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1

Evaluation of non-enteric sources of non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from dairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dairies are believed to be a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in Central California, but few studies have characterized VOC emissions from these facilities. In this work, samples were collected from six sources of VOCs (Silage, Total Mixed Rations, Lagoons, Flushing Lanes, Open Lots and Bedding) at six dairies in Central California during 2006-2007 using emission isolation flux chambers and polished stainless steel canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Forty-eight VOCs were identified and quantified in the samples, including alcohols, carbonyls, alkanes and aromatics. Silage and Total Mixed Rations are the dominant sources of VOCs tested, with ethanol as the major VOC present. Emissions from the remaining sources are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, with carbonyls and aromatics as the main components. The data suggest that animal feed rather than animal waste are the main source of non-enteric VOC emissions from dairies.

Chung, Myeong Y.; Beene, Matt; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Hasson, Alam S.

2010-02-01

2

NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2007, more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. Urban atmospheres are dominated by pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. Transport emissions are an important source of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions, species of high interest because of their negative health effects and their contribution to the formation of secondary pollutants responsible for photochemical smog. NMVOCs emissions are generally not very well represented in emission inventories and their speciation presents a high level of uncertainty. In general, emissions from South American countries are still quite unknown for the international community, and usually present a high degree of uncertainty due to the lack of available data to compile emission inventories. Within the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI, www.iai.int) projects, UMESAM (Urban Mobile Emissions in South American Megacities) and SAEMC (South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate, http://saemc.cmm.uchile.cl/), the effort was made to compute on-road transport emission inventories for South American megacities, namely Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Sao Paulo and Santiago de Chile, considering megacities as urban agglomerations with more than 5 million inhabitants. The present work is a continuation of these projects, with the aim to extend the calculated NMVOCs emissions inventory into the individual species required by CTMs. The on-road mobile sector of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina, accounted for 70 Gg of NMVOCs emissions for 2006, without considering two-wheelers. Gasoline light-duty vehicles were responsible for 64% of NMVOCs emissions, followed by compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles (22%), diesel heavy-duty vehicles (11%) and diesel light-duty vehicles (7%). NMVOCs emissions were speciated according to fuel and technology, employing the European COPERT (Ntziachristos & Samaras, 2000) VOCs speciation scheme for gasoline and diesel vehicles and the USEPA SPECIATE (Simon et al., 2010) profile for CNG vehicles. NMVOCs emissions were composed of 31% aromatic compounds, 29% linear alkanes, 20% olefins, 12% ramified alkanes, 7% aldehydes and negligible contributions from cycloalkanes, ketones, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other NMVOCs. Aromatic compounds dominated gasoline light-duty vehicles' emissions (~45%), while linear alkanes those of CNG light-duty vehicles (~80%). Aldehydes' contributions increased for diesel light and heavy-duty vehicles. VOCs speciation schemes for transport emissions were collected from the literature from Europe, USA, Asia, Oceania and Latin America with the aim to account for the associated uncertainty by compound for each fuel and technology type. The resulting individual NMVOCs emissions were used to calculate the corresponding tropospheric ozone formation (Carter, 1994), as well as the human toxicity potential in terms of 1.4 dichlorobenzene. Olefins and aromatic compounds in terms of species, and gasoline in terms of fuels, were found to impose the highest risk in urban environments regarding air quality and human health.

D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

2014-05-01

3

Historical industrial emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds in China for the period of 1980-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new classification of industrial sector on basis of a source-tracing method for the historical industrial emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The industrial sources were divided into four major source categories: production of NMVOCs, storage and transport, industrial processes using NMVOCs as raw materials, and processes using NMVOCs-containing products. Multiyear emission inventories of NMVOCs from industrial sources were established for the period of 1980-2010 in China, covering 98 contributing industrial sources. The inventories were developed by the emission factor method, and further gridded at a spatial resolution of 50 km × 50 km based on GIS methodology, using population data as spatial surrogate. The result showed that China's industrial NMVOCs emissions had increased by 11.6 times at an average annual rate of 8.5% from 1.15 Tg in 1980 to 13.35 Tg in 2010. The four major source categories generated 19.6% (2.63 Tg, production of NMVOCs), 9.6% (1.295 Tg, storage and transport), 13.2% (1.769 Tg, industrial processes using NMVOCs as raw materials), and 57.4% (7.662 Tg, processes using NMVOCs-containing products) of the total emissions from China in 2010. Moreover, the top four industrial emissions sources were oil refinery, architectural decoration, machinery equipment and printing, accounted for 48.3% all together. With respect to the spatial distribution, the emissions mostly occurred in the eastern, northern and southern parts of China, all being much higher than that in the western part. The top four emission provinces were Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, and Zhejiang, accounting for 38.3% of the national emissions. As for the past 30 years, the national industrial NMVOCs emissions increased year-by-year, being in pace with the accelerated industrialization process and the sharp economic growth, especially the rapid expansion of the high-emission industries. Particularly, the oil refinery, product oil and solvent distribution, architectural decoration, and mechanical equipment manufacture became the four largest contributors, accounting for 15.9-34.3%, 6.5-10.2%, 7-8%, and 6-7% of national industrial NMVOCs.

Qiu, Kaiqiong; Yang, Lixian; Lin, Junmin; Wang, Peitao; Yang, Yi; Ye, Daiqi; Wang, Liming

2014-04-01

4

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was ˜21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

5

Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are responsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO), that determine tropospheric oxidant concentrations. Natural sources include soil microbes, vegetation, biomass burning, and lightning. These sources are

Alex Guenther; Chris Geron; Tom Pierce; Brian Lamb; Peter Harley; Ray Fall

2000-01-01

6

Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in the Yangtze River Delta region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

crop residue burning is one of the major sources of air pollutants including the precursors of photooxidants like ozone and secondary organic aerosol. We made measurements of trace gases including nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in a rural area in central East China in June 2010. During the campaign, we identified six biomass burning events in total through the simultaneous enhancement of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Four cases represented fresh plumes (<2 h after emission), and two cases represented aged plumes (>3 h after emission), as determined by photochemical age. While we were not able to quantify formic acid, we identified an enhancement of major oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as well as low molecular alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in these plumes. The observed normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) of OVOCs and alkenes showed dependence on air mass age, even in fresh smoke plumes, supporting the view that these species are rapidly produced and destructed, respectively, during plume evolution. Based on the NEMR data in the fresh plumes, we calculated the emission factors (EFs) of individual NMVOC. The comparison to previous reports suggests that the EFs of formaldehyde and acetic acid have been overestimated, while those of alkenes have been underestimated. Finally, we suggest that open burning of wheat residue in China releases about 0.34 Tg NMVOCs annually. If we applied the same EFs to all crops, the annual NMVOC emissions would be 2.33 Tg. The EFs of speciated NMVOCs can be used to improve the existing inventories.

Kudo, Shinji; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Saito, Shinji; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hongyan; Dong, Huabin; Zhang, Meigen; Yamaji, Kazuyo

2014-06-01

7

Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the work of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations Task Force on Emission Inventories, a new set of guidelines has been developed for assessing the emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, NH3, CH4, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) from biogenic and other natural sources in Europe. This paper gives the background to these guidelines,

David Simpson; Wilfried Winiwarter; Gunnar Börjesson; Steve Cinderby; Antonio Ferreiro; Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; Robert Janson; M. Aslam K. Khalil; Susan Owen; Tom E. Pierce; Hans Puxbaum; Martha Shearer; Ute Skiba; Rainer Steinbrecher; Leonor Tarrasón; Mats G. Öquist

1999-01-01

8

Compilation and analyses of emissions inventories for the NOAA atmospheric chemistry project. Progress report, August 1997  

SciTech Connect

Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen for circa 1985 and 1990 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry program. Global emissions of NOx for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N/yr, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N/yr for NOx and 173 Gg NMVOC/yr. Ongoing research activities for this project continue to address emissions of both NOx and NMVOCs. Future tasks include: evaluation of more detailed regional emissions estimates and update of the default 1990 inventories with the appropriate estimates; derivation of quantitative uncertainty estimates for the emission values; and development of emissions estimates for 1995.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1997-09-01

9

Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and NMVOC for one third of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive govermental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up to 2030.

Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

2014-01-01

10

Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia would account for only about one-quarter, and NMVOC for one-third, of the levels of the baseline projection. Compared with previous projections, this study projects larger reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions by considering aggressive governmental plans and standards scheduled to be implemented in the next decade, and quantifies the significant effects of detailed progressive control measures on NMVOC emissions up until 2030.

Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

2014-07-01

11

COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.  

SciTech Connect

Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories. The resulting global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N yr{sup -1} for NO{sub x} and 173 Gg NMVOC yr{sup -1}. Emissions of NO{sub x} are highest in the populated and industrialized areas of eastern North America and across Europe, and in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. Emissions of NMVOCs are highest in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 1990 NO{sub x} emissions were gridded to 1{sup o} resolution using surrogate data, and were given seasonal, two-vertical-level resolution and speciated into NO and NO{sub 2} based on proportions derived from the 1985 GEIA Version 1B inventory. Global NMVOC emissions were given additional species resolution by allocating the 23 chemical categories to individual chemical species based on factors derived from the speciated emissions of NMVOCs in the U.S. from the U.S. EPA's 1990 Interim Inventory. Ongoing research activities for this project continue to address emissions of both NO{sub x} and NMVOCs. Future tasks include: (a) evaluation of more detailed regional emissions estimates and update of the default 1990 inventories with the appropriate estimates, (b) derivation of quantitative uncertainty estimates for the emission values, and (c) development of emissions estimates for 1995.

BENKOVITZ,C.M.

1997-09-01

12

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.

2008-12-01

13

Trends, temporal and spatial characteristics, and uncertainties in biomass burning emissions in the Pearl River Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-year inventories of biomass burning emissions were established in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region for the period 2003–2007 based on the collected activity data and emission factors. The results indicated that emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), organic carbon (OC), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)

Min He; Junyu Zheng; Shasha Yin; Yingyi Zhang

2011-01-01

14

High Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation participate in oxidative reactions, affecting the tropospheric ozone concentration and the lifetimes of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Also, they affect the formation of secondary organic aerosols. BVOCs thus provide a strong link between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the climate. Global models of BVOC emissions have assumed minimal emissions from the high latitudes due to low temperatures, short growing seasons and sparse vegetation cover. However, measurements from this region of the world are lacking and emissions from the High Arctic have not been published yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the first estimates for BVOC emissions from the High Arctic. Hereby, we wish to add new knowledge to the understanding of global BVOC emissions. Measurements were conducted in NE Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' W) in four vegetation communities in the study area. These four vegetation communities were dominated by Cassiope tetragona, Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum and Kobresia myosuroides/Dryas octopetela/Salix arctica, respectively. Emissions were measured by enclosure technique and collection of volatiles into adsorbent cartridges in August 2009. The volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following thermal desorption. Isoprene showed highest emissions in S. arctica-dominated heath, where it was the dominant single BVOC. However, isoprene emission decreased below detection limit in the end of August when the temperature was at or below 10°C. According to a principal component analysis, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions were especially associated with C. tetragona-dominated heath. Especially S. arctica and C. tetragona dominated heaths showed distinct patterns of emitted BVOCs. Emissions of BVOC from the studied high arctic heaths were clearly lower than the emissions observed previously in subarctic heaths with more dense vegetation and higher ambient temperature. However, high arctic BVOC emissions are expected to increase in the future as a result of the predicted pronounced climate warming effects in the High Arctic. Therefore, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of climate changes in the region in order to gain new knowledge and understanding of future global BVOC emissions.

Schollert, Michelle; Buchard, Sebrina; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

2013-04-01

15

Emission inventory of non-methane volatile organic compounds from anthropogenic sources in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new inventory of NMVOC emissions from anthropogenic sources in India for the year 2010. The main new element of this inventory, compared to previous work for India, is the use of new and more detailed data on solvent use sectors and oil production and distribution system. The results are presented at the national and state level for major sectors and VOC species. Finally, the annual emissions were spatially distributed at a fine resolution of 36 × 36 km2 using detailed spatial information. The total anthropogenic NMVOC emissions in India in 2010 were estimated at 9.81 Tg which is in the range of the estimates made in most other studies. The majority of emissions (60%) originated from residential combustion of biomass for cooking. Solvent use sectors and oil production and distribution contributed about 20% followed by transport (12%) and open burning of agricultural residues (7%). Specie-wise distribution shows highest contribution from alkenes and alkynes (38%), followed by alkanes (22%), and aromatics (16%).

Sharma, Sumit; Goel, Anju; Gupta, Divya; Kumar, Atul; Mishra, Arabinda; Kundu, Seema; Chatani, Satoru; Klimont, Zbigniew

2015-02-01

16

GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

17

COMPOUND FORMS OF FOSSIL FUEL FLY ASH EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology for identifying inorganic compounds in particulate emissions from fossil fuel combustion processes is described. Samples collected from power plants burning coal and oil fuels of different compositions provided a typical range of fly ashes for the investigations. El...

18

CASE STUDY OF SULPHUR COMPOUNDS EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION  

E-print Network

with another FID analyser have measured 11 significant positive methane and H2S surface emissions rate. Due), which needs approximately half an hour of time diffusion stabilization in the chamber, was used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Compilation and analyses of emissions inventories for NOAA`s atmospheric chemistry project. Progress report, August 1997  

SciTech Connect

Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories.

Benkovitz, C.M.; Mubaraki, M.A.

1997-09-01

20

MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

21

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced from tank trucks...

2011-07-01

22

A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical assessments of global air quality and potential changes in atmospheric chemical constituents require estimates of the surface fluxes of a variety of trace gas species. We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources (NVOC). Methane is not considered here and has been reviewed in detail elsewhere. The model has a highly

Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; David Erickson; Ray Fall; Chris Geron; Tom Graedel; Peter Harley; Lee Klinger; Manuel Lerdau; W. A. McKay; Tom Pierce; Bob Scholes; Rainer Steinbrecher; Raja Tallamraju; John Taylor; Pat Zimmerman

1995-01-01

23

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and  

E-print Network

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste as Measured by Proton California dairies house approximately 1.8 million lactating and 1.5 million dry cows and heifers. State air from lactating and dry dairy cowsandtheirwasteusinganenvironmentalchamber.Carbon dioxide and methane

Goldstein, Allen

24

Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations, and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore a microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can aid in understanding such properties as the survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. Purpose: To describe neutron emission rates in deformed compound nuclei, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. Methods: The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by the HFB-AX solver in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gases are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained with the densities of external neutron gases. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. Results: The thermal statistical properties of 238U and 258U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in U,258238 and superheavy compound nuclei Cn278112 and Fl292114 are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting variables from FT-HFB. Conclusions: The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

Zhu, Yi; Pei, J. C.

2014-11-01

25

Volatile organic compound emissions from dry mill fuel ethanol production.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production is growing rapidly in the rural Midwest, and this growth presents potential environmental impacts. In 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) entered into enforcement actions with 12 fuel ethanol plants in Minnesota. The enforcement actions uncovered underreported emissions and resulted in consent decrees that required pollution control equipment be installed. A key component of the consent decrees was a requirement to conduct emissions tests for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the goal of improving the characterization and control of emissions. The conventional VOC stack test method was thought to underquantify total VOC emissions from ethanol plants. A hybrid test method was also developed that involved quantification of individual VOC species. The resulting database of total and speciated VOC emissions from 10 fuel ethanol plants is relatively small, but it is the most extensive to date and has been used to develop and gauge compliance with permit limits and to estimate health risks in Minnesota. Emissions were highly variable among facilities and emissions units. In addition to the variability, the small number of samples and the presence of many values below detection limits complicate the analysis of the data. To account for these issues, a nested bootstrap procedure on the Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate means and upper confidence limits. In general, the fermentation scrubbers and fluid bed coolers emitted the largest mass of VOC emissions. Across most facilities and emissions units ethanol was the pollutant emitted at the highest rate. Acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate were also important emissions from some units. Emissions of total VOCs, ethanol, and some other species appeared to be a function of the beer feed rate, although the relationship was not reliable enough to develop a production rate-based emissions factor. PMID:17912928

Brady, Daniel; Pratt, Gregory C

2007-09-01

26

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

CICCIOLI, PAOLO; CENTRITTO, MAURO; LORETO, FRANCESCO

2014-01-01

27

Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei  

E-print Network

The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore the microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can impact several understandings such as survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. To describe the neutron emission rates microscopically, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the Finite-Temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by HFB-AX in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gas are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained based on the densities of external neutron gases. The thermal statistical properties of $^{238}$U and $^{258}$U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in $^{238, 258}$U and superheavy compound nuclei $_{112}^{278}$Cn and $_{114}^{292}$Fl are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting an excitation-energy-dependent level density parameter. The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

Yi Zhu; Junchen Pei

2014-11-02

28

Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model-I: building an emissions data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 ?m in size) released into the atmosphere. The seasonality and relative importance of the various natural emissions categories are described.

Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

2010-05-01

29

Compound forms of fossil fuel fly ash emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for determining inorganic compounds present in particulate emissions from fossil fuel combustion processes is described. Samples collected from power plants burning oil and coal fuels of different composition provided a typical range of flyashes for the investigation. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and chemical-phase analyses were performed to determine elemental compositions of samples. Water-soluble sulfates are the predominant

William M. Henry; Kenneth T. Knapp

1980-01-01

30

Emissions of carbonyl compounds from various cookstoves in China  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new database of carbonyl emission factors for commonly used cookstoves in China. The emission factors, reported both on a fuel-mass basis (mg/kg) and on a defined cooking-task basis (mg/task), were determined using a carbon balance approach for 22 types of fuel/stove combinations. These include various stoves using different species of crop residues and wood, kerosene, and several types of coals and gases. The results show that all the tested cookstoves produced formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and that the vast majority of the biomass stoves produced additional carbonyl compounds such as acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 2-butanone, isobutyraldehyde, butyraldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, valeraldehyde, hexaldehyde, benzaldehyde, o-tolualdehyde, m,p-tolualdehyde, and 2,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Carbonyls other than formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, however, were rarely generated by burning coal, coal gas, and natural gas. Kerosene and LPG stoves generated more carbonyl compounds than coal, coal gas, and natural gas stoves, but less than biomass stoves. Indoor levels of carbonyl compounds for typical village houses during cooking hours, estimated using a mass balance model and the measured emission factors, can be high enough to cause acute health effects documented for formaldehyde exposure, depending upon house parameters and individuals' susceptibility.

Zhang, J. (UMDNJ--Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Rutgers Univ., Piscataway (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst. East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Smith, K.R. (East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Occupational and Environmental Health)

1999-07-15

31

Emission of volatile sulfur compounds from spruce trees  

SciTech Connect

Spruce (Picea abies L.) trees from the same clone were supplied with different, but low, amounts of plant available sulfate in the soil (9.7-18.1 milligrams per 100 grams of soil). Branches attached to the trees were enclosed in a dynamic gas exchange cuvette and analyzed for the emission of volatile sulfur compounds. Independent of the sulfate supply in the soil, H{sub 2}S was the predominant reduced sulfur compound continuously emitted from the branches with high rates during the day and low rates in the night. In the light, as well as in the dark, the rates of H{sub 2}S emission increased exponentially with increasing water vapor flux from the needles. Approximately 1 nanomole of H{sub 2}S was found to be emitted per mole of water. When stomata were closed completely, only minute emission of H{sub 2}S was observed. Apparently, H{sub 2}S emission from the needles is highly dependent on stromatal aperture, and permeation through the cuticle is negligible. In several experiments, small amounts of dimethylsulfide and carbonylsulfide were also detected in a portion of the samples. However, SO{sub 2} was the only sulfur compound consistently emitted from branches of spruce trees in addition to H{sub 2}S. Emission of SO{sub 2} mainly proceeded via an outburst starting before the beginning of the light period. The total amount of SO{sub 2} emitted from the needles during this outburst was correlated with the plant available sulfate in the soil. The diurnal changes in sulfur metabolism that may result in an outburst of SO{sub 2} are discussed.

