, p120 and p0071. In some epithelia and carcinomas and in cultured cells derived therefrom, striatins are also seen in lateral AJs. In stratified epithelia and in corresponding squamous cell carcinomas, striatins can be found in plaques of some forms of tessellate junctions. Moreover, striatins are major plaque proteins of composite junctions (CJs; areae compositae) in the intercalated disks connecting cardiomyocytes, colocalizing with other CJ molecules, including plectin and ankyrin-G. We discuss the "multimodulator" scaffold roles of striatins in the initiation and regulation of the formation of various complex particles and structures. We propose that striatins are included in the diagnostic candidate list of proteins that, in the CJs of human hearts, can occur in mutated forms in the pathogeneses of hereditary cardiomyopathies, as seen in some types of genetically determined heart damage in boxer dogs. PMID:25501894

  1. Lipopolysaccharide deacylation by an endogenous lipase controls innate antibody responses to Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingfang; Zhang, Mei; Takashima, Akira; Weiss, Jerrold; Apicella, Michael A; Li, Xiang-Hong; Yuan, Dorothy; Munford, Robert S

    2005-10-01

    T cell-independent type 1 agonists such as Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides can stimulate B lymphocytes to proliferate and produce antibodies by signaling through Toll-like receptors. This phenomenon is well established in vitro, yet polyclonal B cell responses after bacterial infection in vivo are often weak and short-lived. We show here that B cell proliferation and polyclonal antibody production in response to Gram-negative bacterial infection are modulated by acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a host enzyme that deacylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Deacylation of lipopolysaccharide occurred over several days, allowing lipopolysaccharide to act as an innate immune stimulant yet limiting the eventual amount of B cell proliferation and polyclonal antibody production. Control of lipopolysaccharide activation by acyloxyacyl hydrolase indicates that mammals can regulate immune responses to bacterial infection by chemical modification of a Toll-like receptor agonist. PMID:16155573

  2. Chemical structure and inhalation toxicity of lipopolysaccharides from bacteria on cotton.

    PubMed Central

    Helander, I; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Rylander, R

    1980-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides from different bacteria isolated from cotton were purified and chemically analyzed. Their pulmonary toxicity to animals was tested in inhalation tests. Lipopolysaccharides from Agrobacterium and Xanthomonas were shown to differ from the others in that they contained no heptose and no non-hydroxylated fatty acids with a chain length of 12, 14, or 16 carbon atoms. Lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas putida, Enterobacter agglomerans, and Klebsiella oxytoca were found to cause an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the airways. Lipopolysaccharides from Agrobacterium sp. and Xanthomonas sinensis caused no significant invasion. The data point to substances in both the lipid A part and the core part of the lipopolysaccharides being responsible for the capacity to induce leukocyte invasion into the airways. PMID:7000706

  3. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  4. Deciphering the dual effect of lipopolysaccharides from plant pathogenic Pectobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Kettani-Halabi; Daniel, Tran; Aurélien, Dauphin; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Rafik, Errakhi; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Florence, Val; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay; François, Bouteau

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a component of the outer cell surface of almost all Gram-negative bacteria and play an essential role for bacterial growth and survival. Lipopolysaccharides represent typical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules and have been reported to induce defense-related responses, including the expression of defense genes and the suppression of the hypersensitive response in plants. However, depending on their origin and the challenged plant, LPS were shown to have complex and different roles. In this study we showed that LPS from plant pathogens Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum induce common and different responses in A. thaliana cells when compared to those induced by LPS from non-phytopathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among common responses to both types of LPS are the transcription of defense genes and their ability to limit of cell death induced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum. However, the differential kinetics and amplitude in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation seemed to regulate defense gene transcription and be determinant to induce programmed cell death in response to LPS from the plant pathogenic Pectobacterium. These data suggest that different signaling pathways could be activated by LPS in A. thaliana cells. PMID:25760034

  5. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  6. Lipopolysaccharide induces intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis in a TNFalpha-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Tuffin, Gérald; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Stringent control of immune responses in the intestinal mucosa is critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and prevention of tissue damage, such as observed during inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal epithelial cells, primarily thought to form a simple physical barrier, critically regulate intestinal immune cell functions by producing immunoregulatory glucocorticoids on T-cell activation. In this study we investigated whether stimulation of cells of the innate immune system results in the induction of intestinal glucocorticoids synthesis and what role TNF-alpha plays in this process. Stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to an up-regulation of colonic steroidogenic enzymes and the induction of intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. The observed induction was dependent on macrophage effector functions, as depletion of macrophages using clodronate-containing liposomes, but not absence of T and B cells, inhibited intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. LPS-induced glucocorticoid synthesis was critically dependent on TNF-alpha as it was significantly decreased in TNF-alpha-deficient animals. Both TNF receptor-1 and -2 were found to be equally involved in LPS- and T-cell-induced intestinal GC synthesis. These results describe a novel and critical role of TNF-alpha in immune cell-induced intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. PMID:20056718

  7. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  8. Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Blew, Brian D M; Fazio, Luke M; Pace, Kenneth; D'A Honey, R John

    2005-12-01

    Classically, surgical options for very large prostate glands, not amenable to transurethral resection, include suprapubic or retropubic simple prostatectomy and Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). We present a case managed with a laparoscopic simple prostatectomy. Technical considerations are discussed as well as possible advantages of this approach including decreased blood loss, faster patient recovery and improved visualization. PMID:16401375

  9. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  10. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  11. Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Clover, R.H.; Kieber, J.; Signer, E.R. )

    1989-07-01

    Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix{sup +} on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix{sup {minus}} in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix{sup {minus}} on alfalfa.

  12. Neuroprotective Activity of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Biao; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Yu; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Li, Jie-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) mediated systemic inflammation plays a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major component in green tea, on LPS-mediated inflammation and neurotoxicity. LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). However, EGCG pretreatment of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines. In addition, EGCG significantly diminished LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). Supernatant from EGCG-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-EGCG-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. Furthermore, EGCG treatment of neurons could inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus EGCG represents a potent and useful neuroprotective agent for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders. PMID:27191001

  13. [Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Smolina, T P; Mikheĭskaia, L V; Ovodova, R G

    1979-12-01

    The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum. PMID:117655

  14. Sirtuin 4 Regulates Lipopolysaccharide Mediated Leydig Cell Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ramatchandirin, Balamurugan; Sadasivam, Mohanraj; Kannan, Arun; Prahalathan, Chidambaram

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the most important contributing factor in pathogenesis of bacterial infection in male accessory glands; and it has shown to inhibit testicular steroidogenesis and induce apoptosis. The present study demonstrates that LPS causes mitochondrial dysfunction via suppression of sirtuin 4 (SIRT4); which in turn affects Leydig cell function by modulating steroidogenesis and apoptosis. LC-540 Leydig cells treated with LPS (10 µg/ml) showed impaired steroidogenesis and increased cellular apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expression of SIRT4 were decreased in LPS treated cells when compared to controls. The obtained data suggest that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation suppresses SIRT4 expression in LPS treated Leydig cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of SIRT4 prevented LPS induced impaired steroidogenesis and cellular apoptosis by improving mitochondrial function. These findings provide valuable information that SIRT4 regulates LPS mediated Leydig cell dysfunction. PMID:26365714

  15. Octanoylation of early intermediates of mycobacterial methylglucose lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Maranha, Ana; Moynihan, Patrick J.; Miranda, Vanessa; Correia Lourenço, Eva; Nunes-Costa, Daniela; Fraga, Joana S.; José Barbosa Pereira, Pedro; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Ventura, M. Rita; Clarke, Anthony J.; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria synthesize unique intracellular methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLP) proposed to modulate fatty acid metabolism. In addition to the partial esterification of glucose or methylglucose units with short-chain fatty acids, octanoate was invariably detected on the MGLP reducing end. We have identified a novel sugar octanoyltransferase (OctT) that efficiently transfers octanoate to glucosylglycerate (GG) and diglucosylglycerate (DGG), the earliest intermediates in MGLP biosynthesis. Enzymatic studies, synthetic chemistry, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry approaches suggest that, in contrast to the prevailing consensus, octanoate is not esterified to the primary hydroxyl group of glycerate but instead to the C6 OH of the second glucose in DGG. These observations raise important new questions about the MGLP reducing end architecture and about subsequent biosynthetic steps. Functional characterization of this unique octanoyltransferase, whose gene has been proposed to be essential for M. tuberculosis growth, adds new insights into a vital mycobacterial pathway, which may inspire new drug discovery strategies. PMID:26324178

  16. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ouchi, Kenji; Inatomi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI). Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/site/mouse) induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE)) 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection. PMID:24799939

  17. Lipopolysaccharide modification in Gram-negative bacteria during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488

  18. Revisiting the Interaction between the Chaperone Skp and Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Burmann, Björn M.; Holdbrook, Daniel A.; Callon, Morgane; Bond, Peter J.; Hiller, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane comprises two main classes of components, lipids and membrane proteins. These nonsoluble compounds are conveyed across the aqueous periplasm along specific molecular transport routes: the lipid lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is shuttled by the Lpt system, whereas outer membrane proteins (Omps) are transported by chaperones, including the periplasmic Skp. In this study, we revisit the specificity of the chaperone-lipid interaction of Skp and LPS. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy measurements indicate that LPS interacts with Skp nonspecifically, accompanied by destabilization of the Skp trimer and similar to denaturation by the nonnatural detergent lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide (LDAO). Bioinformatic analysis of amino acid conservation, structural analysis of LPS-binding proteins, and MD simulations further confirm the absence of a specific LPS binding site on Skp, making a biological relevance of the interaction unlikely. Instead, our analysis reveals a highly conserved salt-bridge network, which likely has a role for Skp function. PMID:25809264

  19. [Biological activity of native and modified lipopolysaccharides of Pragia fontium].

    PubMed

    Varbanets', L D; Shubchyns'kyĭ, V V; Pokhyl, S I; Seĭfullina, I I; Shmatkova, N V; Samburs'kyĭ, S E

    2009-01-01

    Modified lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Pragia fontium were obtained with germanium complexes (IV) of 2-aminobenzoylhydrazon of salicylic aldehyde (2-NH2-H2Bs), 2-hydroxybenzoylhydrazon salicylic aldehyde (2-OH-H2Bs) and nicotinoylhydrazon of salicylic aldehyde (H2Ns). The modification of LPS was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Comparative investigations of pyrogenic activity of native and modified LPS showed, that only P. fontium 20125 LPS, modified by germanium complexes with 2-hydroxybenzoylhydrazon of salicylic aldehyde (2-OH-H2Bs) has lost the pyrogenic activity. In the homological reactions of double immunodiffusion in agar it was shown that all modified LPS unlike the native ones lose completely antigenic activity. PMID:19877414

  20. Consequences of Alteration in Leucine Zipper Sequence of Melittin in Its Neutralization of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Proinflammatory Response in Macrophage Cells and Interaction with Lipopolysaccharide*

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Raghvendra M.; Srivastava, Saurabh; Singh, Manish; Bajpai, Virendra Kumar; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2012-01-01

    The bee venom antimicrobial peptide, melittin, besides showing versatile activity against microorganisms also neutralizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory responses in macrophage cells. However, how the amino acid sequence of melittin contributes in its anti-inflammatory properties is mostly unknown. To determine the importance of the leucine zipper sequence of melittin in its neutralization of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages and interaction with LPS, anti-inflammatory properties of melittin and its three analogues and their interactions with LPS were studied in detail. Two of these analogues, namely melittin Mut-1 (MM-1) and melittin Mut-2 (MM-2), possess leucine to alanine substitutions in the single and double heptadic leucine residue(s) of melittin, respectively, whereas the third analogue is a scrambled peptide (Mel-SCR) that contains the amino acid composition of melittin with minor rearrangement in its leucine zipper sequence. Although MM-1 partly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 and rat primary macrophage cells in the presence of LPS, MM-2 and Mel-SCR were negligibly active. A progressive decrease in interaction of melittin with LPS, aggregation in LPS, and dissociation of LPS aggregates with alteration in the leucine zipper sequence of melittin was observed. Furthermore, with alteration in the leucine zipper sequence of melittin, these analogues failed to exhibit cellular responses associated with neutralization of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophage cells by melittin. The data indicated a probable important role of the leucine zipper sequence of melittin in neutralizing LPS-induced proinflammatory responses in macrophage cells as well as in its interaction with LPS. PMID:22128186

  1. Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health – a review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharide/s (LPS) are frequently cited in the cyanobacteria literature as toxins responsible for a variety of heath effects in humans, from skin rashes to gastrointestinal, respiratory and allergic reactions. The attribution of toxic properties to cyanobacterial LPS dates from the 1970s, when it was thought that lipid A, the toxic moiety of LPS, was structurally and functionally conserved across all Gram-negative bacteria. However, more recent research has shown that this is not the case, and lipid A structures are now known to be very different, expressing properties ranging from LPS agonists, through weak endotoxicity to LPS antagonists. Although cyanobacterial LPS is widely cited as a putative toxin, most of the small number of formal research reports describe cyanobacterial LPS as weakly toxic compared to LPS from the Enterobacteriaceae. We systematically reviewed the literature on cyanobacterial LPS, and also examined the much lager body of literature relating to heterotrophic bacterial LPS and the atypical lipid A structures of some photosynthetic bacteria. While the literature on the biological activity of heterotrophic bacterial LPS is overwhelmingly large and therefore difficult to review for the purposes of exclusion, we were unable to find a convincing body of evidence to suggest that heterotrophic bacterial LPS, in the absence of other virulence factors, is responsible for acute gastrointestinal, dermatological or allergic reactions via natural exposure routes in humans. There is a danger that initial speculation about cyanobacterial LPS may evolve into orthodoxy without basis in research findings. No cyanobacterial lipid A structures have been described and published to date, so a recommendation is made that cyanobacteriologists should not continue to attribute such a diverse range of clinical symptoms to cyanobacterial LPS without research confirmation. PMID:16563160

  2. [EFFECT OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ON NEUTRAL LIPID METABOLISM AND CELLULAR ENERGETICS IN FROG URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL CELLS].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E V; Fock, E M; Braylovskaya, I V; Bachteeva, V T; Lavrova, E A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Parnova, R G

    2015-09-01

    It was shown previously that colonization of the frog urinary bladder by gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder (Fock et al. J. Exp. Zool., 2013, 319A: 487-494). In the present work performed on epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder the influence of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neutral lipid metabolism and cellular energetics was studied. It was shown that incubation of cells with LPS led to decrease of fatty acids oxidation and to retention of triacylglycerols (TAG) followed by an increase of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and cellular amount of TAG. Fatty acid composition of TAG was not changed under LPS. LPS did not alter mitochondrial membrane potential, however, LPS decreased oxygen consumption rate both in basal and uncoupling conditions. Cellular ATP production was also reduced in the presence of LPS. The data obtained indicate that a decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder induced by bacterial pathogens could be related to inhibition of fatty acids oxidation and impaired energy metabolism. PMID:26672162

  3. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  4. Intraamniotic Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Changes Cell Populations and Structure of the Ovine Fetal Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Kuypers, Elke; Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Collins, Jennifer J. P.; Jellema, Reint K.; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Chorioamnionitis induces preterm delivery and acute involution of the fetal thymus which is associated with postnatal inflammatory disorders. We studied the immune response, cell composition, and architecture of the fetal thymus following intraamniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Methods: Time-mated ewes received an intraamniotic injection of LPS 5, 12, or 24 hours or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before delivery at 125 days gestational age (term = 150 days). Results: The LPS exposure resulted in decreased blood lymphocytes within 5 hours and decreased thymic corticomedullary ratio within 24 hours. Thymic interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL17 messenger RNA (mRNA) increased 5-fold 24 hours post-LPS exposure. Increased toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and nuclear factor κB positive cells at 24 hours after LPS delivery demonstrated acute thymic activation. Both TLR4 and IL1 mRNA increased by 5-fold and the number of Foxp3-positive cells (Foxp3+ cells) decreased 15 days after exposure. Conclusion: Intraamniotic LPS exposure caused a proinflammatory response, involution, and a persistent depletion of thymic Foxp3+ cells indicating disturbance of the fetal immune homeostasis. PMID:23314960

  5. Interactions between magainin 2 and Salmonella typhimurium outer membranes: Effect of lipopolysaccharide structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, F.R.; Macias, E.A.; Sultany, C.M.; Modzrakowski, M.C.; Blazyk, J. )

    1991-06-18

    The role of the outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the interaction between the small cationic antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 and the Gram-negative cell envelope was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Magainin 2 alters the thermotropic properties of the outer membrane-peptidoglycan complexes from wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and a series of LPS mutants which display differential susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of cationic antibiotics. These results are correlated with the LPS phosphorylation pattern and charge (characterized by high-resolution {sup 31}P NMR) and outer membrane lipid composition, and are compared to the bactericidal susceptibility. LPS mutants show a progressive loss of resistance to killing by magainin 2 as the length of the LPS polysaccharide moiety decreases. Disordering of the outer membrane lipid fatty acyl chains by magainin 2, however, depends primarily upon the magnitude of PLS charge rather than the length of the LPS polysaccharide. While disruption of outer membrane structure most likely is not the primary factor leading to cell death, the susceptibility of Gram-negative cells to magainin 2 is associated with factors that facilitate the transport of the peptide across the outer membrane, such as the magnitude and location of LPS charge, and concentration of LPS in the outer membrane, outer membrane molecular architecture, and the presence or absence of the O-antigen side chain.

  6. Heterogeneous Chemistry of Lipopolysaccharides with Gas-Phase Nitric Acid: Reactive Sites and Reaction Pathways.

    PubMed

    Trueblood, Jonathan V; Estillore, Armando D; Lee, Christopher; Dowling, Jacqueline A; Prather, Kimberly A; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-08-18

    Recent studies have shown that sea spray aerosol (SSA) has a size-dependent, complex composition consisting of biomolecules and biologically derived organic compounds in addition to salts. This additional chemical complexity most likely influences the heterogeneous reactivity of SSA, as these other components will have different reactive sites and reaction pathways. In this study, we focus on the reactivity of a class of particles derived from some of the biological components of sea spray aerosol including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that undergo heterogeneous chemistry within the reactive sites of the biological molecule. Examples of these reactions and the relevant reactive sites are proposed as follows: R-COONa(s) + HNO3(g) → NaNO3 + R-COOH and R-HPO4Na(s) + HNO3(g) → NaNO3 + R-H2PO4. These reactions may be a heterogeneous pathway not only for sea spray aerosol but also for a variety of other types of atmospheric aerosol as well. PMID:27445084

  7. The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipopolysaccharide of Pectinatus frisingensis strain VTT E-79104.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Evgeny; Li, Jianjun; Sadovskaya, Irina; Jabbouri, Said; Helander, Ilkka M

    2004-06-22

    The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipopolysaccharide from Pectinatus frisingensis strain VTT E-79104 was analyzed using chemical degradations, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. The LPS contains two major structural variants, differing in the presence or absence of an octasaccharide fragment. The largest structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the LPS, that could be deduced from experimental results, consists of 20 monosaccharides arranged in a nonrepetitive sequence: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where R is H or 4-O-Me-alpha-L-Fuc-(1-2)-4-O-Me-beta-Hep-(1-3)-alpha-GlcNAc-(1-2)-beta-Man-(1-3)-beta-ManNAc-(1-4)-alpha-Gal-(1-4)-beta-Hep-(1-3)-beta-GalNAc-(1- where Hep is a residue of D-glycero-D-galacto-heptose; all monosaccharides have the D-configuration except for 4-O-Me-L-Fuc and L-Ara4N. This structure is architecturally similar to the oligosaccharide system reported previously in P. frisingensis VTT E-82164 LPS, but differs from the latter in composition and also in the size of the outer region. PMID:15183738

  8. Lipopolysaccharide of Yersinia pestis, the Cause of Plague: Structure, Genetics, Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Knirel, Y.A.; Anisimov, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes data pertaining to the composition and structure of the carbohydrate moiety (core oligosaccharide) and lipid component (lipid A) of the various forms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the major pathogenicity factors ofYersinia pestis, the cause of plague. The review addresses the functions and the biological significance of genes for the biosynthesis of LPS, as well as the biological properties of LPS in strains from various intraspecies groups ofY. pestis and their mutants, including the contribution of LPS to the resistance of bacteria to factors of the innate immunity of both insect-vectors and mammal-hosts. Special attention is paid to temperature-dependent variations in the LPS structure, their genetic control and roles in the pathogenesis of plague. The evolutionary aspect is considered based on a comparison of the structure and genetics of the LPS ofY. pestis and other enteric bacteria, including otherYersinia species. The prospects of development of live plague vaccines created on the basis ofY. pestis strains with the genetically modified LPS are discussed. PMID:23150803

  9. Interactions of glycosphingolipids and lipopolysaccharides with silica and polyamide surfaces: adsorption and viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Jenia; Kaufman, Yair; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi; Walker, Sharon L; Freger, Viatcheslav; Herzberg, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial outer membrane components play a critical role in bacteria-surface interactions (adhesion and repulsion). Sphingomonas species (spp.) differ from other Gram-negative bacteria in that they lack lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in their outer membrane. Instead, Sphingomonas spp. outer membrane consists of glycosphingolipids (GSLs). To delineate the properties of the outer membrane of Sphingomonas spp. and to explain the adhesion of these cells to surfaces, we employed a single-component-based approach of comparing GSL vesicles to LPS vesicles. This is the first study to report the formation of vesicles containing 100% GSL. Significant physicochemical differences between GSL and LPS vesicles are reported. Composition-dependent vesicle adherence to different surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technology was observed, where higher GSL content resulted in higher mass accumulation on the sensor. Additionally, the presence of 10% GSL and above was found to promote the relative rigidity of the vesicle obtaining viscoelastic ratio of 30-70% higher than that of pure LPS vesicles. PMID:24835578

  10. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  11. How simple are 'simple renal cysts'?

    PubMed

    Simms, Roslyn J; Ong, Albert C M

    2014-09-01

    The increasing use of medical imaging as an investigative tool is leading to the incidental and frequent finding of renal cysts in the general population. The presence of a solitary or multiple renal cysts has been generally considered benign in the absence of a family history of renal cystic disease or evidence of chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, a number of recent studies have questioned this consensus by reported associations with the development of hypertension or malignant change. For these reasons, some clinicians consider the presence of renal cysts to be a contraindication to kidney donation. The situation is complicated by the different usage of the term 'simple' by some radiologists (to indicate non-complex lesions) or nephrologists (to indicate age-related non-hereditary lesions). We propose that the term 'simple' be replaced with the morphological description, Stage I renal cyst (Bosniak Classification). The presence of a Stage I renal cyst should not preclude kidney donation. However, occult renal disease should be excluded and appropriate donor assessment performed. PMID:25165175

  12. Early Childhood: Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clare B.; Shafer, Kathryn E.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages teachers to take advantage of the natural curiosity of young children in enhancing their interest in science. Describes four simple activities involving water, living and non-living things, air pollution, and food. (TW)

  13. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  14. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  15. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  16. Clinical and veterinary isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis defective in lipopolysaccharide O-chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Guard-Petter, J.; Parker, C.T.; Asokan, K.; Carlson, R.W.

    1999-05-01

    Twelve human and chicken isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis belonging to phage types 4, 8, 13a, and 23 were characterized for variability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition. Isolates were differentiated into two groups, i.e., those that lacked immunoreactive O-chain, termed rough isolates, and those that had immunoreactive O-chain, termed smooth isolates. Isolates within these groups could be further differentiated by LPS compositional differences as detected by gel electrophoresis and gas liquid chromatography of samples extracted with water, which yielded significantly more LPS in comparison to phenol-chloroform extraction. The rough isolates were of two types, the O-antigen synthesis mutants and the O-antigen polymerization (wzy) mutants. Smooth isolates were also of two types, one producing low-molecular-weight (LMW) LPS and the other producing high-molecular-weight (HMW) LPS. To determine the genetic basis for the O-chain variability of the smooth isolates, the authors analyzed the effects of a null mutation in the O-chain length determinant gene, wzz (cld) of serovar Typhimurium. This mutation results in a loss of HMW LPS; however, the LMW LPS of this mutant was longer and more glucosylated than that from clinical isolates of serovar Enteritidis. Cluster analysis of these data and of those from two previously characterized isogenic strains of serovar Enteritidis that had different virulence attributes indicated that glucosylation of HMW LPS (via oafR function) is variable and results in two types of HMW structures, one that is highly glucosylated and one that is minimally glucosylated. These results strongly indicate that naturally occurring variability in wzy, wzz, and oafR function can be used to subtype isolates of serovar Enteritidis during epidemiological investigations.

  17. Effects of Acarbose Addition on Ruminal Bacterial Microbiota, Lipopolysaccharide Levels and Fermentation Characteristics In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yu-yang; Liu, Yu-jie; Zhu, Wei-yun; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acarbose addition on changes in ruminal fermentation characteristics and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community in vitro using batch cultures. Rumen fluid was collected from the rumens of three cannulated Holstein cattle fed forage ad libitum that was supplemented with 6 kg of concentrate. The batch cultures consisted of 8 mL of strained rumen fluid in 40 mL of an anaerobic buffer containing 0.49 g of corn grain, 0.21 g of soybean meal, 0.15 g of alfalfa and 0.15g of Leymus chinensis. Acarbose was added to incubation bottles to achieve final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL. After incubation for 24 h, the addition of acarbose linearly decreased (p<0.05) the total gas production and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It also linearly increased (p<0.05) the ratio of acetate to propionate, the concentrations of isovalerate, valerate and ammonia-nitrogen and the pH value compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the addition of acarbose decreased (p<0.05) the proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and increased (p<0.05) the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and Synergistetes compared with the control. A principal coordinates analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac values and molecular variance analysis revealed that the structure of the ruminal bacterial communities in the control was different to that of the ruminal microbiota in the acarbose group. In conclusion, acarbose addition can affect the composition of the ruminal microbial community and may be potentially useful for preventing the occurrence of ruminal acidosis and the accumulation of LPS in the rumen. PMID:25358366

  18. Characterization of the lipopolysaccharide from a Rhizobium phaseoli mutant that is defective in infection thread development.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R W; Kalembasa, S; Turowski, D; Pachori, P; Noel, K D

    1987-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a Rhizobium phaseoli mutant, CE109, was isolated and compared with that of its wild-type parent, CE3. A previous report has shown that the mutant is defective in infection thread development, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that it has an altered LPS (K. D. Noel, K. A. VandenBosch, and B. Kulpaca, J. Bacteriol. 168:1392-1462, 1986). Mild acid hydrolysis of the CE3 LPS released a polysaccharide and an oligosaccharide, PS1 and PS2, respectively. Mild acid hydrolysis of CE109 LPS released only an oligosaccharide. Chemical and immunochemical analyses showed that CE3-PS1 is the antigenic O chain of this strain and that CE109 LPS does not contain any of the major sugar components of CE3-PS1. CE109 oligosaccharide was identical in composition to CE3-PS2. The lipid A's from both strains were very similar in composition, with only minor quantitative variations. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CE3 and CE109 LPSs showed that CE3 LPS separated into two bands, LPS I and LPS II, while CE109 had two bands which migrated to positions similar to that of LPS II. Immunoblotting with anti-CE3 antiserum showed that LPS I contains the antigenic O chain of CE3, PS1. Anti-CE109 antiserum interacted strongly with both CE109 LPS bands and CE3 LPS II and interacted weakly with CE3 LPS I. Mild-acid hydrolysis of CE3 LPS I, extracted from the polyacrylamide gel, showed that it contained both PS1 and PS2. The results in this report showed that CE109 LPS consists of only the lipid A core and is missing the antigenic O chain. Images PMID:3667520

  19. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  20. Examination of Lipopolysaccharide (O-Antigen) Populations of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans from Two Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Net acid-generating capacities of 39.74 kg of H2SO4 per ton (ca. 0.05 kg/kg) (pH 2.68) for the Lemoine copper mine tailings (closed ca. 8 years ago; located 40 km west of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada) and 16.07 kg of H2SO4 per ton (ca. 0.02 kg/kg) (pH 3.01) for the Copper Rand tailings (in current use and 50 km distant [east] from those of Lemoine) demonstrate that these sulfide tailings can support populations of acidophilic thiobacilli. Oxidized regions in both tailings environments were readily visible, were extremely acidic (Lemoine, pH 2.36; Copper Rand, pH 3.07), and provided natural isolates for our study. A 10% (wt/vol) oxalic acid treatment, which solubilizes both ferric sulfate and ferric hydroxide precipitates (B. Ramsay, J. Ramsay, M. deTremblay, and C. Chavarie, Geomicrobiol. J. 6:171-177, 1988), enabled the recovery of intact bacterial cells from the tailings material and from liquid synthetic medium for lipopolysaccharide analysis. No viable cells could be cultured after this oxalic acid treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoretic profiles of lipopolysaccharides extracted from the Lemoine tailings were complex, indicating a heterogeneous population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Six T. ferrooxidans subspecies as identified by lipopolysaccharide analysis (i.e., lipopolysaccharide chemotypes) were eventually isolated from a total of 112 cultures from the Lemoine tailings. Using the same isolate and lipopolysaccharide typing techniques, we identified only a single lipopolysaccharide chemotype from 20 cultures of T. ferrooxidans isolated from the Copper Rand tailings. This homogeneity of lipopolysaccharide chemotype was much different from what was found for the older Lemoine tailings and may reflect a progressive lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity of Thiobacillus isolates as tailings leach and age. Images PMID:16348925

  1. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  2. Structural Analysis and Involvement in Plant Innate Immunity of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Lipopolysaccharide*

    PubMed Central

    Casabuono, Adriana; Petrocelli, Silvana; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena G.; Couto, Alicia S.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, provoking defoliation and premature fruit drop with concomitant economical damage. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolysaccharides are important virulence factors, and they are being increasingly recognized as major pathogen-associated molecular patterns for plants. In general, three domains are recognized in a lipopolysaccharide: the hydrophobic lipid A, the hydrophilic O-antigen polysaccharide, and the core oligosaccharide, connecting lipid A and O-antigen. In this work, we have determined the structure of purified lipopolysaccharides obtained from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri wild type and a mutant of the O-antigen ABC transporter encoded by the wzt gene. High pH anion exchange chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrum analysis were performed, enabling determination of the structure not only of the released oligosaccharides and lipid A moieties but also the intact lipopolysaccharides. The results demonstrate that Xac wild type and Xacwzt LPSs are composed mainly of a penta- or tetra-acylated diglucosamine backbone attached to either two pyrophosphorylethanolamine groups or to one pyrophosphorylethanolamine group and one phosphorylethanolamine group. The core region consists of a branched oligosaccharide formed by Kdo2Hex6GalA3Fuc3NAcRha4 and two phosphate groups. As expected, the presence of a rhamnose homo-oligosaccharide as O-antigen was determined only in the Xac wild type lipopolysaccharide. In addition, we have examined how lipopolysaccharides from Xac function in the pathogenesis process. We analyzed the response of the different lipopolysaccharides during the stomata aperture closure cycle, the callose deposition, the expression of defense-related genes, and reactive oxygen species production in citrus leaves, suggesting a functional role of the O-antigen from Xac lipopolysaccharides in the basal response. PMID:21596742

  3. Structural analysis and involvement in plant innate immunity of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Casabuono, Adriana; Petrocelli, Silvana; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena G; Couto, Alicia S

    2011-07-22

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, provoking defoliation and premature fruit drop with concomitant economical damage. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolysaccharides are important virulence factors, and they are being increasingly recognized as major pathogen-associated molecular patterns for plants. In general, three domains are recognized in a lipopolysaccharide: the hydrophobic lipid A, the hydrophilic O-antigen polysaccharide, and the core oligosaccharide, connecting lipid A and O-antigen. In this work, we have determined the structure of purified lipopolysaccharides obtained from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri wild type and a mutant of the O-antigen ABC transporter encoded by the wzt gene. High pH anion exchange chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrum analysis were performed, enabling determination of the structure not only of the released oligosaccharides and lipid A moieties but also the intact lipopolysaccharides. The results demonstrate that Xac wild type and Xacwzt LPSs are composed mainly of a penta- or tetra-acylated diglucosamine backbone attached to either two pyrophosphorylethanolamine groups or to one pyrophosphorylethanolamine group and one phosphorylethanolamine group. The core region consists of a branched oligosaccharide formed by Kdo₂Hex₆GalA₃Fuc3NAcRha₄ and two phosphate groups. As expected, the presence of a rhamnose homo-oligosaccharide as O-antigen was determined only in the Xac wild type lipopolysaccharide. In addition, we have examined how lipopolysaccharides from Xac function in the pathogenesis process. We analyzed the response of the different lipopolysaccharides during the stomata aperture closure cycle, the callose deposition, the expression of defense-related genes, and reactive oxygen species production in citrus leaves, suggesting a functional role of the O-antigen from Xac lipopolysaccharides in the basal response. PMID:21596742

  4. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  5. Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide Modulate Gene Expressions of Drug Transporters in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Correlation to Inflammatory Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Tallkvist, Jonas; Artursson, Karin; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S. aureus and lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin secreted by E. coli. The studied transporters were Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1 and Oct1. In addition, Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, was analyzed. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response, gene expressions of the cytokines Il6 and Tnfα and the chemokine Cxcl2 were determined. Our results show that S. aureus and LPS treatment of cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, induced an up-regulation of Mdr1 and of the inflammatory biomarkers, except that Tnfα was not affected by lipopolysaccharide. By simple regression analysis we could demonstrate statistically significant positive correlations between each of the transporters with each of the inflammatory biomarkers in cells treated with S. aureus. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.7-0.9 for all but one correlation. After treatment of cells with lipopolysaccharide, statistically significant correlations were only found between Mdr1 and the two parameters Cxcl2 and Il6. The expression of Csn2 was up-regulated in cells treated with S. aureus, indicating that the secretory function of the cells was not impaired. The strong correlation in gene expressions between transporters and inflammatory biomarkers may suggest a co-regulation and that the transporters have a role in the transport of cytokines and chemokines. Our results demonstrate that transporters in mammary cells can be affected by infection, which may have an impact on transport

  6. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  7. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layoutmore » system using customized styles.« less

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dynamic Lipid Membrane Reorganization: Tubules, Perforations, and Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Peter G.; Lamoureux, Loreen; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique lipoglycan, with two major physiological roles: 1), as a major structural component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and 2), as a highly potent mammalian toxin when released from cells into solution (endotoxin). LPS is an amphiphile that spontaneously inserts into the outer leaflet of lipid bilayers to bury its hydrophobic lipidic domain, leaving the hydrophilic polysaccharide chain exposed to the exterior polar solvent. Divalent cations have long been known to neutralize and stabilize LPS in the outer membrane, whereas LPS in the presence of monovalent cations forms highly mobile negatively-charged aggregates. Yet, much of our understanding of LPS and its interactions with the cell membrane does not take into account its amphiphilic biochemistry and charge polarization. Herein, we report fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis of the interaction between LPS and fluid-phase supported lipid bilayer assemblies (sLBAs), as model membranes. Depending on cation availability, LPS induces three remarkably different effects on simple sLBAs. Net-negative LPS-Na+ leads to the formation of 100-μm-long flexible lipid tubules from surface-associated lipid vesicles and the destabilization of the sLBA resulting in micron-size hole formation. Neutral LPS-Ca2+ gives rise to 100-μm-wide single- or multilamellar planar sheets of lipid and LPS formed from surface-associated lipid vesicles. Our findings have important implications about the physical interactions between LPS and lipids and demonstrate that sLBAs can be useful platforms to study the interactions of amphiphilic virulence factors with cell membranes. Additionally, our study supports the general phenomenon that lipids with highly charged or bulky headgroups can promote highly curved membrane architectures due to electrostatic and/or steric repulsions. PMID:24896118