Rennenberg, H.; Huber, B.; Schroeder, P.; Stahl, K.; Haunold, W.; Georgil, H.W.; Slovik, S.; Pfanz, H. (Fraunhofer Institut fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (West Germany))

1990-03-01

32

ECCAD : Emissions of Atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable uncertainty in estimating surface emissions of atmospheric compounds for the recent past and up to now, no single data set exists which would describe the geographical and temporal distribution of emissions for all species relevant to air quality, atmospheric composition change and climate change in a comprehensive and consistent manner. We will describe the ECCAD project, which has two major goals. The first goal is to provide scientific users with an easy access to a large number of existing datasets on surface emissions of atmospheric compounds at the global and regional scales. We are also providing access to ancillary data required to quantify surface emissions. The other goal is to provide data manipulation tools as well as statistical information over the different regions (climatic regions, continents, oceans, OECD regions, etc.). These tools allow an easy identification of each dataset characteristicss and differences between the datasets. Visualization tools are also provided, and the users can download the data of interest. The data in ECCAD are currently used in different international projects. The most recent addition to the database include the emissions developed in support of the IPCC AR5 report, and the data used in the MACC and CITYZEN European projects. The emissions are provided as gridded data at a 0.5 or 1° spatial resolution. Time periodicity and temporal coverage periods vary among the datasets from one year to up to 150 years. The database will be described, and examples of the tools will be presented. We will also provide information on the access to the datasets.

Sabine, Darras; Claire, Granier; Vincent, Pignot; Renaud, Bodichon; Aude, Mieville; Cathy, Liousse; Mireille, Paulin; Cathy, Boonne

2010-05-01

33

ECCAD : Emission of Atmospheric Compounds & Compilation of Ancillary Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable uncertainty in estimating surface emissions of atmospheric compounds for the recent past and up to now, no single data set exists which would describe the geographical and temporal distribution of emissions for all species relevant to air quality, atmospheric composition change and climate change in a comprehensive and consistent manner. We will describe the ECCAD project, which has two major goals. The first goal is to provide scientific users with an easy access to a large number of existing datasets on surface emissions of atmospheric compounds at the global and regional scales. We are also providing access to ancillary data required to quantify surface emissions. The other goal is to provide data manipulation tools as well as statistical information over the different regions (climatic regions, continents, oceans, OECD regions, etc.). These tools allow an easy identification of each dataset characteristics and differences between the datasets. Visualization tools are also provided, and the users can download the data of interest. The data in ECCAD are currently used in different international projects. The most recent addition to the database include the emissions developed in support of the IPCC AR5 report, and the data used in the MACC and CITYZEN European projects. The emissions are provided as gridded data at a 0.5 or 1° spatial resolution. Time periodicity and temporal coverage periods vary among the datasets from one year to up to 150 years. The database will be described, and examples of the tools will be presented. We will also provide information on the access to the datasets.

Darras, S.; Granier, C.; Pignot, V.; Bodichon, R.; Boonne, C.; Liousse, C.; Paulin, M.

2010-12-01

34

Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and storage of silage. Aldehydes may also be produced aerobically by spoilage microorganisms through the oxidation of alcohols. Abiotic reactions may be important for production of methanol and esters. Although silage additives appear to affect VOC production in individual studies, bacterial inoculants have not shown a consistent effect on ethanol, and effects on other VOCs have not been studied. Production of acetic acid is understood, and production could be minimized, but a decrease could lead to an increase in other, more volatile and more reactive, VOCs. Chemical additives designed for controlling yeasts and undesirable bacteria show promise for reducing ethanol production in corn silage. More work is needed to understand silage VOC production and emission from silage, including: additional measurements of VOC concentrations or production in silage of all types, and an exploration of the causes of variability; accurate on-farm measurements of VOC emission, including an assessment of the importance of individual ensiling stages and practices that could reduce emission of existing VOCs; and work on understanding the sources of silage VOCs and possible approaches for reducing production.

Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

2013-10-01

35

Emissions of volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds from residential coal combustion in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls from residential coal combustion of five coals with different\\u000a maturities were studied in a simulated room. The coals were burned in form of honeycomb briquettes in a domestic coal stove,\\u000a one of the most common fuel\\/stove combinations in China. Through a dilution system, VOCs and carbonyls samples were collected\\u000a by canisters and

Yan-li Feng; Bin Xiong; Cui-cui Mu; Ying-jun Chen

2010-01-01

36

Secondary particle emission from a ferromagnetic binary compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary ion emission from an ion-bombarded binary compound in the ferro- and paramagnetic states has been studied using experimental methods and molecular dynamics simulations. The experiments were performed with a widely used NiPd binary compound, which was bombarded by obliquely incident 10-keV Ar ions. It is established that the intensity of Ni+ and Pd+ ion emission from a polycrystalline NiPd sample decreases significantly when it passes from the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state. This effect is explained by a change in the surface binding energy and density of surface states at the Fermi level and by a cumulative process related to sputtering. The energies and directions of emission of secondary particles from poly- and single-crystalline NiPd samples in the ferromagnetic state have been jointly studied. It is established that the maximum of the polar angular distribution of secondary particles deviates toward the normal to the irradiated surface with a decrease in their energy. A difference in the azimuthal distribution of emitted Ni and Pd particles has been observed during the bombardment of a (001)NiPd crystal face and explained by specific features of correlated collisions. The best agreement of experimental data with the results of molecular dynamics simulations is obtained if the calculations are performed with allowance for an experimentally established modified composition of the three uppermost surface layers [39].

Minnebaev, K. F.; Tolpin, K. A.; Yurasova, V. E.

2013-02-01

37

Secondary particle emission from a ferromagnetic binary compound  

SciTech Connect

Secondary ion emission from an ion-bombarded binary compound in the ferro- and paramagnetic states has been studied using experimental methods and molecular dynamics simulations. The experiments were performed with a widely used NiPd binary compound, which was bombarded by obliquely incident 10-keV Ar ions. It is established that the intensity of Ni{sup +} and Pd{sup +} ion emission from a polycrystalline NiPd sample decreases significantly when it passes from the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state. This effect is explained by a change in the surface binding energy and density of surface states at the Fermi level and by a cumulative process related to sputtering. The energies and directions of emission of secondary particles from poly- and single-crystalline NiPd samples in the ferromagnetic state have been jointly studied. It is established that the maximum of the polar angular distribution of secondary particles deviates toward the normal to the irradiated surface with a decrease in their energy. A difference in the azimuthal distribution of emitted Ni and Pd particles has been observed during the bombardment of a (001)NiPd crystal face and explained by specific features of correlated collisions. The best agreement of experimental data with the results of molecular dynamics simulations is obtained if the calculations are performed with allowance for an experimentally established modified composition of the three uppermost surface layers [39].

Minnebaev, K. F.; Tolpin, K. A.; Yurasova, V. E., E-mail: yurasova@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Department of Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

38

Emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere in the solvent sublation process. II. Volatile chlorinated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The mass of trichloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and 1,3-dichlorobenzene removed from an aqueous solution and emitted to the atmosphere during solvent sublation was determined experimentally. It was shown that the emission of these compounds in solvent sublation was reduced by 30 to 85% over air stripping under the same experimental conditions. The efficiency of removal of these compounds from water was also studied. The reduction of emissions over air stripping was more effective for the more hydrophobic and less volatile compounds. Emissions are reduced as the thickness of organic layer on the top of the column is increased. The use of decyl alcohol as the layer compound decreases emissions to a greater extent than does paraffin oil. Removal of these chlorinated volatile organic compounds from water by solvent sublation at an elevated temperature of 45{degrees}C is significantly faster than at room temperature. However, the emissions to the atmosphere are also increased.

Ososkov, V.; Kebbekus, B.; Chou, C.C. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)

1996-06-01

39

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline...collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced from tank...

2010-07-01

40

FACTORS CONTROLLING THE EMISSIONS OF MONOTERPENES AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants contain a number of volatile organic compounds, including isoprene, mono- and sesquiterpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters. ndividual plant species have unique combinations of these compounds; consequently, the emission pattern for each species is also specific...

41

78 FR 24990 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control Measures for...Implementation Plan (SIP), several volatile organic compound (VOC) rules that were submitted...stationary sources, storage of volatile organic liquids, industrial cleaning...

2013-04-29

42

Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (echo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. The impact of biogenic VOC on tropospheric photochem- istry, air quality, and the formation of secondary products affects our climate on a regional and global scale but is far from being understood. A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a forest stand as a net source of reactive trace com- pounds, which are transported directly into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In particular, little is known about the amounts of VOC which are processed within the canopy. The goal of ECHO, which is presented in this poster, is to investigate these questions and to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their effects on the PBL. The investigation of emissions, chemical processing and vertical transport of biogenic VOC will be carried out in and above a mixed forest stand in Jülich, Germany. A large set of trace gases, free radicals and meteorologi- cal parameters will be measured at different heights in and above the canopy, covering concentrations of VOC, CO, O3, organic nitrates und NOx as well as organic aerosols. For the first time concentration profiles of OH, HO2, RO2 und NO3 radicals will be measured as well together with the actinic UV radiation field and photolysis frequen- cies of all relevant radical precursors (O3, NO2, peroxides, oxygenated VOC). The different tasks of the field experiments will be supported by simulation experiments investigating the primary emission and the uptake of VOC by the plants in stirred tank reactors, soil parameters and soil emissions in lysimeter experiments, and the chem- ical processing of the trace gases as observed in and above the forest stand in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. The planning and interpretation of the field experiments is supported by simulations of the field site in a wind tunnel.

Koppmann, R.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Schatzmann, M.

43

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

44

Temporal variation of trace compound emission on the working surface of a landfill in Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variation of trace component emissions from the working surface of a landfill in Beijing was investigated. Specific days in a year were selected as representatives for all four seasons. Different chemical species were quantified in all four seasons with the following average concentrations: spring: 41 compounds, 2482.6 ?g m-3; summer: 59 compounds, 4512.6 ?g m-3; fall: 66 compounds, 2438.4 ?g m-3; and winter: 54 compounds, 2901 ?g m-3. The detected compounds included sulfur compounds, oxygenated compounds, aromatics, hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, and terpenes. Oxygenated compounds were the most abundant compound in most samples. Isobutane, ethyl alcohol, limonene, butane, toluene, and trichlorofluoromethane were recognized as the most abundant compounds on the working surface throughout the year. This study would bring new light in assessing the particle pollution in urban areas and the effect of trace components on landfill odor.

Duan, Zhenhan; Lu, Wenjing; Li, Dong; Wang, Hongtao

2014-05-01

45

Atmospheric nitrogen compounds II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds II: Emissions, Transport, Transformation, Deposition and Assessment workshop was held in Chapel Hill, NC from 7 to 9 June 1999. This international conference, which served as a follow-up to the workshop held in March 1997, was sponsored by: North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources; North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, North Carolina Office of the State Health Director; Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association; North Carolina Water Resources Research Institute; Air and Waste Management Association, RTP Chapter; the US Environmental Protection Agency and the North Carolina State University (College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, and North Carolina Agricultural Research Service). The workshop was structured as an open forum at which scientists, policy makers, industry representatives and others could freely share current knowledge and ideas, and included international perspectives. The workshop commenced with international perspectives from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Denmark. This article summarizes the findings of the workshop and articulates future research needs and ways to address nitrogen/ammonia from intensively managed animal agriculture. The need for developing sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste problem is vital for shaping the future of North Carolina. As part of that process, all aspects of environmental issues (air, water, soil) must be addressed as part of a comprehensive and long-term strategy. There is an urgent need for North Carolina policy makers to create a new, independent organization that will build consensus and mobilize resources to find technologically and economically feasible solutions to this aspect of the animal waste problem.

Aneja, Viney P.; Roelle, Paul A.; Murray, George C.; Southerland, James; Erisman, Jan Willem; Fowler, David; Asman, Willem A. H.; Patni, Naveen

46

NATURAL EMISSIONS OF NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, CARBON MONOXIDE, AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN FROM NORTH AMERICA  

EPA Science Inventory

The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are repsonsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (N...

47

Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1{degree} {times} 1{degree} grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings.

Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Graedel, T.E. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1993-05-20

48

77 FR 14324 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is a rule that establishes national reactivity-based emission standards for the aerosol coatings category (aerosol spray paints) under the Clean Air Act. This proposed action adds three compounds: dimethyl carbonate, benzotrifluoride, and...

2012-03-09

49

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

50

MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS USING SMALL TEST CHAMBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the measurement of organic emissions from a variety of indoor materials, using small (166 liter) environmental test chambers. he following materials were tested: adhesives, caulks, pressed wood products, floor waxes, paints, and solid insecticides. or each mat...

51

Emissions of Carbonyl Compounds from Various Cookstoves in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new database of carbonyl emission factors for commonly used cookstoves in China. The emission factors, reported both on a fuel-mass basis (mg\\/ kg) and on a defined cooking-task basis (mg\\/task), were determined using a carbon balance approach for 22 types of fuel\\/stove combinations. These include various stoves (e.g., traditional, improved, brick, and metal, with and without

JUNFENG Z HANG; KIRK R. S MITH

52

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation provides a major source of reactive carbon entering the atmosphere. These compounds play an important role in (1) shaping global tropospheric chemistry, (2) regional photochemical oxidant formation, (3) balancing the global carbon cycle, and (4) production of organic acids which contribute to acidic deposition in rural areas. Present estimates place the total annual global emission of these compounds between

Fred Fehsenfeld; Jack Calvert; Ray Fall; Paul Goldan; A. B. Guenther; C. N. Hewitt; Brian Lamb; Shaw Liu; Michael Trainer; Hal Westberg; Pat Zimmerman

1992-01-01

53

Compound specific carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses of volatile organic compounds in various emissions of combustion processes.  

PubMed

This study presents carbon (?(13)C) and hydrogen (?D) isotope values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various emission sources using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TD-GC-irMS). The investigated VOCs ranged from C6 to C10. Samples were taken from (i) car exhaust emissions as well as from plant combustion experiments of (ii) various C3 and (iii) various C4 plants. We found significant differences in ? values of analysed VOCs between these sources, e.g. ?(13)C of benzene ranged between (i) -21.7 ± 0.2 ‰, (ii) -27.6 ± 1.6 ‰ and (iii) -16.3 ± 2.2 ‰, respectively and ?D of benzene ranged between (i) -73 ± 13 ‰, (ii) -111 ± 10 ‰ and (iii) -70 ± 24 ‰, respectively. Results of VOCs present in investigated emission sources were compared to values from the literature (aluminium refinery emission). All source groups could be clearly distinguished using the dual approach of ?(13)C and ?D analysis. The results of this study indicate that the correlation of compound specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis provides the potential for future research to trace the fate and to determine the origin of VOCs in the atmosphere using thermal desorption compound specific isotope analysis. PMID:22921436

Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Christiane D; Grice, Kliti; Ioppolo-Armanios, Marisa; Kelly, David; Gibberd, Mark

2012-11-01

54

Measurements of biogenic non-methane organic compound emissions from grasslands  

SciTech Connect

Non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) play an important role in the formation of photochemical oxidants in the troposphere. NMOCs originate from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Many organic compounds of biogenic origins are more reactive than those of anthropogenic origin because of the presence of internal double bonds within their molecular structure. The objective of this investigation was to examine the seasonal variation of NMOC emissions from grasslands and determine the environmental factors that control the emissions. An enclosure system was chosen as the most appropriate sampling technique for measuring emissions from herbaceous vegetation, and an analysis method using cryogenic preconcentration/high resolution gas chromatography was established. Emission rates were measured at a fixed location in a natural grassland during 1992 and 1993. Measurements were also made at various locations within the same site where the vegetation was harvested after the emission rates were determined. Emission rates of NMOCs for grasslands are not as large as those reported for forests. However the emissions of oxygenated hydrocarbons exceeded the emissions of monoterpenes and have not previously been identified as important forest-type emissions. A framework for parameterizing the NMOC emissions from grasslands based on seasonal and instantaneous variations of the emission rate measurements was developed. Temperature, hypoxia induced by water saturated soil, and frost were key environmental factors affecting both the composition and magnitude of NMOC emissions.

Fukui, Yoshiko

1994-12-31

55

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION PROJECTION MODEL (VERSION 1.8). USER'S MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a model that can be used to estimate future emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and costs of their control by applying growth factors, emission constraints, control cost functions, and capacity retirement rates to the base line estimates of VOC emi...

56

Patterns in volatile organic compound emissions along a savanna-rainforest gradient in central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In temperate regions the chemistry of the lower troposphere is known to be significantly affected by biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. The chemistry of the lower troposphere over the tropics, however, is poorly understood, in part because of the considerable uncertainties in VOC emissions from tropical ecosystems. Present global VOC models predict that base emissions of isoprene

L. F. Klinger; J. Greenberg; A. Guenther; G. Tyndall; P. Zimmerman; J.-M. Moutsamboté; D. Kenfack

1998-01-01

57

REASSESSMENT OF BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS IN THE ATLANTA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a reassessment of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in the Atlanta area, using a new system for specific tree genera at hourly and county levels. (NOTE: Localized estimates of BVOC emissions are important inputs for photochemical oxidant simu...

58

Characterizing biogenic emissions of sesquiterpene and oxygenated terpene compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for very reactive biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) has been observed at Blodgett Forest, a coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The evidence has included chemical ozone loss in the forest canopy and the presence of BVOC oxidation products in and above the canopy. To measure emission rates of these reactive BVOCs, we placed enclosures over branches of the dominant species at the site Ponderosa pine, ceanothus, and manzanita in the summer of 2005. Zero air, with ambient CO2 concentrations, flowed through the chamber system and VOC emission measurements were made by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), solid phase microextraction (SPME) on fibers followed by direct injection into a gas chromatograph with an ion trap mass spectrometer (GC-ITMS), and by in-situ GC with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Multiple studies have characterized oxygenated BVOC and monoterpene emissions at this site; here we focus on the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene and oxygenated terpene emissions. We report emission profiles over the three month sampling period. We also assess the relative importance of these terpenes for chemistry in the canopy and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation.

Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Holzinger, R.; Palitzsch, K.; Goldstein, A. H.

2006-12-01

59

Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

60

MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS USING SMALL TEST CHAMBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic compounds emitted from a variety of indoor materials have been measured using small (166 L) environmental test chambers. The paper discusses: a) factors to be considered in small chamber testing; b) parameters to be controlled; c) the types of results obtained. The follow...

61

Emission of charged particles from excited compound nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The process of complex fragment emission is studied within the dinuclear system model. Cross sections of complex fragment emission are calculated and compared with experimental data for the reactions {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 78,86}Kr+{sup 12}C, and {sup 63}Cu+{sup 12}C. The mass distributions of the products of these reactions, isotopic distributions for the {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag and {sup 78}Kr+{sup 12}C reactions, and average total kinetic energies of the products of the {sup 78}Kr+{sup 12}C reaction are predicted.

Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, RU-141980 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, UZ-702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Antonenko, N. V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, RU-141980 Moscow (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

2010-10-15

62

Off-season biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from heath mesocosms: responses to vegetation cutting  

PubMed Central

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect both atmospheric processes and ecological interactions. Our primary aim was to differentiate between BVOC emissions from above- and belowground plant parts and heath soil outside the growing season. The second aim was to assess emissions from herbivory, mimicked by cutting the plants. Mesocosms from a temperate Deschampsia flexuosa-dominated heath ecosystem and a subarctic mixed heath ecosystem were either left intact, the aboveground vegetation was cut, or all plant parts (including roots) were removed. For 3–5 weeks, BVOC emissions were measured in growth chambers by an enclosure method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. CO2 exchange, soil microbial biomass, and soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations were also analyzed. Vegetation cutting increased BVOC emissions by more than 20-fold, and the induced compounds were mainly eight-carbon compounds and sesquiterpenes. In the Deschampsia heath, the overall low BVOC emissions originated mainly from soil. In the mixed heath, root, and soil emissions were negligible. Net BVOC emissions from roots and soil of these well-drained heaths do not significantly contribute to ecosystem emissions, at least outside the growing season. If insect outbreaks become more frequent with climate change, ecosystem BVOC emissions will periodically increase due to herbivory. PMID:23966983

Rinnan, Riikka; Gierth, Diana; Bilde, Merete; Rosenørn, Thomas; Michelsen, Anders

2013-01-01

63

Effects of bulking agent addition on odorous compounds emissions during composting of OFMSW.  

PubMed

The effects of rice straw addition level on odorous compounds emissions in a pilot-scale organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) composting plant were investigated. The cumulative odorous compounds emissions occurred in a descending order of 40.22, 28.71 and 27.83 mg/dry kg of OFMSW for piles with rice straw addition level at ratio of 1:10, 2:10 and 3:10 (mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW on a wet basis), respectively. The mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW had a statistically significant effect on the reduction of malodorous sulfur compounds emissions, which had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of VFAs, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics and ammonia emissions during composting, respectively. The cumulative emissions of malodorous sulfur compounds from piles with the increasing rice straw addition level were 1.17, 1.08 and 0.88 mg/dry kg of OFMSW, respectively. The optimal mixing ratio of rice straw to OFMSW was 1:5. Using this addition level, the cumulative malodorous sulfur compounds emissions based on the organic matter degradation were the lowest during composting of OFMSW. PMID:24820662

Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Wu, Duo; Lü, Fan; Li, Tian-Shui; He, Pin-Jing

2014-08-01

64

Emissions of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds from Plants Part II: Emissions of Saturated Aldehydes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal from 6 different plant species were measured in continuously stirred tank reactors when the plants were exposed to ozone. Pathogen- and insect attack on plants also led to these emissions. The emission rates of individual aldehydes were related to each other implying a common mechanism for the emissions of these aldehydes. Furthermore,

J. Wildt; K. Kobel; G. Schuh-Thomas; A. C. Heiden

2003-01-01

65

Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01

66

Historical variations of biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories in China, 1981-2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the variations in temporal and spatial distribution of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in China, historical BVOC emission inventories at a spatial resolution of 36 km × 36 km for the period of 1981-2003 were developed firstly. Based on the time-varying statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000), emissions of isoprene, 37 monoterpenes, 32 sesquiterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated using MEGANv2.1 driven by WRF model. Results show China's BVOC emissions had increased by 28.01% at an annual average rate of 1.27% from 37.89 Tg in 1981 to 48.50 Tg in 2003. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs had increased by 41.60%, 34.78%, 41.05%, and 4.89%, respectively. With fixed meteorological variables, the estimated BVOC emissions would increase by 19.25%, resulting from the increasing of vegetation biomass during the last 23 years. On average, isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs were responsible for 52.40%, 12.73%, 2.58%, and 32.29% of the national BVOC emissions, respectively. ?-pinene and ?-pinene, farnesene and caryophyllene were the largest contributors to the total monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions, respectively. The highest emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, southwestern China, Qinling Mountain, and Hainan and Taiwan provinces. The regions with high emissions had been expanding over the years, especially in the Changbai Mountain, southern China, and southwestern forest regions. The lowest emissions in southern China occurred in 1984-1988. Almost all the provinces had experienced increasing emissions, but their contributions to the national emissions differed significantly over the past 23 years. Yunnan, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, and Sichuan provinces always dominated the national BVOC emissions, excluding in 1977-1981, when the three northeastern provinces had relatively lower emissions.

Li, L. Y.; Xie, S. D.

2014-10-01

67

Dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometer: universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds.  

PubMed

It was found that carbon atomic emission can be excited in low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), and an atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, and compact microplasma carbon atomic emission spectrometer (AES) was constructed and used as a universal and sensitive gas chromatographic (GC) detector for detection of volatile carbon-containing compounds. A concentric DBD device was housed in a heating box to increase the plasma operation temperature to 300 °C to intensify carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. Carbon-containing compounds directly injected or eluted from GC can be decomposed, atomized, and excited in this heated DBD for carbon atomic emission. The performance of this new optical detector was first evaluated by determination of a series of volatile carbon-containing compounds including formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and absolute limits of detection (LODs) were found at a range of 0.12-0.28 ng under the optimized conditions. Preliminary experimental results showed that it provided slightly higher LODs than those obtained by GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, it is a new universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds that even includes those compounds which are difficult to detect by FID, such as HCHO, CO, and CO2. Meanwhile, hydrogen gas used in conventional techniques was eliminated; and molecular optical emission detection can also be performed with this GC detector for multichannel analysis to improve resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks of complex mixtures. PMID:24328147

Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

2014-01-01

68

Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions  

SciTech Connect

A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

Ergas, S.J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McGrath, M.S. [Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States)

1997-06-01

69

Development of a test method for carbonyl compounds from stationary source emissions  

SciTech Connect

Carbonyl compounds have received increasing attention because of their important role in ground-level ozone formation. The common method used for the measurement of aldehydes and ketones is 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization followed by high performance liquid chromatography and ultra violet (HPLC-UV) analysis. One of the problems associated with this method is the low recovery for certain compounds such as acrolein. This paper presents a study in the development of a test method for the collection and measurement of carbonyl compounds from stationary source emissions. This method involves collection of carbonyl compounds in impingers, conversion of carbonyl compounds to a stable derivative with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA), and separation and measurement by electron capture gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Eight compounds were selected for the evaluation of this method: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, butanal, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and hexanal.

Zhihua Fan; Peterson, M.R.; Jayanty, R.K.M. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

70

Emission estimates of selected volatile organic compounds from tropical savanna burning in northern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present measurements of a range of carbon-based compounds: carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), methyl halides, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emitted by Australian savanna fires studied as part of the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) phase B aircraft campaign, which took place during the local late dry season (28 August to 13 September 1999). Significant enhancements of short-lived NMHCs were observed in the boundary layer (BL) over the region of intensive fires and indicate recent emissions for which the mean transport time was estimated to be about 9 hours. Emission ratios relative to CO were determined for 20 NMHCs, 3 methyl halides, DMS, and CH4 based on the BL enhancements in the source region. Tight correlations with CO were obtained for most of those compounds, indicating the homogeneity of the local savanna source. The emission ratios were in good agreement with some previous measurements of savanna fires for stable compounds but indicated the decay of emission ratios during transport for several reactive compounds. Based on the observed emission ratios, emission factors were derived and compared to previous studies. While emission factors (g species/kg dry mole) of CO2 varied little according to the vegetation types, those of CO and NMHCs varied significantly. Higher combustion efficiency and a lower emission factor for methane in this study, compared to forest fires, agreed well with results for savanna fires in other tropical regions. The amount of biomass burned was estimated by modeling methods using available satellite data, and showed that 1999 was an above average year for savanna burning. The gross emissions of the trace gases from Australian savanna fires were estimated.

Shirai, T.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Russell-Smith, J.; Edwards, A.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Nishi, N.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

2003-02-01

71

Cost effectiveness of introducing a new European evaporative emissions test procedure for petrol vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle's fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The paper concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 h and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.

Haq, Gary; Martini, Giorgio; Mellios, Giorgos

2014-10-01

72

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from desert vegetation of the southwestern US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen common plant species in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the western US were tested for emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Only two of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates of 10 ?g C g -1 h -1or greater. These species accounted for <10% of the estimated vegetative biomass in these arid regions of low biomass density, indicating that these ecosystems are not likely a strong source of isoprene. However, isoprene emissions from these species continued to increase at much higher leaf temperatures than is observed from species in other ecosystems. Five species, including members of the Ambrosia genus, emitted monoterpenes at rates exceeding 2 ?g C g -1 h -1. Emissions of oxygenated compounds, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone/propanal, and hexanol, from cut branches of several species exceeded 10 ?g C g -1 h -1, warranting further investigation in these ecosystems. Model extrapolation of isoprene emission measurements verifies recently published observations that desert vegetation is a small source of isoprene relative to forests. Annual and daily total model isoprene emission estimates from an eastern US mixed forest landscape were 10-30 times greater than isoprene emissions estimated from the Mojave site. Monoterpene (and possibly oxygenated terpene and sesquiterpene) emissions may be more comparable, as annual forest terpene emission model estimates were 3-8 times greater than those from the Mojave Desert, and were within a factor of 2 for peak summertime fluxes. Primary productivity and leaf biomass of desert ecosystems are very dependent on annual precipitation, and our model results indicate that there can be at least a three-fold difference in total annual BVOC emissions between dry and wet years. We recommend additional studies of desert plant BVOC emissions, especially those that focus on sesquiterpenes, oxygenated compounds, and the effects of soil moisture, temperature, humidity, and seasonality. Landscape flux studies are needed to test BVOC model estimates and to verify BVOC influences on regional atmospheric chemistry.

Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Karl, Thomas; Rasmussen, Rei

73

Emissions of non-methane organic compounds from a grassland site  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons (OxHCs), isoprene, and monoterpenes was detected in the emissions from a grassland site in the Midwestern United States. A plot dominated by crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and bluegrass (Poa spp.), exhibited a constant decrease in emissions of total non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) from 580 {mu}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} in June 1992 to 150 {mu}g m{sup - 2} hr{sup -1} in October 1992, except for a slight increase in August. Oxygenated hydrocarbons (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and terpenes (isoprene, limonene, myrcene, {alpha}-pinene, and {beta}- pinene) composed about 90% and 10% of the identified NMOC emissions, respectively. Isoprene represented about 10% of the terpene emissions. Total NMOC emission rates based on vegetative biomass averaged 2.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} hr{sup -1}, with 10% of the identified NMOCs attributed to monoterpenes and the remainder mainly OxHCs. Over the course of the investigation, the relationship between the monoterpene emission rate and the temperature for a single plot was logarithmic and similar to the one between compound vapor pressure and temperature. However, emission rates normalized to temperature decreased throughout the summer and fall, indicating that parameterizations of emission rates from herbaceous plants must include a factor to compensate for environmental conditions such as soil moisture and nutrient deposition, which affect plant phenology and the seasonal pattern of species dominance.

Fukui, Yoshiko; Doskey, P.V.

1996-03-01

74

Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 ?g g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 ?g g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

2011-08-01

75

Variation among different genotypes of hybrid poplar with regard to leaf volatile organic compound emissions.  

PubMed

Plantations of hybrid poplar are used in temperate regions to produce woody biomass for forestry-related industries and are likely to become more prevalent if they are used as a source of cellulose for second-generation biofuels. Species in the genus Populus are known to emit great quantities of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isoprene and methanol, and lesser quantities of terpene VOCs, giving poplar plantations the potential to significantly influence regional atmospheric chemistry. The goals of this study were to quantify the differences in isoprene, methanol, and monoterpene emissions from 30 hybrid poplar genotypes, determine how well VOC emissions could be explained by growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance, determine whether the parental crosses that created a genotype could be used to predict its emissions, and determine whether VOC emissions from different genotypes exhibit different responses to elevated CO2. We found that 40-50% of the variation in isoprene emissions across genotypes could be explained by a combination of instantaneous photosynthesis rate and seasonal aboveground growth and 30-35% of methanol emissions could be explained by stomatal conductance. We observed a threefold range in isoprene emissions across all 30 genotypes. Both genotype and parental cross were significant predictors of isoprene and monoterpene emissions. Genotypes from P. tricocarpa X P. deltoides (T x D) crosses generally had higher isoprene emissions and lower monoterpene emissions than those from P. deltoides x P. nigra (D x N) crosses. While isoprene and monoterpene emissions generally decreased under elevated CO2 and methanol emissions generally increased, the responses varied among genotypes. Our findings suggest that genotypes with greater productivity tend to have higher isoprene emissions. Additionally, the genotypes with the lowest isoprene emissions under current CO2 are not necessarily the ones with the lowest emissions under elevated CO2. PMID:23210305

Eller, Allyson S D; de Gouw, Joost; Graus, Martin; Monson, Russell K

2012-10-01

76

NATURAL EMISSIONS OF NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, CARBON MONOXIDE, AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN FROM NORTH AMERICA. (R825259)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are responsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile o...

77

Compilation of a database on the composition of anthropogenic VOC emissions for atmospheric modeling in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyse and generate air pollution control strategies and policies, e.g. efficient abatement strategies or action plans that lead to a fulfilment of air quality aims, atmospheric dispersion models (CTMs) have to be used. These models include a chemical model, where the numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species are lumped together in classes. On the other hand, emission inventories usually report only total non-methane VOC (NMVOC), but not a subdivision into these classes. Thus, VOC species profiles are needed that resolve total NMVOC emission data. The objective of this publication is to present the results of a compilation of VOC species profiles that dissolve total VOC into single-species profiles for all relevant anthropogenic emission source categories and the European situation. As in atmospheric dispersion models usually modules for generating biogenic emissions are directly included, only anthropogenic emissions are addressed. VOC species profiles for 87 emission source categories have been developed. The underlying data base can be used to generate the data for all chemical mechanisms. The species profiles have been generated using recent measurements and studies on VOC species resolution and thus represent the current state of knowledge in this area. The results can be used to create input data for atmospheric dispersion models in Europe. The profiles, especially those for solvent use, still show large uncertainties. There is still an enormous need for further measurements to achieve an improved species resolution. In addition, the solvent use directive and the DECOPAINT directive of the European Commission will result in a change of the composition of paints; more water-based and high-solid paints will be used; thus the species resolution will change drastically in the next years. Of course, the species resolution for combustion and production processes also requires further improvement.

Theloke, J.; Friedrich, R.

78

The contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles to the volatile organic compound inventory in Mexico City.  

PubMed

The strategy for decreasing volatile organic compound emissions in Mexico has been focused much more on tailpipe emissions than on evaporative emissions, so there is very little information on the contribution of evaporative emissions to the total volatile organic compound inventory. We examined the magnitudes of exhaust and evaporative volatile organic compound emissions, and the species emitted, in a representative fleet of light-duty gasoline vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The US "FTP-75" test protocol was used to estimate volatile organic compound emissions associated with diurnal evaporative losses, and when the engine is started and a journey begins. The amount and nature of the volatile organic compounds emitted under these conditions have not previously been accounted in the official inventory of the area. Evaporative emissions from light-duty vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were estimated to be 39 % of the total annual amount of hydrocarbons emitted. Vehicles built before 1992 (16 % of the fleet) were found to be responsible for 43 % of the total hydrocarbon emissions from exhausts and 31 % of the evaporative emissions of organic compounds. The relatively high amounts of volatile organic compounds emitted from older vehicles found in this study show that strong emission controls need to be implemented in order to decrease the contribution of evaporative emissions of this fraction of the fleet. PMID:24526614

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; González-Macías, C

2014-06-01

79

Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As volatile organic compounds (VOCs) significantly affect atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects), emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic VOC emission strengths are important. The aim of this work was to achieve a description of VOC emissions from poorly described tropical vegetation to be compared with the quite well investigated and highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. For this task, common plant species of both ecosystems were investigated. Sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area, which is known for its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species, were chosen. In contrast, little information is currently available regarding emissions of VOCs from tropical tree species at the leaf level. Twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin, i.e. Terra firme, Várzea and Igapó, were screened for emission of VOCs at leaf level with a branch enclosure system. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was quantitatively the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (?-pinene > limonene > sabinene > ?-pinene). Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes, whereas in the case of plants from the Amazon region no sesquiterpenes were detected probably due to a lack of sensitivity in the measuring systems. On the other hand methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions including reactive VOC species which are not easily detected by flux measurements, give reason to perform more screening at leaf level and, whenever possible, within the forests under ambient conditions.

Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

2012-11-01

80

Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

2013-02-01

81

Microbial community related to volatile organic compound (VOC) emission in household biowaste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Malodorous emissions and potentially pathogenic microorganisms which develop during domestic organic waste collection are not only a nuisance but may also pose health risks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of spe- cific microorganisms in biowastes is directly related to the composition of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The succession of microbial

Sabine Mayrhofer; Tomas Mikoviny; Sebastian Waldhuber; Andreas O. Wagner; Gerd Innerebner; Ingrid H. Franke-Whittle; Tilman D. Märk; Armin Hansel; Heribert Insam

2006-01-01

82

EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DRUM-MIX ASPHALT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was undertaken in order to develop a quantitative estimate of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from drum-mix asphalt plants. The study was carried out by field sampling of five drum-mix plants under a variety of operating conditions. Include...

83

GASEOUS HC1 AND CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM REFUSE FIRED WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from a water wall mass fired municipal waste incinerator and a refuse derived fuel (RDF) fired incinerator were sampled for chlorinated organic compounds and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The sampling was performed to evaluate the extractive sampling methods used to meas...

84

EMISSIONS OF DIOXINS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS FROM COMBUSTION AND INCINERATION SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans was prepared as a contribution to the Pilot Study on International Information Exchange on Dioxins and Related Compounds. he report describes the state of the art with respect to combustion and th...

85

Emission Characteristics and Factors of Selected Odorous Compounds at a Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

This study was initiated to explore the emission characteristics of Reduced Sulfur Compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide), ammonia and trimethylamine from a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at Sun-Cheon, Chonlanam-Do in South Korea. The study also evaluates flux profiles of the six selected odorous compounds and their flux rates (?g/m2/min) and compares their emission characteristics. A Dynamic Flux Chamber DFC was used to measure fluxes of pollutants from the treatment plant. Quality control of odor samples using a non-reactive sulfur dioxide gas determined the time taken for DFC concentration to reach equilibrium. The reduced sulfur compounds were analyzed by interfacing gas chromatography with a Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector (PFPD). Air samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on one day during summer (August) and two days in winter (December and January). Their emission rates were determined and it was observed that during summer relatively higher amounts of the selected odorous compounds were emitted compared to winter. Air samples from primary settling basin, aeration basin, and final settling basin were tested and the total amount of selected odorous compounds emitted per wastewater ton was found to be 1344 ?g/m3 from the selected treatment processes. It was also observed that, in this study, the dominant odor intensity contribution was caused by dimethyl disulfide (69.1%). PMID:22389601

Jeon, Eui-Chan; Son, Hyun-Keun; Sa, Jae-Hwan

2009-01-01

86

Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions  

SciTech Connect

Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.

Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

1999-07-01

87

Volatile compounds emission from canopy fine litterfall in a hemiboreal mixed forest at Järvselja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal distribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from canopy fine litterfall was investigated over a period of two years. Three stands of a hemiboreal mixed forest were studied. The stands presented different dominant tree species: (1) Norway spruce, (2) Scots pine, and (3) Silver birch and Downy birch. The litterfall was monthly collected in litter traps. The BVOC emission of litter was sampled by placing the litter into a glass jar equipped with a vent tube and pumping the head space air through a VOC adsorbing tube (carbotrap). Adsorbed BVOCs were analyzed in a GC-MS. Fifteen compounds were quantified. Seasonal differences in the total emission of BVOCs were found, defined by a maximum in summer and a minimum in autumn and winter. During summer months, litter emissions were dominated by limonene, ?-pinene, camphene and 3-carene in the three litter types, accounting for 70-75 % of total BVOC emitted in June. 3-Carene, ?-pinene and ?-pinene were the main compounds emitted during winter time, accounting for 50-60 % of total BVOC emitted in January. Stand to stand differences were assessed. The spruce and birch dominated stands showed more similarities in their BVOC emission pattern if compared to the pine dominated stand. Together with the litterfall data, an estimation of the annual total BVOC emitted by the soil litter layer is presented for each stand type.

Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Noe, Beate; Noe, Steffen M.

2013-04-01

88

Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (?-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene). Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions, including reactive VOC species which are not easily detected by flux measurements, give reason to perform more screening at leaf level and, whenever possible, within the forests under ambient conditions.

Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

2013-09-01

89

Effects of nonmethane volatile organic compounds on microbial community of methanotrophic biofilter.  

PubMed

Effects of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) on methanotrophic biofilter were investigated. Laboratory-scale biofilters packed with pumice and granular-activated carbon (10:1, w/w) were operated with CH4 and NMVOCs including dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and benzene/toluene (B/T). DMS alone exhibited a positive effect on the methanotrophic performance; however, the coexistence of B/T removed this effect. B/T alone exerted no effect on the performance. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that the NMVOCs strongly influenced the bacterial and methanotrophic communities but not the population density of methanotrophs. DMS alone diversified and changed both bacterial and methantrophic communities, but its effects were nullified by the presence of B/T. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed significant correlations between the NMVOCs and community composition and significant interaction between DMS and B/T. DMS did not affect the distribution of types I/II methanotrophs (60/40), while B/T increased the abundance of type I to 82 %. DMS and B/T favored the growth of the methanotrophic bacteria Methylosarcina and Methylomonas, respectively. These results suggest that NMVOCs can be a significant abiotic factor influencing methane biofiltration. PMID:23053093

Kim, Tae Gwan; Lee, Eun-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

2013-07-01

90

[Study on volatile organic compounds emission of straw combustion and management countermeasure in Wuhan city].  

PubMed

Straw combustion is an important anthropogenic source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. Emissions of VOCs from straw combustion significantly affect climate forcing and human health. A reliable estimation of VOCs emission from the source is the important prerequisite for emission impact assessment and control strategy in the urban or regional areas. VOCs emissions from straw combustion in Wuhan City and the districts were estimated by factor analysis method, which was based on the yield of major farm crops in the period of 2005-2011. Moreover, Cultivated-land Emission Intensity (Ie) and Regional Emission Intensity (Ir) were also calculated. VOCs Emissions from straw combustion in Wuhan City were (3,163 +/- 139) t in the period of 2005-2011; Ie and Ir was (1.52 +/- 0.06) t x km(-2) and (0.37 +/- 0.02) t x km(-2), respectively; Straw combustion of grain and oilseed crops was the main source of the emissions; 21 kinds of VOCs should be listed as the priority control pollutants for straw combustion in Wuhan City. The order of successively decreasing VOCs emission of districts in Wuhan City was Huangpi District, Xinzhou District, Jiangxia District, Caidian District, Hannan District, and Dongxihu District, the former 4 districts contributed to almost 90% VOCs emissions of the Wuhan City. Huangpi District, Xinzhou District, Jiangxia District, and Hannan District should be regarded as priority control areas of VOCs emission from straw combustion in Wuhan City. Much attention should be paid to Jiangxia District, which was nationally representative. Ie and Ir are important basic data for ecological risk assessment of some kind of pollutants emitted from straw combustion in the urban or regional areas. Furthermore, straw utilization model according to agricultural cyclic economy is a feasible way to cope with the environmental problem of straw combustion. PMID:24640888

Huang, Bi-Jie

2013-12-01

91

Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-median midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 14.1±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h, respectively. For comparison the adjusted CAM2004 emission inventory estimates toluene fluxes of 10 mg/m2/h along the footprint of the flight-track. Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10-15 g/g) including the International airport (e.g. 3-5 g/g) and a mean flux (concentration) ratio of 3.2±0.5 g/g (3.9±0.3 g/g) across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (BTEX- Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m, p, o-Xylenes) compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN), we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >87% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds in the MCMA (2-13%).

Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D.; Blake, D. R.; Wiedinmyer, C.

2009-01-01

92

Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-average midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 15.5±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h respectively. These values argue for an underestimation of toluene and benzene emissions in current inventories used for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10 15) including the International airport (e.g. 3 5) and a mean flux (concentration) ratio of 3.2±0.5 (3.9±0.3) across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m,p,o-Xylenes) compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN), we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >90% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds (0 10%) in the MCMA.

Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D.; Blake, D.; Wiedinmyer, C.

2008-07-01

93

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus ilex L. measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry under different environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) were investigated using a fast Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instrument for analysis. This technique is able to measure compounds with a proton affinity higher than water with a high time resolution of 1 s per compound. Hence nearly all VOCs can be detected on-line. We

R. Holzinger; L. Sandoval-Soto; S. Rottenberger; P. J. Crutzen; J. Kesselmeier

2000-01-01

94

Plant specific volatile organic compound emission factors from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial vegetation is the most important source of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) with significant influence on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. VOCs influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols affecting cloud development and precipitation. The aim of our study was to investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves for nine typical Mediterranean plant species. The Mediterranean area was chosen due to its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species. Foliar isoprenoid emissions as well as emissions of oxygenated VOC like methanol and acetone were measured under standard light and temperature conditions during spring and summer 2008 at the CEFE-CNRS institute in Montpellier, France. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online measurement of VOCs. While PTR-MS is an excellent technique for fast chemical measurements it lacks specificity and compounds with the same mass cannot be distinguished. For this reason, cartridge samples were collected and afterwards analyzed with GC-FID. In parallel offline VOC analyses were performed with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector, enabling assignment of the observed PTR-MS mass to charge ratios (m/z) to specific identification based on the GC-FID retention times. Thus, combining the PTR-MS and GC-FID analyses enabled accurate and online identification of the VOCs emitted. The results emphasise that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced not only the standard emission rate but also the VOC composition, with methanol being the major compound that contributes to the total VOC emissions in young leaves and maintaining or decreasing its contribution with maturity.

Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

2010-05-01

95

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rates From Urban Vegetation in Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the country of China is growing economically at an extraordinary pace. With this growth comes an increase in emissions of anthropogenic pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from factories and vehicles. To accurately determine the effects of these pollutants on regional ozone production, and to best determine mitigation strategies, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions must be considered in regional atmospheric chemistry models. To date, few studies have been carried out to determine BVOC emission factors for plant species that occur in China. Considering that approximately 20% of the world's population resides in this region, it is important to develop accurate databases for BVOC emissions for the country of China. This experiment took place during May and June of 2005 and was based in the Fairy Lake Botanical Gardens (FLBG) located to the northeast of the city of Shenzhen. The city of Shenzhen is located in southeast China in Guangdong province. The city was designated a 'special economic zone' in 1980 and has experienced intense population and economic growth ever since. The dense city is surrounded by hilly rural areas of forest on three sides, and Hong Kong to the south. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate emissions of BVOC from plants that are important to the Shenzhen region as well as to southeastern China. Over 150 species of plants were screened for emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes. These species include most of the dominant trees and shrubs planted in the Shenzhen area. Samples were collected at the FLBG as well as at various locations around the city of Shenzhen. BVOC emission samples were collected and analyzed in one of two ways. First, a Teflon enclosure was placed over a plant's branch with a constant flow of ambient air passing through the enclosure. Samples were then pumped into a Teflon bag for analysis. Samples were analyzed within 30 minutes by gas chromatography (GC) with either a photo ionization or flame ionization detector. Second, single plant leaves were placed into a light and temperature controlled leaf cuvette. Scrubbed air was passed through the cuvette, and was then collected on adsorbent cartridges for later analysis. Sample cartridges were returned to the US and analyzed by GC with a mass spectrometry for detection and identification of compounds. Results indicate a wide range of emissions for isoprene and monoterpenes. The observed emissions are compared with previous studies and taxonomic relationships are described. The emission rate measurements will be combined with detailed satellite-based landcover distribution database and used to characterize regional biogenic VOC emissions. In addition, the results of the emission survey will be used to identify low emitting plants that can be recommended for planting in subtropical urban areas.

Baker, B.; Graessli, M.; Bai, J.; Huang, A.; Li, N.; Guenther, A.

2005-12-01

96

Control of volatile organic compound emissions from batch processes. Alternative control techniques information document. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide information on alternative control techniques for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from batch operations. Although the control techniques information applies to batch processing in all industries, the document focuses primarily on batch processes in the following six industries: plastic materials and resins (described by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code 2821), pharmaceuticals (SIC 2833 and 2834), gum and wood chemicals (SIC 2861), cyclic crudes and intermediates (SIC 2865), industrial organic chemicals (2869), and agricultural chemicals (SIC 2879). The document contains information on emissions, controls, control options, and costs that States can use in developing rules based on reasonably available control technology.

Not Available

1994-02-01

97

Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions  

SciTech Connect

A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2006-06-01

98

Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 ?gC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 ?gC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 ?gC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC flowering period floral emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these tree species, some of which are leafless at this time. Experimental results were integrated into the MEGAN biogenic emission model and simulations were performed to estimate the contribution of floral BVOC emissions to the total urban BVOC flux during the spring flowering period. The floral BVOC emitted during this three-month simulation are equivalent to 11% of the integrated monoterpene flux for the Boulder urban area.

Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

2012-10-01

99

An improved model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds from forests in the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important inputs for models of atmospheric chemistry and carbon budgets. Since forests are the primary emitters of BVOCs, it is important to develop reliable estimates of their areal coverage and BVOC emission rate. A new system is developed to estimate these emissions for specific tree genera at hourly and county

Christopher D. Geron; Alex B. Guenther; Thomas E. Pierce

1994-01-01

100

Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds from gorse (Ulex europaeus): Diurnal emission fluxes at Kelling Heath, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission fluxes from Gorse (Ulex europaeus) were measured during May 30-31, 1995 at Kelling Heath in eastern England by using bag enclosure and gradient methods simultaneously. The enclosure measurements were made from branches at different stages of physiological development (flowering, after flowering, and mixed). Isoprene was found to represent 90% of the total VOC emissions, and its emission rates fluctuated from 6 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 in the early morning to about 9700 ng(g dwt)-1 h-1 at midday. Averaged emission rates standardized to 20°C were 1625, 2120, and 3700 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 for the new grown, "mixed," and flowering branch, respectively. Trans-ocimene and ?-pinene were the main monoterpenes emitted and represented, on average, 47.6% and 36.9% of the total monoterpenes. Other monoterpenes, camphene, sabinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, limonene and ?-terpinene, were positively identified but together represented less than 1.5% of the total VOC emissions from gorse. Maximum isoprene concentrations in air at the site were measured around midday at 2 m (174 parts per trillion by volume, or pptv) and 6 m (149 pptv), and minimum concentrations were measured during the night (8 pptv at both heights). Mean daytime ?-pinene air concentrations of 141 and 60 pptv at 2 and 6 m height were determined, but trans-ocimene concentrations were less than the analytical detection limit (4 pptv), suggesting rapid chemical removal of this compound from air. The isoprene fluxes calculated by the micrometeorological gradient method showed a pattern similar to that of those calculated by the enclosure method, with isoprene emission rates maximum at midday (100 ?g m-2 h-1) and not detectable during the nighttime. Assessment of the fraction of the site covered by gorse plants enabled an extrapolation of emission fluxes from the enclosure measurements. When averaged over the 2 day experiment, isoprene fluxes of 29.8 and 27.8 ?g m-2 h-1 were obtained from the gradient and the enclosure extrapolation respectively. These isoprene fluxes to the atmosphere represented between 0.12% and 0.35% of the net assimilated carbon (as CO2) uptake rate for gorse.

Cao, X.-L.; Boissard, C.; Juan, A. J.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

1997-08-01

101

Emission of volatile organic compounds after land application of cattle manure.  

PubMed

Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable source of nutrients for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after land application may pose an odor nuisance to downwind populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of land application method, diet, soil moisture content, and time since manure application on VOC emissions. Manure was collected from feedlot pens where cattle were fed diets containing 0, 10, or 30% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). Land application methods included surface-applying manure (i.e., no-tillage) or incorporating manure using disk tillage. The effects of soil moisture content on VOC emissions was determined by adding water to each of the plots approximately 24 h after manure application. Isovaleric acid, butyric acid, and 4-methylphenol contributed 28.9, 18.0, and 17.7%, respectively, of the total measured odor activity values. In general, the largest emissions of volatile fatty acids and aromatics were measured during the initial collection periods on the no-tillage plots under dry soil moisture conditions. Emissions of volatile fatty acids and aromatics were reduced after water additions because these compounds were stored in the soil-water matrix rather than released into the atmosphere. In contrast, sulfide emissions generally increased with the addition of the water, especially on the plots containing manure from the 30% WDGS diet. Sulfur content of manure increases with higher percentages of WDGS feed stock. Application method, diet, soil moisture content, and time since application should be considered when estimating VOC emissions. PMID:25603069

Woodbury, Bryan L; Gilley, John E; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Eigenberg, Roger A

2014-07-01

102

Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the following trees: crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the total street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were subsequently analyzed for C10 - C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions were found to increase with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30oC) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were 4.3 fold higher during flowering (5.26 ?gC g-1h-1) than after flowering (1.23 ?gC g-1h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 ?gC g-1h-1) during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these tree species, some of which are leafless at this time. These experimental results were integrated into the MEGAN biogenic emission model and simulations were performed to estimate the contribution of floral BVOC emissions to the total urban BVOC flux during the spring flowering period. The floral BVOC emitted during this three-month simulation constitute eleven percent of the cumulative monoterpene flux for the Boulder urban area.

Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

2012-04-01

103

Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust, and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65 % of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.26 ?g Cg-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.23 ?g Cg-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 ?g Cg-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these tree species, some of which are leafless at this time. Experimental results were integrated into the MEGAN biogenic emission model and simulations were performed to estimate the contribution of floral BVOC emissions to the total urban BVOC flux during the spring flowering period. The floral BVOC emitted during this three-month simulation are equivalent to 11 % of the cumulative monoterpene flux for the Boulder urban area.

Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

2012-03-01

104

Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States is computed and then used to illustrate the extent to which wood smoke composition differs from region to region in North America.

Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

2002-11-01

105

Variation in biogenic volatile organic compound emission pattern of Fagus sylvatica L. due to aphid infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been the focus of interest to understand atmospheric processes and their consequences in formation of ozone or aerosol particles; therefore, VOCs contribute to climate change. In this study, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) emitted from Fagus sylvatica L. trees were measured in a dynamic enclosure system. In total 18 compounds were identified: 11 monoterpenes (MT), an oxygenated MT, a homoterpene (C 14H 18), 3 sesquiterpenes (SQT), isoprene and methyl salicylate. The frequency distribution of the compounds was tested to determine a relation with the presence of the aphid Phyllaphis fagi L. It was found that linalool, (E)-?-ocimene, ?-farnesene and a homoterpene identified as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), were present in significantly more samples when infection was present on the trees. The observed emission spectrum from F. sylvatica L. shifted from MT to linalool, ?-farnesene, (E)-?-ocimene and DMNT due to the aphid infection. Sabinene was quantitatively the most prevalent compound in both, non-infected and infected samples. In the presence of aphids ?-farnesene and linalool became the second and third most important BVOC emitted. According to our investigation, the emission fingerprint is expected to be more complex than commonly presumed.

Joó, É.; Van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.

2010-01-01

106

Emission rates of selected volatile organic compounds from skin of healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC–MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction as pre-concentration method (SPME) was applied to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human skin. A total of 64 C4-C10 compounds were quantified in skin emanation of 31 healthy volunteers. Amongst them aldehydes and hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical families with eighteen and seventeen species, respectively. Apart from these, there were eight ketones, six heterocyclic compounds, six terpenes, four esters, two alcohols, two volatile sulphur compounds, and one nitrile. The observed median emission rates ranged from 0.55 to 4790 fmol cm?2 min?1. Within this set of analytes three volatiles; acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and acetaldehyde exhibited especially high emission rates exceeding 100 fmol cm?2 min?1. Thirty-three volatiles were highly present in skin emanation with incidence rates over 80%. These species can be considered as potential markers of human presence, which could be used for early location of entrapped victims during Urban Search and Rescue Operations (USaR). PMID:24768920

Mochalski, Pawe?; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

2014-01-01

107

Emission rates of selected volatile organic compounds from skin of healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction as pre-concentration method (SPME) was applied to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human skin. A total of 64 C4-C10 compounds were quantified in skin emanation of 31 healthy volunteers. Amongst them aldehydes and hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical families with eighteen and seventeen species, respectively. Apart from these, there were eight ketones, six heterocyclic compounds, six terpenes, four esters, two alcohols, two volatile sulphur compounds, and one nitrile. The observed median emission rates ranged from 0.55 to 4,790 fmol cm(-2)min(-1). Within this set of analytes three volatiles; acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and acetaldehyde exhibited especially high emission rates exceeding 100 fmol cm(-2)min(-1). Thirty-three volatiles were highly present in skin emanation with incidence rates over 80%. These species can be considered as potential markers of human presence, which could be used for early location of entrapped victims during Urban Search and Rescue Operations (USaR). PMID:24768920

Mochalski, Pawe?; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

2014-05-15

108

Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

2015-01-01

109

Emission characteristics of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds in cow dung combustion.  

PubMed

Biomass fuel is used for cooking and heating, especially in developing countries. Combustion of biomass fuel can generate high levels of indoor air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study characterized PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion in a controlled experiment. Dung from grass-fed cows was dried and combusted using a dual-cone calorimeter. Heat fluxes of 10, 25, and 50 kW/m(2) were applied. The concentrations of PM and VOCs were determined using a dust spectrometer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. PM and VOC emission factors were much higher for the lower heat flux, implying a fire ignition stage. When the heat flux was 50 kW/m(2), the CO2 emission factor was highest and the PM and VOC emission factors were lowest. Particle concentrations were highest in the 0.23-0.3 ?m size range at heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m(2). Various toxic VOCs, including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, and toluene, were detected at high concentrations. Although PM and VOC emission factors at 50 kW/m(2) were lower, they were high enough to cause extremely high indoor air pollution. The characteristics of PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion indicated potential health effects of indoor air pollution in developing countries. PMID:24180364

Park, Duckshin; Barabad, Mona L; Lee, Gwangjae; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Cho, Youngmin; Lee, Duckhee; Cho, Kichul; Lee, Kiyoung

2013-11-19

110

Volatile organic compound emissions from switchgrass cultivars used as biofuel crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates during the growth and simulated harvest phases were determined for switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum) using laboratory chamber measurements. Switchgrass is a candidate for use in second-generation (cellulosic) biofuel production and the acreage dedicated to its growth in the USA has already increased during the past decade. We estimate that the yearly emissions from switchgrass plantations, including both the growth and harvest phases will be on the order of 3 kg C ha -1 methanol, 1 kg C ha -1 acetaldehyde, 1 kg C ha -1 acetone, 0.9 kg C ha -1 monoterpenes, 0.5 kg C ha -1 isoprene + another compound, most likely 1-penten-3-ol, 0.2 kg C ha -1 hexenals, and 0.1 kg C ha -1 hexenols. These emission rates are much lower than those expected from Eucalyptus or poplar plantations, which are other potential biofuel crops and have significantly higher VOC emissions, suggesting that the choice of species in the production of biofuels could have serious implications for regional air quality.