  9. Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Rezania, Simin; Amirmozaffari, Noor; Tabarraei, Bahman; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Zarei, Omid; Alizadeh, Reza; Masjedian, Faramarz; Zarnani, Amir Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important structural component of the outer cell membrane complex of gram negative microorganisms. Its causative role in gram negative bacteria-induced diseases and broad applications in different kinds of cell stimulation experiments provided a conceptual basis for studies directed at the isolation, purification, and detailed chemical characterization of LPS. The main problem with LPS purification protocols is the contamination of the end product with nucleic acids and proteins in variable proportions which could potentially interfere with downstream applications. In this study, a simple procedure for purification of LPS from Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) with high purity and very low contaminating nucleic acids and proteins based on the hot phenol-water extraction protocol has been introduced. The purity of extracted LPS was evaluated by silver and coomassie blue staining of SDS-PAGE gels and HPLC analysis. Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) coagulation activity and rabbit pyrogen assay were exploited to monitor the functionality of purified LPS. The results showed that DNase and RNase treatment of the sample is essential after the sonication step to eliminate nucleic acid contamination in the LPS fraction. Silver staining demonstrated ladder pattern which is characteristic of LPS. No contaminating protein was found as assessed by coomassie blue staining. HPLC fractionation revealed high degree of purity comparable with commercial LPS. Parenteral administration of purified LPS resulted in substantial increase of rabbits’ body temperature (mean: 1.45°C). LAL coagulation assay confirmed the functional activity of the purified LPS. In conclusion, the protocol presented here could be employed for isolation of LPS with high purity and functional activity. PMID:23407691

  10. Early morphofunctional plasticity of microglia in response to acute lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Madore, C; Joffre, C; Delpech, J C; De Smedt-Peyrusse, V; Aubert, A; Coste, L; Layé, S; Nadjar, A

    2013-11-01

    Within the central nervous system (CNS) the traditional role of microglia has been in brain infection and disease, phagocytosing debris and secreting factors to modify disease progression. This led to the concept of "resting" versus "activated" microglia. However, this is misleading because multiple phenotypic and morphological stages of microglia can influence neuronal structure and function in any condition and recent evidence extends their role to healthy brain homeostasis. The present work was thus aimed at reappraising the concept of morphofunctional activity of microglia in a context of peripheral acute immune challenge, where microglial activity is known to be modified, using the new state-of-the-art techniques available. To do so, mice were injected peripherally with lipopolysaccharide, a potent inducer of cerebral inflammation, and we assessed early cytokines production, phenotype, motility and morphology of microglial cells. Our results showed that LPS induced a widespread inflammatory response both peripherally and centrally, as revealed by the quantification of cytokines levels. We also found an alteration of microglial motility that was confirmed by in vivo studies showing an overall reduction of microglial processes length in the hippocampus of LPS-treated animals. Finally, analysis of various surface receptors expression revealed that LPS did not significantly impact microglial phenotype 2h after the injection but rather induced an increase of CD11b(+)/CD45(high) cells. These latter may be at the vasculature, at the CNS vicinity, or may have invaded the CNS. PMID:23994463

  11. Macrophage cytokine response to particles and lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A U; Barnes, F H; Charlebois, S J; Smith, R A

    2000-03-15

    Several investigators have suggested that biologic molecules adsorbed onto particles may play a key role in determining macrophage response. Adsorbed endotoxins (bacterial debris) may be of particular importance since they are widely present exogenously and endogenously and adhere strongly to many materials. Murine-transformed peritoneal macrophages (IC-21) were used in this in vitro study. Secretions of IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and IL-6 were used as a measure of macrophage response to micron-range particles of high-density polyethylene and Co-Cr-Mo alloy, with and without adsorbed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Little cytokine secretion was measured in response to particles (and to polypropylene experimental chambers) cleaned with ethanol and saline and not exposed to LPS. The lack of macrophage response to cleaned particles has been reported by others and may help reconcile conflicting reports in the literature. Cytokine secretion levels were high in all cases if the chambers (with or without particles) were exposed to LPS (and rinsed to minimize nonbound LPS). Secretion patterns were different with particles present and for polymer versus metal particles. Overall, these results suggest that (1) adsorbed molecules on material surfaces strongly affect macrophage response and (2) particle surface chemistry and microstructure affect the concentration and configuration of adsorbed molecules, further influencing particle interaction with macrophage surface receptors. PMID:10602080

  12. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-09

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the {beta} isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  13. Meningococcal lipopolysaccharides: virulence factor and potential vaccine component.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, A F; Snippe, H; Poolman, J T

    1993-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are surface components of the outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis. Today, 12 different types of meningococcal LPS (immunotypes) are known, of which 3 are prevalent in the western world. The differences between these immunotypes are in the oligosaccharide part of the LPS molecule and consist of small differences in the oligosaccharide structure, the amount and location of phosphoethanolamine groups, and the degree of O acetylation of individual monosaccharides. Although the differences between the various immunotypes are small, they have a profound influence on the immunochemical and immunological properties of these molecules. Furthermore, each individual strain synthesizes a number of different LPS molecules. The expression of the various components (protective epitopes) is influenced by growth conditions and growth phase. Meningococci can endogenously sialyate their LPS, which constitutes one of the mechanisms by which N. meningitidis can evade the response of the human host. Meningococcal LPS play a key role in the induction of septic shock and can probably enhance the invasiveness of meningococcal strains and shield protective epitopes. Therefore, incorporation of (detoxified) LPS or oligosaccharide components derived therefrom might be very beneficial for the efficacy of a vaccine against group B meningococci. An overview of the development of vaccines against group B meningococci is given, and the status and potential of meningococcal LPS-derived (synthetic) oligosaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines are discussed. PMID:8464406

  14. Deacylated lipopolysaccharides inhibit biofilm formation by Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Mi-Ae; Hwang, Won; Park, Hana; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2016-08-01

    The extracellular polysaccharides of Vibrio vulnificus play different roles during biofilm development. Among them, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is crucial for bacterial adherence to surfaces during the initial stage of biofilm formation, on the formation process was examined using various types of LPS extracts. Exogenously added LPS strongly inhibited biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the exogenous addition of a deacylated form of LPS (dLPS) also inhibited biofilm formation. However, an LPS fraction extracted from a mutant not able to produce O-antigen polysaccharides (O-Ag) did not have an inhibitory effect. Furthermore, biofilm formation by several Gram-negative bacteria was inhibited by dLPS addition. In contrast, biofilm formation by Gram-positive bacteria was not influenced by dLPS but was affected by lipoteichoic acid. Therefore, this study demonstrates that O-Ag in LPS is important for inhibiting biofilm formation and may serve an efficient anti-biofilm agent specific for Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27294580

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage phi PLS27-lipopolysaccharide interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Jarrell, K F; Kropinski, A M

    1981-01-01

    We investigated the phi PLS27 receptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by analyzing a resistant mutant. This mutant, which was designated AK1282, had the most defective LPS yet reported for a P. aeruginosa rough mutant; this LPS contained only lipid A, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, heptose, and alanine as major components. In addition, this LPS lacked galactosamine, which is present in the inner core of the LPS of other rough mutants. The loss of galactosamine but only a small decrease in the alanine content indicated that the core of strain PAO LPS differed from the core structure which has been suggested for the LPS of other well-characterized P. aeruginosa strains. Our analysis also indicated that galactosamine residues may be crucial for phi PLS27 receptor activity of the LPS. Electrodialysis of LPS and conversion to salt forms (sodium or triethylamine) influenced the phage-inactivating capacity of the LPS, as did the medium in which the inactivation occurred; experiments performed in 1/10-strength broth resulted in much lower PhI50 (concentration of LPS causing a 50% decrease in the titer of phage during 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C) values than experiments performed in regular-strength broth. Sonication of the LPS also increased the phage-inactivating capacities of the LPS preparations. PMID:6798225

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamesch, K; Borkham-Kamphorst, E; Strnad, P; Weiskirchen, R

    2015-04-01

    The intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with other hepatotoxins is an experimental model for inducing systemic and hepatic inflammation in rodents applied worldwide. The endotoxin is recognized by the LPS-binding protein. This complex binds together with the lymphocyte antigen 96 (MD2) and the pattern-recognition receptor CD14 to members of the toll-like receptor family. The activated receptor complex in turn transduces signals to well characterized intracellular cascades that result in a multifaceted network of intracellular responses ending in inflammation. The most prominent among these is the activation of the NF-κB pathway and the production of a multitude of inflammatory cytokines. Although the application of LPS is in general easy to perform, unintended variations in preparation of the injection solution or in handling of the animals might affect the reproducibility or the outcome of a specific experiment. Here, we present a well-standardized protocol that allows for an induction of highly reproducible acute hepatic inflammation in mice. Furthermore, examples of appropriate readouts for the resulting inflammatory response are given. PMID:25835737

  17. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. PMID:26530889

  18. Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, Maria Florencia; Sanchez, Susana; Bakas, Laura

    2009-05-22

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria during infections. It have been reported that LPS may play a role in the outer membrane of bacteria similar to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic plasma membranes. In this article we compare the effect of introducing LPS or cholesterol in liposomes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine on the solubilization process by Triton X-100. The results show that liposomes containing LPS or cholesterol are more resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 than the binary phospholipid mixtures at 4 {sup o}C. The LPS distribution was analyzed on GUVs of DPPC:DOPC using FITC-LPS. Solid and liquid-crystalline domains were visualized labeling the GUVs with LAURDAN and GP images were acquired using a two-photon microscope. The images show a selective distribution of LPS in gel domains. Our results support the hypothesis that LPS could aggregate and concentrate selectively in biological membranes providing a mechanism to bring together several components of the LPS-sensing machinery.

  19. Legionella pneumophila lipopolysaccharide activates the classical complement pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, C S; Schultz, D R; Arnold, P I; Johnson, W

    1992-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium capable of entering and growing in alveolar macrophages and monocytes. Complement and complement receptors are important in the uptake of L. pneumophila by human mononuclear phagocytes. The surface molecules of L. pneumophila that activate the complement system are unknown. To identify these factors, we investigated the effects of L. pneumophila lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the classical and alternative complement pathways of normal human serum by functional hemolytic assays. Although incubation of LPS in normal human serum at 37 degrees C resulted in the activation of both pathways, complement activation proceeded primarily through the classical pathway. Activation of the classical pathway by LPS was dependent on natural antibodies of the immunoglobulin M class that were present in various quantities in sera from different normal individuals but were absent in an immunoglobulin-deficient serum obtained from an agammaglobulinemic patient. Additional studies using sheep erythrocytes coated with LPS suggested that the antibodies recognized antigenic sites in the carbohydrate portion of LPS. The ability of LPS to interact with the complement system suggests a role for LPS in the uptake of L. pneumophila by mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:1612744

  20. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells compared to U3 cells. Amendment with EDTA inhibited U1 and U3 growth and degradation of the n-alkane component of BLC, suggesting a link between cell surface structure and crude oil degradation. U1 cells demonstrated a smooth-to-rough colony morphology transition when grown on BLC, while U3 cells exhibited rough colony morphology at the outset. Combining high-resolution atomic force microscopy of the cell surface and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we demonstrate that isolates grown on BLC have reduced O-antigen expression compared with that of glucose-grown cells. The loss of O-antigen resulted in shorter LPS molecules, increased cell surface hydrophobicity, and increased n-alkane degradation. PMID:12324360

  1. Arctigenin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianbao; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Dun; Xi, Huanjiu; Shan, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, ATG downregulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, promoted the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB-α (IκBα) and activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) in the lung tissues. Our results suggested that ATG attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via activation of AMPK and suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25008149

  2. Retention of bacterial lipopolysaccharide at the site of subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed Central

    Yokochi, T.; Inoue, Y.; Yokoo, J.; Kimura, Y.; Kato, N.

    1989-01-01

    The tissue distribution of Klebsiella pneumoniae O3 lipopolysaccharide (KO3 LPS) was studied in mice injected subcutaneously (s.c.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125I-labeled KO3 LPS. Marked retention of KO3 LPS radioactivity could be found at the site of s.c. injection for several weeks. On the other hand, about 85% of the radioactivity rapidly disappeared from the peritoneal cavity within 6 h after i.p. injection. The long-term presence of KO3 LPS at the injection site was also supported by experiments with 51Cr-labeled KO3 LPS and immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining methods. The R-form LPS lacking the O-specific polysaccharide chain of KO3 LPS and the lipid A fraction of KO3 LPS seemed to remain at the site in larger amounts and for longer times than KO3 LPS. There were no marked differences in the retention pattern at the injection site among KO3 LPS, Escherichia coli LPS, Salmonella typhosa LPS, and Salmonella enteritidis LPS. However, much less radioactivity accumulated in the livers and spleens of mice injected with either KO3 LPS or S. typhosa LPS compared with the other LPS preparations. It was suggested that retention of LPS at the site of s.c. injection may play an important role in the development of various biological actions of s.c. injected LPS. Images PMID:2722239

  3. Lipopolysaccharide does not affect acoustic startle reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R; Blaszczyk, Janusz; Sadowski, Bogdan; Sliwa, Adam T; Wolak, Patrycja; Tymosiak-Zielinska, Agnieszka; Lisowski, Pawel; Swiergiel, Artur H

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) evokes in rodents an adaptive sickness behavior. It also produces changes in stress hormones secretion and activity of brain serotonergic and noradrenergic systems that have been implicated in stress responses, fear, and anxiety. Acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is regarded as a protective behavioral response that is enhanced in threatening situations or following an aversive event, and it can be modulated by physiological and emotional state of an animal. Effects of intraperitoneal injections of LPS on ASR, prepulse inhibition (PPI), locomotor activity in open field, and blood plasma corticosterone concentration were studied in lines of mice that display high (HA line) or low (LA line) swim stress-induced analgesia and also differ in emotional behaviors, including the magnitude of ASR. In both lines LPS produced robust sickness behavior, as evidenced by a decrease in locomotion and body weight, and an increase in corticosterone concentration. However, in neither line LPS injections affected responses to acoustic stimuli as assessed by the ASR and PPI magnitudes. The findings suggest that in sickness behavior induced by LPS the protective responses to salient environmental stimuli are not impaired. The significance of this finding for the concept of sickness behavior is discussed. PMID:17651939

  4. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the catabolic activity of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1986-03-05

    The ability of macrophages to degrade and catabolize antigens is of relevance both as a means to process complex antigens prior to presentation to T cells, as well as a way to down regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations, the authors have investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of /sup 125/-I labelled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) subsequent to their uptake by macrophages. They have compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected i.p. with saline or LPS and have found that LPS-elicited macrophages display a greatly enhanced (3 fold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaks 3 days after LPS injection and steadily declines thereafter, approaching a baseline level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity is under LPS gene control. LPS-elicited macrophages rapidly destroy the antigenicity of bacterial antigens and function poorly as antigen presenting cells in vitro. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses.

  5. Proteomic Changes in Chicken Plasma Induced by Salmonella typhimurium Lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Makkar, Sarbjeet K.; Rath, Narayan C.

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are cell wall components of Gram-negative bacteria that produce inflammation and sickness in higher animals. The objective was to identify plasma proteomic changes in an avian model of inflammation. Chickens were treated with either saline or LPS, and blood was collected at 24 hours postinjection. The pooled plasma samples were depleted of high-abundant proteins and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). MALDI analyses showed an increase in fibrinogen beta-derived peptide and a decrease in apolipoprotein-AII-derived peptide in LPS samples. Label-free quantitation of LC–MS/MS spectra revealed an increase in the levels of α1-acid glycoprotein, a chemokine CCLI10, and cathelicidin-2, but a decrease in an interferon-stimulated gene-12-2 protein in the LPS group. These differentially expressed proteins are associated with immunomodulation, cytokine changes, and defense mechanisms, which may be useful as candidate biomarkers of infection and inflammation. PMID:27053921

  6. [SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES].

    PubMed

    Bulygina, T V; Yakovleva, L M; Brovarska, O S; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The serological and phytotoxic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of plant pathogens--Pantoea agglomerans were studied. It is known that the thin variations in the structure of the O-specific polysaccharides determining serological specificity of gram- negative bacteria and used as a molecular basis of serological classification schemes. For P. agglomerans still does not exist a classification scheme based on serology specificity of their LPS. The results of cross serological tests demonstrate immunochemical heterogeneity of species P agglomerans. Only three strains of the 8488, 8490 and 7969 according to the agglutination of O-antigens and direct hemagglutination and inhibition direct hemagglutination can be attributed to a single serogroup. Other strains--each separate group, although some have a relationship. Compared with control plants under the influence of seed treatment of LPS in plants may be reduced, and in some cases increased root length, height and weight sprout, depending on the strain from which the selected LPS. Dive seedlings of tomatoes in the solutions of the studied preparations FSC caused the loss, and after some time, restore turgor. PMID:26829835

  7. Lipopolysaccharide aggravates bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, O; Kokuryo, S; Tsurushima, H; Tanaka, J; Habu, M; Uehara, M; Nishihara, T; Tominaga, K

    2015-04-01

    The pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is highly controversial. We have previously reported the development of osteonecrosis by periodontal pathogenic stimulation in the jaw and femur of rats treated with bisphosphonate. Since the major toxicity factor of Gram-negative bacteria is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between osteonecrosis and LPS in a rat model of BRON-like lesions. Seventeen male rats were injected subcutaneously with zoledronic acid weekly for 4 weeks and divided into three groups: LPS (LPS administered into the bone marrow of the mandible and femur) and LPS plus polymyxin B (PMB) and saline groups (given neutralized LPS with PMB or saline, respectively, using the same protocol). At 4 weeks after the procedure, harvested specimens were analyzed using histomorphology (n=5 from each group) and histochemistry (n=1 each from LPS and LPS plus PMB groups). There was a significantly wider area of osteonecrosis in the LPS group as compared to the saline and LPS plus PMB groups in both the mandible (P=0.030 and P=0.009, respectively) and femur (P=0.002 and P=0.020, respectively). Our results indicate that LPS stimulation is deeply involved in the development and promotion of BRON. PMID:25442743

  8. Passive transfer of leishmania lipopolysaccharide confers parasite survival in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Handman, E.; Schnur, L.F.; Spithill, T.W.; Mitchell, G.F.

    1986-12-01

    Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania involves specific attachment to the host membrane, followed by phagocytosis and intracellular survival and growth. Two parasite molecules have been implicated in the attachment event: Leishmania lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) and a glycoprotein (gp63). This study was designed to clarify the role of L-LPS in infection and the stage in the process of infection at which it operates. The authors have recently identified a Leishmania major strain (LRC-L119) which lacks the L-LPS molecule and is not infective for hamsters or mice. This parasite was isolated from a gerbil in Kenya and was identified phenotypically as L. major by isoenzyme and fatty acid analysis. In this study they have confirmed at the genotype level that LRC-L119 is L. major by analyzing and comparing the organization of cloned DNA sequences in the genome of different strains of L. major. Here they show that LRC-L119 promastigotes are phagocytosed rapidly by macrophages in vitro, but in contrast to virulent strains of L. major, they are then killed over a period of 18 hr. In addition, they show that transfer of purified L-LPS from a virulent clone of L. major (V121) into LRC-L119 promastigotes confers on them the ability to survive in macrophages in vitro.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Apoptosis of Astrocytes: Therapeutic Intervention by Minocycline.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpita; Patro, Nisha; Patro, Ishan K

    2016-05-01

    Astrocytes are most abundant glial cell type in the brain and play a main defensive role in central nervous system against glutamate-induced toxicity by virtue of numerous transporters residing in their membranes and an astrocyte-specific enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). In view of that, a dysregulation in the astrocytic activity following an insult may result in glutamate-mediated toxicity accompanied with astrocyte and microglial activation. The present study suggests that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation results in significant astrocytic apoptosis compared to other cell types in hippocampus and minocycline could not efficiently restrict the glutamate-mediated toxicity and apoptosis of astrocytes. Upon LPS exposure 76 % astrocytes undergo degeneration followed by 44 % oligodendrocytes, 26 % neurons and 10 % microglia. The pronounced astrocytic apoptosis resulted from the LPS-induced glutamate excitotoxicity leading to their hyperactivation as evident from their hypertrophied morphology, glutamate transporter 1 upregulation and downregulation of GS. Therapeutic minocycline treatment to LPS-infused rats efficiently restricted the inflammatory response and degeneration of other cell types but could not significantly combat with the apoptosis of astrocytes. Our study demonstrates a novel finding on cellular degeneration in the hippocampus revealing more of astrocytic death and suggests a more careful consideration on the protective efficacy of minocycline. PMID:26188416

  10. Wogonoside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Ren, Yi; Yang, Chengliang; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Xiaojing; Hou, Gang; Guo, Xinjin; Sun, Nan; Liu, Yongyu

    2014-12-01

    Wogonoside has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wogonoside on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Male BALB/c mice with ALI, induced by intranasal instillation of LPS, were treated with wogonoside 1 h prior to LPS exposure. Mice treated with LPS alone showed significantly increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). When pretreated with wogonoside, the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, wogonoside significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases in the macrophage and neutrophil infiltration of lung tissues and markedly attenuated myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, wogonoside inhibited the TLR4 expression and the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, and IκB induced by LPS. In conclusion, our results indicate that wogonoside exhibits a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI via suppression of TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:24854163

  11. Immobilization and molecular interactions between bacteriophage and lipopolysaccharide bilayers.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hitesh; Gurczynski, Stephen; Jackson, Matthew P; Mao, Guangzhao

    2010-07-20

    The paper describes immobilization methods of bacteriophage P22 and tailspike gp9 proteins isolated from P22 on atomic force microscope (AFM) probes. The paper also reports single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) using AFM of the immobilized P22 (or gp9) interactions with substrate-supported O-antigenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) bilayers. LPS covers the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium. Evidence from AFM imaging and SMFS shows that immobilized P22 (or gp9) are capable of strong and multivalent binding to supported LPS. The most common rupture forces between P22 and LPS were identified to be 72, 130, 206, and 279 pN at force loading rate of 12,000 pN/s. The quantized unbinding force was found to decrease with decreasing force loading rate as predicted by the Bell model. By fitting the force data with the Bell model, an energy barrier of 55 kJ/mol was obtained. Evidence is also provided that demonstrates the resilience of phage to pH and temperature fluctuation as well as dehydration/rehydration cycles. The biospecific interactions between P22 and the LPS are relevant to cell infection, inflammation, cancer progression and metastasis, food safety, pharmaceuticals, and biosensor development. PMID:20481467

  12. Allergen immunotherapy with nanoparticles containing lipopolysaccharide from Brucella ovis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; Gamazo, Carlos; San Roman, Beatriz; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, Maria Luisa; Espuelas, Socorro; Irache, Juan M

    2008-11-01

    The adjuvant and protective capacity against anaphylactic shock of the association between rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella ovis (LPS) coencapsulated with ovalbumin (OVA), as a model allergen, in Gantrez AN nanoparticles was investigated. Several strategies were performed in order to study the adjuvant effect of the LPS either encapsulated or coating the nanoparticles. OVA, as well as LPS, was incorporated either during the manufacturing process (OVA-encapsulated or LPS-encapsulated nanoparticles, respectively) or after the preparation (OVA-coated or LPS-coated nanoparticles, respectively). After the administration of 10 microg of OVA incorporated in the different formulations, all the nanoparticles, with or without LPS, were capable of amplifying the immune response (IgG(1) and IgG(2a)). However, in a model of sensitized mice to OVA, the formulation with OVA and LPS-entrapped inside the nanoparticles administered intradermally in three doses of 3 microg of OVA each was the only treatment that totally protected the mice from death after a challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of OVA. In contrast, the control group administered with OVA adsorbed onto a commercial alhydrogel adjuvant showed 80% mortality. These results are highly suggestive for the valuable use of Gantrez nanoparticles combined with rough LPS of B. ovis in immunotherapy. PMID:18582571

  13. Characterization of the lipopolysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae 395 (Ogawa).

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, S

    1982-01-01

    The chemical structure and biological properties of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Vibrio cholerae 395 (Ogawa), isolated by the phenol-water procedure, were studied. Upon acid hydrolysis, the LPS was split into its polysaccharide and lipid A moieties. The polysaccharide contained both neutral (glucose, heptose, fructose) and amino (glucosamine, quinovosamine) sugars. The LPS contained the acid-labile amino sugar, 4-amino-arabinose, which was absent in the Inaba serotype of V. cholerae. The LPS differed from the LPSs of Enterobacteriaceae by the absence of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate and the presence of fructose. Analysis of the methylated polysaccharide by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that it had a branched structure with glucose and heptose residues primarily appearing at the nonreducing-end groups. Interactions with lectins, concanavalin A. and wheat germ agglutinin suggested that terminal glucose residues were alpha linked, whereas terminal glucosamine residues were connected by alpha-1,3 linkages. The major fatty acids of the LPS were C14:0, C16:0, C12h:0, and C14h:0 compounds, of which only the C14h:0 were amide linked, the remainder being ester linked to the backbone. Biological studies showed that the LPS possessed endotoxic properties such as lethality, pyrogenicity, limulus lysate gelation, and ability to induce non-specific resistance to infection. Thus, the LPS from V. cholerae 395 (Ogawa) possessed both common and distinct features as compared with the LPSs from the Enterobacteriaceae. Images PMID:7152669

  14. Biological and physicochemical properties of the lipopolysaccharide of Chromatium vinosum.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbert, R E; Hurlbert, I M

    1977-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chromatium vinosum has anticomplementary activity. This anticomplementary activity is destroyed by alkaline digestion of the LPS and is suppressed by both Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Treatment of the LPS with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium deoxycholate, or dimethyl sulfoxide did not affect its toxicity toward mice; however, alkaline-treated LPS was not toxic. Treatment of the LPS with sodium deoxycholate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in reversible dissociation into subunits. Aggregation of the subunits into the original form was achieved by removing the dispersing agent by dialysis against distilled water followed by freezing and thawing. Electron micrographs of phenol-extracted LPS showed long filaments. Electron micrographs of sodium deoxycholate- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-treated and dialyzed LPS showed a mixture of small subunits and short filaments, whereas dimethyl sulfoxide-treated and dialyzed LPS contained only small ovoid spheres. The LPS produced an ordered series of multiple bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A similar banding pattern was observed for Salmonella abortus-equi and Proteus mirabilis LPS. The C. vinosum LPS appears to be mitogenic for mouse spleen cells. Images PMID:892903

  15. Astrocytes Release Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Lipopolysaccharide Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Koyama, Yutaka; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that levels of long-chain fatty acids (FAs) including docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) increase in the hypothalamus of inflammatory pain model mice. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the increment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the brain during inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we characterized FFAs released by inflammatory stimulation in rat primary cultured astrocytes, and tested the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on these mechanisms. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation significantly increased the levels of several FAs in the astrocytes. Under these conditions, mRNA expression of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) in LPS-treated group increased compared with the control group. Furthermore, in the culture media, the levels of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) significantly increased by LPS stimuli compared with those of a vehicle-treated control group whereas the levels of saturated FAs (SFAs), namely palmitic acid (PAM) and stearic acid (STA), did not change. In summary, our findings suggest that astrocytes specifically release DHA and ARA by inflammatory conditions. Therefore astrocytes might function as a regulatory factor of DHA and ARA in the brain. PMID:27374285

  16. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes destabilization of lung surfactant-like films.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Olga; Keough, Kevin M W; Casals, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The airspaces are lined with a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-rich film called pulmonary surfactant, which is named for its ability to maintain normal respiratory mechanics by reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inhaled airborne particles containing bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may incorporate into the surfactant monolayer. In this study, we evaluated the effect of smooth LPS (S-LPS), containing the entire core oligosaccharide region and the O-antigen, on the biophysical properties of lung surfactant-like films composed of either DPPC or DPPC/palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG)/palmitic acid (PA) (28:9:5.6, w/w/w). Our results show that low amounts of S-LPS fluidized DPPC monolayers, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and changes in the compressibility modulus. This promoted early collapse and prevented the attainment of high surface pressures. These destabilizing effects could not be relieved by repeated compression-expansion cycles. Similar effects were observed with surfactant-like films composed of DPPC/POPG/PA. On the other hand, the interaction of SP-A, a surfactant membrane-associated alveolar protein that also binds to LPS, with surfactant-like films containing S-LPS increased monolayer destabilization due to the extraction of lipid molecules from the monolayer, leading to the dissolution of monolayer material in the aqueous subphase. This suggests that SP-A may act as an LPS scavenger. PMID:21190662

  17. Lipopolysaccharide, central in vivo biogenic amine variations, and anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Borowski, T; Kokkinidis, L; Merali, Z; Anisman, H

    1998-12-01

    Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a non-specific activator of proinflammatory cytokine release from macrophages, provokes sickness characterized by anorexia, soporific effects, and disturbances of locomotor activity and exploration. In addition, endotoxin treatment may provoke an anhedonic response. Assessment of anhedonia in appetitive paradigms, however, is compromised by the anorexia provoked by the treatment. The present investigation assessed the anhedonic effects of LPS on rewarding lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation. Using a simultaneous discrimination, current titration procedure in the assessment of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), it was found that acute systemic administration of LPS (50 microg, 100 microg or 200 microg) reduced ICSS during the ascending sequence of current presentations, but had little effect on responding to a series of descending currents. In a parallel experiment, peripheral administration of LPS (100 microg) increased in vivo dopamine (DA) efflux from the nucleus accumbens, a region thought to be involved in goal-directed responding to positively reinforcing stimuli. It is suggested that LPS alters ICSS in a manner different than that observed following stressor exposure or peripheral IL-2 treatment. Furthermore, LPS may engender an anhedonic effect (possibly secondary to sickness), and the decline of responding reflects the relation between the cost of responding given in the face of sickness and the reward received for responding. PMID:9875707

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates the Cytotoxicity of Resveratrol in Transformed Mouse Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Achy-Brou, Christelle A Adiabouah; Billack, Blase

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol and pterostilbene are natural products that are present in plants and have been incorporated into various dietary supplements. Numerous beneficial pharmacologic effects have been reported for these stilbenes; however, the mechanism by which these compounds exert a cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 macrophages has not been well characterized. We have previously described that resveratrol is toxic to these tumor-derived macrophages and that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces resveratrol toxicity via a mechanism that involves activation of toll like receptor 4. In the present work, we examined the cellular and molecular effects of resveratrol and the related compound pterostilbene by determining cell viability and caspase 3 activity in control and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated with these stilbenes for 24 h. We found that LPS stimulation reduced the cytotoxicity of resveratrol but not of pterostilbene in these cells. When examined for effects on caspase 3 activation after a 24 h incubation, resveratrol and pterostilbene were each found to separately and significantly increase caspase 3 activity in these cells. LPS stimulation prevented caspase 3 activation by pterostilbene and reduced caspase 3 activation by resveratrol in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The data presented here indicate that LPS induces a phenotype switch in tumor-derived RAW 264.7 macrophages in which cells experiencing LPS in the presence of resveratrol or pterostilbene become less likely to activate the pro-apoptotic factor caspase 3. PMID:27277074

  19. Lipopolysaccharide induces expression of collagen VI in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Sayuri; Unuma, Kana; Yamada, Atsushi; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of the lung during the septic systemic inflammatory response elicited by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.p. with 15 mg/kg LPS. After 24 h, the lungs were excised to evaluate the cellular responses to LPS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed that type VI collagen (ColVI) was extremely upregulated during sepsis in the rat lung within the first 24 h of LPS administration. Upregulation of ColVI protein and its mRNA was demonstrated by Western blot analysis, real time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the activation of ColVI in the rat lung at the early stage of systemic inflammation. Activation of ColVI might be involved in sepsis-mediated lung fibrosis at an early stage. PMID:26023260

  20. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the hemocyte apoptosis of Eriocheir sinensis *

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai-sheng; Lyu, Sun-jian; Xu, Jie-hao; Lu, Bin-jie; Zhao, Jing; Li, Song; Li, Yi-qun; Chen, Yu-yin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible toxicity mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from Gram-negative bacteria in Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes. Apoptotic hemocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the LPS were monitored by the combination of flow cytometry and microscope observation. It was shown that LPS induced serious damage on the DNA and morphological changes in hemocytes, including cell shrinkage, fracture of nucleus membrane, margination, condensation and fragmentation of chromatin, and formation of apoptotic bodies indicating obvious hemocyte apoptosis. As compared with the control group, the apoptotic cell ratio increased to 30.61% and 39.01% after 1-h exposure and 57.72% and 75.01% after 2-h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/ml LPS, respectively (P<0.05). Significant outburst of ROS production was observed in LPS-treated hemocytes with approximately 176.6% of relative dichlorofluorescein mean fluorescence at 1-h exposure, followed by a drastic decline (P<0.05). These results indicated that LPS would induce oxidative stress on hemocytes from E. sinensis and cause ROS burst, DNA damage, and subsequently apoptosis. The process of ROS-mediated apoptosis might be one of the potential toxicity mechanisms of LPS on crustacean hemocytes. PMID:26642180

  1. A method for generating pulmonary neutrophilia using aerosolized lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Roos, Abraham B; Berg, Tove; Ahlgren, Kerstin M; Grunewald, Johan; Nord, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe disease characterized by alveolar neutrophilia, with limited treatment options and high mortality. Experimental models of ALI are key in enhancing our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from gram positive bacteria induces neutrophilic inflammation in the airways and lung parenchyma of mice. Efficient pulmonary delivery of compounds such as LPS is, however, difficult to achieve. In the approach described here, pulmonary delivery in mice is achieved by challenge to aerosolized Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS. Dissolved LPS was aerosolized by a nebulizer connected to compressed air. Mice were exposed to a continuous flow of LPS aerosol in a Plexiglas box for 10 min, followed by 2 min conditioning after the aerosol was discontinued. Tracheal intubation and subsequent bronchoalveolar lavage, followed by formalin perfusion was next performed, which allows for characterization of the sterile pulmonary inflammation. Aerosolized LPS generates a pulmonary inflammation characterized by alveolar neutrophilia, detected in bronchoalveolar lavage and by histological assessment. This technique can be set up at a small cost with few appliances, and requires minimal training and expertise. The exposure system can thus be routinely performed at any laboratory, with the potential to enhance our understanding of lung pathology. PMID:25548888

  2. Genomic and Proteomic Studies on Plesiomonas shigelloides Lipopolysaccharide Core Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Regué, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We report here the identification of waa clusters with the genes required for the biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of two Plesiomonas shigelloides strains. Both P. shigelloides waa clusters shared all of the genes besides the ones flanking waaL. In both strains, all of the genes were found in the waa gene cluster, although one common core biosynthetic gene (wapG) was found in a different chromosome location outside the cluster. Since P. shigelloides and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a core LPS carbohydrate backbone extending up at least to the second outer-core residue, the functions of the common P. shigelloides genes were elucidated by genetic complementation studies using well-defined K. pneumoniae mutants. The function of strain-specific inner- or outer-core genes was identified by using as a surrogate acceptor LPS from three well-defined K. pneumoniae core LPS mutants. Using this strategy, we were able to assign a proteomic function to all of the P. shigelloides waa genes identified in the two strains encoding six new glycosyltransferases (WapA, -B, -C, -D, -F, and -G). P. shigelloides demonstrated an important variety of core LPS structures, despite being a single species of the genus, as well as high homologous recombination in housekeeping genes. PMID:24244003

  3. Human CAP18: a novel antimicrobial lipopolysaccharide-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Larrick, J W; Hirata, M; Balint, R F; Lee, J; Zhong, J; Wright, S C

    1995-01-01

    CAP18 (18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein) is a protein originally identified and purified from rabbit leukocytes on the basis of its capacity to bind and inhibit various activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report the cloning of human CAP18 and characterize the anti-LPS activity of the C-terminal fragment. Oligonucleotide probes designed from the rabbit CAP18 cDNA were used to identify human CAP18 from a bone marrow cDNA library. The cDNA encodes a protein composed of a 30-amino-acid signal peptide, a 103-amino-acid N-terminal domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal domain of 37 amino acids homologous to the LPS-binding antimicrobial domain of rabbit CAP18, designated CAP18(104-140). A human CAP18-specific antiserum was generated by using CAP18 expressed as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. Western blots (immunoblots) with this antiserum showed specific expression of human CAP18 in granulocytes. Synthetic human CAP18(104-140) and a more active truncated fragment, CAP18(104-135), were shown to (i) bind to erythrocytes coated with diverse strains of LPS, (ii) inhibit LPS-induced release of nitric oxide from macrophages, (iii) inhibit LPS-induced generation of tissue factor, and (iv) protect mice from LPS lethality. CAP18(104-140) may have therapeutic utility for conditions associated with elevated concentrations of LPS. PMID:7890387

  4. Chikusetsusaponin V attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yan Wen; Zhang, Chang Cheng; Zhao, Hai Xia; Wan, Jing Zhi; Deng, Li Li; Zhou, Zhi Yong; Dun, Yao Yan; Liu, Chao Qi; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Ting

    2016-06-01

    Chikusetsusaponin V (CsV), a saponin from Panax japonicus, has been reported to inhibit inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells. However, whether CsV could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury in vivo and the potential mechanisms involved remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CsV on LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and further explored the potential mechanisms involved. Our results showed that CsV significantly attenuated elevation of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and improved liver histopathological changes in LPS-induced mice. In addition, CsV decreased serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and inhibited mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS challenged mice. Furthermore, CsV inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by downregulating phosphorylated NF-κB, IκB-α, ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 levels in the liver tissue, which ultimately decreased nucleus NF-κB protein level. In conclusion, our data suggested that CsV could be a promising drug for preventing LPS challenged liver injury since it attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses, partly via inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26981791

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Antimicrobial Peptides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Shang, Dejing

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are usually small molecule peptides, which display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, high efficiency, and stability. For the multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains, AMPs play a significant role in the development of novel antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and specific antimicrobial mechanism. Besides broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, AMPs also have anti-inflammatory activity. The neutralization of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plays a key role in anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. On the one hand, AMPs can readily penetrate the cell wall barrier by neutralizing LPS to remove Gram-negative bacteria that can lead to infection. On the contrary, AMPs can also inhibit the production of biological inflammatory cytokines to reduce the inflammatory response through neutralizing circulating LPS. In addition, AMPs also modulate the host immune system by chemotaxis of leukocytes, to promote immune cell proliferation, epithelialization, and angiogenesis and thus play a protective role. This review summarizes some recent researches about anti-inflammatory AMPs, with a focus on the interaction of AMPs and LPS on the past decade. PMID:26612970

  6. Interleukin-1 in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Chorioamnionitis in the Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Clare A.; Nitsos, Ilias; Hillman, Noah H.; Pillow, J. Jane; Polglase, Graeme R.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that interleukin 1 (IL-1) mediates intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis in preterm fetal sheep. Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received IL-1α, LPS, or saline (control) by intra-amniotic injection 1 to 2 days before operative delivery at 124 ± 1 days gestational age (N = 5-9/group; term = 150 days). Recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) was given into the amniotic fluid 3 hours before intra-amniotic LPS or saline to block IL-1 signaling. Inflammation in the chorioamnion was determined by histology, cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA), protein expression, and by quantitation of activated inflammatory cells. Intra-amniotic IL-1 and LPS both induced chorioamnionitis. However, IL-1 blockade with IL-1ra did not decrease intra-amniotic LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, numbers of inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase, or monocyte chemotactic protein-1-expressing cells in the chorioamnion. We conclude that IL-1 and LPS both can cause chorioamnionitis, but IL-1 is not an important mediator of LPS-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep. PMID:21493953

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Cranberry Powder in Lipopolysaccharide Treated Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Jung Hee; Kwak, Ho-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P<0.05). In addition, the mean level of plasma total phenolics was significantly decreased by LPS injection (P<0.05) and tended to be increased when cranberry powder was incorporated in to the diet. Activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) tended to be lowered by LPS injection and declined further in cranberry powder fortified groups. Overall results indicate that dietary cranberry powder may provide appropriate antioxidants to counter the diminished antioxidant status induced by exposing hypercholesterolemic rats to LPS. PMID:25054105

  8. Biophysical characterization of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A inactivation by lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, K; Jürgens, G; Müller, M; Fukuoka, S; Koch, M H

    2001-08-01

    The interaction of bacterial endotoxins (LPS Re and lipid A, the 'endotoxic principle' of LPS) with the endogenous antibiotic lactoferrin (LF) was investigated using various physical techniques and biological assays. By applying Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, we find that LF binds to the phosphate group within the lipid A part and induces a rigidification of the acyl chains of LPS. The secondary structure of the protein - as monitored by the amide I band - is, however, not changed. Concomitant with the IR data, scanning calorimetric data indicate a sharpening of the acyl chain phase transition. From titration calorimetric and zeta potential data, saturation of LF binding to LPS was found to lie at a [LF]:[LPS] ratio of 1:3 to 1:5 M from the former and 1:10 M from the latter technique. X-ray scattering data indicate a change of the lipid A aggregate structure from inverted cubic to multilamellar, and with fluorescence (FRET) spectroscopy, LF is shown to intercalate by itself into phospholipid liposomes and may also block the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP)-induced intercalation of LPS. The LPS-induced cytokine production of human mononuclear cells exhibits a decrease due to LF binding, whereas the coagulation of amebocyte lysate in the Limulus test exhibited concentration-dependent changes. Based on these results, a model for the mechanisms of endotoxin inactivation by LF is proposed. PMID:11592403

  9. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  10. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  11. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  12. Simple Library Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Herbert H.

    A simple and cheap manual double entry continuous transaction posting system with running balances is developed for bookkeeping by small libraries. A very small library may operate without any system of fiscal control but when a library's budget approaches three figures, some kind of bookkeeping must be introduced. To maintain control over his…

  13. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

  14. On Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses San Francisco's Exploratorium, a science teaching center with 500 exhibits focusing on human perception, but extending to everything from the mechanics of voice to the art of illusion, from holograms to harmonics. The Exploratorium emphasizes "simple science" (refractions/resonances, sounds/shadows) to tune in the senses and turn on the…

  15. Simple Lookup Service

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    Simple Lookup Service (sLS) is a REST/JSON based lookup service that allows users to publish information in the form of key-value pairs and search for the published information. The lookup service supports both pull and push model. This software can be used to create a distributed architecture/cloud.

  16. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  17. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; et al

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kurt H; Gunsolus, Ian L; Kuech, Thomas R; Troiano, Julianne M; Melby, Eric S; Lohse, Samuel E; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B; Murphy, Catherine J; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M; Haynes, Christy L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2015-09-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment requires understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate the electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the outer leaflet-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed the electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. The association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides. PMID:26207769

  1. Lipopolysaccharide density and structure govern the extent and distance of nanoparticle interaction with actual and model bacterial outer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  2. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation. PMID:26729090

  3. Doenjang, a Fermented Korean Soybean Paste, Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide Production of Gut Microbiota in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Doenjang has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, fibrinolytic, antimutagenic, anticancer, and antiobesity effects. In our preliminary study, doenjang decreased fecal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in mice. Therefore, we investigated the effect of doenjang on the composition of gut microbiota in mice. Treatment with doenjang significantly increased the number of bifidobacteria cultured in BL media, compared with mice not treated with doenjang. However, doenjang decreased the number of Enterobacteriaceae cultured in DHL media. Doenjang significantly suppressed the β-glucuronidase activity, but did not influence α-/β-glucosaminidase and α-/β-glucosidase activities. When gut microbiota in mice treated with or without doenjang was analyzed by pyrosequencing, doenjang induced a significant modulation of the populations of the dominant gut microbiota. At the phylum level, doenjang treatment resulted in a significant decrease of Firmicutes and an increase of Bacteroidetes, which led to a decrease in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in gut microbiota. At the family level, the number of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased, while the number of Odoribacter_f was increased in doenjang-treated mice. Of colonic tight junction proteins, occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-1 in mice, occludin alone was significantly increased by treatment with doenjang. Although treatment with doenjang seemed to suppress NF-κB activation, it was not significant. Doenjang significantly suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α expression, whereas it did not influence interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 expression. However, doenjang increased IL-10 expression. Based on these findings, doenjang may promote gut health by regulating gut microbiota and its LPS concentrations and suppressing harmful enzyme production. PMID:24456356

  4. Biochemical analysis of proteasomes from mouse microglia: induction of immunoproteasomes by interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Stohwasser, R; Giesebrecht, J; Kraft, R; Müller, E C; Häusler, K G; Kettenmann, H; Hanisch, U K; Kloetzel, P M

    2000-02-15

    The 20S proteasome is a multicatalytic threonine protease and serves to process peptides that are subsequently presented as antigenic epitopes by MHC class I molecules. In the brain, microglial cells are the major antigen presenting cells and they respond sensitive to pathologic events. We used cultured mouse microglia and a microglial cell line, the BV-2 line, as a model to study the correlation between microglial activation parameters and structural plasticity of the 20S/26S proteasome. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated microglia or BV-2 cells exhibit properties of activated microglia such as high levels of TNFalpha and IL-6 release. In response to IFN-gamma or LPS, three constitutive beta subunits (beta1/Delta, beta2/MC14, beta5/MB1) were replaced by the immunoproteasome subunits ibeta1/LMP2, ibeta2/MECL-1, and ibeta5/LMP7, indicating that activated microglia adapts its proteasomal subunit composition to the requirements of an optimized MHC class I epitope processing. Induction of immunoproteasomes in BV-2 cells was solely provoked by IFN-gamma, but not by LPS. Moreover, LPS (but not IFN-gamma) triggered the expression of a novel protein of approximately 50 kD as part of the proteasome activator PA700, that is the substrate-recognizing and unfolding unit of the 26S proteasome. These results indicate that both the 20S core protease as well as the proteasome activator PA700 are targets of modulatory subunit replacements or transient association of regulatory components in the course of microglial activation. PMID:10652445

  5. A structural comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis loci of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major immuno-dominant antigen of all Legionella species including L. pneumophila. Its diversity is the basis for the classification of L. pneumophila into serogroups and monoclonal subgroups and is thought to be involved in strain specific virulence. The understanding of the genetic basis of the LPS-antigen is incomplete. Thus, we analyzed the genetic locus involved in LPS-biosynthesis of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Sg1) strains with the focus on strain specific gene composition. Results The LPS-biosynthesis loci of 14 L. pneumophila Sg1 strains comprise two distinct regions: A 15 kb region containing LPS-biosynthesis genes that can be found in all L. pneumophila strains and a Sg1-specific 18 kb region. The 15 kb region is highly conserved among Sg1 strains as reflected by high homologies of single ORFs and by a consistent ORF arrangement. In contrast, the Sg1 specific 18 kb region is variable and partially disrupted by phage related genes. We propose that the region spanning from ORF 6 to ORF 11 of the Sg1-specific region is likely involved in late LPS-modification. Due to the high variability of this small region and various combinations of single ORFs within this region a strain specific LPS-structure could be synthesized including modifications of legionaminic acid derivates. Conclusions Our data clearly demonstrate that the gene structure of the LPS-biosynthesis locus of L. pneumophila Sg1 strains show significant interstrain variability. These data can be used for further functional analysis of the LPS synthesis to understand pathogenesis and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, variable but strain specific regions can serve as basis for the development of novel genotyping assays. PMID:24069939

  6. Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti produce structurally conserved lipopolysaccharides and strain-specific K antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Reuhs, B.L.; Geller, D.P.; Kim, J.S.; Fox, J.E.; Kolli, V.S.K.; Pueppke, S.G.

    1998-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (K antigens) may influence the interaction of rhizobia with their specific hosts; therefore, the authors conducted a comparative analysis of Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti, which are genetically related, yet symbiotically distinct, nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts of legumes. They found that both species typically produce strain-specific K antigens that consist of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo), or other 1-carboxy-2-keto-3-deoxy sugars (such as sialic acid), and hexoses. The K antigens of each strain are distinguished by glycosyl composition, anomeric configuration, acetylation, and molecular weight distribution. One consistent difference between the K antigens of S. fredii and those of S. meliloti is the presence of N-acetyl groups in the polysaccharides of the latter. In contrast to the K antigens, the LPS of Sinorhizobium spp. are major common antigens. Rough (R) LPS is the predominant form of LPS produced by cultured cells, and some strains release almost no detectable smooth (S) LPS upon extraction. Sinorhizobium spp. are delineated into two major RLPS core serogroups, which do not correspond to species. The O antigens of the SLPS, when present, have similar degrees of polymerization and appear to be structurally conserved throughout the genus. Interestingly, one strain was found to be distinct from all others: S. fredii HH303 produces a unique K antigen, which contains galacturonic acid and rhamnose, and the RLPS did not fall into either of the RLPS core serogroups. The results of this study indicate that the conserved S- and RLPS of Sinorhizobium spp. lack the structural information necessary to influence host specificity, whereas the variable K antigens may affect strain-cultivar interactions.

  7. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating dairy cows on free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and indicators of inflammation were determined. Four mid lactation dairy cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows and used in a repeated switchover design. During each period, SARA was induced in 2 animals for 5 subsequent days by replacing 25% of their total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with a concentrate made of 50% wheat and 50% barley. The other 2 cows acted as controls and were fed a total mixed ration diet in which 44% of dry matter was concentrate. On average, inducing SARA did not affect milk composition, increased the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 from 187 to 309 min/d, and increased free ruminal LPS concentration from 24,547 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 128,825 EU/mL. Averaged across treatments, milk fat yield and milk protein yield were 0.66 and 1.00 kg/d, respectively. Rumen pH and milk fat data suggest that control cows also experienced ruminal acidosis, albeit a milder form of this disease than SARA cows. Serum LPS concentration in both control and SARA cows was less than the detection limit of <0.01 EU/mL for the assay. Induction of SARA elevated serum amyloid A concentration from 286.8 to 498.8 mug/mL, but did not affect other markers of inflammation including haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum copper, or white blood cells. These results suggest that grain-induced SARA in mid lactation dairy cows increases the lysis of gram-negative bacteria and activates an inflammatory response. PMID:17235162

  8. Occurrence of an Unusual Hopanoid-containing Lipid A Among Lipopolysaccharides from Bradyrhizobium Species*

    PubMed Central

    Komaniecka, Iwona; Choma, Adam; Mazur, Andrzej; Duda, Katarzyna A.; Lindner, Buko; Schwudke, Dominik; Holst, Otto

    2014-01-01

    The chemical structures of the unusual hopanoid-containing lipid A samples of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from three strains of Bradyrhizobium (slow-growing rhizobia) have been established. They differed considerably from other Gram-negative bacteria in regards to the backbone structure, the number of ester-linked long chain hydroxylated fatty acids, as well as the presence of a tertiary residue that consisted of at least one molecule of carboxyl-bacteriohopanediol or its 2-methyl derivative. The structural details of this type of lipid A were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, chemical composition analyses, and mass spectrometry techniques (electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and MALDI-TOF-MS). In these lipid A samples the glucosamine disaccharide characteristic for enterobacterial lipid A was replaced by a 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucopyranosyl-(GlcpN3N) disaccharide, deprived of phosphate residues, and substituted by an α-d-Manp-(1→6)-α-d-Manp disaccharide substituting C-4′ of the non-reducing (distal) GlcpN3N, and one residue of galacturonic acid (d-GalpA) α-(1→1)-linked to the reducing (proximal) amino sugar residue. Amide-linked 12:0(3-OH) and 14:0(3-OH) were identified. Some hydroxy groups of these fatty acids were further esterified by long (ω-1)-hydroxylated fatty acids comprising 26–34 carbon atoms. As confirmed by mass spectrometry techniques, these long chain fatty acids could form two or three acyloxyacyl residues. The triterpenoid derivatives were identified as 34-carboxyl-bacteriohopane-32,33-diol and 34-carboxyl-2β-methyl-bacteriohopane-32,33-diol and were covalently linked to the (ω-1)-hydroxy group of very long chain fatty acid in bradyrhizobial lipid A. Bradyrhizobium japonicum possessed lipid A species with two hopanoid residues. PMID:25371196

  9. Absence of gut microbiota influences lipopolysaccharide-induced behavioral changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline C; Rocha, Natalia P; Nicoli, Jacques R; Vieira, Leda Q; Teixeira, Mauro M; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2016-10-01

    Changes in the microbiota composition of gastrointestinal tract are emerging as potential players in the physiopathology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present work we evaluated the relationship between the absence of gut microbiota and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in a murine model of LPS-induced behavioral alterations. Germ-free (GF) or conventional male mice received a single i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS i.p.; 0.83mg/Kg) or PBS, and after 24h they were tested for depressive-like behaviors (forced swimming test, tail suspension test - TST, or sucrose preference test - SPT). After behavioral evaluation, animals were analyzed for possible changes in neuroplasticity by means of BDNF, NGF and cytokines levels in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and the expression of Iba-1 (microglial activation marker) in the hippocampus, and the cellular activity marker, ΔFosB, in the dorsal raphe nucleus. In conventional mice, LPS induced depressive-like behaviors. LPS-induced changes were followed by up-regulation of the expression of TNF and Iba-1 in the hippocampus. The same effects were not observed in GF mice. Behavioral effects of LPS were not observed in GF mice submitted to TST. GF mice present a lower response to the anhedonia-like effect induced by LPS when compared to conventional animals (SPT). There was up-regulation of ΔFosB in the dorsal raphe nucleus in the absence of gut microbiota, events not influenced by LPS treatment. Our results suggest that gut-microbiota interactions influence depressive-like behaviors, raphe nucleus activation and activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms within the hippocampus. PMID:27316342

  10. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation. PMID:26729090

  11. Inflammatory effects of Edwardsiella ictaluri lipopolysaccharide modifications in catfish gut.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Park, Jie-Yeun; Martin, Taylor; Loh, Amanda; Diaz, Ignacia; Rojas, Robert; Segovia, Cristopher; DeNardo, Dale; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are structural components of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and also are potent inducers of inflammation in mammals. Higher vertebrates are extremely sensitive to LPS, but lower vertebrates, like fish, are resistant to their systemic toxic effects. However, the effects of LPS on the fish intestinal mucosa remain unknown. Edwardsiella ictaluri is a primitive member of the Enterobacteriaceae family that causes enteric septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). E. ictaluri infects and colonizes deep lymphoid tissues upon oral or immersion infection. Both gut and olfactory organs are the primary sites of invasion. At the systemic level, E. ictaluri pathogenesis is relatively well characterized, but our knowledge about E. ictaluri intestinal interaction is limited. Recently, we observed that E. ictaluri oligo-polysaccharide (O-PS) LPS mutants have differential effects on the intestinal epithelia of orally inoculated catfish. Here we evaluate the effects of E. ictaluri O-PS LPS mutants by using a novel catfish intestinal loop model and compare it to the rabbit ileal loop model inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LPS. We found evident differences in rabbit ileal loop and catfish ileal loop responses to E. ictaluri and S. Typhimurium LPS. We determined that catfish respond to E. ictaluri LPS but not to S. Typhimurium LPS. We also determined that E. ictaluri inhibits cytokine production and induces disruption of the intestinal fish epithelia in an O-PS-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri wild type and ΔwibT LPS mutant caused intestinal tissue damage and inhibited proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, in contrast to E. ictaluri Δgne and Δugd LPS mutants. We concluded that the E. ictaluri O-PS subunits play a major role during pathogenesis, since they influence the recognition of the LPS by the intestinal mucosal immune system of the catfish. The LPS structure of E. ictaluri mutants is needed to

  12. Btk Regulates Macrophage Polarization in Response to Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ní Gabhann, Joan; Hams, Emily; Smith, Siobhán; Wynne, Claire; Byrne, Jennifer C.; Brennan, Kiva; Spence, Shaun; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Johnston, James A.; Fallon, Padraic G.; Jefferies, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a strong inducer of inflammation and does so by inducing polarization of macrophages to the classic inflammatory M1 population. Given the role of Btk as a critical signal transducer downstream of TLR4, we investigated its role in M1/M2 induction. In Btk deficient (Btk−\\−) mice we observed markedly reduced recruitment of M1 macrophages following intraperitoneal administration of LPS. Ex vivo analysis demonstrated an impaired ability of Btk−/− macrophages to polarize into M1 macrophages, instead showing enhanced induction of immunosuppressive M2-associated markers in response to M1 polarizing stimuli, a finding accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of STAT1 and enhanced STAT6 phosphorylation. In addition to STAT activation, M1 and M2 polarizing signals modulate the expression of inflammatory genes via differential activation of transcription factors and regulatory proteins, including NF-κB and SHIP1. In keeping with a critical role for Btk in macrophage polarization, we observed reduced levels of NF-κB p65 and Akt phosphorylation, as well as reduced induction of the M1 associated marker iNOS in Btk−/− macrophages in response to M1 polarizing stimuli. Additionally enhanced expression of SHIP1, a key negative regulator of macrophage polarisation, was observed in Btk−/− macrophages in response to M2 polarizing stimuli. Employing classic models of allergic M2 inflammation, treatment of Btk−/− mice with either Schistosoma mansoni eggs or chitin resulted in increased recruitment of M2 macrophages and induction of M2-associated genes. This demonstrates an enhanced M2 skew in the absence of Btk, thus promoting the development of allergic inflammation. PMID:24465735

  13. Analogies and homologies in lipopolysaccharide and glycoprotein biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hug, Isabelle; Feldman, Mario F

    2011-02-01

    Bacteria generate and attach countless glycan structures to diverse macromolecules. Despite this diversity, the mechanisms of glycoconjugate biosynthesis are often surprisingly similar. The focus of this review is on the commonalities between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and glycoprotein assembly pathways and their evolutionary relationship. Three steps that are essential for both pathways are completed by membrane proteins. These include the initiation of glycan assembly through the attachment of a first sugar residue onto the lipid carrier undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, the translocation across the plasma membrane and the final transfer onto proteins or lipid A-core. Two families of initiating enzymes have been described: the polyprenyl-P N-acetylhexosamine-1-P transferases and the polyprenyl-P hexosamine-1-P transferases, represented by Escherichia coli WecA and Salmonella enterica WbaP, respectively. Translocases are either Wzx-like flippases or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). The latter can consist either of two polypeptides, Wzt and Wzm, or of a single polypeptide homolog to the Campylobacter jejuni PglK. Finally, there are two families of conjugating enzymes, the N-oligosaccharyltransferases (N-OTase), best represented by C. jejuni PglB, and the O-OTases, including Neisseria meningitidis PglL and the O antigen ligases involved in LPS biosynthesis. With the exception of the N-OTases, probably restricted to glycoprotein synthesis, members of all these transmembrane protein families can be involved in the synthesis of both glycoproteins and LPS. Because many translocation and conjugation enzymes display relaxed substrate specificity, these bacterial enzymes could be exploited in engineered living bacteria for customized glycoconjugate production, generating potential vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:20871101

  14. Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardenas, W.; Dankert, J.R.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are strong stimulators of white river crayfish, Procambarus zonangulus, haemocytes in vitro. Following haemocyte treatment with LPS and with LPS from rough mutant R5 (LPS Rc) from Salmonella minnesota, flow cytometric analysis revealed a conspicuous and reproducible decrease in cell size as compared to control haemocytes. These LPS molecules also caused a reduction in haemocyte viability as assessed by flow cytometry with the fluorescent dyes calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. The onset of cell size reduction was gradual and occurred prior to cell death. Haemocytes treated with LPS from S. minnesota without the Lipid A moiety (detoxified LPS) decreased in size without a reduction of viability. The action of LPS on crayfish haemocytes appeared to be related to the activation of the prophenoloxidase system because phenoloxidase (PO)-specific activity in the supernatants from control and detoxified LPS-treated cells was significantly lower than that from LPS and LPS-Rc treated cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of trypsin inhibitor to the LPS treatments caused noticeable delays in cell size and viability changes. These patterns of cellular activation by LPS formulations indicated that crayfish haemocytes react differently to the polysaccharide and lipid A moieties of LPS, where lipid A is cytotoxic and the polysaccharide portion is stimulatory. These effects concur with the general pattern of mammalian cell activation by LPS, thereby indicting commone innate immune recognition mechanisms to bacterial antigens between cells from mammals and invertebrates. These definitive molecular approaches used to verify and identify mechanisms of invertbrate haemocyte responses to LPS could be applied with other glycoconjugates, soluble mediators, or xenobiotic compounds.

  15. Altered T Lymphocyte Proliferation upon Lipopolysaccharide Challenge Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poujol, Fanny; Monneret, Guillaume; Pachot, Alexandre; Textoris, Julien; Venet, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Context Sepsis is characterized by the development of adaptive immune cell alterations, which intensity and duration are associated with increased risk of health-care associated infections and mortality. However, pathophysiological mechanisms leading to such lymphocyte dysfunctions are not completely understood, although both intrinsic lymphocyte alterations and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) dysfunctions are most likely involved. Study The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS, mimicking initial Gram negative bacterial challenge) could directly impact lymphocyte function after sepsis. Therefore, we explored ex-vivo the effect of LPS priming on human T lymphocyte proliferation induced by different stimuli. Results We showed that LPS priming of PBMCs reduced T cell proliferative response and altered IFNγ secretion after stimulation with OKT3 but not with phytohaemagglutinin or anti-CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads stimulations. Interestingly only LPS priming of monocytes led to decreased T cell proliferative response as opposed to LPS priming of lymphocytes. Importantly, LPS priming was associated with reduced expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and CD64 on monocytes but not with the modification of CD3, CTLA4, PD-1 and CD28 expressions on lymphocytes. Finally, IFNγ stimulation restored monocytes accessory functions and T cell proliferative response to OKT3. Conclusion We conclude that LPS priming does not directly impact lymphocyte functions but reduces APC’s capacity to activate T cells. This recapitulates ex vivo indirect mechanisms participating in sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations and suggests that monocyte-targeting immunoadjuvant therapies in sepsis may also help to improve adaptive immune dysfunctions. Direct mechanisms impacting lymphocytes being also at play during sepsis, the respective parts of direct versus indirect sepsis-induced lymphocyte alterations remain to be evaluated in clinic. PMID:26642057

  16. Sickness behaviour after lipopolysaccharide treatment in ghrelin deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, Éva; Krueger, James M

    2014-02-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced mainly by the gastrointestinal system and the brain. Much evidence also indicates a role for ghrelin in sleep and thermoregulation. Further, ghrelin was recently implicated in immune system modulation. Administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces fever, anorexia, and increased non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) and these actions are mediated primarily by proinflammatory cytokines. Ghrelin reduces LPS-induced fever, suppresses circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and reduces the severity and mortality of various models of experimental endotoxemia. In the present study, we determined the role of intact ghrelin signaling in LPS-induced sleep, feeding, and thermoregulatory responses in mice. Sleep-wake activity was determined after intraperitoneal, dark onset administration of 0.4, 2 and 10 μg LPS in preproghrelin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, body temperature, motor activity and changes in 24-h food intake and body weight were measured. LPS induced dose-dependent increases in NREMS, and suppressed rapid-eye movement sleep, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity, motor activity, food intake and body weight in both Ppg KO and WT mice. Body temperature changes showed a biphasic pattern with a decrease during the dark period followed by an increase in the light phase. The effects of the low and middle doses of LPS were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. Administration of 10 μg LPS, however, induced significantly larger changes in NREMS and wakefulness amounts, body temperature, food intake and body weight in the Ppg KO mice. These findings support a role for ghrelin as an endogenous modulator of inflammatory responses and a central component of arousal and feeding circuits. PMID:24309634

  17. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide incorporated into liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, A B; Semenov, B F; Vartanyan, Y P; Zakirov, M M; Torchilin, V P; Trubetskoy, V S; Koshkina, N V; L'Vov, V L; Verner, I K; Lopyrev, I V

    1992-01-01

    To obtain nontoxic and highly immunogenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for immunization, we incorporated Neisseria meningitidis LPS into liposomes. Native LPS and its salts were incorporated by the method of dehydration-rehydration of vesicles or prolonged cosonication. The most complete incorporation of LPS into liposomes and a decrease in toxicity were achieved by the method of dehydration-rehydration of vesicles. Three forms of LPS (H+ form, Mg2+ salt, and triethanolamine salt) showed different solubilities in water, the acidic form of LPS, with the most pronounced hydrophobic properties, being capable of practically complete association with liposomal membranes. An evaluation of the activity of liposomal LPS in vitro (by the Limulus amoebocyte test) and in vivo (by monitoring the pyrogenic reaction in rabbits) revealed a decrease in endotoxin activity of up to 1,000-fold. In addition, the pyrogenic activity of liposomal LPS was comparable to that of a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Liposomes had a pronounced adjuvant effect on the immune response to LPS. Thus, the level of anti-LPS plaque-forming cells in the spleens of mice immunized with liposomal LPS was 1 order of magnitude higher and could be observed for a longer time (until day 21, i.e., the term of observation) than in mice immunized with free LPS. The same regularity was revealed in a study done with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study also established that antibodies induced by immunization belonged to the immunoglobulin M and G classes, which are capable of prolonged circulation. Moreover, liposomal LPS induced a pronounced immune response in CBA/N mice (defective in B lymphocytes of the LyB-5+ subpopulation). The latter results indicate that the immunogenic action of liposomal LPS occurs at an early age. PMID:1500196

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of Yersinia pestis Lipopolysaccharides on Human Macrophages ▿

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Haruo; Saito, Shinji; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Yersinia pestis grown at either 27°C or 37°C (termed LPS-27 and LPS-37, respectively). LPS-27 containing hexa-acylated lipid A, similar to the LPS present in usual gram-negative bacteria, stimulated an inflammatory response in human U937 cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). LPS-37, which did not contain hexa-acylated lipid A, exhibited strong antagonistic activity to the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response. The phagocytic activity in the cells was not affected by LPS-37. To estimate the activity of LPS in its bacterial binding form, formalin-killed bacteria (FKB) were prepared from Y. pestis cells grown at 27°C or 37°C (termed FKB-27 and FKB-37, respectively). FKB-27 strongly stimulated the inflammatory response. This activity was suppressed in the presence of an anti-TLR4 antibody but not an anti-TLR2 antibody. In addition, this activity was almost completely suppressed by LPS-37, indicating that the activity of FKB-27 is predominantly derived from the LPS-27 bacterial binding form. In contrast, FKB-37 showed no antagonistic activity. The results arising from the current study indicate that Y. pestis causes infection in humans without stimulating the TLR4-based defense system via bacterial binding of LPS-37, even when bacterial free LPS-37 is not released to suppress the defense system. This is in contrast to the findings for bacteria that possess agonistic LPS types, which are easily recognized by the defense system via the bacterial binding forms. PMID:19889939

  19. Chemical Structure of Lipid A Isolated from Flavobacterium meningosepticum Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hitomi; Haishima, Yuji; Iida, Takatoshi; Tanaka, Akira; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi

    1998-01-01

    The chemical structure of the lipid A of the lipopolysaccharide component isolated from Flavobacterium meningosepticum IFO 12535 was elucidated. Methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses showed that two kinds of hydrophilic backbone exist in the free lipid A: a β (1→6)-linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose, which is usually present in enterobacterial lipid A’s, and a 2-amino-6-O-(2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-d-glucose, in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.35. Both backbones were α-glycosidically phosphorylated in position 1, and the hydroxyl groups at positions 4, 4′, and 6′ were unsubstituted. Liquid secondary ion-mass spectrometry revealed a pseudomolecular ion at m/z 1673 [M-H]− as a major monophosphoryl lipid A component carrying five acyl groups. Fatty acid analysis showed that the lipid A contained 1 mol each of amide-linked (R)-3-OH iC17:0, ester-linked (R)-3-OH iC15:0, amide-linked (R)-3-O-(iC15:0)-iC17:0, and both amide- and ester-linked (R)-3-OH C16:0. Fatty acid distribution analyses using several mass spectrometry determinations demonstrated that the former two constituents were distributed on positions 2 and 3 of the reducing terminal unit of the backbones and that the latter two were attached to the 2′ and 3′ positions in the nonreducing terminal residue. PMID:9683486

  20. Ethanol versus lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia: involvement of urocortin.

    PubMed

    Turek, V F; Ryabinin, A E

    2005-01-01

    The urocortin1 (Ucn1) neurons of the mid-brain-localized Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) are robustly responsive to ethanol (EtOH) administration, and send projections to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which contains corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptors (CRF2) that are responsive to Ucn1. In addition, the DRN has been shown to be involved in regulation of body temperature, a function greatly affected by EtOH administration. The goal of the present study was to identify the role that the urocortinergic projections from the EW to the DRN have in mediating EtOH-induced and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hypothermia. Male C57BL6/J mice were used. Groups of mice underwent cannulation of the DRN, and then received i.p. injections of EtOH (2g/kg) or LPS (600 microg/kg or 400 microg/kg), followed by intra-DRN injections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) or anti-sauvagine (aSVG) (55 pmol), a CRF2 antagonist. Separate groups of mice received single intra-DRN injections of Ucn1 (20 pmol), CRF (20 pmol) or aCSF. For all experiments, core temperatures were monitored rectally every 30 min for several hours post-injection. Both EtOH and LPS induced hypothermia, and aSVG significantly attenuated this effect after EtOH; however, there was no significant attenuation of hypothermia after either dose of LPS. Ucn1 injection also caused hypothermia, while CRF injection did not. These data demonstrate that EtOH-induced hypothermia, but not LPS-induced hypothermia, may involve Ucn1 from EW acting at CRF2 receptors in the DRN. PMID:15964490

  1. Peripheral tumors alter neuroinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Pyter, Leah M.; Bih, Sarah El Mouatassim; Sattar, Husain; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is associated with an increased prevalence of depression. Peripheral tumors induce inflammatory cytokine production in the brain and depressive-like behaviors. Mounting evidence indicates that cytokines are part of a pathway by which peripheral inflammation causes depression. Neuroinflammatory responses to immune challenges can be exacerbated (primed) by prior immunological activation associated with aging, early-life infection, and drug exposure. This experiment tested the hypothesis that peripheral tumors likewise induce neuroinflammatory sensitization, or priming. Female rats with chemically-induced mammary carcinomas were injected with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 μg/kg; i.p.), and expression of mRNAs involved in the pathway linking inflammation and depression (interleukin-1beta [Il-1β], CD11b, IκBα, indolamine 2,3-deoxygenase [Ido]) was quantified by qPCR in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal cortex, 4 or 24 h post-treatment. In the absence of LPS, hippocampal Il-1β and CD11b mRNA expression were elevated in tumor-bearing rats, whereas Ido expression was reduced. Moreover, in saline-treated rats basal hypothalamic Il-1β and CD11b expression were positively correlated with tumor weight; heavier tumors, in turn, were characterized by more inflammatory, necrotic, and granulation tissue. Tumors exacerbated CNS proinflammatory gene expression in response to LPS: CD11b was greater in hippocampus and frontal cortex of tumor-bearing relative to tumor-free rats, IκBβ was greater in hippocampus, and Ido was greater in hypothalamus. Greater neuroinflammatory responses in tumor-bearing rats were accompanied by attenuated body weight gain post-LPS. The data indicate that neuroinflammatory pathways are potentiated, or primed, in tumor-bearing rats, which may exacerbate future negative behavioral consequences. PMID:24457042