Eller, A. S. D.; Sekimoto, K.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Monson, R. K.; Graus, M.; Crespo, E.; Warneke, C.; Fall, R.

2011-06-01

111

Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW).  

PubMed

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15-80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS2) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4-7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O2 concentration (p<0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg(-1) (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H2S was the most abundant compound with 39.0-43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%. PMID:23312132

Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

2013-04-01

112

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from hybrid poplar depend on CO2 concentration and genotype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid poplar is a fast-growing tree species that is likely to be an important source of biomass for the production of cellulose-based biofuels and may influence regional atmospheric chemistry through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We used proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry to measure VOC emissions from the leaves of four different hybrid poplar genotypes grown under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (650 ppm) carbon dioxide concentration (CO2). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether VOC emissions are different among genotypes and whether these emissions are likely to change as atmospheric CO2 rises. Methanol and isoprene made up over 90% of the VOC emissions and were strongly dependent on leaf age, with young leaves producing primarily methanol and switching to isoprene production as they matured. Monoterpene emissions were small, but tended to be higher in young leaves. Plants grown under elevated CO2 emitted smaller quantities of both methanol and isoprene, but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on genotype. Isoprene emission rates from mature leaves dropped from ~35 to ~28 nmol m-2 s-1 when plants were grown under elevated CO2. Emissions from individuals grown under ambient CO2 varied more based on genotype than those grown under elevated CO2, which means that we might expect smaller differences between genotypes in the future. Genotype and CO2 also affected how much carbon (C) individuals allocated to the production of VOCs. The emission rate of C from VOCs was 0.5 - 2% of the rate at which C was assimilated via net photosynthesis. The % C emitted was strongly related to genotype; clones from crosses between Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa (T x D) allocated a greater % of their C to VOC emissions than clones from crosses of P. deltoids and P. nigra (D x N). Individuals from all four genotypes allocated a smaller % of their C to the emission of VOCs when they were grown under elevated CO2. These results illustrate that even in closely related individuals there are inherent differences in VOC emissions that are not due to simple differences in metabolic rates and that elevated CO2 reduces these inherent differences. Even though VOC rates were lower under elevated CO2 they were still much higher than emissions reported for switchgrass, another biofuel species, which means that future regional air quality around biofuel plantations will be influenced by the choice of biofuel species.

Eller, A. S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Monson, R. K.

2010-12-01

113

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from cut grass and clover are enhanced during the drying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by drying grass and clover leaves and stems was studied in the laboratory using proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, which enables the simultaneous, on-line monitoring of VOC concentrations. A burst of VOC emissions due to cutting the leaves and stems was followed by a second, more intense emission lasting for several hours when the vegetation was starting to dry out. In addition to (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and hexenyl acetate, that were emitted by the plant tissue in response to the wounding, enhanced emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, and possibly formaldehyde were observed. These findings may have important implications for regional air quality in agricultural and urban areas.

de Gouw, Joost A.; Howard, Carleton J.; Custer, Thomas G.; Fall, Ray

114

Investigating Sources and Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds in California's San Joaquin Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are regulated both as primary air pollutants and as precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol and tropospheric ozone. The San Joaquin Valley, a non-attainment area for ozone and PM2.5, contains a variety of point, area, and mobile VOC sources that contribute to both primary and secondary pollution. Using ambient measurements of over 100 different VOCs and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOCs) made at multiple field sites, we assess the magnitude and importance of various VOC sources in the San Joaquin Valley. Hourly measurements were made during the spring and summer of 2010 via in-situ gas chromatography in Bakersfield, CA as part of the CalNex experiment and also at a rural site located 100 km north of Bakersfield. Additionally, in-situ measurements of fresh motor vehicle exhaust were made in Oakland's Caldecott tunnel during the summer of 2010. Measurements include a broad array of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs ranging in size from 1 to 17 carbon atoms, including many compounds with functional groups or substituents (e.g. aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, halogens, sulfur, & nitrogen). Using statistical methods of source apportionment, covariance, source receptor modeling, and air parcel back trajectories, we assess the impact of various sources on observed VOC concentrations at our field sites in the San Joaquin Valley. Prevalent sources include gasoline and diesel-vehicle exhaust, petroleum extraction/refining, biogenic emissions from agricultural crops and natural vegetation, and emissions from dairy operations and animal husbandry. We use measurements of fresh motor vehicle emissions from the Caldecott tunnel to constrain apportionment of gasoline and diesel-related VOCs and IVOCs in the San Joaquin Valley. Initial results from Bakersfield show substantial influence from local anthropogenic VOC sources, but there is evidence for transport of emissions from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources elsewhere in the region. For example, large biogenic sources appear to be regional rather than local since concentrations of isoprene peak in the late afternoon/evening suggesting transport from northern parts of the valley. We observed elevated concentrations of numerous alcohols and carbonyls in the San Joaquin Valley; for example mixing ratios of ethanol and acetone at the Bakersfield supersite had inner quartile ranges of 1.2-9.4 ppbv and 0.58-1.6 ppbv, with daytime averages near 2 and 1 ppbv, respectively. Additionally, we assess the sources and emissions of the IVOCs observed in the San Joaquin Valley, which include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, large biogenic compounds, and high molecular weight alkanes and aromatics.

Gentner, D. R.; Harley, R. A.; Weber, R.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

2011-12-01

115

Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from material system (namely, substrate//glue//vinyl tile).

Bodalal, Awad Saad

116

Real-world emission factors of fifteen carbonyl compounds measured in a Hong Kong tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-world vehicle emissions of carbonyls were determined in summer and winter of 2003 at the Shing Mun Tunnel, Hong Kong. Fifteen carbonyl species have been analyzed in this study. The total measured carbonyls emission factors ranged from 21.7 to 68.9 mg veh -1 km -1 among different measurement periods, with an average of 35.8±11.9 mg veh -1 km -1. Higher carbonyl emissions were found to be associated with a high proportion of diesel-fueled vehicles. Total measured carbonyl emissions from Diesel-fueled Vehicle (DV, 71.5 mg veh -1 km -1) were about 7 times higher than those from Non-Diesel-fueled Vehicle (NDV, 10 mg veh -1 km -1). The five carbonyls with the largest DV emission factor were, in decreasing order, formaldehyde (38.3 mg veh -1 km -1), acetaldehyde (11.4 mg veh -1 km -1), acetone (5.3 mg veh -1 km -1), crotonaldehyde (5.2 mg veh -1 km -1) and benzaldehyde (2.0 mg veh -1 km -1). These five carbonyl compounds together accounted for 87% of the sum of all DV carbonyl emission factors. For NDV, the five most abundant carbonyls in NDV emission at the tunnel were, in decreasing order, formaldehyde (3.5 mg veh -1 km -1), acetone (1.8 mg veh -1 km -1), methyl ethyl ketone (1.6 mg veh -1 km -1), m,p-tolualdehyde (1.0 mg veh -1 km -1) and acetaldehyde (mg veh -1 km -1). They accounted for 85% of the sum of all NDV carbonyl emission factors.

Ho, K. F.; Sai Hang Ho, Steven; Cheng, Y.; Lee, S. C.; Zhen Yu, Jian

117

Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ?1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard compliance in downwind cities. A health risk assessment showed no increase in cancer or chronic non-cancer risk at locations near natural gas wells in Pennsylvania, but the contribution of natural gas emissions to total risk was 3-6 times higher near wells. These results will assist policy makers, natural gas producers, and citizen stakeholders in crafting effective policies to control VOC emissions from natural gas production activities.

Swarthout, Robert F.

118

Variable emissions of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) from root-associated fungi isolated from Scots pine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds. In natural ecosystems, measurements of microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) exchange rates between soil and atmosphere are difficult due to e.g. the spatial heterogeneity of the belowground organisms, and due to the many potential sources for the same compounds. We measured in laboratory conditions the MVOC emission rates and spectra of eight typical fungi occurring in boreal forest soils. The studied species are decomposers ( Gymnopilus penetrans, Ophiostoma abietinum), ectomycorrhizal ( Cenococcum geophilum, Piloderma olivaceum, Suillus variegatus, Tomentellopsis submollis) and endophytic fungi ( Meliniomyces variabilis, Phialocephala fortinii). The MVOC emissions contained altogether 21 known and 6 unidentified compounds whose emission rates were >0.1 ?g g(DW) -1 h -1. The most abundant compounds were the short-chain carbonyl compounds (acetone and acetaldehyde). The greatest carbonyl emissions were measured from P. olivaceum (1.9 mg acetone g(DW) -1 h -1) and P. fortinii (0.114 mg acetaldehyde g(DW) -1 h -1). Terpenoid emissions (isoprene, mono- and sesquiterpenes) were detected from some fungal cultures, but in relatively small amounts. We conclude that soil micro-organisms can potentially be responsible for significant emissions of volatiles, especially short-chain oxygenated compounds, to the below-canopy atmosphere.

Bäck, Jaana; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Hellén, Heidi; Kajos, Maija K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Taipale, Risto; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

2010-09-01

119

Emission of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) during aerobic decomposition of food wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food wastes collected from typical urban residential communities were investigated for the emission of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) during laboratory-controlled aerobic decomposition in an incubator for a period of 41 days. Emission of VOSCs from the food wastes totaled 409.9 mg kg -1 (dry weight), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methyl 2-propenyl disulfide, carbonyl sulfide and methyl 1-propenyl sulfide were the five most abundant VOSCs, with shares of 75.5%, 13.5%, 4.8%, 2.2% and 1.3% in total 15 VOSCs released, respectively. The emission fluxes of major VOSCs were very low at the beginning (day 0). They peaked at days 2-4 and then decreased sharply until they leveled off after 10 days of incubation. For most VOSCs, over 95% of their emission occurred in the first 10 days. The time series of VOSC emission fluxes, as well as their significant correlation with internal food waste temperature ( p < 0.05) during incubation, suggested that production of VOSC species was induced mainly by microbial activities during the aerobic decomposition instead of as inherited. Released VOSCs accounted for 5.3% of sulfur content in the food wastes, implying that during aerobic decomposition considerable portion of sulfur in food wastes would be released into the atmosphere as VOSCs, primarily as DMDS, which is very short-lived in the atmosphere and thus usually less considered in the sources and sinks of reduced sulfur gases.

Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming; Li, Dejun; Yi, Zhigang

2010-12-01

120

Semivolatile and volatile organic compound emissions from wood-fired hydronic heaters.  

PubMed

Emissions including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were sampled from different wood-fired hydronic heater (HH) technologies. Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage conventional combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood types (red oak, white pine, and white ash), one hardwood pellet brand, and one fuel mixture containing 95% red oak and 5% residential refuse by weight. The various HHs and fuel combinations were tested in a realistic homeowner fuel-charging scenario. Differences in emission levels were found between HH technologies and fuel types. PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.004 to 0.098 ng toxic equivalency/MJ(input) and PAHs from 0.49 to 54 mg/MJ(input). The former was increased by the presence of 5% by weight refuse. The white pine fuel had the highest PAH emission factor, while the bottom fed pellet burner had the lowest. The major VOCs emitted were benzene, acetylene, and propylene. The highest emissions of PAHs, VOCs, and PCDDs/PCDFs were observed with the conventional unit, likely due to the rapid changes in combustion conditions effected by the damper opening and closing. PMID:22765760

Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane; Oudejans, Lukas

2012-07-17

121

Volatile organic compound emissions from green waste composting: Characterization and ozone formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composting of green waste separated from the disposed solid waste stream reduces biodegradable inputs into landfills, and contributes valuable soil amendments to agriculture. Agencies in regions with severe air quality challenges, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), have raised concerns about gases emitted during the composting process, which are suspected to contribute to persistent high levels of ground-level ozone formation. The goal of the current study is to thoroughly characterize volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from green waste compost piles of different ages (fresh tipped piles, 3-6 day old windrows, and 2-3 week old windrows). Multiple sampling and analytical approaches were applied to ensure the detection of most gaseous organic components emitted. More than 100 VOCs were detected and quantified in this study, including aliphatic alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, biogenic organics, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans, acids, esters, ether, halogenated hydrocarbons and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Alcohols were found to be the dominating VOC in the emissions from a compost pile regardless of age, with fluxes ranging from 2.6 to 13.0 mg m -2 min -1 with the highest emissions coming from the younger composting windrows (3-6 days). Average VOC emissions other than alcohols were determined to be 2.3 mg m -2 min -1 from younger windows, which was roughly two times higher than either the fresh tipping pile (1.2 mg m -2 min -1) or the older windrows (1.4 mg m -2 min -1). It was also observed that the older windrows emit a slightly larger proportion of more reactive compounds. Approximately 90% of the total VOCs were found to have maximum incremental reactivity of less than 2. Net ozone formation potential of the emissions was also assessed.

Kumar, Anuj; Alaimo, Christopher P.; Horowitz, Robert; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Green, Peter G.

2011-04-01

122

PROJECTION METHODOLOGY FOR FUTURE STATE LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES (VERSION 1.8)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents the model framework used to estimate state level and national future volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and control costs for stationary industrial and utility sources. The framework involves a projection approach using the 1980 National Acid Precipitat...

123

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

E-print Network

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

Herndon, S. C.

124

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND LAND COVER CHANGE ON BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (BVOCS) EMISSIONS IN TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant amounts of vegetation and forests in eastern and central Texas are the source of substantial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which, when mixed with nitrogen oxides from anthropogenic sources, can lead to ozone formation. The biogenic emis...

125

The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

Kesselmeier, J.

2012-12-01

126

Emission of volatile organic compounds from religious and ritual activities in India.  

PubMed

Worshipping activity is a customary practice related with many religions and cultures in various Asian countries, including India. Smoke from incense burning in religious and ritual places produces a large number of health-damaging and carcinogenic air pollutants include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3 butadiene, styrene, etc. This study evaluates real-world VOCs emission conditions in contrast to other studies that examined emissions from specific types of incense or biomass material. Sampling was conducted at four different religious places in Raipur City, District Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India: (1) Hindu temples, (2) Muslim graveyards (holy shrines), (3) Buddhist temples, and (4) marriage ceremony. Concentrations of selected VOCs, respirable particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter, <5 ?m), carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide were sampled from the smoke plumes. Benzene has shown highest emission factor (EF) among selected volatile organic compounds in all places. All the selected religious and ritual venues have shown different pattern of VOC EFs compared to laboratory-based controlled chamber studies. PMID:23709262

Dewangan, Shippi; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Zielinska, Barbara; Pervez, Shamsh

2013-11-01

127

Deposition of vanadium carbide thin films using compound target sputtering and their field emission  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium carbide (VC) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by direct sputtering of a VC target in an argon atmosphere. The structure, composition, and electrical properties of the films were investigated as functions of deposition conditions. The crystallographic structure of the film was strongly related to the argon pressure. VC films with (111) preferred orientation were formed at 2.0 Pa regardless of the substrate temperature examined, while amorphous films were obtained at the lowest pressure of 0.5 Pa. It was shown that carbon segregation within the film was difficult to avoid, but could be suppressed to some degree. To make a full understanding of the compositional variation in compound target sputtering process, deposition of chromium carbide thin films was also performed. Some common mechanisms involved in compound target sputtering process were discussed. Field emission measurements revealed that the VC film is a good electron emitter.

Liao, M.Y.; Gotoh, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Ishikawa, J. [Ion Beam Engineering Experimental Laboratory, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2005-09-15

128

Emissions and Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Semivolatile and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosols are a highly-dynamic system dominated by both variable gas-particle partitioning and chemical evolution. Important classes of organics include semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC, respectively). SVOCs are compounds that exist in both the gas and particle phases at typical atmospheric conditions while IVOC are low-volatility vapors that exist exclusively in the gas phase. Both classes have saturation concentrations that are orders of magnitude lower than volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are the traditional subjects of atmosphere chemistry, such as monoterpenes, alkyl benzenes, etc. The SVOC and IVOC are poorly represented for in current atmospheric chemistry models. Source testing indicates that SVOC and IVOC emissions from biomass combustion, diesel engines and other sources exceed the primary organic aerosol emissions; thus the oxidation of these vapors could serve as a significant source of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the reactions between OH radicals and SVOCs and IVOCs was investigated in the Carnegie Mellon University smog chamber. Experiments were conducted with n-alkanes and emission surrogates (diesel fuel and lubricating oil). SVOC oxidation produces oxidized organic aerosol but little new organic aerosol mass. This behavior can be explained by the coupled effects of partitioning and aging. Oxidation of SVOC vapors creates low volatility species that partition into the condensed phase; this oxidation also reduces the SVOC vapor concentration which, in turn, requires particle-phase SVOC to evaporate to maintain phase equilibrium. In contrast, oxidation of IVOC results in sustained production of SOA consistent with a reaction with relatively slow kinetics and high mass yield. Aerosol Mass Spectrometer data indicates that the SOA formed from IVOC has a mass spectrum that is quite similar to the oxygenated organic aerosol factor observed in field studies.

Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.; Miracolo, M. A.; Donahue, N. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.

2008-12-01

129

Characteristics of volatile organic compounds emission profiles from hot road bitumens.  

PubMed

A procedure for the investigation and comparison of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission profiles to the atmosphere from road bitumens with various degrees of oxidation is proposed. The procedure makes use of headspace analysis and gas chromatography with universal as well as selective detection, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studies revealed that so-called vacuum residue, which is the main component of the charge, contains variable VOC concentrations, from trace to relatively high ones, depending on the extent of thermal cracking in the boiler of the vacuum distillation column. The VOC content in the oxidation product, so-called oxidized paving bitumen, is similarly varied. There are major differences in VOC emission profiles between vacuum residue and oxidized bitumens undergoing thermal cracking. The VOC content in oxidized bitumens, which did not undergo thermal cracking, increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumens. The studies revealed that the total VOC content increases from about 120 ppm for the raw vacuum residue to about 1900 ppm for so-called bitumen 35/50. The amount of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the volatile fraction of fumes of oxidized bitumens increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumen and constitutes from 0.34% to 3.66% (w/w). The contribution of volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs) to total VOC content remains constant for the investigated types of bitumens (from 0.16 to 0.28% (w/w) of total VOCs). The results of these studies can also find use during the selection of appropriate bitumen additives to minimize their malodorousness. The obtained data append the existing knowledge on VOC emission from oxidized bitumens. They should be included in reports on the environmental impact of facilities in which hot bitumen binders are used. PMID:24875867

Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2014-07-01

130

Angular distribution of light emission from compound-eye cornea with conformal fluorescent coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex morphology of the apposition compound eyes of insects of many species provides them a wide angular field of view. This characteristic makes these eyes attractive for bioreplication as artificial sources of light. The cornea of a blowfly eye was conformally coated with a fluorescent thin film with the aim of achieving wide field-of-view emission. On illumination by shortwave-ultraviolet light, the conformally coated eye emitted visible light whose intensity showed a weaker angular dependence than a fluorescent thin film deposited on a flat surface.

Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Miller, Amy E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-09-01

131

Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.  

PubMed

The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser. PMID:25508332

Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

2013-04-01

132

Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.  