  2. Lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness: protective or damaging response to the brain?

    PubMed

    Pardon, Marie Christine

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxins are widely used as experimental models of systemic bacterial infection and trigger robust inflammation by potently activating toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) expressed on innate immune cells. Their ability to trigger robust neuroinflammation despite poor brain penetration can prove useful for the understanding of how inflammation induced by viral infections contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. A single LPS challenge often result in a blunted inflammatory response to subsequent stimulation by LPS and other TLR ligands, but the extent to which endotoxin tolerance occur in the brain requires further clarification. LPS is also thought to render the brain transiently resistant to subsequent brain injuries by attenuating the concomitant pro-inflammatory response. While LPS hyporesponsiveness and preconditioning are classically seen as protective mechanisms limiting the toxic effects of sustained inflammation, recent research casts doubt as to whether they have beneficial or detrimental roles on the brain and in neurodegenerative disease. These observations suggest that spatio-temporal aspects of the immune responses to LPS and the disease status are determinant factors. Endotoxin tolerance may lead to a late pro-inflammatory response with potential harmful consequences. And while reduced TLR4 signaling reduces the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with LPS hyporesponsiveness can have deleterious consequences to the brain by inhibiting the protective phenotype of microglia, aggravating the progression of some neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Beneficial effects of LPS preconditioning, however appear to require a stimulation of anti-inflammatory mediators rather than an attenuation of the pro-inflammatory response. PMID:26662122

  3. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide incorporated into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Petrov, A B; Semenov, B F; Vartanyan, Y P; Zakirov, M M; Torchilin, V P; Trubetskoy, V S; Koshkina, N V; L'Vov, V L; Verner, I K; Lopyrev, I V

    1992-09-01

    To obtain nontoxic and highly immunogenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for immunization, we incorporated Neisseria meningitidis LPS into liposomes. Native LPS and its salts were incorporated by the method of dehydration-rehydration of vesicles or prolonged cosonication. The most complete incorporation of LPS into liposomes and a decrease in toxicity were achieved by the method of dehydration-rehydration of vesicles. Three forms of LPS (H+ form, Mg2+ salt, and triethanolamine salt) showed different solubilities in water, the acidic form of LPS, with the most pronounced hydrophobic properties, being capable of practically complete association with liposomal membranes. An evaluation of the activity of liposomal LPS in vitro (by the Limulus amoebocyte test) and in vivo (by monitoring the pyrogenic reaction in rabbits) revealed a decrease in endotoxin activity of up to 1,000-fold. In addition, the pyrogenic activity of liposomal LPS was comparable to that of a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Liposomes had a pronounced adjuvant effect on the immune response to LPS. Thus, the level of anti-LPS plaque-forming cells in the spleens of mice immunized with liposomal LPS was 1 order of magnitude higher and could be observed for a longer time (until day 21, i.e., the term of observation) than in mice immunized with free LPS. The same regularity was revealed in a study done with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study also established that antibodies induced by immunization belonged to the immunoglobulin M and G classes, which are capable of prolonged circulation. Moreover, liposomal LPS induced a pronounced immune response in CBA/N mice (defective in B lymphocytes of the LyB-5+ subpopulation). The latter results indicate that the immunogenic action of liposomal LPS occurs at an early age. PMID:1500196

  4. Ligustrazine effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiqi; Chen, Yuanzhuo; Li, Wenjie; Li, Congye; Zhang, Xiangyu; Peng, Hu; Gao, Chengjin

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of ligustrazine (tetramethylpyrazine, TMP) in alleviating pulmonary damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the blank group, LPS group, and TMP treatment group (TMP group). The LPS group was intraperitoneally injected with LPS (20mg/kg), and the TMP group was intraperitoneally injected with LPS (20mg/kg) and ligustrazine (80mg/kg). Blood gas analysis, hematoxylin-eosin staining dye extravasation and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) score, the wet/dry lung tissue (W/D) ratios, the expression of CD31+ vascular endothelial microparticles (EMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels, and the protein expression of Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming protein kinase (ROCK) II and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were analyzed. Compared with the blank group, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) declined in both 1 and 4h (P<0.01), the W/D ratio and DAD score increased (P<0.01), and the TNF-α levels in serum, CD31+ EMPs, and protein expression of ROCK II and TLR4 were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the LPS group. Compared with the LPS group, PaO2 significantly increased in the TMP group at 4h (P<0.05), while the W/D ratio and DAD score were significantly decreased in the TMP group (P<0.01). TNF-α levels, CD31+ EMPs, and protein expression of ROCK II and TLR4 were significantly decreased in the TMP group compared with the LPS group (P<0.01). This study demonstrated that TMP can alleviate LPS-induced pulmonary damage by attenuating pulmonary vascular permeability and CD31+ EMP levels in the plasma, reducing the release of the inflammatory mediator TNF-α and inhibiting the protein expression of ROCK II and TLR4. PMID:26088147

  5. Lumican overexpression exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced renal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Ling; Jin, Yu-Nan; Yu, Yan-Qiu

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of lumican in mice with endotoxin-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Lumican transgenic mice and wild‑type mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg) to establish a model of ARF. The mice were sacrificed at 24 h and the blood and renal tissue samples were collected. The value of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured to determine renal function. An ELISA was used to determined the concentrations of renal cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑4 and IL‑10. The protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)κB in renal tissues were assessed using western blot analysis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling was performed to monitor apoptosis of renal tissue. Light microscopy and electron microscopy were used to observe structural changes in the renal tissues. Following the administration of LPS, the SCr and BUN values of mice in the lumican transgenic group were higher compared with those in the control group. The expression levels of renal TLR4, NFκB, TNFα, IL‑6, IL‑4 and IL‑10 were upregulated in the lumican transgenic mice compared with those in the wild‑type control group. Apoptosis was detected predominantly on the renal tubule. There was a significant difference in the optical density of apoptotic bodies between the control mice and the lumican transgenic mice. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated more severe renal tissue injury in the lumican transgenic mice compared with that in the control mice. In conclusion, LPS may cause excessive apoptosis in the renal tubular cells via the TLR4 signal transduction pathway, a decrease in the number of renal tubular cells and ARF. Lumican may be important in mice with LPS-induced ARF. PMID:26081832

  6. Impaired phagocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Duchow, J; Marchant, A; Crusiaux, A; Husson, C; Alonso-Vega, C; De Groote, D; Neve, P; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells from patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) show a defect in the expression of phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins, including the CD14 molecule. Blocking experiments with anti-CD14 monoclonal antibodies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by monocytes depends on the interaction between CD14 and a complex formed by LPS and LPS-binding protein. We used a whole-blood model to examine the LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in PNH patients and healthy volunteers. At low endotoxin concentrations (1 ng/ml), PNH patients displayed a marked defect in the production of both cytokines, whereas at high LPS concentrations (100 ng/ml), cytokine production was similar to that in healthy volunteers. Using flow cytometry, we also studied the expression of the adhesion molecules Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and ICAM-1 (CD54) by monocytes and granulocytes after LPS stimulation. Compared with phagocytes from healthy volunteers, CD14-deficient cells showed poor Mac-1 and ICAM-1 upregulation when whole blood was stimulated with LPS (1 ng/ml), whereas their response to higher LPS doses (100 and 1,000 ng/ml) was essentially normal. The importance of the CD14 molecule in the activation of phagocytes by low LPS concentrations was confirmed by the inhibitory effect of an anti-CD14 antibody both in healthy volunteers and in PNH patients. Since these patients produce the soluble form of the CD14 molecule, these data suggest that soluble CD14 could play a role in phagocyte responses to LPS. We conclude that, in whole blood, phagocytes from PNH patients show impaired responsiveness to LPS and this phenomenon is most probably related to their defect in expression of membrane CD14. PMID:7691746

  7. Montelukast attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Khodir, A E; Ghoneim, H A; Rahim, M A; Suddek, G M

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the possible protective effects of montelukast (MNT) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac injury, in comparison to dexamethasone (DEX), a standard anti-inflammatory. Male Sprague Dawley rats (160-180 g) were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group): (1) control; (2) LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)); (3) LPS + MNT (10 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)); (4) LPS + MNT (20 mg/kg, p.o.); and (5) LPS + DEX (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Twenty-four hours after LPS injection, heart/body weight (BW) ratio and percent survival of rats were determined. Serum total protein, creatine kinase muscle/brain (CK-MB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured. Heart samples were taken for histological assessment and for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents. Cardiac tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. LPS significantly increased heart/BW ratio, serum CK-MB, ALP, and LDH activities and decreased percent survival and serum total protein levels. MDA content increased in heart tissues with a concomitant reduction in GSH content. Immunohistochemical staining of heart specimens from LPS-treated rats revealed high expression of TNF-α. MNT significantly reduced percent mortality and suppressed the release of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers when compared with LPS group. Additionally, MNT effectively preserved tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation. MNT (20 mg/kg) was more effective in alleviating LPS-induced heart injury when compared with both MNT (10 mg/kg) and DEX (1 mg/kg), as evidenced by decrease in positive staining by TNF-α immunohistochemically, decrease MDA, and increase GSH content in heart tissue. This study demonstrates that MNT might have cardioprotective effects against the inflammatory process during endotoxemia. This effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26089034

  8. Lipopolysaccharides as Determinants of Serological Variability in Pseudomonas corrugata

    PubMed Central

    Siverio, F.; Cambra, M.; Gorris, M. T.; Corzo, J.; Lopez, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The variation in biochemical and serological features of 128 isolates of Pseudomonas corrugata has been studied with 56 isolates from Spain and 72 isolates from other countries. Isolates were analyzed with common diagnostic tests and with the AP150CHE system. Variability among isolates for some standard tests usually listed as positive or negative for this species, such as arginine dihydrolase and gelatin hydrolysis, lipase and lecithinase activities, pigment production, and wrinkled colony morphology, was observed. Three antisera were raised against the type strain and two Spanish isolates from tomato and pepper plants. Serological reactions were studied by indirect immunofluorescence and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eighty-three isolates reacted with a single antiserum, 6 reacted with two antisera, and none reacted with three antisera. Thirty-nine isolates did not react with any of the three antisera. These results suggest that serology will not be a useful method for routine diagnosis of P. corrugata unless common antigens can be identified. Electrophoresis and immunoelectrotransfer were used to study the antigens involved. Each antiserum reacted with whole-cell lysates, giving two common bands for P. corrugata isolates and other Pseudomonas species and a ladder-like pattern characteristic of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Common bands were not observed after proteinase K treatment. More than 10 LPS patterns were distinguished in 98 isolates after silver staining of polyacrylamide gels. There was no correlation between the geographical origin or host of the isolates and the LPS patterns. A correlation between LPS groups and serological reaction was observed. Images PMID:16348957

  9. Astragalus saponins Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Ren, Tianjing; Zheng, Lucong; Chen, Hubiao; Ko, Joshua Kashun; Auyeung, Kathy Kawai

    2016-01-01

    Excessive nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced during the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. It has been demonstrated that anti-inflammation contributes Astragalus membranaceus saponins (AST)'s beneficial effects in combination of conventional anticancer drugs. However, the immunomodulating property of AST has not been well characterized. In this study, we found that AST suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced generation of NO without causing cytotoxicity in the mouse macrophage RAW264.7. The gene and protein overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text], evoked by LPS, was consistently down-regulated by AST. AST also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-[Formula: see text]B activation and the associated I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] degradation during LPS insult. Furthermore, AST induced growth inhibition in promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and T-lymphocyte leukemic Jurkat cells, but exerted no cytotoxic effects in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). It is known that the chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU can suppress the immune system, which can be identified by a reduced white blood cell count and decreased hematocrit, while the combination of AST and 5-FU can reverse the above hematologic toxicities. To summarize, non-cytotoxic concentrations of AST suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses via the modulation of p38 MAPK signaling and the inhibition of NO and cytokine release. Importantly, AST can alleviate the hematologic side effects of current chemotherapeutic agents. These findings can facilitate the establishment of AST in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and inflammation-mediated tumor development. PMID:27109155

  10. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Results Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24886300

  11. Working with simple machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-11-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that students can evaluate their usefulness as machines.

  12. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  13. Beryllium Alters Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Intracellular Phosphorylation and Cytokine Release in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M.; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide - mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We find that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1β is enhanced. Additionally, not all lipopolysaccharide - mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1β secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling. PMID:19894180

  14. Probabilistic simple splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2014-06-01

    A splicing system, one of the early theoretical models for DNA computing was introduced by Head in 1987. Splicing systems are based on the splicing operation which, informally, cuts two strings of DNA molecules at the specific recognition sites and attaches the prefix of the first string to the suffix of the second string, and the prefix of the second string to the suffix of the first string, thus yielding the new strings. For a specific type of splicing systems, namely the simple splicing systems, the recognition sites are the same for both strings of DNA molecules. It is known that splicing systems with finite sets of axioms and splicing rules only generate regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered for splicing systems in order to increase their computational power. Recently, probabilistic splicing systems have been introduced where the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probabilities of the generated strings are computed from the probabilities of the initial strings. In this paper, some properties of probabilistic simple splicing systems are investigated. We prove that probabilistic simple splicing systems can also increase the computational power of the splicing languages generated.

  15. Composite materials: Testing and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, John D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the analysis of composite structures, composite materials' impact and compression behavior, composite materials characterization methods, composite failure mechanisms, NDE methods for composites, and filament-wound and woven composite materials' fabrication. Attention is given to the automated design of a composite plate for damage tolerance, the effects of adhesive layers on composite laminate impact damage, instability-related delamination growth in thermoset and thermoplastic composites, a simple shear fatigue test for unidirectional E-glass epoxy, the growth of elliptic delaminations in laminates under cyclic transverse shear, and the mechanical behavior of braided composite materials.

  16. Simple sequence repeats in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Power, Peter M; Sweetman, W A; Gallacher, N J; Woodhall, M R; Kumar, G A; Moxon, E R; Hood, D W

    2009-03-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSRs) of DNA are subject to high rates of mutation and are important mediators of adaptation in Haemophilus influenzae. Previous studies of the Rd KW20 genome identified the primacy of tetranucleotide SSRs in mediating phase variation (the rapid reversible switching of gene expression) of surface exposed structures such as lipopolysaccharide. The recent sequencing of the genomes of multiple strains of H. influenzae allowed the comparison of the SSRs (repeat units of one to nine nucleotides in length) in detail across four complete H. influenzae genomes and then comparison with a further 12 genomes when they became available. The SSR loci were broadly classified into three groups: (1) those that did not vary; (2) those for which some variation between strains was observed but this could not be linked to variation of gene expression; and (3) those that both varied and were located in regions consistent with mediating phase variable gene expression. Comparative analysis of 988 SSR associated loci confirmed that tetranucleotide repeats were the major mediators of phase variation and extended the repertoire of known tetranucleotide SSR loci by identifying ten previously uncharacterised tetranucleotide SSR loci with the potential to mediate phase variation which were unequally distributed across the H. influenzae pan-genome. Further, analysis of non-tetranucleotide SSR in the 16 strains revealed a number of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, pentanucleotide, heptanucleotide, and octanucleotide SSRs which were consistent with these tracts mediating phase variation. This study substantiates previous findings as to the important role that tetranucleotide SSRs play in H. influenzae biology. Two Brazilian isolates showed the most variation in their complement of SSRs suggesting the possibility of geographic and phenotypic influences on SSR distribution. PMID:19095084

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-Related Stimuli Induce Expression of the Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor, a Macrophage-Derived Lipopolysaccharide Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fenyu; Nathan, Carl F.; Radzioch, Danuta; Ding, Aihao

    1998-01-01

    Mouse secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) was recently characterized as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced product of macrophages that antagonizes their LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and production of NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (F. Y. Jin, C. Nathan, D. Radzioch, and A. Ding, Cell 88:417–426, 1997). To better understand the role of SLPI in innate immune and inflammatory responses, we examined the kinetics of SLPI expression in response to LPS, LPS-induced cytokines, and LPS-mimetic compounds. SLPI mRNA was detectable in macrophages by Northern blot analysis within 30 min of exposure to LPS but levels peaked only at 24 to 36 h and remained elevated at 72 h. Despite the slowly mounting and prolonged response, early expression of SLPI mRNA was cycloheximide resistant. Two LPS-induced proteins—interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-6—also induced SLPI, while TNF and IL-1β did not. The slow attainment of maximal induction of SLPI by LPS in vitro was mimicked by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo, where SLPI expression in the lung peaked at 3 days. Two LPS-mimetic molecules—taxol from yew bark and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from gram-positive bacterial cell walls—also induced SLPI. Transfection of macrophages with SLPI inhibited their LTA-induced NO production. An anti-inflammatory role for macrophage-derived SLPI seems likely based on SLPI’s slowly mounting production in response to constituents of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, its induction both as a direct response to LPS and as a response to anti-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS, and its ability to suppress the production of proinflammatory products by macrophages stimulated with constituents of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:9596701

  18. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide induced mammalian cell lines by aqueous extracts of brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Monsur, Hammed Ademola; Simsek, Senay; Amid, Azura; Alam, Zahangir; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor; Tawakalit, Asiyanbi-Hammed; Octavianti, Fitri

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous extracts obtained from five Malaysian brown seaweeds, Sargassum duplicatum, Sargassum binderi, Sargassum fulvellum, Padina australis, and Turbinaria turbinata, were investigated for their abilities to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines as well as to determine their chemical composition. The percentage yield of extracts varied among species, with P. australis having the lowest yield and T. turbinata having the highest yield. The chemical compositions of the extracts showed that the percentage of sulfate ions as well as uronic acid and total sugar content varied significantly. All extracts contained high fucose and inhibited NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts of P. australis and T. turbinata dosed at 200 μg/mL were able to inhibit NO secretion by > 75%. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assays revealed that some extracts were moderately toxic, while others were not. Based on these results, brown seaweed of Malaysian origin should be investigated for the production of additional anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25007746

  19. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  20. Unilamellar liposomes modulate secretion of tumor necrosis factor by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, G F; Kresta, A; Schouten, D; Bohnen, J M; Shek, P N; Fok, E; Rotstein, O D

    1994-01-01

    Liposomal encapsulation of antimicrobial agents has been used to improve drug delivery, particularly against intracellular pathogens. The effect of unilamellar liposomes on macrophage activation in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide was examined. Liposomes caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of tumor necrosis factor release by lipopolysaccharide-treated cells. The accumulation of tumor necrosis factor mRNA transcripts was unaffected, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism for this effect. However, induction of macrophage procoagulant activity was unaffected by liposomes, indicating a selective rather than a global inhibition. These data suggest that liposomes used for drug delivery may modulate the host response to infection. Images PMID:7872768

  1. Interaction between complement subcomponent C1q and bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zohair, A; Chesne, S; Wade, R H; Colomb, M G

    1989-02-01

    The heptose-less mutant of Escherichia coli, D31m4, bound complement subcomponent C1q and its collagen-like fragments (C1qCLF) with Ka values of 1.4 x 10(8) and 2.0 x 10(8) M-1 respectively. This binding was suppressed by chemical modification of C1q and C1qCLF using diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). To investigate the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in this binding, biosynthetically labelled [14C]LPS were purified from E. coli D31m4 and incorporated into liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PC/PE/LPS, 2:2:1, by wt.]. Binding of C1q or its collagen-like fragments to the liposomes was estimated via a flotation test. These liposomes bound C1q and C1qCLF with Ka values of 8.0 x 10(7) and 2.0 x 10(7) M-1; this binding was totally inhibited after chemical modification of C1q and C1qCLF by DEPC. Liposomes containing LPS purified from the wild-strain E. coli K-12 S also bound C1q and C1qCLF, whereas direct binding of C1q or C1qCLF to the bacteria was negligible. Diamines at concentrations which dissociate C1 into C1q and (C1r, C1s)2, strongly inhibited the interaction of C1q or C1qCLF with LPS. Removal of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid; KDO) from E. coli D31m4 LPS decreases the binding of C1qCLF to the bacteria by 65%. When this purified and modified LPS was incorporated into liposomes, the C1qCLF binding was completely abolished. These results show: (i) the essential role of the collagen-like moiety and probably its histidine residues in the interaction between C1q and the mutant D31m4; (ii) the contribution of LPS, particularly the anionic charges of KDO, to this interaction. PMID:2649081

  2. Nilotinib ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Agamy, Dina S.

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given nilotinib (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage twice daily for 1 week prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS. At 24 h after LPS exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissue were collected. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein level and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF were determined. Optical microscopy was performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities as well as nitrite/nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}) levels were measured in lung tissues. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), transforming growth factor-{beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined in lung tissues. Treatment with nilotinib prior to LPS exposure significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, as it significantly decreased lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the BALF. This was supported by the histopathological examination which revealed marked attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in nilotinib treated rats. In addition, nilotinib significantly increased SOD and GSH activities with significant decrease in MDA content in the lung. Nilotinib also reduced LPS mediated overproduction of pulmonary NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} levels. Importantly, nilotinib caused down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and iNOS levels in the lung. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effects of nilotinib against the LPS-induced ALI. This effect can be attributed to nilotinib ability to counteract the inflammatory cells

  3. Human monocyte CD14 is upregulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Landmann, R; Knopf, H P; Link, S; Sansano, S; Schumann, R; Zimmerli, W

    1996-01-01

    Membrane CD14 is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monocyte activation; it binds LPS, and antibodies against CD14 block the effects of low-dose LPS. It is unknown how LPS regulates its own receptor CD14 in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects of LPS on CD14 mRNA and membrane and soluble CD14 (mCD14 and sCD14, respectively) in human monocytes and macrophages. No changes were observed during the first 3 h of LPS stimulation. After 6 to 15 h, LPS weakly reduced CD14 mRNA and mCD14 and transiently enhanced sCD14 release. A 2-day incubation with LPS caused increases in the levels of CD14 mRNA (2-fold), mCD14 (2-fold), sCD14 (1.5-fold), and LPS-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding (1.5-fold); a 5-h incubation with LPS was sufficient to induce the late effects on mCD14 and sCD14. The maximal effect on mCD14 and sCD14 was reached with > or = 1 ng of LPS per ml; the proportional distribution of the two sCD14 isoforms was not modified by LPS. Besides rough and smooth LPS, lipid A, heat-killed Escherichia coli, lipoteichoic acid, and Staphylococcus aureus cell wall extract (10 micrograms/ml) caused similar increases of mCD14. The LPS effect was blocked by polymyxin B but not by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha, anti-interleukin-6, anti-gamma interferon, and anti-LPS-binding protein. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production was abolished after a second 4-h challenge. In contrast, the LPS-induced increases CD14 mRNA, mCD14, and sCD14 were stronger and appeared earlier after a second LPS challenge. In conclusion, CD14 is transcriptionally upregulated by LPS and other bacterial cell wall constituents. PMID:8613389

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Pretreatment Protects from Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, Uwe; Szabo, Attila; Hamar, Peter; Müller, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Lutz, Jens; Philipp, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In vivo administration of low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rodents can protect these animals from subsequently administrated, usually lethal doses of endotoxin or LPS. In this study we tested the effects of LPS pretreatment on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. Male C57/B1 mice were pretreated with different doses of LPS or phosphate-buffered saline on days −4 and −3. The right kidney was removed, and the vessels of the left kidney were clamped for 30 or 45 minutes on day 0. Creatinine levels and survival of animals were monitored. To test the involvement of cytokines, additional animals were harvested before (“time 0”) and 15 minutes, 1, 2, 8, and 16 hours after reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interferon (IFN)-γ messenger RNA (mRNA)). In controls, renal ischemia of 30 minutes was nonlethal, whereas 73% of the animals died within 48 ± 18 hours, after 45 minutes of ischemia. All different doses of LPS protected the animals from lethal renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Starting at similar levels, serum creatinine increased significantly in controls but not in LPS-pretreated animals over time. As early as 2 hours after reperfusion, tubular cell damage was significantly more pronounced in controls than in LPS-treated mice. In controls, tubules deteriorated progressively until 8 hours of reperfusion. At this time, more than 50% of tubular cells were destroyed. This destruction was accompanied by a pronounced leukocytic infiltration, predominantly by macrophages. In contrast, LPS pretreatment prevented the destruction of kidney tissue and infiltration by leukocytes. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay revealed significantly more apoptotic cells in

  5. Moesin Functions as a Lipopolysaccharide Receptor on Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tohme, Ziad N.; Amar, Salomon; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), a glycolipid found in the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria, induces the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 by monocytes/macrophages. The secretion of these biologically active compounds leads to multiple pathological conditions, such as septic shock. There is substantial evidence that chronic exposure to LPS mediates, at least in part, the tissue destruction associated with gram-negative infection. CD14, a 55-kDa protein, has been identified as an LPS receptor. In conjunction with a serum protein, LPS binding protein (LBP), LPS-CD14 interactions mediate many LPS functions in the inflammatory response. However, CD14 lacks a cytoplasmic domain, or any known signal transduction sequence motif, suggesting the existence of another cell surface domain capable of transducing signals. In this paper, we report a second, CD14-independent LPS binding site, which, based on biological activity, appears to be a functional LPS receptor. Cross-linking experiments were performed to identify LPS binding sites. Two molecules were identified: a 55-kDa protein (CD14) and a second, 78-kDa band. Sequencing of the 78-kDa protein by mass spectroscopic analysis revealed 100% homology with moesin (membrane-organizing extension spike protein). Antibody to CD14 induced partial blocking of the LPS response. However, antimoesin monoclonal antibody completely blocked the LPS-induced TNF-α response in human monocytes, without blocking CD14 binding of LPS. Irrelevant isotype controls had no effect. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the specificity of the antimoesin blocking. Separate experiments evaluated antimoesin effects on monocyte chemotaxis, IL-1 production in response to IL-1 stimulation, and TNF-α secretion in response to Staphylococcus aureus stimulation. Antimoesin blocked only LPS-mediated events. The data suggest that moesin

  6. The lipopolysaccharide (R type) as a common antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. II. Use of hen antiserum to gonococcal lipopolysaccharide in a rapid slide test for the identification of N. gonorrhoeae from primary isolates and secondary cultures.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R; Ashton, F E; Ryan, A; Diena, B B

    1978-02-01

    An antiserum has been prepared in hens to R-type gonococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and used in a simple slide-agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anti-LPS serum agglutinated gonococcal cells representative of the four colony types of N. gonorrhoeae. Absorption of the antiserum with LPS removed the agglutinating activity. Secondary cultures (1120) were tested without observation of the colony type and all were agglutinated. No agglutination occurred with strains of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica, non-pathogenic Neisseria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Branhamella catarrhalis, or with species of lactobacilli and Acinetobacter. Cross-reactivity of the antiserum occurred with some streptococci. The anti-LPS serum was used to identify N. gonorrhoeae in primary isolates from the cervix, urethra, and pharynx. Of 251 gonococcal isolates tested, 249 were agglutinated by the antiserum, while all of the corresponding second cultures were agglutinated. The antiserum did not agglutinate N. meningitidis found in primary isolates from pharyngeal specimens. Anti-LPS hen serum should be useful for the rapid identification of N. gonorrhoeae in primary isolates or secondary cultures. PMID:417781

  7. Simple, efficient UHV manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, P.A.; Anderegg, J.W.

    1984-10-01

    A simple manipulator is described for use in ultrahigh vacuum. Unhindered rotation within vacuum is provided by a commercial differentially pumped adapter to which the entire XYZ stage is attached. The combination of movements provided by the XYZ stage, the rotating vacuum flange, and a gimbal permits alignment of the sample with any of the peripheral view ports. The resistively heated sample support, mounted through a cold finger, permits rapid variation of sample temperature from several hundred degrees Kelvin to near cryogenic. It is anticipated that this design could be easily used with many existing types of commercial vacuum systems, with the consequent advantage of increased ease and simplicity of both mechanical motion and cryogenic cooling.

  8. A simple radon well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Katariina; Graeffe, Gunnar

    The development of a simple radon well, as effective but less expensive and technically easier to put into practice than is usual, was addressed. The wall was accomplished by a drill well technique. A long plastic tube, partly perforated, is put into the ground. To the top end of the tube an exhaust fan is connected to suck the air from the soil to make an underpressure. By this method radon is prevented from entering dwellings. Measurements were carried out in a one family house in four-day periods by a continuously monitoring radon detector. The radon concentration was usually 3000 to 4000 Bq/cu m without the use of the well. When the fan was turned on it reduced the radon concentration below 200 Bq/cu m.

  9. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; Rajendran, Surjeet; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  10. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure does not diminish the innate immune response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, A L; Korkmaz, F T; Elsasser, T H; Kerr, D E

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response following experimental mastitis is quite variable between individual dairy cattle. An inflammatory response that minimizes collateral damage to the mammary gland while still effectively resolving the infection following pathogen exposure is beneficial to dairy producers. The ability of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in early life to generate a low-responding phenotype and thus reduce the inflammatory response to a later-life LPS challenge was investigated in neonatal bull calves. Ten Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to either an early life LPS (ELL) group (n=5) or an early life saline (ELS) group (n=5). At 7d of age, calves received either LPS or saline, and at 32d of age, all calves were challenged with an intravenous dose of LPS to determine the effect of the early life treatment (LPS or saline) on the immune response generated toward a subsequent LPS challenge. Dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures from each calf were established at age 20 and 27d, respectively, to model sustained effects from the early life LPS exposure on gene expression and protein production of components within the LPS response pathway. The ELL calves had greater levels of plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α than the ELS calves following the early life LPS or saline treatments. However, levels of these 2 immune markers were similar between ELL and ELS calves when both groups were subsequently challenged with LPS. A comparison of the in vitro LPS responses of the ELL and ELS calves revealed similar patterns of protein production and gene expression following an LPS challenge of both dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures established from the treatment groups. Whereas an early life exposure to LPS did not result in a dampened inflammatory response toward a later LPS challenge in these neonatal bull calves, the potential that exposure to inflammation or stress in early life or in utero can create an

  11. Characterization of the Outer Membrane Protein OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Lipopolysaccharide Membrane by Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, TP; Soares, Thereza A.

    2009-02-01

    The N-terminal domain of outer membrane protein OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms a membrane spanning eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel domain that folds into a membrane channel with low conductance. The structure of this protein has been modeled after the crystal structure of the homologous protein OmpA of Escherichia coli. A number of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for the homology modeled structure of OprF in an explicit molecular model for the rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. The structural stability of the outer membrane model as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions compared to simple lipid bilayers is restricting both the conformational flexibility and the lateral diffusion of the porin in the membrane. Constricting side-chain interactions within the pore are similar to those found in reported simulations of the protein in a solvated lipid bilayer membrane. Because of the strong interactions between the loop regions of OprF and functional groups in the saccharide core of the LPS, the entrance to the channel from the extracellular space is widened compared to the lipid bilayer simulations in which the loops are extruding in the solvent. The specific electrostatic signature of the LPS membrane, which results in a net intrinsic dipole across the membrane, is found to be altered by the presence of OprF, resulting in a small electrically positive patch at the position of the channel.

  12. Prenatal transportation alters the metabolic response of Brahman bull calves exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if prenatal transportation influences the metabolic response to a postnatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pregnant Brahman cows (n=96) matched by age and parity were separated into transported (TRANS; n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day 60, 80,...

  13. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE
    S. Mundandhara1 and M.C. Madden2, 1UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, 2US EPA, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    Epidemiologica...

  14. Effect of prenatal stress on subsequent response to mixing stress and a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sows subjected to prenatal stress have been found to produce offspring that alter the manner in which they respond to stress. Our objective was to determine if exposing a sow to stress altered the response of the offspring to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 2 mo of age or their response to mixing stres...

  15. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  16. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human alveolar macrophage responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide
    S. Mundandhara1 , S. Becker2 and M. Madden2, 1UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, 2US EPA, NHEERL, HSD, Chapel Hill, NC, US

    Epidemiological...

  17. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF BOVINE MACROPHAGES IN RESPONSE TO ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to identify changes in bovine macrophage gene expression in response to treatment with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), utilizing a human gene microarray. Bovine cDNA from control and LPS-treated primary macrophages hybridized to greater than 5,644 (79.8%)...

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Sequestrants: Structural Correlates of Activity and Toxicity in Novel Acylhomospermines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly A.; Kumar, E.V.K. Suresh; Wood, Stewart J.; Cromer, Jens R.; Datta, Apurba; David*, Sunil A.

    2005-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), otherwise termed ‘endotoxins’, are outer-membrane constituents of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides play a key role in the pathogenesis of ‘Septic Shock’, a major cause of mortality in the critically ill patient. Therapeutic options aimed at limiting downstream systemic inflammatory processes by targeting lipopolysaccharide do not exist at the present time. We have defined the pharmacophore necessary for small molecules to specifically bind and neutralize LPS and, using animal models of sepsis, have shown that the sequestration of circulatory LPS by small molecules is a therapeutically viable strategy. In this paper, the interactions of a series of acylated homologated spermine compounds with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been characterized. The optimal acyl chain length for effective sequestration of LPS was identified to be C16 for the mono-acyl compounds. The most promising of these compounds, 4e, binds LPS with an ED50 of 1.37 μM. Nitric oxide production in murine J774A.1 cells, as well as TNF-α in human blood, are inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 4e at concentrations orders of magnitude lower than toxic doses. Administration of 4e to d-galactosamine-sensitized mice challenged with supralethal doses of LPS provided significant protection against lethality. Potent anti-endotoxic activity, low toxicity, and ease of synthesis render this class of compounds candidate endotoxin-sequestering agents of potential significant therapeutic value. PMID:15801849

  19. Arginine supplementation does not alter nitrogen metabolism of beef steers during a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for Arg is reported to increase during immune challenge. This study evaluated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and abomasal Arg infusion on N metabolism and immune response of 20 ruminally cannulated steers (369 ± 46 kg BW) in a randomized block design. Each block was 20 d and consiste...

  20. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXERCISE CONDITIONING ON THERMAL RESPONSES TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND TURPENTINE ABSCESS IN FEMALE RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exercise conditioning has been shown to alter basal thermoregulatory processes as well as the response to inflammatory agents. Two such agents, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and turpentine (TPT) are inducers of fever in rats. LPS, given intraperitoneally (i.p.), involves a sys...

  1. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  2. Arginine supplementation does not alter nitrogen metabolism of beef steers during a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for arginine (Arg) is reported to increase during immune challenges. This study evaluated effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and abomasal Arg infusion on nitrogen (N) metabolism and immune response of 20 ruminally cannulated steers (369 ± 46 kg BW) in a randomized block design. Each block co...

  3. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic has been used as a folk medicine for a long history. Numerous studies demonstrated that garlic extracts and its sulfur-containing compounds inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation induced by various receptor agonist including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These effects suggest that garl...

  4. Profile of the bovine acute-phase response following an intravenous bolus-dose lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to further define the acute-phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef steers. In Exp. 1, 9 crossbred beef steers (449 ± 12 kg BW) were used in a completely random design to determine the effects of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 micrograms of LPS/kilogram of bod...

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...

  6. Interaction of peptide-bound beads with lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masatsugu M; Matsumoto, Megumi; Omi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Nakamura, Akio; Kishi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Sei; Takagi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding peptides by phage display and chemical modification. Among them, a dodecapeptide designated Li5-025 (K'YSSSISSIRAC'; K' and C' denote d-lysine and d-cysteine, respectively) showed a high binding affinity for LPS and was resistant to protease digestion (Suzuki et al., 2010). In the current study, Li5-025-bound silica beads, hereafter referred to as P-beads, were generated and found to be devoid of LPS-neutralizing activity. Thus, LPS bound to the P-beads could be directly used in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in solutions of ethanol, pH4, pH10, and 0.5M NaCl and LPS bound to the P-beads was quantitatively assayed. The sensitivity of this assay was observed to be approximately 0.1pg/mL LPS. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in antithrombin III (AT III) solution which is a strong inhibitor of activated factors C and B as well as the clotting enzyme in the LAL assay; the inhibitory effect of AT III was completely reversed upon washing the P-beads with 25% acetonitrile. This was employed as the first step for the detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay. LPS added to human plasma at 0°C followed by application to the P-beads and subsequent washing with 25% acetonitrile resulted in low LPS activity as detected by the LAL assay. However, further washing of the P-beads with 0.1% Triton X100 in 25% acetonitrile resulted in high LPS activity. This is the first instance of quantitative detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay, and the sensitivity of this method was observed to be 1pg/mL of LPS. The proteins eluted in the 0.1% Triton X-100 wash were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two protein bands of 28kDa and 18kDa were predominantly observed. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the 28kDa and 18kDa bands corresponded to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), respectively. Apo

  7. Quasispecies Made Simple

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation–selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation–selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold—a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation–selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe. PMID:16322763

  8. Feynman's simple quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edwin F.

    1997-03-01

    This sample class presents an alternative to the conventional introduction to quantum mechanics and describes its current use in a credit course. This alternative introduction rests on theory presented in professional and popular writings by Richard Feynman. Feynman showed that Nature gives a simple command to the electron: "Explore all paths." All of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, among other fundamental results, comes from this command. With a desktop computer the student points and clicks to tell a modeled electron which paths to follow. The computer then shows the results, which embody the elemental strangeness and paradoxical behaviors of the world of the very small. Feynman's approach requires few equations and provides a largely non-mathematical introduction to the wave function of conventional quantum mechanics. Draft software and materials already used for two semesters in an e-mail computer conference credit university course show that Feynman's approach works well with a variety of students. The sample class explores computer and written material and describes the next steps in its development.

  9. A simple wave driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the wheel starts to turn at a constant angular speed. A rod that is fixed on the wheel turns at the same constant angular speed, too. A tight string that the wave will be created on is placed at a distance where the rod can touch the string. During each rotation of the wheel, the rod vibrates the string up and down. The vibration frequency of this rod equals the wheel’s rotation frequency, and this frequency value can be measured easily with a small magnet and a bicycle speedometer. In this way, the frequency of the waves formed in the rope can also be measured.

  10. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  11. Telemedicine kept simple

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, DJ

    2000-01-01

    Telemedicine (“medicine from a distance”) is about bringing specialist knowledge to a patient from afar, by the use of communication technology. This article is based on personal experience in helping set up a simple, versatile, cheap and effective store-and-forward telemedicine system for the British Defence Medical Services. This system uses readily available still digital cameras to record clinical, radiographic and microscopic images, which are then sent by electronic mail to an organised network of specialists for secondary or tertiary opinion. The system is in use in various countries throughout the world, and has also proven to have civilian and humanitarian uses. The system is now being emulated in civilian practice in the United Kingdom, the United States, and in previously isolated hospitals in the Third World. I also describe the active role played by a telemedicine charity and by medical students on elective in the Third World in setting up telemedicine links using this system. Readers are invited to co-operate in the setting up of a global outreach telemedicine programme, linking elective students, isolated Third World hospitals, and University Teaching Hospitals. PMID:22368578

  12. [Clustering of simple obesity].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Matsuda, H; Kurita, M; Umetada, Y

    1988-05-01

    An attempt was made to classify persons with simple obesity from the viewpoint of health education. Subjects of the study were 1,278 male workers in a financing company who underwent health examination. At the time of health examinations, questionnaire survey concerning their life styles was carried out on all the subjects. The obese group consisted of 127 subjects whose obesity indices were over 15% and the control group consisted of 342 subjects whose obesity indices ranged from -5 to 5%. Subjects in the obese group were classified into four clusters based on cluster analysis using five life-style parameters; that is, frequency of taking breakfast, frequency of taking staple food, drinking habits, smoking habits, and frequency of exercise. The first cluster (N = 10) included inactive persons, the second cluster (N = 46) non smokers, the third cluster (N = 39) smokers and heavy drinkers, and the fourth cluster (N = 32) smokers and non-drinkers. Comparison of the four clusters of obese persons with the control group revealed the following findings: 1) All the four clusters had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood sugar (FBS). 2) The first cluster had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). 3) The second cluster had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, TG, FBS, uric acid, GOT, GPT and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3172544

  13. Structural properties of lipopolysaccharides from Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia prowazekii and their chemical similarity to the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus vulgaris OX19 used in the Weil-Felix test.

    PubMed

    Amano, K I; Williams, J C; Dasch, G A

    1998-03-01

    The lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from typhus group (TG) rickettsiae Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia prowazekii were characterized by chemical analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining. LPSs from two species of TG rickettsiae contained glucose, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid, glucosamine, quinovosamine, phosphate, and fatty acids (beta-hydroxylmyristic acid and heneicosanoic acid) but not heptose. The O-polysaccharides of these LPSs were composed of glucose, glucosamine, quinovosamine, and phosphorylated hexosamine. Resolution of these LPSs by their apparent molecular masses by SDS-PAGE showed that they have a common ladder-like pattern. Based on the results of chemical composition and SDS-PAGE pattern, we suggest that these LPSs act as group-specific antigens. Furthermore, glucosamine, quinovosamine, and phosphorylated hexosamine were also found in the O-polysaccharide of the LPS from Proteus vulgaris OX19 used in the Weil-Felix test, suggesting that they may represent the antigens common to LPSs from TG rickettsiae and P. vulgaris OX19. PMID:9488376

  14. Methylprednisolone Protects Cardiac Pumping Mechanics from Deteriorating in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Chang, Ru-Wen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that a prolonged low-dose corticosteroid treatment attenuates the severity of inflammation and the intensity and duration of organ system failure. In the present study, we determined whether low-dose methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) can protect male Wistar rats against cardiac pumping defects caused by lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation. For the induction of chronic inflammation, a slow-release ALZET osmotic pump was subcutaneously implanted to infuse lipopolysaccharide (1 mg kg−1 d−1) for 2 weeks. The lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats were treated on a daily basis with intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (5 mg kg−1 d−1) for 2 weeks. Under conditions of anesthesia and open chest, we recorded left ventricular (LV) pressure and ascending aortic flow signals to calculate the maximal systolic elastance (Emax) and the theoretical maximum flow (Qmax), using the elastance-resistance model. Physically, Emax reflects the contractility of the myocardium as an intact heart, whereas Qmax has an inverse relationship with the LV internal resistance. Compared with the sham rats, the cardiodynamic condition was characterized by a decline in Emax associated with the increased Qmax in the lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. Methylprednisolone therapy increased Emax, which suggests that the drug may have protected the contractile status from deteriorating in the inflamed heart. By contrast, methylprednisolone therapy considerably reduced Qmax, indicating that the drug may have normalized the LV internal resistance. In parallel, the benefits of methylprednisolone on the LV systolic pumping mechanics were associated with the reduced cardiac levels of negative inotropic molecules such as peroxynitrite, malondialdehyde, and high-mobility group box 1 protein. Based on these data, we suggested that low-dose methylprednisolone might prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced decline in cardiac intrinsic contractility and LV internal

  15. Outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium: chemical analysis and freeze-fracture studies with lipopolysaccharide mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, J; Kamio, Y; Nikaido, H

    1975-01-01

    The outer membrane layer of the cell wall was isolated from wild-type Salmonella typhimurium LT2 as well as from its mutants producing lipopolysaccharides with shorter saccharide chains. Chemical analysis of these preparations indicated the following. (i) The number of lipopolysaccharide molecules per unit area was constant, regardless of the length of the saccharide side chain in lipopolysaccharide. (ii) In contrast, in "deep rough" (Rd or Re) mutants producing the lipopolysaccharides with very short saccharide chains, the amount of outer membrane protein per unit surface area decreased to about 60% of the value in the wild type. (iii) In the wild type, the amount of phospholipids is slightly less than what is needed to cover one side of the membrane as a monolayer. In comparison with the wild type, the outer membrane of Rd and Re mutants contains about 70% more phospholipids, which therefore must be distributed in both the outer and inner leaflets of the membrane. Freeze-fracture studies showed that the outer membrane of Re mutants were easily fractured, but fracture became increasingly difficult in strains producing lipopolysaccharides with longer side chains. The convex fracture face was always nearly smooth, but the concave fracture face or the outer half of the membrane was densely covered with particles 8 to 10 nm in diameter. The density of particles was decreased in Re mutants to the same extent as the reduction in proteins, suggesting the largely proteinaceous nature of particles. A model for the supramolecular structure of the outer membrane is presented on the basis of these and other results. Images PMID:1102538

  16. Influence of Core Oligosaccharide of Lipopolysaccharide to Outer Membrane Behavior of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Jianli; Ren, Ge; Li, Ye; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, major molecules in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, play important roles on membrane integrity of the cell. However, how the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide affect the membrane behavior is not well understood. In this study, the relationship between the core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide and the membrane behavior was investigated using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes to affect the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide. Cell surface hydrophobicity, outer membrane permeability, biofilm formation and auto-aggregation of these mutant cells were compared. Compared to the wild type W3110, cell surface hydrophobicities of mutant ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaY and ΔwaaB were enhanced, outer membrane permeabilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG and ΔwaaP were significantly increased, abilities of biofilm formation by ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaP, ΔwaaQ and ΔwaaY decreased, and auto-aggregation abilities of ΔwaaC, ΔwaaF, ΔwaaG, ΔwaaO, ΔwaaR, ΔwaaU, ΔwaaP and ΔwaaY were strongly enhanced. These results give new insight into the influence of core oligosaccharide of lipopolysaccharide on bacterial cell membrane behavior. PMID:26023839

  17. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles do not modulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Salik; Al-Nsour, Faris; Rice, Annette B; Marshburn, Jamie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffery I; Yingling, Brenda; Walker, Nigel J; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have potential therapeutic applications and are widely used for industrial purposes. However, the effects of these nanoparticles on primary human cells are largely unknown. The ability of nanoparticles to exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory disorders is not well documented for engineered nanoparticles, and is certainly lacking for CeO2 nanoparticles. We investigated the inflammation-modulating effects of CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations in human peripheral blood monocytes. Methods CD14+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood samples of human volunteers. Cells were exposed to either 0.5 or 1 μg/mL of CeO2 nanoparticles over a period of 24 or 48 hours with or without lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/mL) prestimulation. Modulation of the inflammatory response was studied by measuring secreted tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, macrophage chemotactic protein-1, interferon-gamma, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Results CeO2 nanoparticle suspensions were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering analysis (194 nm hydrodynamic diameter), zeta potential analysis (−14 mV), and transmission electron microscopy (irregular-shaped particles). Transmission electron microscopy of CD14+ cells exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles revealed that these nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by monocytes and were found either in vesicles or free in the cytoplasm. However, no significant differences in secreted cytokine profiles were observed between CeO2 nanoparticle-treated cells and control cells at noncytotoxic doses. No significant effects of CeO2 nanoparticle exposure subsequent to lipopolysaccharide priming was observed on cytokine secretion. Moreover, no significant difference in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production was observed after exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles followed by lipopolysaccharide exposure. Conclusion CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations neither

  18. Purification and visualization of lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria by hot aqueous-phenol extraction.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael R; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes. It is a tripartite molecule consisting of lipid A, which is embedded in the outer membrane, a core oligosaccharide and repeating O-antigen units that extend outward from the surface of the cell(1, 2). LPS is an immunodominant molecule that is important for the virulence and pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, and Escherichia coli(3-5), and differences in LPS O-antigen composition form the basis for serotyping of strains. LPS is involved in attachment to host cells at the initiation of infection and provides protection from complement-mediated killing; strains that lack LPS can be attenuated for virulence(6-8). For these reasons, it is important to visualize LPS, particularly from clinical isolates. Visualizing LPS banding patterns and recognition by specific antibodies can be useful tools to identify strain lineages and to characterize various mutants. In this report, we describe a hot aqueous-phenol method for the isolation and purification of LPS from Gram-negative bacterial cells. This protocol allows for the extraction of LPS away from nucleic acids and proteins that can interfere with visualization of LPS that occurs with shorter, less intensive extraction methods(9). LPS prepared this way can be separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and directly stained using carbohydrate/glycoprotein stains or standard silver staining methods. Many anti-sera to LPS contain antibodies that cross-react with outer membrane proteins or other antigenic targets that can hinder reactivity observed following Western immunoblot of SDS-PAGE-separated crude cell lysates. Protease treatment of crude cell lysates alone is not always an effective way of removing this background using this or other visualization methods. Further, extensive protease treatment in an attempt to remove this background

  19. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  20. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarzadegan, Tannaz; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin—two fibers with distinct functional characteristics—affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM) or high-methoxylated (HM) pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW) guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high-fat diet

  1. Molecular Properties of Guar Gum and Pectin Modify Cecal Bile Acids, Microbiota, and Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaffarzadegan, Tannaz; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, and are related to colonic microbiota composition as well as to different types of dietary fat and fiber. This study investigated whether guar gum and pectin-two fibers with distinct functional characteristics-affect BA profiles, microbiota composition, and gut metabolites in rats. Low- (LM) or high-methoxylated (HM) pectin, and low-, medium-, or high-molecular-weight (MW) guar gum were administered to rats that were fed either low- or high-fat diets. Cecal BAs, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota composition, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed, by using novel methodologies based on gas chromatography (BAs and SCFAs) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Strong correlations were observed between cecal BA and SCFA levels, microbiota composition, and portal plasma LBP levels in rats on a high-fat diet. Notably, guar gum consumption with medium-MW increased the cecal amounts of cholic-, chenodeoxycholic-, and ursodeoxycholic acids as well as α-, β-, and ω-muricholic acids to a greater extent than other types of guar gum or the fiber-free control diet. In contrast, the amounts of cecal deoxycholic- and hyodeoxycholic acid were reduced with all types of guar gum independent of chain length. Differences in BA composition between pectin groups were less obvious, but cecal levels of α- and ω-muricholic acids were higher in rats fed LM as compared to HM pectin or the control diet. The inflammatory marker LBP was downregulated in rats fed medium-MW guar gum and HM pectin; these two fibers decreased the cecal abundance of Oscillospira and an unclassified genus in Ruminococcaceae, and increased that of an unclassified family in RF32. These results indicate that the molecular properties of guar gum and pectin are important for their ability to modulate cecal BA formation, gut microbiota composition, and high-fat diet induced

  2. Expression of Rhizobium leguminosarum CFN42 genes for lipopolysaccharide in strains derived from different R. leguminosarum soil isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, B.A.; Noel, K.D. ); Miller, J.; Carlson, R.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Two mutant derivatives of Rhizobium leguminosarum ANU843 defective in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were isolated. The LPSs of both mutants lacked O antigen and some sugar residues of the LPS core oligosaccharides. Genetic regions previously cloned from another Rhizobium leguminosarum wild-type isolate, strain CFN42, were used to complement these mutants. One mutant was complemented to give LPS that was apparently identical to the LPS of strain ANU843 in antigenicity, electrophoretic mobility, and sugar composition. The other mutant was complemented by a second CFN42lps genetic region. In this case the resulting LPS contained O-antigen sugars characteristic of donor strain CFN42 and reacted weakly with antiserum against CFN42 cells, but did not react detectably with antiserum against ANU843 cells. Therefore, one of the CFN42 lps genetic regions specifies a function that is conserved between the two R. leguminosarum wild-type isolates, whereas the other region, at least in part, specifies a strain-specific LPS structure. Transfer of these two genetic regions into wild-type strains derived from R. leguminosarum ANU843 and 128C53 gave results consistent with this conclusion. The mutants derived from strain ANU843 elicited incompletely developed clover nodules that exhibited low bacterial populations and very low nitrogenase activity. Both mutants elicited normally developed, nitrogen-fixing clover nodules when they carried CFN42 lps DNA that permitted synthesis of O-antigen-containing LPS, regardless of whether the O antigen was the one originally made by strain ANU843.

  3. Antimicrobial Action and Cell Agglutination by the Eosinophil Cationic Protein Are Modulated by the Cell Wall Lipopolysaccharide Structure

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, David; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Andreu, David; Nogués, M. Victòria

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are essential effectors of innate immunity, acting as a first line of defense against bacterial infections. Many AMPs exhibit high affinity for cell wall structures such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin able to induce sepsis. Hence, understanding how AMPs can interact with and neutralize LPS endotoxin is of special relevance for human health. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an eosinophil secreted protein with high activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. ECP has a remarkable affinity for LPS and a distinctive agglutinating activity. By using a battery of LPS-truncated E. coli mutant strains, we demonstrate that the polysaccharide moiety of LPS is essential for ECP-mediated bacterial agglutination, thereby modulating its antimicrobial action. The mechanism of action of ECP at the bacterial surface is drastically affected by the LPS structure and in particular by its polysaccharide moiety. We have also analyzed an N-terminal fragment that retains the whole protein activity and displays similar cell agglutination behavior. Conversely, a fragment with further minimization of the antimicrobial domain, though retaining the antimicrobial capacity, significantly loses its agglutinating activity, exhibiting a different mechanism of action which is not dependent on the LPS composition. The results highlight the correlation between the protein's antimicrobial activity and its ability to interact with the LPS outer layer and promote bacterial agglutination. PMID:22330910

  4. Selective pressures and lipopolysaccharide subunits as determinants of resistance of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli to human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Porat, R; Johns, M A; McCabe, W R

    1987-01-01

    Differences in molecular composition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) between serum-sensitive (S) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and serum-resistant (R) clones derived by serial passage in serum were demonstrated to determine sensitivity or resistance to killing by normal human serum (NHS). LPS from R clones had a greater proportion of higher-molecular-weight, more highly O-antigen-substituted subunits than LPS from their serum S parents. Utilization of a liposomal model with inserted LPS simulating bacterial cell walls established LPS as the site of serum bactericidal action. Liposomes containing S LPS were lysed, while liposomes containing R LPS were unaffected by NHS. R and S LPS were fractionated into higher (F1)- and lower (F2)-molecular-weight fractions. Liposomes containing R LPS or the F1 fraction of S and R LPS were not lysed by serum. Liposomes containing the F2 fraction of S or R LPS were lysed by serum analogous to that observed with liposomes containing intact S LPS. These findings establish LPS to be one site of serum bactericidal activity and demonstrate that the higher-molecular-weight, highly O-antigen-substituted LPS subunits mediate resistance to killing by NHS. Images PMID:3804440

  5. Subpopulation Characteristics of Egg-Contaminating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis as Defined by the Lipopolysaccharide O Chain

    PubMed Central

    Guard-Bouldin, Jean; Gast, Richard K.; Humphrey, Thomas J.; Henzler, David J.; Morales, Cesar; Coles, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was refined by incorporating new data from isolates obtained from avian sources, from the spleens of naturally infected mice, and from the United Kingdom into an existing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-chain compositional database. From least to greatest, the probability of avian isolates producing high-molecular-mass LPS O chain ranked as follows: pooled kidney, liver, and spleen; intestine; cecum; ovary and oviduct; albumen; yolk; and whole egg. Mouse isolates were most like avian intestinal samples, whereas United Kingdom isolates were most like those from the avian reproductive tract and egg. Non-reproductive tract organ isolates had significant loss of O chain. Isogenic isolates that varied in ability to make biofilm and to be orally invasive produced different O-chain structures at 25°C but not at 37°C. Hens infected at a 91:9 biofilm-positive/-negative colony phenotype ratio yielded only the negative phenotype from eggs. These results indicate that the environment within the hen applies stringent selection pressure on subpopulations of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis at certain points in the infection pathway that ends in egg contamination. The avian cecum, rather than the intestines, is the early interface between the environment and the host that supports emergence of subpopulation diversity. These results suggest that diet and other factors that alter cecal physiology should be investigated as a means to reduce egg contamination. PMID:15128529

  6. Inhibitory activity of plant stilbenoids against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Nassra, Merian; Krisa, Stéphanie; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Kapche, Gilbert Deccaux; Bisson, Jonathan; André, Caroline; Konsman, Jan-Pieter; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Microglia-driven inflammatory processes are thought to play an important role in ageing and several neurological disorders. Since consumption of a diet rich in polyphenols has been associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of twenty-five stilbenoids isolated from Milicia excelsa, Morus alba, Gnetum africanum, and Vitis vinifera. These compounds were tested at 5 and 10 µM on BV-2 microglial cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Ten stilbenoids reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production at 5 and/or 10 µM. Two tetramers, E-vitisin A and E-vitisin B, were the most effective molecules. Moreover, they attenuated the expression of the inducible NO synthase protein and gene. PMID:23807809

  7. Transcriptional Activation of Mucin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide in the Pathogenesis of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Dohrman, Austin F.; Gallup, Marianne; Miyata, Susumu; Gum, James R.; Kim, Young S.; Nadel, Jay A.; Prince, Alice; Basbaum, Carol B.

    1997-02-01

    An unresolved question in cystic fibrosis (CF) research is how mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, a CI ion channel, cause airway mucus obstruction leading to fatal lung disease. Recent evidence has linked the CF transmembrane conductance regulator mutation to the onset and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the airways, and here we provide evidence directly linking P. aeruginosa infection to mucus overproduction. We show that P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide profoundly upregulates transcription of the mucin gene MUC 2 in epithelial cells via inducible enhancer elements and that this effect is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin AG 126. These findings improve our understanding of CF pathogenesis and suggest that the attenuation of mucin production by lipopolysaccharide antagonists and tyrosine kinase inhibitors could reduce morbidity and mortality in this disease.

  8. Morphological damage induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in cultured hepatocytes: localization and binding properties.

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, R.; Portolés, M. T.; Díaz-Laviada, I.; Municio, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are considered to be the responsible agents for the induction of endotoxic shock, affecting the liver as a target organ. In this study, the cell morphology and some biochemical properties of 24 h-culture-hepatocyte monolayers treated with Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide, were observed. Cell morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence methods. LPS interaction induced an increase in rounded cells with diminished adhesion capacity. As biochemical parameters, albumin synthesis and 2-deoxyglucose uptake were measured. LPS decreased the hexose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of (14C)LPS to cultured hepatocytes showed that LPS binds to non-specific constituents of the membrane bilayer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 7 PMID:3052562

  9. [Immune-regulating effect of phenibut under lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Samotrueva, M A; Tiurenkov, I N; Teplyĭ, D L; Kuleshevskaia, N R; Khlebtsova, E V

    2010-05-01

    The immunoregulating effect of phenibut has been demonstrated on the model of immune stress caused by the injection of lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The degree of expression of the specific (in a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and passive hemagglutination) and nonspecific (phagocytic activity of neutrophils) links of immunomodulation was studied. The formation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced immune stress is characterized by the increase of the indicated parameters of immunity. It is found that phenibut (under intraabdominal injection of 25 mg/kg within 5 days) removes the manifestations of hyperreactivity of the cellular link of immunity, and also restores the amount of phagocytic cells, which is evidence of the immunomodulating properties of the drug under conditions of hyperimmunization. PMID:20597368

  10. Induction of hepatocyte lipopolysaccharide binding protein in models of sepsis and the acute-phase response.

    PubMed

    Geller, D A; Kispert, P H; Su, G L; Wang, S C; Di Silvio, M; Tweardy, D J; Billiar, T R; Simmons, R L

    1993-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is a serum glycoprotein that complexes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to facilitate macrophage response to endotoxin. To determine the conditions that stimulate LBP production in vivo, we measured the induction of LBP in models of inflammation produced by LPS, Corynebacterium parvum, and turpentine injection. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations and hepatocyte fibrinogen synthesis were elevated in all models. Northern blot analysis revealed 17-, 14-, and 20-fold upregulation of hepatocyte LBP mRNA following treatment with LPS, C parvum, and turpentine, respectively. Peritoneal macrophage interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor production following endotoxin stimulation was augmented by cultured hepatocyte supernatants, suggesting increased LBP synthesis in these groups. The results show that LBP mRNA is induced during hepatic inflammation and suggest that LBP is an acute-phase protein important in regulating the in vivo response to endotoxin. PMID:8418776

  11. Correlation between lipopolysaccharide structure and permeability resistance in beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, A J; Hatlelid, L; Bryan, L E

    1984-01-01

    Four beta-lactam-resistant permeability mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO503 were studied. The resistance phenotypes were correlated to changes within the lipopolysaccharide. Two of the mutants, PCC1 and PCC19, were shown to differentiate between beta-lactams on the basis of relative hydrophobicity. The more hydrophilic antibiotics were less effective at inhibiting these strains. This phenotype was correlated to the presence of mannose, in measurable quantities, in lipopolysaccharide isolated from these strains. The other two strains, PCC23 and PCC100, differentiated between cephem antibiotics on the basis of electrical charge. The presence of a positive charge markedly increased the relative efficiency of an antibiotic. This correlation did not hold for penam derivatives, with the lower-molecular-weight, dianionic molecules being the most effective. Mutants of this type were changed in the amount of "side chain" sugars or, to minor extent, in their outer membrane protein profiles. Images PMID:6435513

  12. The N-terminal half of membrane CD14 is a functional cellular lipopolysaccharide receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Viriyakosol, S; Kirkland, T N

    1996-01-01

    CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein on the surface of monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was recently reported that an N-terminal 152-amino-acid fragment of soluble CD14 was an active soluble lipopolysaccharide receptor (T. S. -C. Juan, M. J. Kelley, D. A. Johnson, L. A. Busse, E. Hailman, S. D. Wright, and H. S. Lichenstein, J. Biol. Chem. 270:1382-1387, 1995). To determine whether the N-terminal half of the membrane CD14 was a functional LPS receptor on the cell membrane, we engineered a chimeric gene coding for amino acids 1 to 151 of CD14 fused to the C-terminal region of decay-accelerating factor and expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and 70Z/3 cells. We found that the chimeric, truncated CD14 is a fully functional LPS receptor in both cell lines. PMID:8550221

  13. Novel Biphasic Role of LipoxinA4 on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shengxing; Wang, Qian; He, Qian; Song, Xiaorong; Ye, Duyun; Gao, Fang; Jin, Shengwei; Lian, QingQuan

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblasts are important to host defence and immunity, can also as initiators of inflammation as well. As the endogenous “braking signal”, Lipoxins can regulate anti-inflammation and the resolution of inflammation. We investigated the effect of lipoxinA4 on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lung fibroblasts. We demonstrated that the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein was significantly increased and peaked initially at 6 hours, with a second increase, with maximal levels occurring 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide challenge. ProstaglandinE2 levels also peaked at 6 hours, and prostaglandinD2 levels were increased at both 6 and 24 hours. Exogenous lipoxinA4 inhibited the first peak of cyclooxygenase-2 expression as well as the production of prostaglandinE2 induced by lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, exogenous lipoxinA4 increased the second peak of cyclooxygenase-2 expression as well as the production of prostaglandinD2 induced by lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. LipoxinA4 receptor mRNA expression was markedly stimulated by lipopolysaccharide but inhibited by lipoxinA4. We present evidence for a novel biphasic role of lipoxinA4 on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated lung fibroblasts, whereby LXA4 has an anti-inflammatory and proresolving activity in lung fibroblasts following LPS stimulation. PMID:21765620

  14. The Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Azithromycin for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Kun; Qi, Qu; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji; Chen, Yuancheng; Liang, Yan; Xie, Lin

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism-based model was developed to describe the time course of lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior and azithromycin pharmacodynamics in mice. The lipopolysaccharide-induced disease progression was monitored by lipopolysaccharide, proinflammatory cytokines, and kynrenine concentration in plasma. The depressive-like behavior was investigated by forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Azithromycin was selected to inhibit the surge of proinflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide. Disease progression model and azithromycin pharmacodynamics were constructed from transduction and indirect response models. A delay in the onset of increased proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine, and behavior test compared to lipopolysaccharide was successfully characterized by series transduction models. The inhibition of azithromycin on proinflammatory cytokines was described by an indirect response model. After lipopolysaccharide challenging, the proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and behavior tests would peak approximately at 3, 12, and 24 h respectively, and then the time courses slowly declined toward a baseline state after peak response. During azithromycin administration, the peak levels of proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and behavior indexes decreased. Model parameters indicated that azithromycin significantly inhibited the proinflammatory cytokines level in plasma and improved the depressive-like behavior induced by inflammation. The integrated model for disease progression and drug intervention captures turnovers of proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and the behavior results in the different time phases and conditions. PMID:23358536

  15. Murine Monoclonal Antibodies against Escherichia coli O4 Lipopolysaccharide and H5 Flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Betancourt, Mildred; Keen, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb), 2C5-F10 and 8D1-H10, reactive with Escherichia coli O4 and H5 antigens, respectively, were generated and characterized. Enzyme immunoassays and immunoblots demonstrated that MAb 2C5-F10 reacted specifically with lipopolysaccharide O antigen of E. coli O4 isolates, while MAb 8D1-H10 reacted with E. coli strains expressing H5 flagella. PMID:11526192

  16. Pasteurella multocida Heddleston serovar 3 and 4 strains share a common lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis locus but display both inter- and intrastrain lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; St Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D; Boyce, John D

    2013-11-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines. PMID:23974032

  17. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  18. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Claudia A.; Fievez, Laurence; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Bureau, Fabrice; Vanbever, Rita

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  19. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Digvijaya; Garg, Arun; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive disorders in mankind are not uncommon. Apart from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), various stresses also affect cognitive functions. Plants are known to be potential source of compounds that ameliorate several diseases including cognitive impairment. Here, we evaluated effect of aqueous extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) buds on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats using two different oral doses i.e. 10 (pre-treatment) and 30 mg/rat(post-treatment) through assessment of behavioural (Morris Water maze test and Y maze test), biochemical (Cholinesterase assay) and histopathological (H&E staining) parameters. Lipopolysaccharide (from E. coli) administration resulted in an increased neurodegeneration and time taken to reach the platform (in Morris water maze). The increased neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus was significantly reduced in animals which received caper bud extract; they showed marked reduction in time taken to reach the platform at both the dose levels. The experiment demonstrated that caper bud extract exhibits potential protective effect against learning and memory damage induced by chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide (175 μg/kg) for 7 days. The results suggest that the caper bud extract could be explored for its use in the treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:26934780

  20. Lipopolysaccharide based oral nanocarriers for the improvement of bioavailability and anticancer efficacy of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Sundeep; Patel, Ravi R; Chaubey, Pramila; Kumar, Nagendra; Khan, Gayasuddin; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2015-10-01

    Soluthin MD(®), a unique phosphatidylcholine-maltodextrin based hydrophilic lipopolysaccharide, which exhibits superior biocompatibility and bioavailability enhancer properties for poorly water soluble drug(s). Curcumin (CUR) is a potential natural anticancer drug with low bioavailability due to poor aqueous solubility. The study aims at formulation and optimization of CUR loaded lipopolysaccharide nanocarriers (C-LPNCs) to enhance oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy in colon-26 tumor-bearing mice in vitro and in vivo. The Optimized C-LPNCs demonstrated favorable mean particle size (108 ± 3.4 nm) and percent entrapment efficiency (65.29 ± 1.0%). Pharmacokinetic parameters revealed ∼130-fold increase in oral bioavailability and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated ∼23-fold reduction in 50% cell growth inhibition when treated with optimized C-LPNCs as compared to pure CUR. In vivo anticancer study performed with optimized C-LPNCs showed significant increase in efficacy compared with pure CUR. Thus, lipopolysaccharide nanocarriers show potential delivery strategy to improve oral bioavailability and anticancer efficacy of CUR in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:26076595

  1. Quercetin negatively regulates TLR4 signaling induced by lipopolysaccharide through Tollip expression.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Yang, Mi-So; Choi, Han-Gyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Song, Du-Sup; Sin, Sung-Jae; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2013-02-22

    Polyphenolic compounds have been regarded as one of the most promising dietary agents for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-related chronic diseases; however, the anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids, such as quercetin, are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the downregulation of TLR4 signal transduction by quercetin. Quercetin markedly elevated the expression of the Toll-interacting protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by quercetin, and this action was prevented by Toll-interacting protein silencing. In addition, quercetin-treated macrophages inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the translocation of nuclear factor-κB and p65 through Toll-interacting protein. Treatment with quercetin resulted in a significant decrease in prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, these findings represent new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and effective therapeutic intervention for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:23353651

  2. Lipopolysaccharide interaction is decisive for the activity of the antimicrobial peptide NK-2 against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Malte U; Brauser, Annemarie; Olak, Claudia; Brezesinski, Gerald; Goldmann, Torsten; Gutsmann, Thomas; Andrä, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol is a widely used mimetic to study the effects of AMPs (antimicrobial peptides) on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. However, the antibacterial activities of novel NK-2-derived AMPs could not be sufficiently explained by using this simple model system. Since the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-containing outer membrane is the first barrier of Gram-negative bacteria, in the present study we investigated interactions of NK-2 and a shortened variant with viable Escherichia coli WBB01 and Proteus mirabilis R45, and with model membranes composed of LPS isolated from these two strains. Differences in net charge and charge distribution of the two LPS have been proposed to be responsible for the differential sensitivity of the respective bacteria to other AMPs. As imaged by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), NK-2-mediated killing of these bacteria was corroborated by structural alterations of the outer and inner membranes, the release of E. coli cytoplasma, and the formation of unique fibrous structures inside P. mirabilis, suggesting distinct and novel intracellular targets. NK-2 bound to and intercalated into LPS bilayers, and eventually induced the formation of transient heterogeneous lesions in planar lipid bilayers. However, the discriminative activity of NK-2 against the two bacterial strains was independent of membrane intercalation and lesion formation, which both were indistinguishable for the two LPS. Instead, differences in activity originated from the LPS-binding step, which could be demonstrated by NK-2 attachment to intact bacteria, and to solid-supported LPS bilayers on a surface acoustic wave biosensor. PMID:20187872

  3. Purification and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from six strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Loreen R; Stromberg, Zachary R; Banisadr, Afsheen; Graves, Steven W; Moxley, Rodney A; Mukundan, Harshini

    2015-09-01

    Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are virulent human pathogens that are most often acquired through contaminated food. The United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared several serogroups of STEC as adulterants in non-intact raw beef products. Hence, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of these STEC are a necessity for implementation in food safety programs. E. coli serogroups are identified by their respective O-antigen moiety on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) macromolecule. We propose that the development of O-antigen-specific immunological assays can facilitate simple and rapid discriminatory detection of STEC in beef. However, the resources (antigens and antibodies) required for such development are not readily available. To overcome this, we extracted and characterized LPS and O-antigen from six STEC strains. Using hot phenol extraction, we isolated the LPS component from each strain and purified it using a series of steps to eliminate proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid A antigens. Antigens and crude LPS extracts were characterized using gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and modified Western blotting with commercially available antibodies, thus assessing the serogroup specificity and sensitivity of available ligands as well. The results indicate that, while many commercially available antibodies bind LPS, their activities and specificities are highly variable, and often not as specific as those required for serogroup discrimination. This variability could be minimized by the production of antibodies specific for the O-antigen. Additionally, the antigens generated from this study provide a source of characterized LPS and O-antigen standards for six serogroups of STEC. PMID:26093258

  4. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  5. Colistin-resistant, lipopolysaccharide-deficient Acinetobacter baumannii responds to lipopolysaccharide loss through increased expression of genes involved in the synthesis and transport of lipoproteins, phospholipids, and poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rebekah; Vithanage, Nuwan; Harrison, Paul; Seemann, Torsten; Coutts, Scott; Moffatt, Jennifer H; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Harper, Marina; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii can result from mutational inactivation of genes essential for lipid A biosynthesis (Moffatt JH, et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54:4971-4977). Consequently, strains harboring these mutations are unable to produce the major Gram-negative bacterial surface component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To understand how A. baumannii compensates for the lack of LPS, we compared the transcriptional profile of the A. baumannii type strain ATCC 19606 to that of an isogenic, LPS-deficient, lpxA mutant strain. The analysis of the expression profiles indicated that the LPS-deficient strain showed increased expression of many genes involved in cell envelope and membrane biogenesis. In particular, upregulated genes included those involved in the Lol lipoprotein transport system and the Mla-retrograde phospholipid transport system. In addition, genes involved in the synthesis and transport of poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) also were upregulated, and a corresponding increase in PNAG production was observed. The LPS-deficient strain also exhibited the reduced expression of genes predicted to encode the fimbrial subunit FimA and a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The reduced expression of genes involved in T6SS correlated with the detection of the T6SS-effector protein AssC in culture supernatants of the A. baumannii wild-type strain but not in the LPS-deficient strain. Taken together, these data show that, in response to total LPS loss, A. baumannii alters the expression of critical transport and biosynthesis systems associated with modulating the composition and structure of the bacterial surface. PMID:22024825

  6. D-galactan II is an immunodominant antigen in O1 lipopolysaccharide and affects virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae: implication in vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Wu, Meng-Chuan; Yang, Feng-Ling; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lou, Tzu-Chi; Chen, Yi-Yin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Sheu, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Jin-Town

    2014-01-01

    In the O1 strain of Klebsiella, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen is composed of D-galactan I and D-galactan II. Although the composition of the O1 antigen of Klebsiella was resolved more than two decades, the genetic locus involved in the biosynthesis of D-galactan II and the role of D-galactan II in bacterial pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we report the identification of the D-galactan II-synthesizing genes by screening a transposon mutant library of an acapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae O1 strain with bacteriophage. K. pneumoniae strain deleted for wbbY exhibited abrogated D-galactan II production; altered serum resistance and attenuation of virulence. Serologic analysis of K. pneumoniae clinical isolates demonstrated that D-galactan II was more prevalent in community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA)—causing strains than in non-tissue-invasive strains. WbbY homologs, WbbZ homologs, and lipopolysaccharide structures based on D-galactan II also were present in several Gram-negative bacteria. Immunization of mice with the magA-mutant (K−1 O1) (that is, with a LPS D-galactan II-producing strain) provided protection against infection with an O1:K2 PLA strain. Our findings indicate that both WbbY and WbbZ homologs are sufficient for the synthesis of D-galactan II. D-galactan II represents an immunodominant antigen; is conserved among multiple species of Gram-negative bacteria and could be a useful vaccine candidate. PMID:25477867

  7. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  8. A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation.