PubMed

The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser. PMID:25464701

Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

2013-04-01

133

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern, as a result of changes in livestock production methods. RSC emissions were determined from a swine CAFO in North Carolina. RSC measurements were made over a period of ?1 week from both the barn and lagoon during each of the four seasonal periods from June 2007 to April 2008. During sampling, meteorological and other environmental parameters were measured continuously. Seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) barn concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH3S2CH3) concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89 ppb and 0.47 to 1.02 ppb, respectively. The overall average barn emission rate was 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for H2S, which was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g day-1 AU-1 and 0.036 g day-1 AU-1, respectively. The overall average lagoon flux was 1.33 ?g m-2 min-1 for H2S, which was approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 ?g m-2 min-1) and DMDS (0.09 ?g m-2 min-1) lagoon fluxes. The overall average lagoon emission for H2S (0.038 g day-1 AU-1) was also approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.0034 g day-1 AU-1) and DMDS (0.0028 g day-1 AU-1) emissions. H2S, DMS and DMDS have offensive odors and low odor thresholds. Over all four sampling seasons, 77% of 15 min averaged H2S barn concentrations were an order of magnitude above the average odor threshold. During these sampling periods, however, DMS and DMDS concentrations did not exceed their odor thresholds. The overall average barn and lagoon emissions from this study were used to help estimate barn, lagoon and total (barn + lagoon) RSC emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina. Total (barn + lagoon) H2S emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated to be 1.22*106 kg yr-1. The barns had significantly higher H2S emissions than the lagoons, contributing ?98% of total North Carolina H2S swine CAFO emissions. Total (barn + lagoon) emissions for DMS and DMDS were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, with barns contributing ?86% and ?93% of total emissions, respectively. H2S swine CAFO emissions were estimated to contribute ?18% of North Carolina H2S emissions.

Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

2014-09-01

134

A study on dynamic volatile organic compound emission characterization of water-based paints.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from surface coatings have caused growing public concern for air quality. Even the low-emitted VOC impact from water-based paints on indoor air quality in urban areas has caused concern. This paper presents experimental data using a mathematical model to simulate dynamic VOC emissions from water-based paints that is based on mass transfer and molecular diffusion theories. A series of field-analogous experiments were carried out to continuously measure the VOCs emitted from two typical water-based paints using a gas chromatography-flame-ionization detector monitor in an artificial wind tunnel system. In the study cases, the mass flux of VOCs emitted from the water-based paints was up to 50 microg/m2sec. It was found that the time needed to completely emit VOCs from water-based paints is just hundreds of seconds. However, the order of magnitude of the VOC emission rate from water-based paints is not lower than that from some dry building materials and solvent-based paints. The experimental data were used to produce a useful semiempirical correlation to estimate the VOC emission rates for water-based paints. This correlation is valid under appropriate conditions as suggested by this work with a statistical deviation of +/- 7.6%. With this correlation, it seems feasible to predict the dynamic emission rates for VOCs during a painting process. This correlation is applicable for assessing the hazardous air pollutant impact on indoor air quality or for environmental risk assessment. Associated with the dynamic VOC emission characterization, the air-exchange rate effect on the VOC emission rates is also discussed. PMID:21305886

Chang, Yu-Min; Hu, Wei-Hsing; Fang, Wen-Bing; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Chang, Chang-Tang; Ching, Hsiao-Wei

2011-01-01

135

Insect spontaneous ultraweak photon emission as an indicator of insecticidal compounds.  

PubMed

The influence of beta-cypermethrin, a commercial insecticide, and Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak (Umbelliferae:Cicutal), an insecticidal plant, on the spontaneous ultraweak photon emissions from larvae of Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Zophobas morio Fabricius were studied. The increased percentages of spontaneous photon emission intensities from S. litura treated with 0.1 and 1 ?g/ml beta-cypermethrin were both lower than those of the control in the 24 post-treatment hours, remarkable difference could also be observed during the same period from Z. morio treated with beta-cypermethrin at 0.156, 0.313 and 0.625 ?g/ml. The increased percentages of spontaneous photon emission intensities from the two mentioned insects treated with 10,100 and 1000 ?g/ml petroleum ether fraction of C. virosa L. var. latisecta, which displayed little activity against whole insects, could also be changed noticeably. The present study indicated that change in the intensity of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from insect could be used as a novel method for screening insecticidal compounds with very low content in plant. PMID:25108203

Tian, Yongqing; Yang, Chuping; Xu, Hanhong

2014-11-01

136

Carbonyl compound emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.  

PubMed

Carbonyl compound emissions from two passenger cars fueled with different methanol/gasoline blends (M15 and M100) and operated with three-way catalytic converters (TWC) were investigated. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges. The hydrazones formed on the cartridge were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with a variable wavelength detector. The results show that when cars were fueled with methanol/gasoline blends, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions decreased by 9-21% and 1-55% respectively, while nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions increased by 175-233%. Compared with gasoline vehicles, formaldehyde emissions with M15 and M100 were two and four times higher respectively, and total carbonyls with M15 and M100 increased by 3% and 104% respectively. With the use of the new TWC, both regulated gas pollutants and formaldehyde decreased. The new TWC caused a decrease of 5% and 31% in formaldehyde concentration for M15 and M100, respectively. Specific reactivity (SR) with the new TWC was reduced from 5.92 to 5.72 for M15 and from 7.00 to 6.93 for M100, indicating that M15 and M100 with the new TWC were friendlier to the environment. PMID:20510438

Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Chunxiao; Han, Xiukun; Fu, Mingliang; Yu, Linxiao; Shah, Asad Naeem

2010-08-01

137

Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2014-12-01

138

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT-PART 2. TEST HOUSE STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's pred...

139

MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REFINERY AND SYNFUELS VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSION DATA. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES B AND C  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum refineries and synfuel plants. The model, responding to a need to define a consistent and comprehensive approach for estimating VOC emissions from these tw...

140

MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REFINERY AND SYNFUELS VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSION DATA. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDIX A  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum refineries and synfuel plants. The model, responding to a need to define a consistent and comprehensive approach for estimating VOC emissions from these tw...

141

Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

2014-11-01

142

Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

1994-10-01

143

Abiotic emissions of methane and reduced organic compounds from organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent laboratory studies show that the important greenhouse gas methane, but also other reduced atmospheric trace gases, can be emitted by abiotic processes from organic matter, such as plants, pure organic compounds and soils. It is very difficult to distinguish abiotic from biotic emissions in field studies, but in laboratory experiments this is easier because it is possible to carefully prepare/sterilize samples, or to control external parameters. For example, the abiotic emissions always show a strong increase with temperature when temperatures are increased to 70C or higher, well above the temperature optimum for bacterial activity. UV radiation has also been clearly shown to lead to emission of methane and other reduced gases from organic matter. Interesting information on the production mechanism has been obtained from isotope studies, both at natural abundance and with isotope labeling. For example, the methoxyl groups of pectin were clearly identified to produce methane. However, analysis of the isotopic composition of methane from natural samples clearly indicates that there must be other molecular mechanisms that lead to methane production. Abiotic methane generation could be a ubiquitous process that occurs naturally at low rates from many different sources.

Roeckmann, T.; Keppler, F.; Vigano, I.; Derendorp, L.; Holzinger, R.

2012-12-01

144

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Larrea tridentate (Creosote bush) during the North American Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North American monsoon is experienced as a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (< 5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (> 80 mm) over large areas of the Sonoran desert in southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. While the sudden availability of water, high temperatures and solar insolation is known to stimulate the primary productivity of the Sonoran desert, little is known about the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from this region. Atmospheric VOCs impact climate and air quality by influencing the oxidizing capacity and acidity of the atmosphere and by contributing to aerosol particles. Although it is often a dominant species in North and South American deserts and is known for the production of a rich set of VOCs, few measurements of VOC emissions from creosote bush exist. We present preliminary results from a field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying the exchange rates of VOCs from a creosote bush dominated ecosystem during and after the monsoon season. Ecosystem exchange rates were measured with the technique of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (PTR-MS) and relaxed eddy accumulation (GC-MS). Branch enclosure studies show a diurnal pattern of VOCs emissions typically observed in other forest sites including oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids. However, a large number of additional VOCs mainly derived from the oxidation of fatty acids and the Shikimic Acid Pathway are also released.

Jardine, K. J.; Kurc, S. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Scott, R. L.; Huxman, T. E.; Abrell, L.

2009-12-01

145

GLOBal Organic Emissions NETwork (GLOBOENET) tools and strategies for quantifying canopy-scale biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first efforts to estimate global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions were conducted about 50 years ago. These initial BVOC emission estimates were based solely on enclosure measurements but were soon followed in the 1970s by the first successful attempts to measure canopy-scale BVOC fluxes using micrometeorological flux measurement techniques. Above canopy flux measurements have now been applied in many different landscapes but nearly all of these studies are short term observations that are not readily available which has limited their use in model development and evaluation. This is in contrast to the community that is measuring exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and energy which has established a number of regional networks which comprise the global FLUXNET network. This network has allowed the testing of both models and satellite-derived methods of estimating surface exchanges over a variety of ecosystems and over long temporal scalesThis global network of micrometeorological tower sites also provides an opportunity to establish networks for investigating exchanges of other constituents that are exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. We have initiated a community activity, called GLOBOENET, to facilitate and coordinate efforts to measure BVOC fluxes at micrometeorological tower sites. This effort includes 1) PTRMS based eddy covariance systems that can be used to quantify fluxes of a large number of BVOC at selected locations and 2)low-cost and low-power Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) systems for long-term flux measurements of a subset of BVOC at a larger number of sites. This presentation will describe the GLOBOENET tools and strategies and present some recent results. The development and application of a third generation REA system will be described along with new approaches for quantifying canopy-scale fluxes of BVOC, such as sesquiterpenes, that are difficult to measure. Results from temperate and tropical sites will be presented and a strategy for extending these observations and using them to evaluate and improve biogenic VOC emission models will be discussed.

Guenther, A. B.; Duhl, T.; Karl, T.; Kim, S.; Shertz, S.; Turnipseed, A.

2010-12-01

146

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3. Emissions of phenol were also found to be slightly higher than values reported in earlier studies1,2,3. This study can assist in retrospective formaldehyde exposure assessments of THUs where estimates of the occupants indoor formaldehyde exposures are needed.

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-10-01

147

Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates measured over one year in a new manufactured house  

SciTech Connect

A study to measure indoor concentrations and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, was conducted in a new, unoccupied manufactured house installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) campus. The house was instrumented to continuously monitor indoor temperature and relative humidity, heating and air conditioning system operation, and outdoor weather. It also was equipped with an automated tracer gas injection and detection system to estimate air change rates every 2 h. Another automated system measured indoor concentrations of total VOCs with a flame ionization detector every 30 min. Active samples for the analysis of VOCs and aldehydes were collected indoors and outdoors on 12 occasions from August 2002 through September 2003. Individual VOCs were quantified by thermal desorption to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Weather conditions changed substantially across the twelve active sampling periods. Outdoor temperatures ranged from 7 C to 36 C. House air change rates ranged from 0.26 h{sup -1} to 0.60 h{sup -1}. Indoor temperature was relatively constant at 20 C to 24 C for all but one sampling event. Indoor relative humidity (RH) ranged from 21% to 70%. The predominant and persistent indoor VOCs included aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal and nonanal) and terpene hydrocarbons (e.g., a-pinene, 3-carene and d-limonene), which are characteristic of wood product emissions. Other compounds of interest included phenol, naphthalene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. VOC concentrations were generally typical of results reported for other new houses. Measurements of total VOCs were used to evaluate short-term changes in indoor VOC concentrations. Most of the VOCs probably derived from indoor sources. However, the wall cavity was an apparent source of acetaldehyde, toluene and xylenes and the belly space was a source of 2-butanone, lower volatility aldehydes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations varied with time. Adjusted formaldehyde concentrations exhibited the most temporal variability with concentrations ranging from 25 {micro}g m{sup -3} to 128 {micro}g m{sup -3} and the lowest concentrations occurring in winter months when indoor RH was low. A model describing the emissions of formaldehyde from urea-formaldehyde wood products as a function of temperature, RH and concentration reasonably predicted the temporal variation of formaldehyde emissions in the house. Whole-house emissions of other VOCs generally declined over the first three months and then remained relatively constant over a several month period. However, their emissions were generally lowest during the winter months. Also, an apparent association between TVOC emissions and outdoor temperature was observed on a one-week time scale.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nabinger, Steven J.; Persily, Andrew K.

2004-09-01

148

Tracing CO2 fluxes and plant volatile organic compound emissions by stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant metabolic processes exert a large influence on global climate and air quality through the emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. The vegetation exerts a large isotopic imprint on the atmosphere through both, photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and fractionation during respiratory CO2 release (?13Cres). While the former is well understood, many processes driving carbon isotope fractionation during respiration are unknown1. There are striking differences in variations of ?13Cres between plant functional groups, which have been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate2. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate if carbon isotope fractionation in light and dark respired CO2 is associated with VOC emissions in the atmosphere. Specifically, we hypothesize that a high carbon flux through the pyruvate into various VOC synthesis pathways is associated with a pronounced 13C-enrichment of respired CO2 above the putative substrate, as it involves the decarboxylation of the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate. Based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS) we traced carbon flow into these pathways by pyruvate positional labeling. We demonstrated that in a Mediterranean shrub the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate is released in substantial amounts as CO2 in the light. Simultaneously, naturally 13C depleted C-2 and C-3 carbon atoms of the acetyl-moiety are emitted as a variety of VOCs. Moreover, during light-dark transitions leaf emission bursts of the oxygenated metabolite acetaldehyde were observed as part of the PDH bypass pathway in the cytosol2. This may be a new piece of evidence for the origin of 13C-enriched ?13CO2 which is released during Light-Enhanced Dark Respiration (LEDR). Our study provides the first evidence that the isotopic signature of respired CO2 is closely linked to carbon partitioning between anabolic and catabolic pathways and plants strategies of carbon investment into secondary compound synthesis. Werner C. & Gessler A. (2011) Diel variations in the carbon isotope composition of respired CO2 and associated carbon sources: a review of dynamics and mechanisms. Biogeosciences 8, 2437-2459 Jardine K, Wegener F, Abrell L, vonHaren J, Werner C (2014) Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate. PCE 37, 414-424.

Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

2014-05-01

149

ENGINEERING & GINNING Comparison of Emission Profiles for Volatile Organic Compounds from Cotton and Polypropylene-based Tarp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds were determined in headspace atmospheres over samples of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and polypropylene {(CH2CH(CH3))n} at 100 and 150( (( (C in He and air. A small number of volatile organic compounds were released from cotton at 100( (( (C in He with comparatively low emission rates of 0.2 to 0.3 µg g -1 per component. These

Gary A. Eiceman; Jonathan F. Bergloff; Paul A. Funk

2002-01-01

150

Detection of organic compound signatures in infra-red, limb emission spectra observed by the MIPAS-B2 instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds play a central role in troposphere chemistry and increasingly are a viable target for remote sensing observations. In this paper, infra-red spectral features of three organic compounds are investigated in thermal emission spectra recorded by a balloon-borne instrument, MIPAS-B2, operating at high spectral resolution. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that PAN and acetone can be detected

J. J. Remedios; G. Allen; A. M. Waterfall; H. Oelhaf; A. Kleinert

2006-01-01

151

[Determination of sulfur compounds in catalytic diesel oil by gas chromatography with atomic emission detector and its applications].  

PubMed

The method for separation and determination of sulfur compounds in catalytic diesel oil by gas chromatography with atomic emission detector (GC-AED) was established. More than 130 sulfur compounds (including alkyl thiophenes, benzothiophene, alkyl benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophene, alkyl dibenzothiophenes) in catalytic diesel oil were qualified based on the retention time of some pure sulfur compounds and the retention indexes of sulfur compounds. The effects of oven temperature, heating rate and sample amount on resolution and effective plate number were investigated. Retention indexes of different sulfur compounds under temperature programmed condition were calculated. The relative standard deviations of peak areas of main sulfur compounds in catalytic diesel oil were no more than 5.0%, detection limit for sulfur was 0.1 mg/L under chosen conditions. Because response factor was independent on the molecule structure of the sulfur-containing compound, the content of each sulfur compound was determined quantitatively using thiophene as sulfur standard sample. The linear range was 2 mg/L-1,000 mg/L sulfur, and the correlation coefficient was 0.997. The method is successfully applied for the determination of the contents of sulfur compounds in six different catalytic diesel oils (Fujian catalytic diesel oil, Yanshan catalytic diesel oil, Zhongdong diesel oil, Zhenhai catalytic diesel oil, Zhenhai Changsan oil and Zhenhai Changer oil). Distributions of sulfur compounds in different catalytic diesel oils were obtained by GC-AED. PMID:12682994

Yang, Yong-tan; Yang, Hai-ying; Lu, Wan-zhen

2002-11-01

152

Volatile organic compound emissions from Miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow bioenergy crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miscanthus × giganteus and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix spp.) are increasingly important bioenergy crops. Above-canopy fluxes and mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in summer for the two crops at a site near Lincoln, UK, by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and virtual disjunct eddy covariance. The isoprene emission rate above willow peaked around midday at ?1 mg m-2 h-1, equivalent to 20 ?g gdw-1 h-1 normalised to 30 °C and 1000 ?mol m-2 s-1 PAR, much greater than for conventional arable crops. Average midday peak isoprene mixing ratio was ?1.4 ppbv. Acetone and acetic acid also showed small positive daytime fluxes. No measurable fluxes of VOCs were detected above the Miscanthus canopy. Differing isoprene emission rates between different bioenergy crops, and the crops or vegetation cover they may replace, means the impact on regional air quality should be taken into consideration in bioenergy crop selection.

Copeland, Nichola; Cape, J. Neil; Heal, Mathew R.

2012-12-01

153

Microbial volatile organic compound emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tile  

PubMed Central

Background Stachybotrys chartarum is a filamentous mold frequently identified among the mycobiota of water-damaged building materials. Growth of S. chartarum on suitable substrates and under favorable environmental conditions leads to the production of secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). The aim of this study was to characterize MVOC emission profiles of seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum, isolated from water-damaged buildings, in order to identify unique MVOCs generated during growth on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tile coupons. Inoculated coupons were incubated and monitored for emissions and growth using a closed glass environmental growth chamber maintained at a constant room temperature. Gas samples were collected from the headspace for three to four weeks using Tenax TA tubes. Results Most of the MVOCs identified were alcohols, ketones, ethers and esters. The data showed that anisole (methoxybenzene) was emitted from all of the S. chartarum strains tested on both types of substrates. Maximum anisole concentration was detected after seven days of incubation. Conclusions MVOCs are suitable markers for fungal identification because they easily diffuse through weak barriers like wallpaper, and could be used for early detection of mold growth in hidden cavities. This study identifies the production of anisole by seven toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys chartarum within a period of one week of growth on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tiles. These data could provide useful information for the future construction of a robust MVOC library for the early detection of this mold. PMID:24308451

2013-01-01

154

Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 4. C1-C27 organic compounds from cooking with seed oils.  