    PubMed

    Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the peripheral circulation, acute phase proteins in blood and milk, feed intake, milk production and composition, and blood metabolites were determined in 8 lactating Holstein cows. Between wk 1 and 5 of 2 successive 6-wk periods, cows received a total mixed ration ad libitum with a forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio of 50:50. In wk 6 of both periods, the SARA challenge was conducted by replacing 21% of the dry matter of the total mixed ration with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley. Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling pH probes in 4 rumen cannulated cows. Rumen fluid samples were collected 15 min before feed delivery and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 h after feed delivery for 2 d during wk 5 (control) and wk 6 (SARA). Peripheral blood samples were collected using jugular catheters 15 min before feeding and at 6 and 12 h after feeding at the same days of the rumen fluid collections. The SARA challenge significantly reduced average daily pH from 6.17 to 5.97 and increased the duration of rumen pH below pH 5.6 from 118 to 279 min/d. The challenge reduced dry matter intake (16.5 vs. 19 kg/d), milk yield (28.3 vs. 31.6 kg/d), and milk fat (2.93 vs. 3.30%, 0.85 vs. 0.97 kg/d), and tended to increase milk protein percentage (3.42 vs. 3.29%), without affecting milk protein yield (1.00 vs. 0.98 kg/d). The challenge also increased the concentration of free LPS in rumen fluid from 28,184 to 107,152 endotoxin units (EU)/mL. This was accompanied by an increase in LPS in peripheral blood plasma (0.52 vs. <0.05 EU/mL) with a peak at 12 h after feeding (0.81 EU/mL). Concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) in peripheral blood as well as LBP concentration in milk increased (438.5 vs. 167.4, 475.6 vs. 0, 53.1 vs. 18.2, and 6.94 vs. 3.02 microg/mL, respectively) during

  9. Science Notebook: A Simple Seismometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to construct a simple pendulum seismometer. Includes schematic drawing of the electronic circuitry, a working drawing of the apparatus, and typical seismometer outputs caused by nearby trains and various earthquake-generated waves. (JJK)

  10. Student Conceptions of Simple Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Norman; Lochhead, John

    1980-01-01

    Investigates some conceptual difficulties which college students have with regard to simple direct current circuits. The clinical interview technique was used with 57 students in a freshman level engineering course. (HM)

  11. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  12. Simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, A. )

    1994-03-01

    A simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration has been made based on energy conservation relations and a generalized Ohm's law. An exhaust velocity is expressed using three characteristic parameters: (1) a dimensionless characteristic velocity [ital [tilde U

  13. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  14. The Isolation and Partial Characterization of the Lipopolysaccharides from Several Rhizobium trifolii Mutants Affected in Root Hair Infection 1

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Russell W.; Shatters, Robert; Duh, Jauh-Lin; Turnbull, Elroy; Hanley, Brian; Rolfe, Barry G.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Rhizobium trifolii ANU843 and several transposon (Tn5) symbiotic mutants derived from ANU843 were isolated and partially characterized. The mutant strains are unable to induce normal root hair curling (Hac- phenotype) or nodulation (Nod-phenotype) in clover plants. The LPSs from the parent and mutants are very similar in composition. Analysis by PAGE shows that the LPSs consist of higher and lower molecular weight forms. The higher molecular weight form of the LPSs exists in several aggregation states when PAGE is done in 0.1% SDS but collapses into a single band when PAGE is done in 0.5% SDS. Mild acid hydrolysis of all the LPSs releases two polysaccharides, PS1 and PS2. Immunoblots of the PAGE gels and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay inhibition assays show that the PS1 fractions contain the immunodominant sites of the LPSs and that these sites are present in the higher molecular weight form of the LPSs. All the PS1 fractions contain methylated sugars, 2-amino-2,6-dideoxyhexose, heptose, glucuronic acid, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid (KDO). All the PS2 fractions contain galacturonic acid, mannose, galactose, and KDO. The PS2 fractions have a molecular weight of about 700. The KDO is present at the reducing end of both the PS1 and the PS2 fractions. The PS1 and PS2 fractions from the mutants contain more glucose than these fractions from the parent. The LPS from a deletion mutant contains less acyl groups than the other LPSs. Immunoblots of the LPSs show that the parent and nod A mutant LPSs contain an additional antigenic band which is not observed in the other LPSs. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16665455

  15. Interaction between Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like Receptor 2 in Pig Fibroblast Cell Line, and Inhibitory Effect of Antibody against Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide on Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yijie; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Nakamura, Shuichi; Bai, Lanlan; Xu, Jun; Kuroda, Kengo; Tomioka, Rintaro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) has shown potency in activating toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in pig fibroblasts (PEFs_NCC1), and causes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the stimulation by L-LPS was weak eliciting the function of TLR2 sufficiently in pig innate immunity responses during Leptospira infection. In this study, the immune response of pig embryonic fibroblast cell line (PEFs_SV40) was investigated and was found to be the high immune response, thus TLR2 is the predominate receptor of L-LPS in pig cells. Further, we found a strategy using the antibody against L-LPS, to prevent L-LPS interaction with TLR2 in pig cells which could impact on immune activation. PMID:25557825

  16. Simple method for monitoring rangeland health and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a monitoring system that requires just a pencil, one page datasheet and a 1-meter stick. Data are collected using the stick at five locations on each of four 25-m transects. Vegetation cover, composition, and horizontal and vertical structure are recorded by marking simple icons on the s...

  17. Comparison of the effect of recombinant bovine wild and mutant lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in lipopolysaccharide-challenged bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Wang, Genlin

    2016-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) plays a crucial role in the recognition of bacterial components, such as LPS that causes an immune response. The aim of this study was to compare the different effects of recombinant bovine wild LBP and mutant LBP (67 Ala → Thr) on the LPS-induced inflammatory response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). When BMECs were treated with various concentrations of recombinant bovine lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (RBLBP) (1, 5, 10, and 15 μg/mL) for 12 h, RBLBP of 5 μg/mL increased the apoptosis of BMECs induced by LPS without cytotoxicity, and mutant LBP resulted in a higher cell apoptosis than wild LBP did. By gene-chip microarray and bioinformatics, the data identified 2306 differentially expressed genes that were changed significantly between the LPS-induced inflamed BMECs treated with 5 μg/mL of mutant LBP and the BMECs only treated with 10 μg/mL of LPS (fold change ≥2). Meanwhile, 1585 genes were differently expressed between the inflamed BMECs treated with 5 μg/mL of wild LBP and 10 μg/mL of LPS-treated BMECs. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in different pathways that regulate the inflammation response. It predicted that carriers of this mutation increase the risk for a more severe inflammatory response. Our study provides an overview of the gene expression profile between wild LBP and mutant LBP on the LPS-induced inflammatory response of BMECs, which will lead to further understanding of the potential effects of LBP mutations on bovine mammary glands. PMID:26813383

  18. Lipopolysaccharide enhances FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation by increasing Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels: implications for lipopolysaccharide exacerbating allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbin; Mo, Xucheng; Lv, Jingzhang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Meichun; Dong, Ming; Li, Li; Luo, Xinping; Fan, Xinmin; Jin, Zhe; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can exacerbate asthma; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of LPS on antigen-stimulated mast cell degranulation and the underlying mechanisms. We found that LPS enhanced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells and mouse peritoneal mast cells upon FcεRI activation, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Parallel to the alteration of degranulation, LPS increased FcεRI-activated Ca(2+) mobilization, as well as Ca(2+) entry through store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) evoked by thapsigargin. Blocking Ca(2+) entry through SOCs completely abolished LPS enhancement of mast cell degranulation. Consistent with functional alteration of SOCs, LPS increased mRNA and protein levels of Orai1 and STIM1, two major subunits of SOCs, in a time-dependent manner. In addition, LPS increased the mRNA level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in a time-dependent manner. Blocking TLR4 with Cli-095 inhibited LPS, increasing transcription and expression of SOC subunits. Concomitantly, the effect of LPS enhancement of Ca(2+) mobilization and mast cell degranulation was largely reduced by Cli-095. Administration of LPS (1 μg) in vivo aggravated airway hyperreactivity and inflammatory reactions in allergic asthmatic mice. Histamine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were increased by LPS treatment. In addition, Ca(2+) mobilization was enhanced in peritoneal mast cells isolated from LPS-treated asthmatic mice. Taken together, these results imply that LPS enhances mast cell degranulation, which potentially contributes to LPS exacerbating allergic asthma. Lipopolysaccharide increases Ca(2+) entry through SOCs by upregulating transcription and expression of SOC subunits, mainly through interacting with TLR4 in mast cells, resulting in enhancement of mast cell degranulation upon antigen stimulation. PMID:22581748

  19. The N-terminal Arg Residue Is Essential for Autocatalytic Activation of a Lipopolysaccharide-responsive Protease Zymogen*

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Shiga, Takafumi; Shibata, Toshio; Sako, Miyuki; Maenaka, Katsumi; Koshiba, Takumi; Mizumura, Hikaru; Oda, Toshio; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Factor C, a serine protease zymogen involved in innate immune responses in horseshoe crabs, is known to be autocatalytically activated on the surface of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, but the molecular mechanism of this activation remains unknown. In this study, we show that wild-type factor C expressed in HEK293S cells exhibits a lipopolysaccharide-induced activity equivalent to that of native factor C. Analysis of the N-terminal addition, deletion, or substitution mutants shows that the N-terminal Arg residue and the distance between the N terminus and the tripartite of lipopolysaccharide-binding site are essential factors for autocatalytic activation, and that the positive charge of the N terminus may interact with an acidic amino acid(s) of the molecule to convert the zymogen into an active form. Chemical cross-linking experiments indicate that the N terminus is required to form a complex of the factor C molecules in a sufficiently close vicinity to be chemically cross-linked on the surface of lipopolysaccharides. We propose a molecular mechanism of the autocatalytic activation of the protease zymogen on lipopolysaccharides functioning as a platform to induce specific protein-protein interaction between the factor C molecules. PMID:25077965

  20. The N-terminal Arg residue is essential for autocatalytic activation of a lipopolysaccharide-responsive protease zymogen.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Shiga, Takafumi; Shibata, Toshio; Sako, Miyuki; Maenaka, Katsumi; Koshiba, Takumi; Mizumura, Hikaru; Oda, Toshio; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2014-09-12

    Factor C, a serine protease zymogen involved in innate immune responses in horseshoe crabs, is known to be autocatalytically activated on the surface of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, but the molecular mechanism of this activation remains unknown. In this study, we show that wild-type factor C expressed in HEK293S cells exhibits a lipopolysaccharide-induced activity equivalent to that of native factor C. Analysis of the N-terminal addition, deletion, or substitution mutants shows that the N-terminal Arg residue and the distance between the N terminus and the tripartite of lipopolysaccharide-binding site are essential factors for autocatalytic activation, and that the positive charge of the N terminus may interact with an acidic amino acid(s) of the molecule to convert the zymogen into an active form. Chemical cross-linking experiments indicate that the N terminus is required to form a complex of the factor C molecules in a sufficiently close vicinity to be chemically cross-linked on the surface of lipopolysaccharides. We propose a molecular mechanism of the autocatalytic activation of the protease zymogen on lipopolysaccharides functioning as a platform to induce specific protein-protein interaction between the factor C molecules. PMID:25077965

  1. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Levels Predict Multiple Organ Failure and Death in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26592472

  3. Is the Simple View of Reading Too Simple?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoien-Tengesdal, Ingjerd

    2010-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading (SVR), reading comprehension is the product of word decoding ability and linguistic comprehension (R = D x C). However, there is also evidence showing that an additive model (R = D + C) explains just as much or even more of the variance in reading comprehension than the product model. To further evaluate…

  4. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  5. How Simple is the Simple View of Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Samuelsson, Christina; Johansson, Ellinor; Wallmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading, reading ability can be divided into decoding and language comprehension. In the present study, decoding and comprehension's contribution to reading ability was studied both in children with reading difficulties and in children with typical reading ability. Decoding and comprehension was further divided…

  6. Rhizobium meliloti chromosomal loci required for suppression of exopolysaccharide mutations by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.N.V.; Brzoska, P.M.; Signer, E.R. ); Hollingsworth, R.I. )

    1990-11-01

    Mutants of alfalfa symbiont Rhizobium meliloti SU47 that fail to make extracellular polysaccharide (exo mutants) induce the formation of nodules that are devoid of bacteria and consequently do not fix nitrogen. This Fix{sup {minus}} phenotype can be suppressed by an R. meliloti Rm41 gene that affects lipopolysaccharide structure. Here we describe mutations preventing suppression that map at two new chromosomal loci, lpsY and lpsX, present in both strains. Two other lps mutations isolated previously from SU47 also prevented suppression.

  7. Changes in endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability after systemic lipopolysaccharide administration in the subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    Morita-Takemura, Shoko; Nakahara, Kazuki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tatsuhide; Isonishi, Ayami; Wanaka, Akio

    2016-09-15

    The subfornical organ (SFO) has highly permeable fenestrated vasculature and is a key site for immune-to-brain communications. Recently, we showed the occurrence of continuous angiogenesis in the SFO. In the present study, we found that systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced the vascular permeability and endothelial cell proliferation. In LPS-administered mice, the SFO vasculature showed a significant decrease in the immunoreactivity of plasmalemma vesicle associated protein-1, a marker of endothelial fenestral diaphragms. These data suggest that vasculature undergoes structural change to decrease vascular permeability in response to systemic LPS administration. PMID:27609286

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-dependent enhancement of adherence-mediated chemiluminescence response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dwenger, A; Schweitzer, G; Funck, M

    1988-01-01

    Adherence of resting polymorphonuclear leukocytes to nylon fibre increased the chemiluminescence response (CL) from 99,400 to 910,300 cpm/25,000 PMNL. This effect could be amplified by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) priming of granulocytes in a dose-dependent fashion. The results of nylon fibre adherence experiments suggest an in vitro model that might approximate certain conditions of in vivo PMNL-endothelial adherence and respiratory burst activation, and these reactions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes may contribute to the pathomechanisms of the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome. PMID:3213589

  9. Structure of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense Jm125A2.

    PubMed

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2015-10-30

    Two polysaccharides were obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Jm125A2 isolated from the rhizosphere of a pearl millet. The following structures of the polysaccharides were established by sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: [Formula: see text] Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide from A. brasilense S17 (Fedonenko YP, Konnova ON, Zdorovenko EL, Konnova SA, Zatonsky GV, Shaskov AS, Ignatov VV, Knirel YA. Carbohydr Res 2008;343:810-6), whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. PMID:26343325

  10. Genes of the adaptive immune system are expressed early in zebrafish larval development following lipopolysaccharide stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengling; Zhang, Shicui; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Hongyan

    2011-03-01

    Information regarding immunocompetence of the adaptive immune system (AIS) in zebrafish Danio rerio remains limited. Here, we stimulated an immune response in fish embryos, larvae and adults using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and measured the upregulation of a number of AIS-related genes ( Rag2, AID, TCRAC, IgLC-1, mIg, sIg, IgZ and DAB) 3 and 18 h later. We found that all of the genes evaluated were strongly induced following LPS stimulation, with most of them responding at 8 d post fertilization. This confirms that a functional adaptive immune response is present in D. rerio larvae, and provides a window for further functional analyses.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Mannitol-Based Inhibitors for Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat against humankind and the need for new therapeutics is crucial. Without working antibiotics, diseases that we thought were extinct will come back. In this paper two new mannitol bisphosphate analogs, 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diphosphoramidate mannitol and 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-dimethansulfonamide mannitol, have been synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of the enzyme GmhB in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides. 1,6-Dideoxy-1,6-diphosphoramidate mannitol showed promising result in computational docking experiments, but neither phosphate analog showed activity in the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test. PMID:26981280

  12. [Piezoquartz immunosensors for assessing the interactions between Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharides and antibodies to them].

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, E N; Dergunova, E S; Ermolaeva, T N; Gorshkova, R P; Komandrova, N A

    2008-01-01

    The utility of a piezoquartz immunosensor coated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for the quantification of antibody specificities was demonstrated. Immunochemical reactions were monitored according to the changes in the weight of sensor bioreceptor layer with high sensitivity (detection limit, 1.3 microg/ml) and assay rate (10 min) without any additional labels. The capabilities of this sensor were demonstrated by the example of quantifying the cross-reactivity of blood serum antibodies with the LPS of Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:5, O:5.27, O:6.30, and O:6.31. The proposed approach is promising for clinical diagnostics of yersiniosis, an infectious intestinal disease. PMID:18924407

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23970974

  14. Fimbriae and lipopolysaccharides are necessary for co-aggregation between Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kouhei; Furukawa, Soichi; Usui, Yumi; Ishiba, Madoka; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Cells of Lactobacilli co-aggregated with Escherichia coli K-12 cells to form co-aggregates under mixed-culture conditions at 37 °C for 24 h. Co-aggregation was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate but not by protease. E. coli deletion mutants of fimbriae formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) formation did not co-aggregate with Lactobacilli. These results showed that fimbriae and LPS are necessary for co-aggregation between Lactobacilli and E. coli. PMID:25209514

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23970974

  16. Role of the wbt locus of Francisella tularensis in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biogenesis and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Catherine; Meibom, Karin L; Lety, Marie-Annick; Dubail, Iharilalao; Candela, Thomas; Frapy, Eric; Charbit, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen, responsible for the zoonotic disease tularemia. We screened a bank of transposon insertion mutants of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS for colony morphology alterations and selected a mutant with a transposon insertion in wbtA, the first gene of the predicted lipopolysaccharide O-antigen gene cluster. Inactivation of wbtA led to the complete loss of O antigen, conferred serum sensitivity, impaired intracellular replication, and severely attenuated virulence in the mouse model. Notably, this mutant afforded protection against a challenge against virulent LVS. PMID:17030571

  17. Exogenous heat shock protein HSP70 reduces response of human neuroblastoma cells to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Yurinskaya, M M; Funikov, S Y; Evgen'ev, M B; Vinokurov, M G

    2016-07-01

    The effect of exogenous heat shock protein HSP70 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), TNFα secretion, and mRNA expression by human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. It was shown that exogenous HSP70 protects neuroblastoma cells from the action of LPS. The protection mechanism of HSP70 includes a reduction in the production of ROS and TNFα and a decrease in the expression of TLR4 and IL-1β mRNA in SK-N-SH cells induced by LPS. PMID:27599502

  18. Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  19. A simple hindlimb suspension apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, E.; Schultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a simple, inexpensive apparatus for application of the hindlimb suspension model to studies of the effects of unloading on mammalian physiology. Construction of a cage and suspension assembly is described using materials that can be obtained from most hardware stores. The design is kept simple for easy assembly and disassembly to facilitate cleaning and storage. The suspension assembly allows the animals full access to all portions of the floor area and provides an effective environment to study the effects of unloading.

  20. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Paeonol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cells and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Liu, Dianfeng; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Sun, Jingjing; Zhong, Weiting; Guo, Weixiao; Huo, Meixia; Li, Hongyu; Guan, Shuang; Chen, Zhenwen; Feng, Haihua

    2014-06-01

    Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is the main phenolic compound of the radix of Paeonia suffruticosa which has been used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we primarily investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of paeonol in RAW macrophage cells; and based on these effects, we assessed the protective effects of paeonol on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in mice. The in vitro study showed that paeonol regulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 via inactivation of IκBα, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. In mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are significantly regulated, and thus the survival rates of lipolysaccharide-challenged mice are improved by paeonol (150, 200, or 250 mg/kg). Therefore, paeonol has a beneficial activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell and mouse models. PMID:23413967

  2. Underwater Scene Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  3. Simple replica micromolding of biocompatible styrenic elastomers.

    PubMed

    Borysiak, Mark D; Bielawski, Kevin S; Sniadecki, Nathan J; Jenkel, Colin F; Vogt, Bryan D; Posner, Jonathan D

    2013-07-21

    In this work, we introduce a simple solvent-assisted micromolding technique for the fabrication of high-fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS, SEBS42). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit both glassy thermoplastic and elastomeric properties resulting from their respective hard PS and rubbery ethylene/butylene segments. The PS fraction gives SEBS microdevices many of the appealing properties of pure PS devices, while the elastomeric properties simplify fabrication of the devices, similar to PDMS. SEBS42 devices have wettable, stable surfaces (both contact angle and zeta potential) that support cell attachment and proliferation consistent with tissue culture dish substrates, do not adsorb hydrophobic molecules, and have high bond strength to wide range of substrates (glass, PS, SEBS). Furthermore, SEBS42 devices are mechanically robust, thermally stable, as well as exhibit low auto-fluorescence and high transmissivity. We characterize SEBS42 surface properties by contact angle measurements, cell culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface composition of SEBS microdevices cast on different substrates is determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The attractive SEBS42 material properties, coupled with the simple fabrication method, make SEBS42 a quality substrate for microfluidic applications where the properties of PS are desired but the ease of PDMS micromolding is favoured. PMID:23670166

  4. Simple Replica Micromolding of Biocompatible Styrenic Elastomers†

    PubMed Central

    Bielawski, Kevin S.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.; Jenkel, Colin F.; Vogt, Bryan D.; Posner, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a simple solvent-assisted micromolding technique for the fabrication of high-fidelity styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) microfluidic devices with high polystyrene (PS) content (42 wt% PS). SEBS triblock copolymers are styrenic thermoplastic elastomers that exhibit both glassy thermoplastic and elastomeric properties resulting from their respective hard PS and rubbery ethylene/butylene fractions. The PS fraction gives SEBS microdevices many of the appealing properties of pure PS devices, while the elastomeric fraction simplifies fabrication of the devices, similar to PDMS. SEBS42 devices have wettable, stable surfaces (both contact angle and zeta potential) that support cell attachment and proliferation consistent with tissue culture dish substrates, do not adsorb hydrophobic molecules, and have high bond strength to wide range of substrates (glass, PS, SEBS). Furthermore, SEBS42 devices are mechanically robust, thermally stable, as well as exhibit low auto-fluorescence and high transmissivity. We characterize SEBS42 surface properties by contact angle measurements, cell culture studies, zeta potential measurements, and the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules. The PS surface composition of SEBS microdevices cast on different substrates is determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The attractive SEBS42 material properties, coupled with the simple fabrication method, make SEBS42 a quality substrate for microfluidic applications where the properties of PS are desired but the ease of PDMS micromolding is favoured. PMID:23670166

  5. Simple Machines in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  6. Simple modeling of hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charlie

    2014-07-01

    Hydrostatic bearings are a key component for many large telescopes due to their high load bearing capacity, stiffness and low friction. A simple technique is presented to model these bearings to understand the effects of geometry, oil viscosity, flow control, temperature, etc. on the bearings behavior.

  7. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  8. Simple Astronomical Theory of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1979-01-01

    The author derives, applying perturbation theory, from a simple astronomical model the approximate periods of secular variation of some of the parameters of the Earth's orbit and relates these periods to the past climate of the Earth, indicating the difficulties in predicting the climate of the future. (GA)

  9. Simple Echoes and Subtle Reverberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can…

  10. Simple manipulator for rotating spheres.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, B W; Hendricks, C D; Ward, C M; Willenborg, D L

    1978-06-01

    We describe a simple device for rapidly rotating a small sphere to any orientation for inspection of the surface. The ball is held between two small, flat surfaces and rolls as the surfaces are moved differentially parallel to one another. PMID:18699214

  11. Simple Games . . . or Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arn, Susan Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

  12. Simple Stringy Dynamical SUSY Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Kachru, Shamit; Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2007-08-08

    We present simple string models which dynamically break supersymmetry without non-Abelian gauge dynamics. The Fayet model, the Polonyi model, and the O'Raifeartaigh model each arise from D-branes at a specific type of singularity. D-brane instanton effects generate the requisite exponentially small scale of supersymmetry breaking.

  13. Simple Techniques for Microclimate Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes simple ways of measuring the very local climate near the ground, and explains what these measurements mean. Equipment included a solar radiometer, a dew point instrument, and a thermocouple psychrometer. Examples are given of field measurements taken with some of the equipment and the results and their interpretation are discussed.…

  14. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  15. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  16. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  17. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  18. A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxlade, E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

  19. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  20. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  1. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    PubMed

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides. PMID:25240180

  2. Low-molecular-weight solutes released during mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Identification of ethanolamine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Drewry, David T.; Gray, George W.; Wilkinson, Stephen G.

    1972-01-01

    A careful examination of the low-molecular-weight solutes released during mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N.C.T.C. 1999) revealed the presence of ethanolamine triphosphate. During storage, the compound decomposed to give ethanolamine pyrophosphate, identified in a previous study (Drewry et al., 1971); PPi may be a further decomposition product. Evidence for the attachment of ethanolamine triphosphate to a polysaccharide fraction was obtained, but the possibility that some was attached to the lipid A moiety was not excluded. Basic compounds released during the hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide included amino acids, polyamines and oligopeptides. PMID:4632171

  3. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  4. Reliability of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) from repeated measures in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Citronberg, Jessica S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Lim, Unhee; Hullar, Meredith A J; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-09-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a measure of internal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, has been associated with several chronic conditions and may be a marker of chronic inflammation; however, no studies have examined the reliability of this biomarker in a healthy population. We examined the temporal reliability of LBP measured in archived samples from participants in two studies. In Study one, 60 healthy participants had blood drawn at two time points: baseline and follow-up (either three, six, or nine months). In Study two, 24 individuals had blood drawn three to four times over a seven-month period. We measured LBP in archived plasma by ELISA. Test-retest reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Plasma LBP concentrations showed moderate reliability in Study one (ICC 0.60, 95 % CI 0.43-0.75) and Study two (ICC 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.69). Restricting the follow-up period improved reliability. In Study one, the reliability of LBP over a three-month period was 0.68 (95 % CI: 0.41-0.87). In Study two, the ICC of samples taken ≤seven days apart was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.29-0.86). Plasma LBP concentrations demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability in healthy individuals with reliability improving over a shorter follow-up period. PMID:27392432

  5. Secondary Acylation of Klebsiella pneumoniae Lipopolysaccharide Contributes to Sensitivity to Antibacterial Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Tull, Dedreia; Jenney, Adam W.; Farn, Jacinta L.; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Bishop, Russell E.; McPhee, Joseph B.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Pearse, Martin J.; Wijburg, Odilia L. C.; Jackson, David C.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Strugnell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of nosocomial Gram-negative sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be a major virulence determinant of this encapsulated bacterium and most mutations to the lipid A anchor of LPS are conditionally lethal to the bacterium. We studied the role of LPS acylation in K. pneumoniae disease pathogenesis by using a mutation of lpxM (msbB/waaN), which encodes the enzyme responsible for late secondary acylation of immature lipid A molecules. A K. pneumoniae B5055 (K2:O1) lpxM mutant was found to be attenuated for growth in the lungs in a mouse pneumonia model leading to reduced lethality of the bacterium. B5055ΔlpxM exhibited similar sensitivity to phagocytosis or complement-mediated lysis than B5055, unlike the non-encapsulated mutant B5055nm. In vitro, B5055ΔlpxM showed increased permeability of the outer membrane and an increased susceptibility to certain antibacterial peptides suggesting that in vivo attenuation may be due in part to sensitivity to antibacterial peptides present in the lungs of BALB/c mice. These data support the view that lipopolysaccharide acylation plays a important role in providing Gram-negative bacteria some resistance to structural and innate defenses and especially the antibacterial properties of detergents (e.g. bile) and cationic defensins. PMID:17371870

  6. A novel podocyte gene, semaphorin 3G, protects glomerular podocyte from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; He, Peng; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Tsurutani, Yuya; Ide, Shintaro; Ide, Kana; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tryggvason, Karl; Betsholtz, Christer; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-01-01

    Kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy have become huge medical problems, although its precise mechanisms are still far from understood. In order to increase our knowledge about the patho-physiology of kidney, we have previously identified >300 kidney glomerulus-enriched transcripts through large-scale sequencing and microarray profiling of the mouse glomerular transcriptome. One of the glomerulus-specific transcripts identified was semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) which belongs to the semaphorin family. The aim of this study was to analyze both the in vivo and in vitro functions of Sema3G in the kidney. Sema3G was expressed in glomerular podocytes. Although Sema3G knockout mice did not show obvious glomerular defects, ultrastructural analyses revealed partially aberrant podocyte foot processes structures. When these mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce acute inflammation or streptozotocin to induce diabetes, the lack of Sema3G resulted in increased albuminuria. The lack of Sema3G in podocytes also enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines including chemokine ligand 2 and interleukin 6. On the other hand, the presence of Sema3G attenuated their expression through the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll like receptor 4 signaling. Taken together, our results surmise that the Sema3G protein is secreted by podocytes and protects podocytes from inflammatory kidney diseases and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27180624

  7. Protection from Endotoxic Shock by EVK-203, a Novel Alkylpolyamine Sequestrant of Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuan B.; Adisechan, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, E.V.K. Suresh; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Kimbrell, Matthew R.; Miller, Kelly A.; Datta, Apurba; David, Sunil A.

    2007-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), play a key role in the pathogenesis of septic shock, a major cause of mortality in the critically ill patient. The only therapeutic option aimed at limiting downstream systemic inflammatory processes by targeting lipopolysaccharide is Toraymyxin™, an extracorporeal hemoperfusion device using solid phase-immobilized polymyxin B (PMB). While PMB is known to effectively sequester LPS, its severe systemic toxicity proscribes its parenteral use, and hemoperfusion may not be feasible in patients in shock. In our continuing efforts to develop small-molecule mimics which display the LPS-sequestering properties, but not the toxicity of PMB, a series of mono- and bis-substituted dialkylpolyamines were synthesized and evaluated. We show that EVK-203, analkylpolyamine compound specifically binds to, and neutralizes, the activity of LPS, and affords complete protection in a murine model of endotoxic shock. EVK-203 is without any apparent toxicity when administered to mice at multiples of therapeutic doses for several days. The specific endotoxinsequestering property along with a very favorable therapeutic index renders this compound an ideal candidate for preclinical development. PMID:17583517

  8. A novel podocyte gene, semaphorin 3G, protects glomerular podocyte from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; He, Peng; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Tsurutani, Yuya; Ide, Shintaro; Ide, Kana; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tryggvason, Karl; Betsholtz, Christer; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-01-01

    Kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy have become huge medical problems, although its precise mechanisms are still far from understood. In order to increase our knowledge about the patho-physiology of kidney, we have previously identified >300 kidney glomerulus-enriched transcripts through large-scale sequencing and microarray profiling of the mouse glomerular transcriptome. One of the glomerulus-specific transcripts identified was semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) which belongs to the semaphorin family. The aim of this study was to analyze both the in vivo and in vitro functions of Sema3G in the kidney. Sema3G was expressed in glomerular podocytes. Although Sema3G knockout mice did not show obvious glomerular defects, ultrastructural analyses revealed partially aberrant podocyte foot processes structures. When these mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce acute inflammation or streptozotocin to induce diabetes, the lack of Sema3G resulted in increased albuminuria. The lack of Sema3G in podocytes also enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines including chemokine ligand 2 and interleukin 6. On the other hand, the presence of Sema3G attenuated their expression through the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll like receptor 4 signaling. Taken together, our results surmise that the Sema3G protein is secreted by podocytes and protects podocytes from inflammatory kidney diseases and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27180624

  9. Assessment of the convergence of molecular dynamics simulations of lipopolysaccharide membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Thereza A.; Straatsma, TP

    2008-03-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is composed of a phospholipid inner leaflet and a lipopolysaccharide outer leaflet. The chemical structure of lipopolysaccharide confers an asymmetric character to outer membranes that has been shown to play an important role in the in the electrical properties of porins, low permeability and intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present work, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two different configurations of the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under periodic boundary conditions were carried out in order to i) validate model-derived properties against the available experimental data, ii) identify the properties whose dynamics can be sampled on nanosecond timescales, and iii) evaluate the dependence of the convergence of structural and dynamical properties on the initial configuration of the system, within the chosen force field and simulation conditions. Because the relaxation times associated with the motions of individual LPS monomers in outer membranes is very slow, the two initial configurations do not converge to a common ensemble of configuration on the nanosecond time scale. However, a number of properties of the outer membrane that will significantly impact the structural and internal dynamics of transmembrane proteins, most notably the electrostatic potential and molecular density, do converge within the simulated time scale. For these properties, a good agreement with the available experimental data was found. Such molecular model, capable of accounting for the high asymmetry and low fluidity characteristics of outer membranes, will certainly benefit future atomistic simulations of outer membrane proteins.

  10. Colistin Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Is Mediated by Complete Loss of Lipopolysaccharide Production ▿

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Jennifer H.; Harper, Marina; Harrison, Paul; Hale, John D. F.; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Seemann, Torsten; Henry, Rebekah; Crane, Bethany; St. Michael, Frank; Cox, Andrew D.; Adler, Ben; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian; Boyce, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria represent a major global health problem. Polymyxin antibiotics such as colistin have resurfaced as effective last-resort antimicrobials for use against MDR Gram-negative pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii. Here we show that A. baumannii can rapidly develop resistance to polymyxin antibiotics by complete loss of the initial binding target, the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which has long been considered to be essential for the viability of Gram-negative bacteria. We characterized 13 independent colistin-resistant derivatives of A. baumannii type strain ATCC 19606 and showed that all contained mutations within one of the first three genes of the lipid A biosynthesis pathway: lpxA, lpxC, and lpxD. All of these mutations resulted in the complete loss of LPS production. Furthermore, we showed that loss of LPS occurs in a colistin-resistant clinical isolate of A. baumannii. This is the first report of a spontaneously occurring, lipopolysaccharide-deficient, Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:20855724

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Promote Resistance to Antimicrobial Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Lew, Cynthia S.; Kartchner, Brittany; Porter, Nathan T.; McDaniel, S. Wade; Jones, Nathan M.; Mason, Sara; Wu, Erin; Wilson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial chemokines (AMCs) are a recently described family of host defense peptides that play an important role in protecting a wide variety of organisms from bacterial infection. Very little is known about the bacterial targets of AMCs or factors that influence bacterial susceptibility to AMCs. In an effort to understand how bacterial pathogens resist killing by AMCs, we screened Yersinia pseudotuberculosis transposon mutants for those with increased binding to the AMCs CCL28 and CCL25. Mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs were subjected to AMC killing assays, which revealed their increased sensitivity to chemokine-mediated cell death. The majority of the mutants exhibiting increased binding to AMCs contained transposon insertions in genes related to lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. A particularly strong effect on susceptibility to AMC mediated killing was observed by disruption of the hldD/waaF/waaC operon, necessary for ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose synthesis and a complete lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide. Periodate oxidation of surface carbohydrates also enhanced AMC binding, whereas enzymatic removal of surface proteins significantly reduced binding. These results suggest that the structure of Y. pseudotuberculosis LPS greatly affects the antimicrobial activity of AMCs by shielding a protein ligand on the bacterial cell surface. PMID:27275606

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of surfactin in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chuan; Dong, Bin; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2015-04-01

    Surfactin is primarily produced by Bacillus natto TK-1 and is one of the most powerful biosurfactants. It consists of a heptapeptide interlinked with a β-hydroxy fatty acid. Because of its special structure, surfactin shows broad biological effects, including anti-tumour, anti-microbial and anti-mycoplasma activities. It also has potential anti-inflammatory activity; however, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of surfactin has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of surfactin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Surfactin exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect without cytotoxicity at certain concentrations, and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells appeared normal after surfactin treatment. Surfactin significantly inhibited the increased expression of IFN-γ, IL-6, iNOS and nitric oxide (NO). TLR4 is the critical receptor for LPS; therefore, the TLR4 signal transduction pathway is the primary pathway that mediates LPS-induced inflammation. The results show that surfactin downregulated the LPS-induced TLR4 protein expression of macrophages and indicated that the surfactin-mediated signal pathway was involved in with TLR4. The subsequent studies demonstrated that surfactin exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by attenuating the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is involved in the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) cell signalling pathways. These results suggest that surfactin may be a new therapeutic agent for inflammation. PMID:25331175

  13. Lipopolysaccharide activated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway of fibroblasts from uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Zheng, Lihua; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Yang, Weihong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mingmin; Cheng, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF) are the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to explore the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway on stromal fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of UF. Here, TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway was more activated in UF, and UF cells (UFC) and UF derived fibroblasts (TAF) than in smooth muscle tissues, smooth muscle cell (SMC) and myometrial fibroblasts (fib) respectively. After lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, the activity of fib was enhanced, characterized by the increased expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and increased secretion of collagen I and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Moreover, TLR4 inhibitor (VIPER) and siTLR4 can represses LPS-activated fibroblasts and TLR4/NF-κB signaling transduction pathways in fib and UFC cells. Co-cultured with LPS-activated fibroblast enhanced fibroblast activation and TLR4/NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, LPS treatment activated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway on fibroblasts, which may involve in the development of UF. Our study indicated reproductive tract infection may be associated with fibroid pathogenesis through TLR4/NF-κB signaling. Targeting NF-κB with inhibitors may hold promises of treating uterine fibroid. PMID:26617709

  14. Lipopolysaccharide activated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway of fibroblasts from uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Zheng, Lihua; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Yang, Weihong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mingmin; Cheng, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF) are the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to explore the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway on stromal fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of UF. Here, TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway was more activated in UF, and UF cells (UFC) and UF derived fibroblasts (TAF) than in smooth muscle tissues, smooth muscle cell (SMC) and myometrial fibroblasts (fib) respectively. After lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, the activity of fib was enhanced, characterized by the increased expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and increased secretion of collagen I and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Moreover, TLR4 inhibitor (VIPER) and siTLR4 can represses LPS-activated fibroblasts and TLR4/NF-κB signaling transduction pathways in fib and UFC cells. Co-cultured with LPS-activated fibroblast enhanced fibroblast activation and TLR4/NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, LPS treatment activated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway on fibroblasts, which may involve in the development of UF. Our study indicated reproductive tract infection may be associated with fibroid pathogenesis through TLR4/NF-κB signaling. Targeting NF-κB with inhibitors may hold promises of treating uterine fibroid. PMID:26617709

  15. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (p<0.001) brain- reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) significantly increased (p<0.001) the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide and the activity of cytokines in the brain. MEAR supplementation resulted in normalization of brain GSH and CAT and SOD and decreases in the levels of MDA with reduction of nitric oxide and cytokines in the brain. The action of the extract at dose of 200 mg/kg was almost similar to the standard drug, quercetin (100mg/kg, p.o.). These present study conclude that MEAR administration significantly (P<0.05) reduced LPS- induced oxidative-stress and intensely suggest that Asparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent. PMID:25730806

  16. Effects of Lipopolysaccharide and Progesterone Exposures on Embryonic Cerebral Cortex Development in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tronnes, Ashlie A; Koschnitzky, Jenna; Daza, Ray; Hitti, Jane; Ramirez, Jan Marino; Hevner, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to determine if progesterone pretreatment could ameliorate the detrimental effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on cortical neurogenesis. Timed pregnant mouse dams (n = 8) were given intraperitoneal injections of progesterone (42 mg/kg) or vehicle on embryonic day 17.5. Two hours later, mice were given intraperitoneal LPS (140 μg/kg) or vehicle. Mice were sacrificed 16 hours later on embryonic day 18. Two-color immunofluorescence was performed with primary antibodies T-box transcription factor 2 (Tbr2), ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), cleaved caspase 3 (CC3), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Cells were counted, and statistical analysis was determined using analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer method. The Tbr2 intermediate neural progenitor cell density decreased after LPS exposure (P = .0022). Pre-exposure to progesterone statistically increased Tbr2 intermediate neural progenitors compared to LPS treatment alone and was similar to controls (P = .0022). After LPS exposure, microglia displayed an activated phenotype, and cell density was increased (P < .001). Cell death rates were low among study groups but was increased in LPS exposure groups compared to progesterone alone (P = .0015). Lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation reduces prenatal neurogenesis in mice. Pre-exposure with progesterone is associated with increased neurogenesis. Progesterone may protect the preterm brain from defects of neurogenesis induced by inflammation. PMID:26621965

  17. Star clusters as simple stellar populations.

    PubMed

    Bruzual A, Gustavo

    2010-02-28

    In this paper, I review to what extent we can understand the photometric properties of star clusters, and of low-mass, unresolved galaxies, in terms of population-synthesis models designed to describe 'simple stellar populations' (SSPs), i.e. groups of stars born at the same time, in the same volume of space and from a gas cloud of homogeneous chemical composition. The photometric properties predicted by these models do not readily match the observations of most star clusters, unless we properly take into account the expected variation in the number of stars occupying sparsely populated evolutionary stages, owing to stochastic fluctuations in the stellar initial mass function. In this case, population-synthesis models reproduce remarkably well the full ranges of observed integrated colours and absolute magnitudes of star clusters of various ages and metallicities. The disagreement between the model predictions and observations of cluster colours and magnitudes may indicate problems with or deficiencies in the modelling, and does not necessarily tell us that star clusters do not behave like SSPs. Matching the photometric properties of star clusters using SSP models is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for clusters to be considered SSPs. Composite models, characterized by complex star-formation histories, also match the observed cluster colours. PMID:20083506

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Middle Ear Inflammation Disrupts the cochlear Intra-Strial Fluid–Blood Barrier through Down-Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Cai, Jing; Dong, Mingmin; Shi, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid–blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we used a cell culture-based in vitro model and animal-based in vivo model, combined with immunohistochemistry and a vascular leakage assay, to investigate lipopolysaccharide effects on the integrity of the mouse intra-strial fluid–blood barrier. Our results show lipopolysaccharide-induced local infection significantly affects intra-strial fluid–blood barrier component cells. Pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes are particularly affected, and the morphological and functional changes in these cells are accompanied by substantial changes in barrier integrity. Significant vascular leakage is found in the lipopolysaccharide treated-animals. Consistent with the findings from the in vivo animal model, the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer to FITC-albumin was significantly higher in the lipopolysaccharide-treated monolayer than in an untreated endothelial cell monolayer. Further study has shown the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation to have a major effect on the expression of tight junctions in the blood barrier. Lipopolysaccharide was also shown to cause high frequency hearing loss, corroborated by previous reports from other laboratories. Our findings show lipopolysaccharide-evoked middle ear infection disrupts inner ear fluid balance, and its particular effects on the intra-strial fluid

  19. Global and Targeted Lipid Analysis of Gemmata obscuriglobus Reveals the Presence of Lipopolysaccharide, a Signature of the Classical Gram-Negative Outer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mahat, Rajendra; Seebart, Corrine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Planctomycete bacteria possess many unusual cellular properties, contributing to a cell plan long considered to be unique among the bacteria. However, data from recent studies are more consistent with a modified Gram-negative cell plan. A key feature of the Gram-negative plan is the presence of an outer membrane (OM), for which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a signature molecule. Despite genomic evidence for an OM in planctomycetes, no biochemical verification has been reported. We attempted to detect and characterize LPS in the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus. We obtained direct evidence for LPS and lipid A using electrophoresis and differential staining. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) compositional analysis of LPS extracts identified eight different 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-HOFAs), 2-keto 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), glucosamine, and hexose and heptose sugars, a chemical profile unique to Gram-negative LPS. Combined with molecular/structural information collected from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of putative intact lipid A, these data led us to propose a heterogeneous hexa-acylated lipid A structure (multiple-lipid A species). We also confirmed previous reports of G. obscuriglobus whole-cell fatty acid (FA) and sterol compositions and detected a novel polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Our confirmation of LPS, and by implication an OM, in G. obscuriglobus raises the possibility that other planctomycetes possess an OM. The pursuit of this question, together with studies of the structural connections between planctomycete LPS and peptidoglycans, will shed more light on what appears to be a planctomycete variation on the Gram-negative cell plan. IMPORTANCE Bacterial species are classified as Gram positive or negative based on their cell envelope structure. For 25 years, the envelope of planctomycete bacteria has been considered a unique exception, as it lacks peptidoglycan and an

  20. Fabrication of 80-nm T-gate high indium In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.6Ga0.4As composite channels mHEMT on GaAs substrate with simple technological process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Ji; Xiaodong, Zhang; Weihua, Kang; Zhili, Zhang; Jiahui, Zhou; Wenjun, Xu; Qi, Li; Gongli, Xiao; Zhijun, Yin; Yong, Cai; Baoshun, Zhang; Haiou, Li

    2016-02-01

    An 80-nm gate length metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (mHEMT) on a GaAs substrate with high indium composite compound-channels In0.7Ga0.3 As/In0.6Ga0.4 As and an optimized grade buffer scheme is presented. High 2-DEG Hall mobility values of 10200 cm2/(V·s) and a sheet density of 3.5 × 1012 cm-2 at 300 K have been achieved. The device's T-shaped gate was made by utilizing a simple three layers electron beam resist, instead of employing a passivation layer for the T-share gate, which is beneficial to decreasing parasitic capacitance and parasitic resistance of the gate and simplifying the device manufacturing process. The ohmic contact resistance Rc is 0.2 ω·mm when using the same metal system with the gate (Pt/Ti/Pt/Au), which reduces the manufacturing cycle of the device. The mHEMT device demonstrates excellent DC and RF characteristics. The peak extrinsic transconductance of 1.1 S/mm and the maximum drain current density of 0.86 A/mm are obtained. The unity current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are 246 and 301 GHz, respectively. Project supported by the Key Laboratory of Nano-Devices and Applications, Nano-Fabrication Facility of SINANO, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274077, 61474031, 61464003), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 2013GXNSFGA019003, 2013GXNSFAA019335), the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2011CBA00605, 2010CB327501), the Project (No. 9140C140101140C14069), and the Innovation Project of GUET Graduate Education (Nos. GDYCSZ201448, GDYCSZ201449, YJCXS201529).

  1. Simple model of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Lukšič, Miha; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A

    2012-05-31

    Water is an unusual liquid in its solvation properties. Here, we model the process of transferring a nonpolar solute into water. Our goal was to capture the physical balance between water's hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in a model that is simple enough to be nearly analytical and not heavily computational. We develop a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model of water with which we compute the free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and the heat capacity of transfer as a function of temperature, pressure, and solute size. As validation, we find that this model gives the same trends as Monte Carlo simulations of the underlying 2D model and gives qualitative agreement with experiments. The advantages of this model are that it gives simple insights and that computational time is negligible. It may provide a useful starting point for developing more efficient and more realistic 3D models of aqueous solvation. PMID:22564051

  2. Webcam classification using simple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramoun, Thitiporn; Choe, Jeehyun; Li, He; Chen, Qingshuang; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat; Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of sensors are connected to the Internet and many of these sensors are cameras. The "Internet of Things" will contain many "things" that are image sensors. This vast network of distributed cameras (i.e. web cams) will continue to exponentially grow. In this paper we examine simple methods to classify an image from a web cam as "indoor/outdoor" and having "people/no people" based on simple features. We use four types of image features to classify an image as indoor/outdoor: color, edge, line, and text. To classify an image as having people/no people we use HOG and texture features. The features are weighted based on their significance and combined. A support vector machine is used for classification. Our system with feature weighting and feature combination yields 95.5% accuracy.

  3. The Simple Science of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennekes, Henk

    1997-05-01

    From the smallest gnat to the largest aircraft, all things that fly obey the same aerodynamic principles. The Simple Science of Flight offers a leisurely introduction to the mechanics of flight and, beyond that, to the scientific attitude that finds wonder in simple calculations, forging connections between, say, the energy efficiency of a peanut butter sandwich and that of the kerosene that fuels a jumbo jet. It is the product of a lifetime of watching and investigating the way flight happens. The hero of the book is the Boeing 747, which Tennekes sees as the current pinnacle of human ingenuity in mastering the science of flight. Also covered are paper airplanes, kites, gliders, and human-powered flying machines as well as birds and insects. Tennekes explains concepts like lift, drag, wing loading, and cruising speed through many fascinating comparisons, anecdotes, and examples.

  4. Four simple ocean carbon models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the key processes that determine oceanic CO2 uptake and sets this description within the context of four simple ocean carbon models. These models capture, in varying degrees, these key processes and establish a clear foundation for more realistic models that incorporate more directly the underlying physics and biology of the ocean rather than relying on simple parametric schemes. The purpose of this paper is more pedagogical than purely scientific. The problems encountered by current attempts to understand the global carbon cycle not only require our efforts but set a demand for a new generation of scientist, and it is hoped that this paper and the text in which it appears will help in this development.

  5. Simple echoes and subtle reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2010-03-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can be used for the study of reverberation are suggested. Additionally, methods of adding reverberation to recorded sound are discussed.

  6. Spontaneous chirality in simple systems

    PubMed

    Pickett; Gross; Okuyama

    2000-10-23

    Two simple examples of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are presented. The first is close-packed cylindrically confined spheres. As the cylinder diameter is varied, one obtains a variety of chiral phases. The second example involves unconfined dipolar particles with an isotropic attraction, which also exhibits chiral ground states. We speculate that a dilute magnetorheological fluid film, with the addition of smaller particles to provide an attractive entropic interaction, will exhibit a chiral columnar ground state. PMID:11030973

  7. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Lynn E

    2007-01-01

    This chapter highlights important steps in using correlation and simple linear regression to address scientific questions about the association of two continuous variables with each other. These steps include estimation and inference, assessing model fit, the connection between regression and ANOVA, and study design. Examples in microbiology are used throughout. This chapter provides a framework that is helpful in understanding more complex statistical techniques, such as multiple linear regression, linear mixed effects models, logistic regression, and proportional hazards regression. PMID:18450049

  8. The simple script wrapper for OpenMI:Enabling interdisciplinary modeling studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated environmental modeling enables the development of comprehensive simulations by compositing individual models within and across disciplines. The Simple Script Wrapper (SSW), developed here, provides a foundation for model linkages and integrated studies. The Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI...

  9. Tracking simple and complex sequences.

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Fink, Philip; Kelso, J A Scott

    2002-02-01

    We address issues of synchronization to rhythms of musical complexity. In two experiments, synchronization to simple and more complex rhythmic sequences was investigated. Experiment 1 examined responses to phase and tempo perturbations within simple, structurally isochronous sequences, presented at different base rates. Experiment 2 investigated responses to similar perturbations embedded within more complex, metrically structured sequences; participants were explicitly instructed to synchronize at different metrical levels (i.e., tap at different rates to the same rhythmic patterns) on different trials. We found evidence that (1) the intrinsic tapping frequency adapts in response to temporal perturbations in both simple (isochronous) and complex (metrically structured) rhythms, (2) people can synchronize with unpredictable, metrically structured rhythms at different metrical levels, with qualitatively different patterns of synchronization seen at higher versus lower levels of metrical structure, and (3) synchronization at each tapping level reflects information from other metrical levels. The latter finding provides evidence for a dynamic and flexible internal representation of the sequence's metrical structure. PMID:11963276

  10. The Simple Spectral Access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Tody, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the Simple Spectral Access (SSA) specification is to define a uniform interface to spectral data including spectral energy distributions (SEDs), 1D spectra, and time series data. In contrast to 2D images, spectra are stored in a wide variety of formats and there is no widely used standard in astronomy for representing spectral data, hence part of the challenge of specifying SSA was defining a general spectrophotometric data model as well as definitions of standard serializations in a variety of data formats including XML and FITS. Access is provided to both atlas (pre-computed) data and to virtual data which is computed on demand. The term simple in Simple Spectrum Access refers to the design goal of simplicity in both implementing spectral data services and in retrieving spectroscopic data from distributed data collections. SSA is a product of the data access layer (DAL) working group of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The requirements were derived from a survey among spectral data providers and data consumers and were further refined in a broad discussion in meetings and electronic forums as well as by prototyping efforts within the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the US National Virtual Observatory (NVO).

  11. n-Butanol extract from Folium isatidis inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lili; Lu, Yili; Jin, Jiahui; Dong, Lili; Xu, Fengli; Chen, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zhanyue; Liang, Guang; Shan, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, which is caused by severe infection, is an important cause of mortality, but effective clinical treatment against sepsis is extremely limited. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a major role in inflammatory responses. Studies have shown beneficial pharmacological effects for Folium isatidis. The present study further illuminated the effects of n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced septic shock and identified the main active chemical components. Our study showed that pretreatment with n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis not only significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production but also markedly and dose dependently enhanced the recruitment of MyD88, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and the degradation of IκB-α. Additionally, the extract exhibited dramatic protective effects against lung injury and death in mice with septic shock. Eight main active compounds were identified, including organic acids, glycoside, indolinones, and flavonoids. These findings provide a perspective on the respiratory protection offered by n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced sepsis and outline a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:26491261

  12. Role of NF-κB-dependent Caveolin-1 Expression in the Mechanism of Increased Endothelial Permeability Induced by Lipopolysaccharide*S

    PubMed Central

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Shimizu, Jun; Miyawaki-Shimizu, Kayo; Vogel, Stephen M.; Bair, Angela M.; Minshall, Richard D.; Predescu, Dan; Malik, Asrar B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of NF-κB activation by the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in inducing caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and its consequence in contributing to the leakiness of the endothelial barrier. We observed that LPS challenge of human lung microvascular endothelial cells induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in expression of Cav-1 mRNA and protein. The NEMO (NF-κB essential modifier binding domain)-binding domain peptide (IkB kinase (IKK)-NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide), which prevents NF-κB activation by inhibiting the interaction of IKKγ with the IKK complex, blocked LPS-induced Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of NF-κB subunit p65/RelA expression with small interfering RNA also prevented LPS-induced Cav-1 expression. Caveolae open to the apical and basal plasmalemma of endothelial cells increased 2–4-fold within 4 h of LPS exposure. IKK-NBD peptide markedly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the number of caveolae as well as transendothelial albumin permeability. These observations were recapitulated in mouse studies in which IKK-NBD peptide prevented Cav-1 expression and interfered with the increase in lung microvessel permeability induced by LPS. Thus, LPS mediates NF-κB-dependent Cav-1 expression that results in increased caveolae number and thereby contributes to the mechanism of increased transendothelial albumin permeability. PMID:18077459

  13. Use of mice tolerant to lipopolysaccharide to demonstrate requirement of cooperation between macrophages and lymphocytes to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Z; Hertogs, C F; Pluznik, D H

    1983-01-01

    Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice was followed by a rapid elevation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in the serum. A second, challenging injection of LPS given 3 to 4 days later failed to induce elevated levels of CSF in the serum. Such mice tolerant to LPS were used as an experimental tool to identify the CSF-producing cells which respond to LPS. We observed that generation of LPS-induced CSF in mice tolerant to LPS could be restored by an intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells 24 h before the challenging injection of LPS. Depletion of the adherent cells from the spleen cells reduced the ability of the splenic lymphocytes to restore the capacity of the mice tolerant to LPS to generate serum CSF. Reconstitution of the splenic lymphocytes with 5% thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, however, reestablished the restorative capacity of these cells, whereas almost no restoration was observed after direct injection of elicited peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that the spleen cells are active in generating CSF, provided that macrophages are present and can interact with the splenic lymphocytes to generate LPS-induced CSF in the serum. PMID:6602767

  14. Prenatal transportation alters the acute phase response (APR) of bull calves exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if prenatal transportation influences the acute phase response (APR) to a postnatal Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pregnant Brahman cows (n=96) matched by age and parity were separated into transported (TRANS; n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day...

  15. Brainstem metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce food intake and activate dorsal pontine and medullar structures after peripheral bacterial lipopolysaccharide administration.

    PubMed

    Chaskiel, Léa; Paul, Flora; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Hübschle, Thomas; Konsman, Jan Pieter

    2016-08-01

    During infection-induced inflammation food intake is reduced. Vagal and brainstem pathways are important both in feeding regulation and immune-to-brain communication. Glutamate is released by vagal afferent terminals in the nucleus of the solitary tract and by its neurons projecting to the parabrachial nuclei. We therefore studied the role of brainstem glutamate receptors in spontaneous food intake of healthy animals and during sickness-associated hypophagia after peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides or interleukin-1beta. Brainstem group I and II metabotropic, but not ionotropic, glutamate receptor antagonism increased food intake both in saline- and lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. In these animals, expression of the cellular activation marker c-Fos in the lateral parabrachial nuclei and lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract rostral to the area postrema were suppressed. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors did not colocalize with c-Fos or neurons regulating gastric function in these structures. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors were, however, found on raphé magnus neurons that were part of the brainstem circuit innervating the stomach and on trigeminal and hypoglossal motor neurons. In conclusion, our findings show that brainstem metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce food intake and activate the lateral parabrachial nuclei as well as the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract after peripheral bacterial lipopolysaccharide administration. They also provide insight into potential group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent brainstem circuits mediating these effects. PMID:27016016

  16. Fetal lipopolysaccharide exposure modulates diet-dependent gut maturation and sensitivity to necrotising enterocolitis in pre-term pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that imp...

  17. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  18. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal pattern and gender effect on immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta and IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) in a time-depend...

  19. Cytochrome P4502E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole, decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat Kupffer cells with ethanol treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the role of Cytochrome P4502E1 in sensitizing Kupffer cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation after ethanol induction. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid ethanol diet, control diet or ethanol diet supplemented with CYP2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole (CMZ), for 4'week...

  20. Systemic and Splanchnic Lipopolysaccharide and Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Liver Cirrhosis before and after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiaxiang; Wang, Qing; Liu, Kai; Yang, Shuofei; Fan, Xinxin; Liu, Baochen; He, Changsheng; Wu, Xingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and endothelin- (ET-) 1 may aggravate portal hypertension by increasing intrahepatic resistance and splanchnic blood flow. In the portal vein, after TIPS shunting, LPS and ET-1 were significantly decreased. Our study suggests that TIPS can benefit cirrhotic patients not only in high hemodynamics related variceal bleeding but also in intestinal bacterial translocation associated complications such as endotoxemia. PMID:26941788

  1. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa lipopolysaccharide and its role in key steps of the disease cycle in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project aims to elucidate molecular mechanisms of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) pathogenicity. Work is focused on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane, which consists of lipid A, core oligosaccharides, and a variable O-antigen moiety. Specifically, the O-antigen portion of LPS...

  2. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal pattern and gender effect of immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 increased in a time-dependent manner f...

  3. Effects of fermented soybean meal on innate immunity-related gene expressions in nursery pigs acutely challenged with lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Carroll, Jeffery A; Kim, Sung Woo

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was to determine if replacing soybean meal with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) would reduce the innate immune response after lipopolysaccharide challenge and the changes of gene expression profiles associated with this response. Forty-eight 21 day-old pigs were housed individually and fed three diets for 15 days: CON (a diet without FSBM or spray-dried plasma protein; SDPP), PP7 (a diet with 7% SDPP), and FS10 (a diet with 10% FSBM). Pigs were fitted with a jugular vein catheters receiving lipopolysaccharide challenge (25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) on day 15. Blood was collected for 5 h at 30-min intervals to measure cortisol. Expressions of gene transcripts in total RNA from leukocytes were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray at 210 min after lipopolysaccharides injection. Cortisol of FS10 was lower (P < 0.05) than CON after lipopolysaccharides challenge. The expression levels of 17 transcripts, including cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 were increased (P < 0.05), whereas 23 genes including adiponectin, neonatal Fc receptor and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5 were decreased (P < 0.05) in FS10. This study suggests that FSBM-fed pigs can modulate expression of genes related to inflammatory response and anti-oxidant activity which can be a potential reason for reduced serum cortisol. PMID:25440755

  4. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  5. [Effect of flavonoids on the composition of surface glycopolymers in Azospirillum lipoferum Sp59b].

    PubMed

    Kanevskiĭ, M V; Konnova, S A; Boĭko, A S; Fedonenko, Iu P; Sigida, E N; Ignatov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of the type strain Azospirillum lipoferum Sp59b in the presence of the flavonoid quercetin induced modification of the structure of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Cultivation in the presence of the flavonoid was shown to result in altered serological characteristics of the bacteria, increased heterogeneity of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide pool, as well as in modified composition and fatty acid ratio of lipid A. The flavonoid was shown to induce the synthesis of the O-specific polysaccharide with the repeating structure represented by a tetrasaccharide consisting of a linear trisaccharide fragment of α-L-Rhap residues in the main chain and the terminal β-D-Glcp residue. The structure of this O-specific polysaccharide was identical to the previously determined structure of the capsular polysaccharide of these bacteria grown without quercetin. Modifications in the structural composition of the capsular polysaccharide induced by cultivation in the presence of quercetin were revealed. PMID:25423718

  6. [Effect of flavonoids on the composition of surface glycopolymers in Azospirillum lipoferum Sp59b].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of the type strain Azospirillum lipoferum Sp59b in the presence of the flavonoid quercetin induced modification of the structure of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Cultivation in the presence of the flavonoid was shown to result in altered serological characteristics of the bacteria, increased heterogeneity of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide pool, as well as in modified composition and fatty acid ratio of lipid A. The flavonoid was shown to induce the synthesis of the O-specific polysaccharide with the repeating structure represented by a tetrasaccharide consisting of a linear trisaccharide fragment of α-L-Rhap residues in the main chain and the terminal β-D-Glcp residue. The structure of this O-specific polysaccharide was identical to the previously determined structure of the capsular polysaccharide of these bacteria grown without quercetin. Modifications in the structural composition of the capsular polysaccharide induced by cultivation in the presence of quercetin were revealed. PMID:25507441

  7. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r-n pair potentials with n=18,6,4), Lennard-Jones (LJ) models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture), the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be characterized in three quite

  8. Multidirectional direct simple shear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, D.J.; Germaine, J.T.; Ladd, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The paper describes a new simple shear testing device, the multidirectional direct simple shear (MDSS) apparatus, for testing soil specimens under conditions that simulate, at the element level, the state of stress acting within the foundation soil of an offshore Arctic gravity structure. The MDSS uses a circular specimen that is consolidated under both a vertical effective stress ({sigma}{sub vc}{prime}) and a horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 1}). The specimen is subsequently sheared undrained by applying a second independent horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 2}) at an angle {theta} relative to the horizontal consolidation shear stress {tau}{sub 1}. Evaluation of the MDSS first compares conventional K{sub D}-consolidated undrained direct simple shear (CK{sub 0}UDSS) test data ({tau}{sub 1} = 0) on normally consolidated Boston blue clay (BBC) with results obtained in the Geonor DSS device. The MDSS gives lower secant Young`s modulus values and on average 8% lower strengths, but produces remarkably less scatter in the test results than the Geonor DSS. Kinematic proof tests with an elastic material (rubber) confirm that the setup procedure, application of forces, and strain measurement systems in the MDSS work properly and produce repeatable results. Results from a MDSS test program on BBC wherein specimens were first normally consolidated with {sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and {tau}{sub 1} = 0.2{sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and then sheared undrained at {theta} varing in 30{degree} increments from zero (shear in same direction) to 150{degree} show dramatic differences in the response of the soil as a function of {theta}. The peak undrained strength varies almost twofold from 0 = 0 to 120{degree}, while the deformation behavior varies from very brittle at low {theta} angles to becoming ductile at higher angles. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  9. A simple theory of condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, S.

    2011-04-15

    A simple assumption of the emergence in gas of small atomic clusters consisting of c particles each leads to a phase separation (first-order transition). It reveals itself by the emergence of a 'forbidden' density range starting at a certain temperature. Defining this latter value as the critical temperature predicts the existence of an interval with the anomalous heat capacity behavior c{sub p} {proportional_to} {Delta}T{sup -1/c}. The value c = 13 suggested in the literature yields the heat capacity exponent {alpha} = 0.077.

  10. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  11. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  12. Controlling chaos with simple limiters

    PubMed

    Corron; Pethel; Hopper

    2000-04-24

    New experimental results demonstrate that chaos control can be accomplished using controllers that are very simple relative to the system being controlled. Chaotic dynamics in a driven pendulum and a double scroll circuit are controlled using an adjustable, passive limiter-a weight for the pendulum and a diode for the circuit. For both experiments, multiple unstable periodic orbits are selectively controlled using minimal perturbations. These physical examples suggest that chaos control can be practically applied to a much wider array of important problems than initially thought possible. PMID:11019218

  13. Sepsis progression to multiple organ dysfunction in carotid chemo/baro-denervated rats treated with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Nardocci, Gino; Martin, Aldo; Abarzúa, Sebastián; Rodríguez, Jorge; Simon, Felipe; Reyes, Edison P; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Navarro, Cristina; Cortes, Paula P; Fernández, Ricardo

    2015-01-15

    Sepsis progresses to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) due to the uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators. Carotid chemo/baro-receptors could play a protective role during sepsis. In anesthetized male rats, we measured cardiorespiratory variables and plasma TNF-α, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and MOD marker levels 90min after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration in control (SHAM surgery) and bilateral carotid chemo/baro-denervated (BCN) rats. BCN prior to LPS blunted the tachypneic response and enhanced tachycardia and hypotension. BCN-LPS rats also showed blunted plasma glucocorticoid responses, boosted epinephrine and TNF-α responses, and earlier MOD onset with a lower survival time compared with SHAM-LPS rats. Consequently, the complete absence of carotid chemo/baro-sensory function modified the neural, endocrine and inflammatory responses to sepsis. Thus, carotid chemo/baro-receptors play a protective role in sepsis. PMID:25595251

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced Pulpitis Up-regulates TRPV1 in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, M.-K.; Lee, J.; Duraes, G.; Ro, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Tooth pain often accompanies pulpitis. Accumulation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a product of Gram-negative bacteria, is associated with painful clinical symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying LPS-induced tooth pain are not clearly understood. TRPV1 is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and hyperalgesia under inflammation or injury. Although TRPV1 is expressed in pulpal afferents, it is not known whether the application of LPS to teeth modulates TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors. By assessing the levels of protein and transcript of TRPV1 in mouse trigeminal ganglia, we demonstrate that dentinal application of LPS increases the expression of TRPV1. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors following bacterial infection could contribute to hyperalgesia under pulpitis conditions. PMID:21712529

  15. Neuroprotective Activity of (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Biao; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Yu; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Li, Jie-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) mediated systemic inflammation plays a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major component in green tea, on LPS-mediated inflammation and neurotoxicity. LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). However, EGCG pretreatment of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines. In addition, EGCG significantly diminished LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). Supernatant from EGCG-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-EGCG-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. Furthermore, EGCG treatment of neurons could inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus EGCG represents a potent and useful neuroprotective agent for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders. PMID:27191001

  16. Isolation and gene expression of yellow grouper ferritin heavy chain subunit after lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wei, Yong

    2012-06-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitous and conserved iron storage protein that plays a central role in iron metabolism. The ferritin heavy chain subunit (FerH) homolog was isolated from yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara) spleen using suppression subtractive hybridization and RACE-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of FerH full-length cDNA was 1173 bp and contained an open reading frame of 534 bp, encoding a putative protein of 177 amino acids. The encoded protein shows 78-94% identity with homologs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, yellow grouper FerH is highly conserved throughout evolution and is closer to European seabass than to other species. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that FerH was widely expressed in various healthy tissues and significantly up-regulated in liver, spleen, and anterior kidney by lipopolysaccharide. The results suggest that yellow grouper FerH may play a role in immune response. PMID:22210544

  17. Immunologic activity of lipopolysaccharides released from macrophages after the uptake of intact E coli in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, R.L. Jr.; Hoffman, J.; Tesh, V.L.; Morrison, D.C.

    1986-04-15

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been isolated from culture supernatants and from cell lysates after the in vitro phagocytosis of E. coli by murine macrophages. By using E. coli radiolabeled specifically in the LPS component with (/sup 3/H)galactose, the authors studies have shown that the macrophage-processed LPS is enhanced with respect to its immunostimulatory activity in comparison with control phenol-water-extracted LPS. As assessed by its ability to induce interluekin 1 production in naive macrophages or proliferation in cultures of murine splenocytes, the macrophage-processed LPS is between 10- and 100-fold greater in specific activity. Evidence is presented for both structural and chemical alterations in the LPS macromolecule.

  18. The core and O-polysaccharide structure of the Caulobacter crescentus lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael D; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Nomellini, John F; Smit, John

    2015-01-30

    Here we describe the analysis of the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Caulobacter crescentus strain JS1025, a derivative of C. crescentus CB15 NA1000 with an engineered amber mutation in rsaA, leading to the loss of the protein S-layer and gene CCNA_00471 encoding a putative GDP-L-fucose synthase. LPS was isolated using an aqueous membrane disruption method. Polysaccharide and core oligosaccharide were produced by mild acid hydrolysis and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical methods. Spectra revealed the presence of two polysaccharides, one of them, a rhamnan, could be removed using periodate oxidation. Another polymer, built from 4-amino-4-deoxy-D-rhamnose (perosamine), mannose, and 3-O-methyl-glucose, should be the O-chain of the LPS according to genetic data. The attribution of the rhamnan as a part of LPS or a separate polymer was not possible. PMID:25498010

  19. Engineering N-linked protein glycosylation with diverse O antigen lipopolysaccharide structures in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Mario F; Wacker, Michael; Hernandez, Marcela; Hitchen, Paul G; Marolda, Cristina L; Kowarik, Michael; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Valvano, Miguel A; Aebi, Markus

    2005-02-22

    Campylobacter jejuni has a general N-linked protein glycosylation system that can be functionally transferred to Escherichia coli. In this study, we engineered E. coli cells in a way that two different pathways, protein N-glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, converge at the step in which PglB, the key enzyme of the C. jejuni N-glycosylation system, transfers O polysaccharide from a lipid carrier (undecaprenyl pyrophosphate) to an acceptor protein. PglB was the only protein of the bacterial N-glycosylation machinery both necessary and sufficient for the transfer. The relaxed specificity of the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase toward the glycan structure was exploited to create novel N-glycan structures containing two distinct E. coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens. PglB-mediated transfer of polysaccharides might be valuable for in vivo production of O polysaccharides-protein conjugates for use as antibacterial vaccines. PMID:15703289

  20. Structure of the lipopolysaccharide isolated from the novel species Uruburuella suis.

    PubMed

    Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; De Castro, Cristina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Garozzo, Domenico; Molinaro, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Uruburuella suis is a novel species isolated from lungs and heart of pigs with pneumonia and pericarditis. Phenotypic and phylogenetic evidences showed that it represented a hitherto unknown subline within the family Neisseriaceae. In the present work we defined the whole structure of the LPS isolated from Uruburuella suis. The structural determination, which was achieved by chemical, spectroscopic and spectrometric approaches, indicates a novel rough type lipopolysaccharide rich in negatively charged groups in the lipid A-inner core region. The elucidation of the structural features of the LPS from Uruburuella suis is a first step toward the comprehension of the characteristics of the cell envelope in such new and interesting microorganisms. PMID:22704198

  1. Bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period gratings for bacterial lipopolysaccharide recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report an application of the optical fiber long-period gratings (LPGs) working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition. We show that when the LPG is functionalized with the bacteriophage adhesin, it is capable of very specific LPS detection. Thus, we compare label-free binding effect for specific to the adhesin LPS-positive and non-specific LPS-negative. The resonance wavelength shift induced by the LPS-positive reaches 2.9 nm, while for LPS-negative the shift is negligible. The LPG-based sensing structure allows for monitoring of the binding phenomenon in real time and with good accuracy.