PubMed

The emission rates of gas-phase, semivolatile, and particle-phase organic compounds ranging in carbon number from C1 to C27 were measured from institutional-scale food cooking operations that employ seed oils. Two cooking methods and three types of seed oils were examined: vegetables stir-fried in soybean oil, vegetables stir-fried in canola oil, and potatoes deep fried in hydrogenated soybean oil. The emission rates of 99 organic compounds were quantified, and these include n-alkanes, branched alkanes, alkenes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, carbonyls, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and lactones. Carbonyls and fatty acids (n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids) make up a significant portion of the organic compounds emitted from all three seed oil cooking procedures. The compositional differences in the organic compound emissions between the different cooking operations are consistent with the differences in the organic composition of the various cooking oils used. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids between the gas and particle phases was found to be in good agreement with gas/particle partitioning theory. The relative importance of emissions from commercial deep frying operations to the total emissions of C16 and C18 n-alkanoic acids in the Los Angeles urban area was estimated using the available information and is estimated to account for approximately 7% of the total primary emissions of these acids. Additional emissions of these n-alkanoic acids from stir-frying and grill frying operations are expected. Estimates also indicate that seed oil cooking may make up a significant fraction of the emissions of lighter n-alkanoic acids such as nonanoic acid. PMID:11883419

Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

2002-02-15

155

Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing ratios of a large number of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were observed by the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) on board the NASA DC-8 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. Many of these NMOCs were observed concurrently by one or both of two other NMOC measurement techniques on board the DC-8: proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and whole air canister sampling (WAS). A comparison of these measurements to the data from TOGA indicates good agreement for the majority of co-measured NMOCs. The ARCTAS study, which included both spring and summer deployments, provided opportunities to sample a large number of biomass burning (BB) plumes with origins in Asia, California and central Canada, ranging from very recent emissions to plumes aged one week or more. For this analysis, BB smoke interceptions were grouped by flight, source region and, in some cases, time of day, generating 40 identified BB plumes for analysis. Normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) to CO were determined for each of the 40 plumes for up to 19 different NMOCs or NMOC groups. Although the majority of observed NEMRs for individual NMOCs or NMOC groups were in agreement with previously-reported values, the observed NEMRs to CO for ethanol, a rarely quantified gas-phase trace gas, ranged from values similar to those previously reported, to up to an order of magnitude greater. Notably, though variable between plumes, observed NEMRs of individual light alkanes are highly correlated within BB emissions, independent of estimated plume ages. BB emissions of oxygenated NMOC were also found to be often well-correlated. Using the NCAR Master Mechanism chemical box model initialized with concentrations based on two observed scenarios, fresh Canadian BB and fresh Californian BB, decreases are predicted for the low molecular weight carbonyls (i.e. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and methyl ethyl ketone, MEK) and alcohols (i.e. methanol and ethanol) as the plumes evolve in time, i.e. the production of these compounds is less than the chemical loss. Comparisons of the modeled NEMRs to the observed NEMRs from BB plumes estimated to be three days in age or less indicate overall good agreement.

Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, D. R.; Diskin, G. S.; Fried, A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Meinardi, S.; Mikoviny, T.; Richter, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Vay, S. A.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Wisthaler, A.; Hills, A.; Riemer, D. D.; Apel, E. C.

2011-11-01

156

[Study on distribution of nitrogen compounds in catalytic diesel oil by gas chromatography-atomic emission detector].  

PubMed

The method for the separation and determination of nitrogen compounds in a typical catalytic diesel oil by gas chromatography-atomic emission detector (GC-AED) was established. Seventy-three nitrogen compounds (including aniline, alkyl anilines, quinoline, indole, alkyl indole, carbazole, alkyl carbazole) in the catalytic diesel oil were qualified based on the retention times of some pure nitrogen compounds and the retention indices of nitrogen compounds. Effects of pressures of various reagent gases on peak area of main nitrogen compounds in diesel oil were examined as well. The pressures of reagent gases were optimized. Retention indices of different nitrogen compounds under temperature programmed condition were calculated. Reproducibilities of peak areas of main nitrogen compounds in the catalytic diesel oil were no more than 8.0%. The detection limit for nitrogen was 1.0 mg/L under specific conditions. The linear range was 2.0 - 600 mg/L for each nitrogen compound and correlation coefficient was greater than 0.998. The method can be successfully applied in the determination of nitrogen compounds in different catalytic diesel oils. PMID:15706939

Yang, Yongtan; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Haiying; Lu, Wanzhen

2004-09-01

157

Emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compounds from a New England mixed forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated VOCs measured above a mixed forest canopy in central Massachusetts during the 2005 and 2007 growing seasons are reported. Mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and fluxes computed by the disjunct eddy covariance technique. Isoprene was by far the predominant BVOC emitted at this site, with summer mid-day average fluxes of 5.3 and 4.4 mg m-2 hr-1 in 2005 and 2007, respectively. In comparison, mid-day average fluxes of monoterpenes were 0.21 and 0.15 mg m-2 hr-1 in each of these years. On short times scales (days), the diel pattern in emission rate compared well with a standard emission algorithm for isoprene. The general shape of the seasonal cycle and the observed decrease in isoprene emission rate in early September was, however, not well captured by the model. Monoterpene emission rates exhibited dependence on light as well as temperature, as determined from the improved fit to the observations obtained by including a light-dependent term in the model. The mid-day average flux of methanol from the canopy was 0.14 mg m-2 hr-1 in 2005 and 0.19 mg m-2 hr-1 in 2007, but the maximum flux was observed in spring (29 May 2007), when the flux reached 1.0 mg m-2 hr-1. This observation is consistent with enhanced methanol production during leaf expansion. Summer mid-day fluxes of acetone were 0.15 mg m-2 hr-1 during a short period in 2005, but only 0.03 mg m-2 h-1 averaged over 2007. Episodes of negative fluxes of oxygenated VOCs, particularly acetone, were observed periodically, especially in 2007. Thus, deposition within the canopy could help explain the low season-averaged flux of acetone in 2007. Fluxes of species of biogenic origin at mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of 73 (0.05 mg m-2 hr-1 in 2005; 0.03 mg m-2 hr-1 in 2007) and 153 (5 ?g m-2 hr-1 in 2007), possibly corresponding to methyl ethyl ketone and an oxygenated terpene or methyl salicylate, respectively, were also observed.

McKinney, K. A.; Lee, B. H.; Vasta, A.; Pho, T. V.; Munger, J. W.

2011-05-01

158

Past and Future Changes in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Simulated with a Global Dynamic Vegetation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial biosphere is an essential component of the surface-atmosphere interactions, emitting highly reactive compounds such as isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol and other alcohols, acetone, or aldehydes, in the troposphere. Those volatile organic compounds (VOC) are strongly involved in tropospheric chemistry, and participate not only to gas phase reactions but also to particulate formation. Moreover, biogenic VOC emissions are very sensitive to environmental conditions (temperature, radiation, vegetation type) and could thus be significantly affected by climate and vegetation distribution changes. Based on the interactive global biogenic emission and dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE, we investigate the evolution of biogenic VOC emissions in four scenarios: the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years BP), the preindustrial (1850s), present-day (1990s) and the future (2100). The combined effects of foliar expansion, climate change and ecosystem redistribution has a large impact on biogenic emissions. We estimate that total biogenic VOC emissions increase from 331 TgC/yr at the LGM to 702 TgC/yr at the preindustrial, 725 TgC/yr at present-day and to 1251 TgC/yr under future conditions. Furthermore, it is important to notice that if the tropics remain a major source region, a substantial decrease in VOC emissions is calculated over Amazonia for 2100 due to the recession of tropical forests in response to climate change. The northern hemisphere becomes a significant source of VOC in the future and globally, emissions increase by 27% for isoprene and 51% for monoterpenes compared to the present.

Lathiere, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Krinner, G.; Folberth, G.

2005-12-01

159

Post-pollination emission of a repellent compound in a sexually deceptive orchid: a new mechanism for maximising reproductive success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flowers of the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys sphegodes are pollinated by pseudocopulating males of the solitary bee Andrena nigroaenea. We investigated the changes in odor emission and reduced attractiveness that occur after pollination in these plants. We analyzed floral odor of unpollinated and pollinated flowers by gas chromatography and compared relative and absolute amounts of electrophysiologically active compounds. Headspace

Florian P. Schiestl; Manfred Ayasse

2001-01-01

160

CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTYLATED ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS: INTERLABORATORY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A capillary gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED) method was developed for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, NV, for determination of selected organotin compounds. Here we report on an interlabora...

161

BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS (BVOCS) I. IDENTIFICATIONS FROM THREE CONTINENTAL SITES IN THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Vegetation composition and biomass were surveyed for three specific sites in Atlanta, GA; near Rhinelander, WI; and near Hayden, CO. At each research site, emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the dominant vegetation species were sampled by enclosing bran...

162

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 1. ASSESSMENT OF CATALYTIC INCINERATION AND COMPETING CONTROLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incin...

163

AN IMPROVED MODEL FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORESTS IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES (Journal)  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important inputs for models of atmospheric chemistry and carbon budgets. Since forests are the primary emitters of BVOCs, it is important to develop reliable estimates of their areal coverage and BVOC e...

164

An Evaluation of Hazardous Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Tank Barges in Memphis, TN  

EPA Science Inventory

Many urban centers have population centers near river ports, which may be affected by volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from tank barge traffic. This study will examine Memphis, Tennessee and West Memphis, Arkansas. Both cities (located ...

165

DETERMINATION OF ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The extraction of six tetraalkyltin and seven ionic organotin compounds from spiked topsoil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide modified with 5% methanol was investigated. nalysis of the soil extracts was performed by GC with atomic emission detection (AE...

166

The emission patterns of volatile organic compounds during aerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste using continuous and intermittent aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the main concerns during municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment, the release patterns and the environmental effects of VOCs were investigated during laboratory-scale aerobic biotreatments of MSW with continuous and intermittent negative ventilation. When the same airflow amounts were used, intermittent ventilation was found to reduce the total VOC emissions from continuous ventilation

Pin-Jing He; Jia-Fu Tang; Na Yang; Jing-Jing Fang; Xiao He; Li-Ming Shao

2012-01-01

167

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (?30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

2013-03-01

168

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (?30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

2013-08-01

169

compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size is the key factor of nanostructured materials, since all the structural, transport, electrical, magnetic and other physical properties can be tuned by this factor of materials. Only the condition is to choose appropriate inexpensive scale-processing method for material synthesis which offers good control over the stoichiometry, morphology and particle size distribution. Present communication deals with the studies on the sol-gel grown Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3 (YCMO) nanostructured compounds for their size-induced tuning of dielectric behavior. Structural studies reveal the single phasic nature with improved crystallite size with sintering temperature. Dielectric constant (real and imaginary) is found to increase with temperature and crystallite size/sintering temperature. High dielectric loss has been observed in the present system. Size dependent activation energy ( E a), obtained from modulus measurement, showing the increase in E a with crystallite size. The variation in various dielectric parameters and E a has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystallite boundaries, oxygen vacancies and charge carrier hopping.

Shah, N. A.

2014-10-01

170

Influence of suspended particles on indoor semi-volatile organic compounds emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have been attracting more and more attentions to many researchers in these years. Because SVOCs have a strong tendency for adsorption to suspended particles, we take the effect of suspended particles into account to study the transport mechanism of SVOCs in the air. We establish a mathematical model to describe the transport mechanism of SVOCs, and study the transport processes of both gas- and particle-phase di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in Field and Laboratory Emission Cells (FLECs). The predictions by the proposed model not only fit well with the experimental data of previous studies, but also show that the gas-phase DEHP concentration increases rapidly in the first few seconds and increases slowly during the following 200 days due to different transport mechanisms in the two periods. Meanwhile, when the particle radiuses are of the order of micron and the air changes per hour (ACH) is large enough, the characteristic time for DEHP getting gas/particle equilibrium is much longer than the residence time of a particle in the flow field, and thus there is no significant influence of suspended particles on the total concentration of DEHP in the air. Oppositely, the influence of particles on DEHP emission will be enhanced for a cycling air flow system with a small ACH, where increasing ACH will reduce the concentrations of particle-phase SVOCs. Besides, if the particle radiuses are of the order of nanometer, decreasing the particle radiuses will shorter the characteristic time for DEHP getting gas/particle equilibrium, and finally increase the particle-phase concentration of DEHP.

Hu, Kang; Chen, Qun; Hao, Jun-Hong

2013-11-01

171

Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.  

PubMed

A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel. PMID:24527614

Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

2013-01-01

172

Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant-derived VOCs, implying dairy cattle have a smaller effect on ozone formation than currently assumed by air districts in central California.

Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

2005-12-01

173

Determination of gaseous semi- and low-volatile organic halogen compounds by barrier-discharge atomic emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

A group parameter approach using "total organic halogen" is effective for monitoring gaseous organic halogen compounds, including fluorine, chlorine, and bromine compounds, generated from combustion. We described the use of barrier-discharge radiofrequency-helium-plasma/atomic emission spectrometry, for the detection of semi- and low-volatile organic halogen compounds (SLVOXs), which can be collected by Carbotrap adsorbents and analyzed using thermal desorption. The optimal carrier gas flow rates at the injection and desorption lines were established to be 100 mL/min. The detection range for SLVOXs in the gaseous samples was from 10 ng to tens of micrograms. Measuring F was more difficult than measuring C1 or Br, because the wavelength of F is close to that of air. The barrier-discharge radiofrequency-helium-plasma/atomic emission spectrometry measured from 85% to 103% of the SLVOXs in the gas sample. It has been found that Carbotrap B is appropriate for high-boiling-point compounds, and Carbotrap C is suitable for the determination of organic halogen compounds with lower boiling points, in the range 200-2300C. Under optimal analysis conditions, a chlorine-containing plastic was destroyed using different oxygen concentrations. Lower oxygen concentrations resulted in the production of lower amounts of organic halogen compounds. PMID:23586317

Sun, Yifei; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

2013-01-01

174

The influence of ozone precursor emissions from four world regions on tropospheric composition and radiative climate forcing  

E-print Network

precursor emissions (NOx, NMVOC, and CO) from four regions (East Asia, Europe and Northern Africa, North America, and South Asia) using the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source.7 without stratospheric O3 or water vapor, 24.2 Ã? 4.2 including those components), and for the regional NOx

175

Dioxin like compounds from municipal waste incinerator emissions: assessment of the presence of polychlorinated naphthalenes.  

PubMed

Polychloronaphthalenes (PCN) were identified and quantified in emission samples collected from five different municipal waste incinerators (MWI). Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF) were also determined to find a possible relationship between these classes of organochlorinated compounds. The analyses of PCDD/PCDF and PCN were carried out by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry using a positive electron ionization source and operating in the selected ion monitoring analyzer mode (HRGC-HRMS/EI(+)-SIM). The total levels of PCN varied from 1.08 up to 21.36 ng/Nm3 (mono- to octachlorinated) and 0.33 to 5.72 ng/Nm3 (tetra- to octachlorinated), whereas the levels of PCDD/PCDF ranged between 1.14 and 276.26 ng/Nm3 (0.01 and 5 ng I-TEQ/Nm3), depending on the type of the MWI. These findings do not corroborate a PCN and PCDD/PCDF correlation. PMID:10903095

Abad, E; Caixach, J; Rivera, J

1999-01-01

176

Bacterial pathogen indicators regrowth and reduced sulphur compounds' emissions during storage of electro-dewatered biosolids.  

PubMed

Electro-dewatering (ED) increases biosolids dryness from 10-15 to 30-50%, which helps wastewater treatment facilities control disposal costs. Previous work showed that high temperatures due to Joule heating during ED inactivate total coliforms to meet USEPA Class A biosolids requirements. This allows biosolids land application if the requirements are still met after the storage period between production and application. In this study, we examined bacterial regrowth and odour emissions during the storage of ED biosolids. No regrowth of total coliforms was observed in ED biosolids over 7d under aerobic or anaerobic incubations. To mimic on-site contamination during storage or transport, ED samples were seeded with untreated sludge. Total coliform counts decreased to detection limits after 4d in inoculated samples. Olfactometric analysis of ED biosolids odours showed that odour concentrations were lower compared to the untreated and heat-treated control biosolids. Furthermore, under anaerobic conditions, odorous reduced sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were produced by untreated and heat-treated biosolids, but were not detected in the headspaces above ED samples. The data demonstrate that ED provides advantages not only as a dewatering technique, but also for producing biosolids with lower microbial counts and odour levels. PMID:25065797

Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Enayet, Samia; Gehr, Ronald; Frigon, Dominic

2014-10-01

177

Emissions from baled municipal solid waste: II. Effects of different treatments and baling techniques on the emission of volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the volatile organic compound emissions from baled municipal solid waste (MSW). The analytical methodology was based on sampling with adsorbent tubes once a month during seven occasions within a time period of 1 year. Automated analyses were carried out on-line work-up with thermal desorption directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The effect of different baling techniques, cylindrical and rectangular baling was compared. It was found that cylindrically baled MSW emitted larger concentration of esters than their rectangular counter parts. Conversely, aromatic compounds emissions dominated in rectangularly baled MSW. This indicates that different degradation mechanisms operate in the waste bales. Cylindrical and rectangular bales are generally wrapped with six layers of 250 microm thick low density polyethylene (LDPE). It was observed that by wrapping an extra six layers of LDPE film onto the bales, the emissions from cylindrical bales increased while emissions from the rectangular counterpart decreased. Over time, the volatile organic compound emissions from cylindrical bales decreased two orders of magnitudes from 96.2 +/- 20.8 microg m(-3) in September 2003 to 0.80 +/- 0.07 microg m(-3) in July 2004. The rectangular bales exhibited an almost identical relative emission reduction from 54.4 +/- 4.3 microg m(-3) in September 2003 to 0.46 +/- 0.02 microg m(-3) in July 2004. Future work will concentrate on full-scale storages, taking into account waste type, storage size, temperature development and the different baling techniques among other variables. PMID:17439046

Nammari, Diauddin R; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William; Mathiasson, Lennart; Thörneby, Lars; Mårtensson, Lennart

2007-04-01

178

A new European plant-specific emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds for use in atmospheric transport models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new European plant-specific emission inventory for isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other VOC (OVOC), with a spatial resolution of 10 km, for implementation in atmospheric transport models. The inventory incorporates new data on emission factors at standard conditions for tree and crop species that became available in the last years and more accurate data on foliar biomass densities coming from several new litterfall databases. In contrast to previous emission inventories, a bioclimatic correction factor was introduced to correct the foliar biomass densities for the different plant growth conditions that can be found in Pan-Europe. The 2004-2005 averaged annual total biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions for the Pan-European domain are estimated to be about 15 Tg with a large contribution from the OVOC class of about 6 Tg and from monoterpenes of about 5 Tg. Annual isoprene emissions are found to be about 3 Tg, insensitive to the chosen emission algorithm. For the first time crop-specific land use information and standard emission factors were employed. Contrary to former European inventories, emissions of monoterpenes and OVOC were found to originate to a large extent from agriculture. However, monoterpene standard emission factors for crops are highly uncertain and probably positively biased by measurement artifacts. Further experiments on crop emissions should be carried out to check the validity of the high emission factors for monoterpenes and OVOC. In view of future intensified use of agricultural crops as biofuels, emissions of OVOC and monoterpenes from agriculture need to be evaluated in the field.

Karl, M.; Guenther, A.; Köble, R.; Seufert, G.

2008-12-01

179

A temporally and spatially resolved validation of emission inventories by measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) abatement measures. We made VOC measurements at 27 sites and online observations at an urban site in Beijing from July 2009 to January 2012. Based on these measurement data, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of VOCs, estimated their annual emission strengths based on their emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), and quantified the relative contributions of various sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. These results from ambient measurements were compared with existing emission inventories to evaluate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs in Beijing. The measured VOC distributions revealed a hotspot in the southern suburban area of Beijing, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Compared with results derived from ambient measurements, the annual inventoried emissions of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) species and C2-C4 alkanes may be underestimated, while the emissions of styrene and 1,3-butadiene may be overestimated by current inventories. Source apportionment using the CMB model identified vehicular exhaust as the most important VOC source, with the relative contribution of 49%, in good agreement with the 40-51% estimated by emission inventories. The relative contribution of paint and solvent utilization obtained from the CMB model was 14%, significantly lower than the value of 32% reported by one existing inventory. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage calculated using the CMB model was 6%, whereas LPG usage contribution was not reported by current emission inventories. These results suggested that VOC emission strengths in southern suburban area of Beijing, annual emissions of C2-C4 alkanes, OVOCs and some alkenes, and the contributions of solvent and paint utilization and LPG usage in current inventories all require significant revisions.

Wang, M.; Shao, M.; Chen, W.; Yuan, B.; Lu, S.; Zhang, Q.; Zeng, L.; Wang, Q.