  2. Activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade and initiation of nodule formation in locusts by bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, N A; Brookman, J L; Rowley, A F

    1991-01-01

    The activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of the locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria, by several bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is described. Activation of proPO by LPS occurred only in the presence of whole blood homogenates and not with hemocyte lysate preparations alone. Levels of phenoloxidase generated by the different LPSs in vitro were also correlated with numbers of nodules formed in vivo by injection of these LPSs. This further strengthens the evidence for the involvement of proPO activation in the insect cellular defenses. Finally, the wisdom in using anticoagulants in order to stabilize fragile hemocytes in studies on the proPO system is discussed. PMID:1904828

  3. Biphasic effects of muramyl dipeptide or lipopolysaccharide on superoxide anion-generating activities of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Yagawa, K; Kaku, M; Ichinose, Y; Nagao, S; Tanaka, A; Tomoda, A

    1984-01-01

    The superoxide anion (O2-)-generating activity of guinea pig macrophages stimulated by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), immune complexes, or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was studied after short- and long-term exposures of the cells to muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Neither MDP nor LPS alone induced O2- release in macrophages. Short-term (30 min) exposure to these agents caused the enhanced release of O2- in response to WGA or immune complexes, though the PMA-induced O2- generation was not affected. On the other hand, long-term exposure (more than 24 h) to MDP or LPS progressively enhanced O2- generation of the cells induced by WGA, immune complexes, or even PMA. These results suggest that the mechanism for O2- generation of macrophages stimulated by WGA or immune complexes differs from that stimulated by PMA and that the differences also exist between short- and long-term exposure to MDP or LPS. PMID:6329960

  4. Upregulation of PRDM5 Is Associated with Astrocyte Proliferation and Neuronal Apoptosis Caused by Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xue, Huaqing; Liu, Xiaorong; Dai, Aihua; Song, Yan; Ke, Kaifu; Cao, Maohong

    2016-05-01

    PRDM5 (PR domain containing 5) belongs to PRDM family which consists of transcriptional regulators that modulate cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the function of PRDM5 in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response is unknown. In recent study, an adult rat neuroinflammation model via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventricle injection was constructed. PRDM5 expression was increased in activated astrocytes and apoptotic neurons of the adult rat cerebral cortex after LPS injection. In vitro studies showed that the remarkable upregulation of PRDM5 might be involved in rat primary astrocyte proliferation and rat primary neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex following LPS administration. In addition, using PRDM5 RNA interference both in rat primary asrtocytes and neurons, further indicated that PRDM5 was required for astrocyte proliferation and neuronal apoptosis induced by LPS. Our findings on the cellular signaling pathway may provide a new therapeutic strategy against neuroinflammation in the CNS. PMID:27074744

  5. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  6. Oenothein B Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Makihata, Nahomi; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    Oenothein B has been recently evaluated for its ability to affect inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues. In this study, we examined its effect on the damage to the central nervous system due to systemic inflammation. For this purpose, ICR mice were injected with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg mouse). When oenothein B was administered per os (p.o.), it suppressed (1) LPS-induced abnormal behavior in open field; (2) LPS-induced microglial activation in the hippocampus and striatum; and (3) LPS-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 production in the hippocampus and striatum of these mice. These results suggest that oenothein B had the ability to reduce neuroinflammation in the brain during systemic inflammation. PMID:23652834

  7. Oenothein B suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Makihata, Nahomi; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    Oenothein B has been recently evaluated for its ability to affect inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues. In this study, we examined its effect on the damage to the central nervous system due to systemic inflammation. For this purpose, ICR mice were injected with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg mouse). When oenothein B was administered per os (p.o.), it suppressed (1) LPS-induced abnormal behavior in open field; (2) LPS-induced microglial activation in the hippocampus and striatum; and (3) LPS-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 production in the hippocampus and striatum of these mice. These results suggest that oenothein B had the ability to reduce neuroinflammation in the brain during systemic inflammation. PMID:23652834

  8. Lipopolysaccharide transport and assembly at the outer membrane: the PEZ model.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Sherman, David J; Silhavy, Thomas J; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Gram-negative bacteria have a double-membrane cellular envelope that enables them to colonize harsh environments and prevents the entry of many clinically available antibiotics. A main component of most outer membranes is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid containing several fatty acyl chains and up to hundreds of sugars that is synthesized in the cytoplasm. In the past two decades, the proteins that are responsible for transporting LPS across the cellular envelope and assembling it at the cell surface in Escherichia coli have been identified, but it remains unclear how they function. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in this area and present a model that explains how energy from the cytoplasm is used to power LPS transport across the cellular envelope to the cell surface. PMID:27026255

  9. Lacritin Salvages Human Corneal Epithelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Vantaku, Venkat Rao; Gupta, Geetika; Rapalli, Krishna Chaitanya; Karnati, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity of the corneal epithelium is conferred by proteinaceous secretions from the epithelium and associated lacrimal and meibomian glands. Lacritin, an eye-specific protein with anti-microbial, cytoprotective and wound-healing properties, predominantly secreted by lacrimal glands, is absent in conditions such as Dry eye and Keratitis. In view of the biological significance of lacritin in human eye, we investigated its role in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced infection. LPS-challenged HCE cells demonstrated apoptosis-mediated cell death and elevated lacritin levels. The LPS-induced cell death is alleviated with exogenous supplementation of recombinant lacritin. This cytoprotective effect of lacritin is mediated through Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This study is the first to highlight the protective role of lacritin and mechanism of its action during bacterial infection of cornea in vitro. PMID:26670139

  10. Calcium ions induce collapse of charged O-side chains of lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Schneck, Emanuel; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Quinn, Bonnie E.; Konovalov, Oleg V.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Pink, David A.; Tanaka, Motomu

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) monolayers deposited on planar, hydrophobic substrates were used as a defined model of outer membranes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain dps 89. To investigate the influence of ions on the (out-of-plane) monolayer structure, we measured specular X-ray reflectivity at high energy (22 keV) to ensure transmission through water. Electron density profiles were reconstructed from the reflectivity curves, and they indicate that the presence of Ca2+ ions induces a significant change in the conformation of the charged polysaccharide head groups (O-side chains). Monte Carlo simulations based on a minimal computer model of LPS molecules allow for the modelling of 100 or more molecules over 10−3 s and theoretically explained the tendency found by experiments. PMID:19605401

  11. Protective effect of carvacrol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaosheng; Jia, Aiqing

    2014-08-01

    Carvacrol, the major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia and acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPS and the mortality of mice for 7 days were observed twice a day. Meanwhile, the protective effect of carvacrol (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg) on LPS-induced endotoxemia were detected. Using an experimental model of LPS-induced ALI, we examined the effect of carvacrol in resolving lung injury. The results showed that carvacrol could improve survival during lethal endotoxemia and attenuate LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of carvacrol may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production. PMID:24577726

  12. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

  13. A lectin S-domain receptor kinase mediates lipopolysaccharide sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ranf, Stefanie; Gisch, Nicolas; Schäffer, Milena; Illig, Tina; Westphal, Lore; Knirel, Yuriy A; Sánchez-Carballo, Patricia M; Zähringer, Ulrich; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Lee, Justin; Scheel, Dierk

    2015-04-01

    The sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) triggers innate immunity in animals and plants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a potent MAMP for mammals, with the lipid A moiety activating proinflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Here we found that the plant Arabidopsis thaliana specifically sensed LPS of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. We isolated LPS-insensitive mutants defective in the bulb-type lectin S-domain-1 receptor-like kinase LORE (SD1-29), which were hypersusceptible to infection with Pseudomonas syringae. Targeted chemical degradation of LPS from Pseudomonas species suggested that LORE detected mainly the lipid A moiety of LPS. LORE conferred sensitivity to LPS onto tobacco after transient expression, which demonstrated a key function in LPS sensing and indicated the possibility of engineering resistance to bacteria in crop species. PMID:25729922

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation of E2A proteins via lipopolysaccharide and CD40 signaling.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K B; Mufti, D A

    2000-02-01

    The transcription factor E2A plays a crucial role in B cell development, the control of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and expression. Here we report that in primary mouse B cells lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is able to induce the level of E2A protein by over 50-fold in days of culture. In contrast, CD40 signaling is insufficient to cause an E2A increase and can in fact prevent the LPS-mediated induction of E2A. These results suggest that E2A induction requires both proliferation and differentiation. We find that E2A protein induction is regulated post-transcriptionally since E2A mRNA is not induced by LPS. We have thus identified an important additional layer of regulation affecting the activity of E2A transcription factors. PMID:10671233

  15. Lacritin Salvages Human Corneal Epithelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Vantaku, Venkat Rao; Gupta, Geetika; Rapalli, Krishna Chaitanya; Karnati, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity of the corneal epithelium is conferred by proteinaceous secretions from the epithelium and associated lacrimal and meibomian glands. Lacritin, an eye-specific protein with anti-microbial, cytoprotective and wound-healing properties, predominantly secreted by lacrimal glands, is absent in conditions such as Dry eye and Keratitis. In view of the biological significance of lacritin in human eye, we investigated its role in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced infection. LPS-challenged HCE cells demonstrated apoptosis-mediated cell death and elevated lacritin levels. The LPS-induced cell death is alleviated with exogenous supplementation of recombinant lacritin. This cytoprotective effect of lacritin is mediated through Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This study is the first to highlight the protective role of lacritin and mechanism of its action during bacterial infection of cornea in vitro. PMID:26670139

  16. Gene expression profiles in the intestine of lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Di; Ding, Binying; Wu, Tao; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Yulan; Kang, Ping; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Bowel diseases are common in human and animals and are characterized by intestinal dysfunction and injury. A well-established porcine model of intestinal injury can be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin released from the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria. LPS affects the expression of genes associated with intestinal immune response, mucosal growth, energy metabolism, absorption, mucosal barrier function, and antiviral function. Transcriptional analysis of intestinal genes reveals that the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon respond to LPS challenge in a similar pattern. Moreover, the jejunum and ileum exhibit greater responses to LPS challenge than the duodenum and colon with regard to gene expression. Additionally, over 85% of genes are co-expressed along the small and large intestines and there is a clear distinction in gene expression patterns amongst the different intestinal segments in pigs. These findings have important implications for underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for endotoxin-induced intestinal injury and dysfunction. PMID:26709789

  17. Wet heat inactivation of lipopolysaccharide from E. coli serotype 055:B5.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinji; Takai, Masaki; Maki, Takehiko

    2002-01-01

    Wet heat inactivation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli Serotype 055:B5 was investigated. The LPS solutions were heated at study temperatures ranging from 78 degrees C to 175 degrees C, and were assayed using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test. Plots of the log of the amount of endotoxin remaining versus heating time showed biphasic decreases. The initial slopes are associated with a faster rate of decrease to about a 0.5-log unit reduction, and were followed by a slower, linear rate of decline in the secondary slopes. The curves were applied to the biexponential model expressed by the equation (Et = E1e-klt + E2e-k2t). The LPS inactivation rates (k1 and k2) each conformed to their own Arrhenius equation. Therefore, the processes required to achieve the desired level of LPS inactivation can be obtained by mathematical means. PMID:12181806

  18. Antibacterial Drug Discovery Targeting the Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthetic Enzyme LpxC.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Alice L

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme LpxC (UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase) is broadly conserved across Gram-negative bacteria and is essential for synthesis of lipid A, the membrane anchor of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), which are a major component of the outer membrane in nearly all Gram-negative bacteria. LpxC has been the focus of target-directed antibiotic discovery projects in numerous pharmaceutical and academic groups for more than 20 years. Despite intense effort, no LpxC inhibitor has been approved for therapeutic use, and only one has yet reached human studies. This article will summarize the history of LpxC as a drug target and the parallel history of research on LpxC biology. Both academic and industrial researchers have used LpxC inhibitors as tool compounds, leading to increased understanding of the differing mechanisms for regulation of LPS synthesis in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27235477

  19. Cyclooxygenase-1 is involved in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis after lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Isabella; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Weigert, Roberto; Barlati, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation can alter adult neurogenesis by mechanisms as yet unclear. We have previously demonstrated that the neuroinflammatory response and neuronal damage after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection is reduced in cyclooxygenase-1 deficient (COX-1-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of CoX-1 on hippocampal neurogenesis during LPS-induced neuroinflammation, using COX-1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that LPS-induced neuroinflammation resulted in the decrease of proliferation, survival and differentiation of hippocampal progenitor cells in WT but not in COX-1-/- mice. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that COX-1 is involved in the inhibition of BrdU progenitor cells in proliferation and hippocampal neurogenesis after LPS. These results suggest that COX-1 may represent a viable therapeutic target to reduce neuroinflammation and promote neurogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases with a strong inflammatory component. PMID:21694498

  20. Antigenic potential of a highly conserved Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide inner core structure defined by chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Anika; Yang, You; Claus, Heike; Pereira, Claney L; Cox, Andrew D; Vogel, Ulrich; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-01-22

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide. We studied the potential of synthetic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inner core structures as broadly protective antigens against N. meningitidis. Based on the specific reactivity of human serum antibodies to synthetic LPS cores, we selected a highly conserved LPS core tetrasaccharide as a promising antigen. This LPS inner core tetrasaccharide induced a robust IgG response in mice when formulated as an immunogenic glycoconjugate. Binding of raised mouse serum to a broad collection of N. meningitidis strains demonstrated the accessibility of the LPS core on viable bacteria. The distal trisaccharide was identified as the crucial epitope, whereas the proximal Kdo moiety was immunodominant and induced mainly nonprotective antibodies that are responsible for lack of functional protection in polyclonal serum. Our results identified key antigenic determinants of LPS core glycan and, hence, may aid the design of a broadly protective immunization against N. meningitidis. PMID:25601073

  1. Detection and classification of related lipopolysaccharides via a small array of immobilized antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Uzarski, Joshua R; Mello, Charlene M

    2012-09-01

    A small array of antimicrobial peptides comprising three cysteine-terminated natural sequences covalently immobilized to pendant surface maleimide groups are used to bind and successfully discriminate five types of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules. Using surface plasmon resonance, LPSs isolated from four strains of Escherichia coli and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa yield distinct binding profiles to the three immobilized peptides. Linear discriminant analysis generated 100% training set and 80% validation set classification success for the 40 samples evaluated. This work demonstrates the discriminatory binding capabilities of immobilized antimicrobial peptides toward LPS molecules and alludes to their use as probes in pathogen sensing devices potentially superior to the current state-of-the-art. PMID:22881053

  2. The effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha on ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Erin J.; Sibley, Kelly; Miller, Aleisha N.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Fishwick, John; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan; England, Gary CW; Dobson, Hilary; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Problem Pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are important causes of infertility in humans and domestic animals. Uterine infection with Escherichia coli in cattle is associated with reduced ovarian follicle growth and decreased estradiol secretion. We hypothesized that this effect could be mediated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Method of study In vitro, bovine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were treated with LPS or TNFα and steroid secretion measured. In vivo, the effect of LPS or TNFα intrauterine infusion was determined by ovarian ultrasonography and measurement of hormones in cattle. Results LPS reduced granulosa cell estradiol secretion, whilst TNFα decreased theca and granulosa cell androstenedione and estradiol production, respectively. In vivo, fewer animals ovulated following intrauterine infusion with LPS or TNFα. Conclusion LPS and TNFα suppress ovarian cell function, supporting the concept that pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are detrimental for bovine ovarian health. PMID:19238751

  3. Effect of Kramecyne on the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Miranda, E.; Lemus-Bautista, J.; Pérez, S.; Pérez-Ramos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Kramecyne is a new peroxide, it was isolated from Krameria cytisoides, methanol extract, and this plant was mostly found in North and South America. This compound showed potent anti-inflammatory activity; however, the mechanisms by which this compound exerts its anti-inflammatory effect are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of kramecyne on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that kramecyne inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 6. During the inflammatory process, levels of cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, kramecyne suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23573152

  4. Anti-Semaphorin 3A neutralization monoclonal antibody prevents sepsis development in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Naoya; Jitsuki-Takahashi, Aoi; Ogawara, Miyuki; Ohkubo, Wataru; Araki, Tomomi; Hotta, Chie; Tamura, Tomohiko; Hashimoto, Shu-ichi; Yabuki, Takashi; Tsuji, Toru; Sasakura, Yukie; Okumura, Hiromi; Takaiwa, Aki; Koyama, Chika; Murakami, Koji; Goshima, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), originally identified as a potent growth cone collapsing factor in developing sensory neurons, is now recognized as a key player in immune, cardiovascular, bone metabolism and neurological systems. Here we established an anti-Sema3A monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the effects of Sema3A both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-Sema3A neutralization chick IgM antibodies were screened by combining an autonomously diversifying library selection system and an in vitro growth cone collapse assay. We further developed function-blocking chick-mouse chimeric and humanized anti-Sema3A antibodies. We found that our anti-Sema3A antibodies were effective for improving the survival rate in lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in mice. Our antibody is a potential therapeutic agent that may prevent the onset of or alleviate symptoms of human diseases associated with Sema3A. PMID:25855660

  5. Functional Identification of Proteus mirabilis eptC Gene Encoding a Core Lipopolysaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Aquilini, Eleonora; Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of the Proteus mirabilis HI4320 genome with known lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphoethanolamine transferases, three putative candidates (PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104) were identified. One of them, eptC (PMI3104) was able to modify the LPS of two defined non-polar core LPS mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae that we use as surrogate substrates. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that eptC directs the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine to the O-6 of l-glycero-d-mano-heptose II. The eptC gene is found in all the P. mirabilis strains analyzed in this study. Putative eptC homologues were found for only two additional genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Photobacterium and Providencia. The data obtained in this work supports the role of the eptC (PMI3104) product in the transfer of PEtN to the O-6 of l,d-HepII in P. mirabilis strains. PMID:24756091

  6. Participation of α2 -adrenoceptors in sodium appetite inhibition during sickness behaviour following administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Laurival A; Almeida, Roberto L; David, Richard B; de Paula, Patricia M; Andrade, Carina A F; Menani, José V

    2016-03-15

    Sickness behaviour, a syndrome characterized by a general reduction in animal activity, is part of the active-phase response to fight infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an effective endotoxin to model sickness behaviour, reduces thirst and sodium excretion, and increases neurohypophysial secretion. Here we review the effects of LPS on thirst and sodium appetite. Altered renal function and hydromineral fluid intake in response to LPS occur in the context of behavioural reorganization, which manifests itself as part of the syndrome. Recent data show that, in addition to its classical effect on thirst, non-septic doses of LPS injected intraperitoneally produce a preferential inhibition of intracellular thirst versus extracellular thirst. Moreover, LPS also reduced hypertonic NaCl intake in sodium-depleted rats that entered a sodium appetite test. Antagonism of α2 -adrenoceptors abolished the effect of LPS on sodium appetite. LPS and cytokine transduction potentially recruit brain noradrenaline and α2 -adrenoceptors to control sodium appetite and sickness behaviour. PMID:26036817

  7. Importance of Lipopolysaccharide and Cyclic β-1,2-Glucans in Brucella-Mammalian Infections

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Andreas F.; Myka, Kamila K.; Arnold, Markus F. F.; Caro-Hernández, Paola; Ferguson, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Brucella species are the causative agents of one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases: brucellosis. Infections by Brucella species cause major economic losses in agriculture, leading to abortions in infected animals and resulting in a severe, although rarely lethal, debilitating disease in humans. Brucella species persist as intracellular pathogens that manage to effectively evade recognition by the host's immune system. Sugar-modified components in the Brucella cell envelope play an important role in their host interaction. Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS), unlike Escherichia coli LPS, does not trigger the host's innate immune system. Brucella produces cyclic β-1,2-glucans, which are important for targeting them to their replicative niche in the endoplasmic reticulum within the host cell. This paper will focus on the role of LPS and cyclic β-1,2-glucans in Brucella-mammalian infections and discuss the use of mutants, within the biosynthesis pathway of these cell envelope structures, in vaccine development. PMID:21151694

  8. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide binding enhances virion stability and promotes environmental fitness of an enteric virus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Enteric viruses, including poliovirus and reovirus, encounter a vast microbial community in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, which has been shown to promote virus replication and pathogenesis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we find that poliovirus binds bacterial surface polysaccharides, which enhances virion stability and cell attachment by increasing binding to the viral receptor. Additionally, we identified a poliovirus mutant, VP1-T99K, with reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding. Although T99K and WT poliovirus cell attachment, replication and pathogenesis in mice are equivalent, following peroral inoculation of mice, VP1-T99K poliovirus was unstable in feces. Consequently, the ratio of mutant virus in feces is reduced following additional cycles of infection in mice. Thus, the mutant virus incurs a fitness cost when environmental stability is a factor. These data suggest that poliovirus binds bacterial surface polysaccharides, enhancing cell attachment and environmental stability, potentially promoting transmission to a new host. PMID:24439896

  9. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Konomos, Dorothy K.; Gravanis, Iordanis; Dewey, Stephen L.; Aguzzi, Adriano; Heppner, Frank L.; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2010-01-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 hours prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 hours prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation. PMID:20382223

  10. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chorioamnionitis in Fetal Sheep by Maternal Betamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Katherine B.; Snyder, Candice C.; Gisslen, Tate; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the order of exposure to maternal betamethasone and intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will differentially modulate inflammation in the chorioamnion. Study Design: Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received saline alone, IA LPS alone, maternal betamethasone before LPS, or betamethasone after LPS. We assessed inflammatory markers in the chorioamnion and the amniotic fluid. Results: Inflammatory cell infiltration, expression of myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A3 (acute phase reactant) in the chorioamnion, and levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the amniotic fluid increased 7 days after LPS exposure. Betamethasone prior to LPS decreased infiltration of the inflammatory cells, CD3+ T cells, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in the amniotic fluid. Conclusions: Betamethasone 7 days prior to LPS exposure suppressed LPS-induced inflammation. The markers of inflammation largely had returned to the baseline 14 days after LPS exposure. PMID:23653388

  11. The lipopolysaccharide O side chain of Vibrio vulnificus serogroup E is a virulence determinant for eels.

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, C; Fouz, B; Biosca, E G; Marco-Noales, E; Collado, R

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium capable of producing septicemic infections in eels and immunocompromised humans. Two biotypes are classically recognized, with the virulence for eels being specific to strains belonging to biotype 2, which constitutes a homogeneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based O serogroup (which we have designated serogroup E). In the present study we demonstrated that the O side chain of this LPS determines the selective virulence of biotype 2 for eels: (i) biotype 1 strains (which do not belong to serogroup E) are destroyed by the bactericidal action of nonimmune eel serum (NIS) through activation of the alternative pathway of complement, (ii) biotype 2 strains (of serogroup E) are resistant to NIS, and (iii) rough mutants of biotype 2 lacking the O polysaccharide side chain are sensitive to NIS and avirulent for eels. PMID:9169795

  12. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  13. CAF1-knockout mice are more susceptive to lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jia-Xin; Li, Jia-Shu; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiao-Min; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The carbon catabolite repressor protein 4 (CCR4)–negative on TATA (NOT) complex includes multiple subunits and is conserved in the eukaryotic cells. The CCR4–NOT complex can regulate gene expression at different levels. Two subunits of the CCR4–NOT complex, CCR4 and CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1), possess deadenylase activity. In yeast, the deadenylase activity is mainly provided by the CCR4 subunit; however, the deadenylase activity is provided by both CCR4 and CAF1 in other eukaryotes. A previous study reported that CAF1 but not CCR4 is required for the decay of a reporter mRNA with AU-rich elements. Our previous study showed that CAF1 is involved in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. Both ICAM-1 and IL-8 play crucial roles in acute lung injury. In the present study, we examined the effects of CAF1 deficiency on IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression and acute lung injury in mice. Here we showed that there were no differences between the wild-type and CAF1-knockout mice on phenotypes. The lung histology and protein and mRNA levels of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in unstimulated wild-type mice were comparable to those in unstimulated CAF1-knockout mice. However, lipopolysaccharide stimulation led to more severe lung histological injury and greatly higher IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in CAF1-knockout mice compared to the wild-type mice. These results, together with our previous study, suggest that CAF1 is involved in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in vivo and affects the progression of acute lung injury. PMID:27358572

  14. Repeated Oronasal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Induced Mucosal IgA Responses in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Summera; Zebeli, Qendrim; Mansmann, Dominik A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated oronasal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the humoral immune responses in saliva, vaginal mucus, and the plasma markers of the acute phase response in periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein cows were administered either 3 increasing doses of LPS (n = 50) as follows: 1) 0.01 µg/kg body weight (BW) on d −28, 2) 0.05 µg/kg BW on d −25, and −21, and 3) 0.1 µg/kg BW on d −18, and −14, or sterile saline solution (controls; n = 50) oronasally for 3 consecutive wk starting at 28 d before parturition. Intensive sampling was conducted on thirty cows (n = 15/group). Multiple saliva, vaginal mucus and blood samples were collected around parturition and analyzed for total immunoglobulin-(Ig)A, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), anti-LPS IgA, IgG, IgM, tumour necrosis factor(TNF)-α, and interleukin(IL)-1. Results regarding total secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies showed greater concentrations in the saliva and an overall tendency for higher total sIgA in the vaginal mucus of the LPS-treated cows. Treatment had no effect on plasma sIgA, IgG, IgM anti-LPS antibodies, haptoglobin, SAA, LBP, TNF-α, and IL-1. Treatments by time interactions were observed for SAA and IL-1 with lowered concentrations of both variables in the plasma of LPS-treated cows after parturition. Overall, repeated oronasal LPS treatment clearly enhanced total sIgA antibodies in the saliva, stimulated their production in vaginal mucus shortly before calving, and lowered plasma IL-1 around parturition, but showed limited effects on markers of the acute phase response in the plasma in dairy cows around parturition. PMID:25061754

  15. A Glycam-Based Force Field for Simulations of Lipopolysaccharide Membranes: Parametrization and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, Karl N.; Lins, Roberto D.; Maass, Astrid; Soares, Thereza A.

    2012-11-13

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) comprise the outermost layer of the Gram-negative bacteria cell envelope. Packed onto a lipid layer, the outer membrane displays remarkable physical-chemical differences compared to cell membranes. The carbohydrate-rich region confers a membrane asymmetry that underlies many biological processes such as endotoxicity, antibiotic resistance, and cell adhesion. Furthermore, unlike membrane proteins from other sources, integral outer-membrane proteins do not consist of transmembrane α helices; instead they consist of antiparallel β-barrels, which highlights the importance of the LPS membrane as a medium. In this work, we present an extension of the GLYCAM06 force field that has been specifically developed for LPS membranes using our Wolf2Pack program. This new set of parameters for lipopolysaccharide molecules expands the GLYCAM06 repertoire of monosaccharides to include phosphorylated N- and O-acetylglucosamine, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2- ulosonic acid, L-glycero-D-manno-heptose and its O-carbamoylated variant, and N-alanine-D-galactosamine. A total of 1 µs of molecular dynamics simulations of the rough LPS membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 is used to showcase the added parameter set. The equilibration of the LPS membrane is shown to be signi!cantly slower compared to phospholipid membranes, on the order of 500 ns. It is further shown that water molecules penetrate the hydrocarbon region up to the terminal methyl groups, much deeper than commonly observed for phospholipid bilayers, and in agreement with neutron diffraction measurements. A comparison of simulated structural, dynamical, and electrostatic properties against corresponding experimentally available data shows that the present parameter set reproduces well the overall structure and the permeability of LPS membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase.

  16. Effects of lipopolysaccharide and chelator on mercury content in the cerebrum of thimerosal-administered mice.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takeshi; Oda, Keisuke; Gima, Naoya; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2007-11-01

    Thimerosal is one of the best-known preservative agents for vaccines in the world but a relationship between its use and autism has long been suspected so that its effects on the brain need more detailed research. We here examined the influence of lipopolysaccharide injury to the blood-brain barrier on the penetration of mercury from thimerosal into mouse cerebrums, as well as the effect of chelator of heavy metals on cerebrum mercury content. Mercury can be expected to be detected in the cerebrum of normal mice, because the metal is present in standard mouse chow. When 60μg/kg of thimerosal was subcutaneously injected into the mouse, the mercury content in the cerebrum was significantly higher 48h after the thimerosal injection with a maximum peak after 72h. In addition, mercury content in the cerebrum was still higher on day 7 than in the control group. When lipopolysaccharide was pre-injected into mice to induce damage on blood-brain barrier, the mercury content in the cerebrum was significantly higher at 24 and 72h after the injection of 12μg/kg of thimerosal compared to the control group, this dose alone does not cause any increase. The mercury content in the cerebrums of mice was decreased to the control group level on day 7 when a chelator, dimercaprol, was administered once a day from days 3 to 6 after a 60μg/kg, s.c. injection. In addition, d-penicillamine as a chelator decreased the mercury contents in the cerebrum after the high dose administration. In conclusion, a physiological dose of thimerosal did not increase the content of mercury in the cerebrum, but levels were increased when damage to the blood-brain barrier occurred in mice injected with thimerosal. In addition, a chelator of heavy metals may be useful to remove mercury from the cerebrum. PMID:21783828

  17. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually β cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the “hygiene hypothesis”, bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. - Highlights: • Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prevented type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. • Downregulating TLR4 level and MyD88-dependent pathway contributed to protection of LPS. • LPS administration also hampered DC maturation and promoted Treg differentiation.

  18. Expression Cloning of Three Rhizobium leguminosarum Lipopolysaccharide Core Galacturonosyltransferases*◻

    PubMed Central

    Kanjilal-Kolar, Suparna; Basu, Shib Sankar; Kanipes, Margaret I.; Guan, Ziqiang; Garrett, Teresa A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2009-01-01

    The lipid A and core regions of the lipopolysaccharide in Rhizobium leguminosarum, a nitrogen-fixing plant endosymbiont, are strikingly different from those of Escherichia coli. In R. leguminosarum lipopolysaccharide, the inner core is modified with three galacturonic acid (GalA) moieties, two on the distal 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) unit and one on the mannose residue. Here we describe the expression cloning of three novel GalA transferases from a 22-kb R. leguminosarum genomic DNA insert-containing cosmid (pSGAT). Two of these enzymes modify the substrate, Kdo2-[4′-32P]lipid IVA and its 1-dephosphorylated derivative on the distal Kdo residue, as indicated by mild acid hydrolysis. The third enzyme modifies the mannose unit of the substrate mannosyl-Kdo2-1-dephospho-[4′-32P]lipid IVA. Sequencing of a 7-kb subclone derived from pSGAT revealed three putative membrane-bound glycosyltransferases, now designated RgtA, RgtB, and RgtC. Transfer by tri-parental mating of these genes into Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, a strain that lacks these particular GalA residues, results in the heterologous expression of the GalA transferase activities seen in membranes of cells expressing pSGAT. Reconstitution experiments with the individual genes demonstrated that the activity of RgtA precedes and is necessary for the subsequent activity of RgtB, which is followed by the activity of RgtC. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and gas-liquid chromatography of the product generated in vitro by RgtA confirmed the presence of a GalA moiety. No in vitro activity was detected when RgtA was expressed in Escherichia coli unless Rhizobiaceae membranes were also included. PMID:16497674

  19. Proteins found within porcine respiratory tract secretions bind lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, M; Dubreuil, D; Jacques, M

    1994-01-01

    Affinity for porcine respiratory tract secretions was found in some isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and involved lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (M. Bélanger, S. Rioux, B. Foiry, and M. Jacques, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 97:119-126, 1992). In the present study, the affinity for a crude preparation of porcine respiratory tract mucus of isolates of the Pasteurellaceae family, i.e., Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella spp., and of some unrelated gram-negative bacteria was examined. Affinity for crude porcine respiratory tract mucus was not a property shared by all Pasteurellaceae isolates tested. Furthermore, affinity for the porcine crude mucus preparation was not unique to the Pasteurellaceae group and did not seem to be restricted to bacteria originating from pigs. Different surface properties of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates in relation to their adherence to crude mucus were examined. The capsular layer seemed to mask the adhesin and interfered with adherence to crude mucus. Two poorly capsulated isolates, which had a more hydrophobic surface and bound Congo red, were also heavily labeled by gold particles coated with polymyxin, which is known to interact with the lipid A-core region of LPS, and adhered strongly to respiratory tract secretions. Tetramethylurea, charged polymers, divalent cations, chelators, monosaccharides and amino sugars, or lectins were unable to inhibit adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae to the crude mucus preparation. To identify the receptor(s) recognized by the lipopolysaccharidic adhesin of A. pleuropneumoniae, affinity chromatography was used. Two bands, which were proteinaceous in nature, of 10 and 11 kDa were recovered. Our results suggest that two low-molecular-mass proteins present in porcine respiratory tract secretions bind A. pleuropneumoniae LPS. Images PMID:8112857

  20. New Amphiphilic Neamine Derivatives Active against Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Their Interactions with Lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Sautrey, Guillaume; Zimmermann, Louis; Deleu, Magali; Delbar, Alicia; Souza Machado, Luiza; Jeannot, Katy; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Buyck, Julien M.; Decout, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel antimicrobial agents is urgently required to curb the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria like colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We previously synthesized a series of amphiphilic neamine derivatives active against bacterial membranes, among which 3′,6-di-O-[(2″-naphthyl)propyl]neamine (3′,6-di2NP), 3′,6-di-O-[(2″-naphthyl)butyl]neamine (3′,6-di2NB), and 3′,6-di-O-nonylneamine (3′,6-diNn) showed high levels of activity and low levels of cytotoxicity (L. Zimmermann et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:7691–7705, 2013). We have now further characterized the activity of these derivatives against colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa and studied their mode of action; specifically, we characterized their ability to interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to alter the bacterial outer membrane (OM). The three amphiphilic neamine derivatives were active against clinical colistin-resistant strains (MICs, about 2 to 8 μg/ml), The most active one (3′,6-diNn) was bactericidal at its MIC and inhibited biofilm formation at 2-fold its MIC. They cooperatively bound to LPSs, increasing the outer membrane permeability. Grafting long and linear alkyl chains (nonyl) optimized binding to LPS and outer membrane permeabilization. The effects of amphiphilic neamine derivatives on LPS micelles suggest changes in the cross-bridging of lipopolysaccharides and disordering in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. The molecular shape of the 3′,6-dialkyl neamine derivatives induced by the nature of the grafted hydrophobic moieties (naphthylalkyl instead of alkyl) and the flexibility of the hydrophobic moiety are critical for their fluidifying effect and their ability to displace cations bridging LPS. Results from this work could be exploited for the development of new amphiphilic neamine derivatives active against colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:24867965