2014-06-01

180

Biogenic volatile organic compound emission potential of forests and paddy fields in the Kinki region of Japan.  

PubMed

The standard biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from 10 Japanese plant species (Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, Fagus crenata, Quercus acutissima Carruthers, Quercus glauca, Quercus myrsinaefolia, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Pinus densiflora, and rice [Oryza sativa]) were measured. These species were selected due to their abundance in the estimated domain (47,000 km(2)) of the Kinki region. BVOC emission experiments were conducted in a growth chamber where temperature and light intensity can be controlled. Temperature was set at the average summer temperature in Osaka and at 5 degrees C above average. Light intensity was set at 1000, 335, and 0 micromol m(-2)s(-1) during day time. The amount of BVOC emission was high around noon due to the rise of ambient temperature. It was also found that the total emission rates and compositions of BVOC varied significantly among the plant species. Q. serrata, Q. crispula, F. crenata, Q. acutissima Carruthers, Q. glauca, and Q. myrsinaefolia emitted isoprene and showed emission dependence on light intensity and temperature. C. japonica, P. densiflora, C. obtusa, and O. sativa emitted monoterpenes and also showed emission dependence on temperature; however, only C. japonica and P. densiflora showed emission dependence on light intensity. Using BVOC emissions data from 10 plant species and forest data, BVOC emission potential maps were made. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the Kinki region were estimated to be 596 and 54 ton h(-1), respectively. Seasonal and diurnal variations of BVOC emissions potential were also estimated. Of note, though the amount of monoterpenes from O. sativa is small, it contributes approximately 5% to the total monoterpene emissions due to the huge land area covered by paddy fields. PMID:18023428

Bao, Hai; Kondo, Akira; Kaga, Akikazu; Tada, Masaharu; Sakaguti, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Yoshio; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Narumi, Daisuke; Machimura, Takashi

2008-02-01

181

Real-world emissions of carbonyl compounds from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks and diesel Back-Up Generators (BUGs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are of interest to the scientific and regulatory communities due to their suspected or likely impacts on human health. The present work investigates emissions of carbonyl compounds from nine Class 8 heavy-duty diesel (HDD) tractors and also from nine diesel-powered backup generators (BUGs); the former were chosen because of their

Aniket A. Sawant; Sandip D. Shah; Xiaona Zhu; J. Wayne Miller; David R. Cocker

2007-01-01

182

Salt Lakes of Western Australia - Emissions of natural volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters. This area has been repeatedly investigated since 2006 and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater sourced lakes with a pH reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The semi-/arid region was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Today the region is mostly used for growing wheat and live stock. The deforestation led to a rising groundwater table, bringing dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. In the last decades, a concurrent alteration of rain periods has been observed. A reason could be the regional formation of ultra-fine particles that were measured with car-based and airborne instruments around the salt lakes in several campaigns between 2006 and 2011. These ultra-fine particles emitted from the lakes and acting as cloud condensation nuclei can modify cloud microphysics and thus suppress rain events [1]. New data from a campaign in 2012 accentuates the importance of these hyper saline environments for the local climate. Ground-based particle measurements around the salt lakes in 2012 were accompanied by novel chamber experiments directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was constructed from transparent PTFE foil permitting photochemistry within while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking the measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Another advantage of the PTFE chamber is the enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted from salt lakes as possible precursors for the ultra-fine particles. Chamber air was sampled using stainless steel canisters. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC emissions in the laboratory using GC-MS technique. Different VOC and halogenated volatile compounds (VOX), exceeding atmospheric background concentrations, where identified from the sampled chamber air. Their enrichment or depletion over the time in the chamber allows for postulated reaction pathways leading to the formation of ultra-fine particles. Soil and water samples showed a variety of highly volatile and semi-volatile VOC/VOX. An abiotic formation of these VOC/VOX seems conclusive due to iron-catalysed reactions below the salt crust [2]. The salt crust is the link through which VOC/VOX pass from the soil/groundwater to the atmosphere. During desiccation salt crystals grow, trapping gases as fluid inclusions (FI). The study of FI provides qualitative emission data of VOC/VOX during desiccation which can be released upon wetting to the atmosphere. This study includes the emission of VOC/VOX from hyper saline terrestrial environments and their role in the atmospheric formation of climate relevant ultra-fine particles. [1] Junkermann et al., 2009, Atmos.Chem.Phys., 9, 6531-6539 [2] Huber et al., 2009, Environ.Sci.Technol., 43 (13), 4934-4939

Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinfried; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Atlas, Elliot

2013-04-01

183

Emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds during different sewage sludge chemical conditioning processes.  

PubMed

Chemical conditioners are often used to enhance sewage sludge dewaterability through altering sludge properties and flocs structure, both affect odorous compounds emissions not only during sludge conditioning but also in subsequent sludge disposal. This study was to investigate emission characteristics of ammonia (NH(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) generated from sewage sludge conditioned by three representative conditioners, i.e., organic polymers, iron salts and skeleton builders, F-S (Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders) composite conditioner. The results demonstrate that polyacrylamide (PAM) has an insignificant effect on emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds, because the properties, sulfur and nitrogen speciations are similar in PAM-conditioned sludge and raw sludge (RS). Significant increases of SO(2) and H(2)S emissions in the H(2)SO(4) conditioning process were observed due to the accelerated decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in acidic environment. Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. However, under strong alkaline conditions, free ammonia or protonated amine in sludge can be easily converted to volatile ammonia, resulting in a significant release of NH(3). PMID:22902143

Liu, Huan; Luo, Guang-Qian; Hu, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Yao, Hong

2012-10-15

184

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

185

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

186

A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2) with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to -27% with minimal and increased up to +71% with maximal factors, while in January 2006, the changes in monthly BVOC emissions were -54 and +56% with minimal and maximal factors, respectively. The new seasonality approach leads to a reduction in the annual emissions compared with non-adjusted data. The strongest reduction occurs in OVOC (up to -32%), the weakest in isoprene (as little as -19%). If also enzyme seasonality is taken into account, however, isoprene reacts with the steepest decrease of annual emissions, which are reduced by -44% to -49%, annual emissions of monoterpenes reduce between -30 and -35%. The sensitivity of the model to changes in temperature depends on the climatic zone but not on the vegetation inventory. The sensitivity is higher for temperature increases of 3 K (+31% to +64%) than decreases by the same amount (-20 to -35%). The climatic zones "Cold except summer" and "arid" are most sensitive to temperature changes in January for isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively, while in June, "polar" is most sensitive to temperature for both isoprene and monoterpenes. Our model predicts the oxygenated volatile organic compounds to be the most abundant fraction of the annual European emissions (3571-5328 Gg yr-1), followed by monoterpenes (2964-4124 Gg yr-1), isoprene (1450-2650 Gg yr-1) and sesquiterpenes (150-257 Gg yr-1). We find regions with high isoprene emissions (most notably the Iberian Peninsula), but overall, oxygenated VOC dominate with 43-45% (depending on the vegetation inventory) contribution to the total annual BVOC emissions in Europe. Isoprene contributes between 18-21%, monoterpenes 33-36% and sesquiterpenes contribute 1-2%. We compare the concentrations of biogenic species simulated by an air quality model with measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes in Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) for both summer and winter. The agreement between observed and modelled concentrations is better in summer than in winter. This can partly be explained with the difficulty to model weather conditions in winter accurately, but also with the increased an

Oderbolz, D. C.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, I.; Steinbrecher, R.; Skjøth, C. A.; Plaß-Dülmer, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

2013-02-01

187

A novel approach to emission modelling of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from vegetation are important for the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Therefore, BVOC emission are an important input for air quality models. To model these emissions with high spatial resolution, the accuracy of the underlying vegetation inventory is crucial. We present a BVOC emission model that accommodates different vegetation inventories and uses satellite-based measurements of greenness instead of pre-defined vegetation periods. This approach to seasonality implicitly treats effects caused by water or nutrient availability, altitude and latitude on a plant stand. Additionally, we test the influence of proposed seasonal variability in enzyme activity on BVOC emissions. In its present setup, the emission model calculates hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid. In this study, emissions based on three different vegetation inventories are compared with each other and diurnal and seasonal variations in Europe are investigated for the year 2006. Two of these vegetation inventories require information on tree-cover as an input. We compare three different land-cover inventories (USGS GLCC, GLC2000 and Globcover 2.2) with respect to tree-cover. The often-used USGS GLCC land-cover inventory leads to a severe reduction of BVOC emissions due to a potential miss-attribution of broad-leaved trees and reduced tree-cover compared to the two other land-cover inventories. To account for uncertainties in the land-cover classification, we introduce land-cover correction factors for each relevant land-use category to adjust the tree-cover. The results are very sensitive to these factors within the plausible range. For June 2006, total monthly BVOC emissions decreased up to -27% with minimal and increased up to +71% with maximal factors, while in January 2006, the changes in monthly BVOC emissions were -54 and +56% with minimal and maximal factors, respectively. The new seasonality approach leads to a reduction in the annual emissions compared with non-adjusted data. The strongest reduction occurs in OVOC (up to -32%), the weakest in isoprene (as little as -19%). If also enzyme seasonality is taken into account, however, isoprene reacts with the steepest decrease of annual emissions, which are reduced by -44% to -49%, annual emissions of monoterpenes reduce between -30 and -35%. The sensitivity of the model to changes in temperature depends on the climatic zone but not on the vegetation inventory. The sensitivity is higher for temperature increases of 3 K (+31% to +64%) than decreases by the same amount (-20 to -35%). The climatic zones "Cold except summer" and "arid" are most sensitive to temperature changes in January for isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively, while in June, "polar" is most sensitive to temperature for both isoprene and monoterpenes. Our model predicts the oxygenated volatile organic compounds to be the most abundant fraction of the annual European emissions (3571-5328 Gg yr-1), followed by monoterpenes (2964-4124 Gg yr-1), isoprene (1450-2650 Gg yr-1) and sesquiterpenes (150-257 Gg yr-1). We find regions with high isoprene emissions (most notably the Iberian Peninsula), but overall, oxygenated VOC dominate with 43-45% (depending on the vegetation inventory) contribution to the total annual BVOC emissions in Europe. Isoprene contributes between 18-21%, monoterpenes 33-36% and sesquiterpenes contribute 1-2%. We compare the concentrations of biogenic species simulated by an air quality model with measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes in Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) for both summer and winter. The agreement between observed and modelled concentrations is better in summer than in winter. This can partly be explained with the difficulty to model weather conditions in winter accurately, but also with the increased an

Oderbolz, D. C.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, I.; Steinbrecher, R.; Skjøth, C. A.; Plaß-Dülmer, C.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

2012-08-01

188

Nitrogen compound emission from biomass burning in tropical African savanna FOS\\/DECAFE 1991 experiment (Lamto, Ivory Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous nitrogen compounds (NOx, NOy, NH3, N2O) were measured at ground level in smoke plumes of prescribed savanna fires in Lamto, in the southern Ivory Coast, during the FOS\\/DECAFE experiment in January 1991. During the flaming phase, the linear regression between d[NOx] and d[CO2] (differences in concentration between smoke plumes and atmosheric background) results volumic emission ratio d[NOx]\\/d[CO2]=1.37×10-3 with only

Robert Delmas; Jean Pierre Lacaux; Jean Claude Menaut; Luc Abbadie; Xavier Roux; Gunter Helas; Jurgen Lobert

1995-01-01

189

Top-Down Constraints on the Emissions of Anthropogenic Volatile Organic Compounds from a Mega-City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the CalNex study in May-June of 2010, an extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured in the Los Angeles basin and its in- and outflow areas. Measurements were made from the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft, the research vessel Atlantis and a ground site in Pasadena, California. In this presentation, the results are used to derive top-down constraints on the emissions of anthropogenic VOCs from this North-American megacity. The VOC data from CalNex in 2010 are put in perspective by comparing them with results from an earlier flight of the NOAA WP-3D in the Los Angeles basin in 2002, from a number of other earlier studies and from two different air quality monitoring networks. Strongly decreasing trends of ~7% per year are observed for most VOCs that are emitted from motor vehicles or photo-chemically produced from these emissions. Decreasing trends are less strong for small alkanes, which are mostly from natural gas related emissions, and oxygenated VOCs produced from them. The composition of urban VOC emissions was determined using the data obtained by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry at the ground site in Pasadena. Emission ratios of hydrocarbons versus ethyne were obtained using two methods. First, emission ratios were determined from nighttime data only. Second, the degree of photochemical processing of the sampled air masses was estimated, and emission ratios were determined by extrapolating to a zero photochemical age. Both methods agreed within the combined uncertainties for most VOCs. The composition of urban VOC emissions in Los Angeles was compared with other urban regions including in the U.S. and Europe and found to be similar. Measurements of ethanol at the ground site in Pasadena showed much higher mixing ratios than observed earlier in the northeastern U.S. The difference is attributed in part to the strongly increased use of fuel ethanol in the U.S.: in 2010, about 10% of gasoline consisted of ethanol, whereas that percentage was about 1% in the early 2000s. The relative importance of emissions and photochemical formation of oxygenated VOCs is also studied using data from the ground site in Pasadena. It is found that aldehydes, ketones and glyoxal have significant direct emissions in addition to secondary formation sources. The direct emissions are not well represented in emission inventories. Acids have no or small direct emissions but significant secondary formation that is difficult to account for using our best understanding of the gas-phase chemistry. Alcohols have direct emission sources but no or small secondary formation.

De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Borbon, A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Parrish, D. D.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.

2012-12-01

190

Thermal desorption-gas chromatography for the determination of emission of volatile organic compounds from furnishing materials.  

PubMed

In order to determine volatile organic compounds (VOC) released from the building and furnishing materials gas chromatography with air samples enrichment on Tenax TA and thermal desorption was used. The results obtained were compared with the results of air samples enrichment on active carbon with carbon disulfide extraction. To the thermal desorption the home made device, a similar to device developed at Research Triangle Institute (USA), was used. The both methods of the air samples enrichment with thermal desorption or carbon disulfide extraction showed that the emission of the volatile organic compounds from the PVC floor covering is very low within the range from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/m2.h. Thermal desorption technique allows to detect a larger number of compounds in trace levels. PMID:8727468

Igielska, B; Wiglusz, R; Jarnuszkiewicz, I

1995-01-01

191

Emissions of biogenic sulphur compounds from several wetland soils in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission rates of the biogenic sulphur gases hydrogen sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide and dimethyl disulphide have been measured from the exposed soils of five wetland plant communities in Florida. Dimethyl sulphide and hydrogen sulphide were the predominant species emitted. All the studied ecosystems showed diel variation in the emission rates of the biogenic sulphur gases with the highest emissions rates occurring early- to mid-afternoon, and the lowest emission rates occurring during the early morning. The relative magnitude of emissions from the individual ecosystems followed the trend Distichlis spicata > Avicennia germinans > Batis maritima ? Juncus roemerianus ? Cladium jamaicense. Only the emission rates from the peaty D. spicata site are comparable in magnitude to previous emission measurements in wetland ecosystems of Spartina alterniflora and associated mud flats.

Cooper, W. J.; Cooper, D. J.; Saltzman, E. S.; Mello, W. Z. de; Savoie, D. L.; Zika, R. G.; Prospero, J. M.

192

Global fire emission estimates (2007-2012) derived from inversion of formaldehyde columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have a strong impact on the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere and the radiative forcing. The fire emission estimates bear, however, important uncertainties due to the limited amount of field measurements, uncertainties in satellite burned area products, as well as empirical relations used for fuel type allocations. Atmospheric inversions are an alternative approach that provides new independent constraints on the fire estimates. This method involves measurements of trace gases combined with atmospheric models, where optimization algorithms are used to minimize the discrepancy between the model and the observations by adjusting the emission estimates. In this communication, we present global emission estimates of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), inferred from inversion of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument (De Smedt et al., 2012). The IMAGESv2 global CTM provides the relationship between the emissions and the vertical columns. The Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFEDv3, van der Werf et al., 2010) is used as a priori bottom-up inventory in the model. The agreement between formaldehyde columns calculated by the IMAGESv2 model and the formaldehyde columns from GOME-2 is optimized using the adjoint modelling technique (Stavrakou et al., 2009). The obtained top-down fire emission estimates between 2007 and 2012 are available at the GlobEmission data portal (http://www.globemission.eu) on a monthly basis and at 0.5°x0.5° spatial resolution. The emission estimates are evaluated against three independent emission inventories: GFEDv3 (van der Werf et al., 2010), GFAS (Kaiser et al., 2012) and FINN (Wiedinmyer et al., 2011). Furthermore, simulated CO columns over the fire-affected regions will be compared with CO columns retrieved from the IASI sensor (George et al., 2009).

Bauwens, Maite; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-Francois; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel

2014-05-01

193

Past and future changes in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions simulated with a global dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an interactive global biogenic emission and dynamic vegetation model, we investigate the evolution of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by the terrestrial biosphere in four scenarios: the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years BP), the preindustrial (1850s), present-day (1990s) and the future (2100). The combined effects of foliar expansion, climate change and ecosystems redistribution impact strongly on biogenic emissions. Total biogenic VOC emissions increase from 331 TgC/yr at the LGM to 702 TgC/yr at the preindustrial, 725 TgC/yr at present-day and to 1251 TgC/yr under future conditions. If the tropics remain a major source region, a substantial decrease in VOC emissions is calculated over Amazonia for 2100 due to the recession of tropical forests in response to climate change. The Northern Hemisphere becomes a significant source of VOC in the future and globally, emissions increase by 27% for isoprene and 51% for monoterpenes compared to the present.

Lathière, J.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; De Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Krinner, G.; Folberth, G. A.

2005-10-01

194

Effect of land-use change and management on biogenic volatile organic compound emissions - selecting climate-smart cultivars.  

PubMed

Land-use change (LUC) has fundamentally altered the form and function of the terrestrial biosphere. Increasing human population, the drive for higher living standards and the potential challenges of mitigating and adapting to global environmental change mean that further changes in LUC are unavoidable. LUC has direct consequences on climate not only via emissions of greenhouse gases and changing the surface energy balance but also by affecting the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprenoids, which dominate global BVOC emissions, are highly reactive and strongly modify atmospheric composition. The effects of LUC on BVOC emissions and related atmospheric chemistry have been largely ignored so far. However, compared with natural ecosystems, most tree species used in bioenergy plantations are strong BVOC emitters, whereas intensively cultivated crops typically emit less BVOCs. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on LUC-driven BVOC emissions and how these might affect atmospheric composition and climate. We further discuss land management and plant-breeding strategies, which could be taken to move towards climate-friendly BVOC emissions while simultaneously maintaining or improving key ecosystem functions such as crop yield under a changing environment. PMID:25255900

Rosenkranz, Maaria; Pugh, Thomas A M; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Arneth, Almut

2014-09-25

195

Air-surface exchange of nonmethane organic compounds at a Grassland site: seasonal variations and stressed emissions.  

SciTech Connect

Emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were measured by a static enclosure technique at a grassland site in the Midwestern United States during the growing seasons over a 2-year period. A mixture of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and oxygenated hydrocarbons (OxHCs) was emitted from the surface at rates exhibiting large seasonal and year-to-year variations. The average emission rate (and standard error) of the total NMOCs around noontime on sunny days during the growing seasons for the 2-year period was 1,300 {+-} 170 {micro}g m-2 h-1 (mass of the total NMOCs per area of enclosed soil surface per hour) or 5.5 {+-} 0.9 {micro}g g-1 h-1 (mass of the total NMOCs per mass of dry plant biomass in an enclosure per hour), with about 10% and 70% of the emissions being composed of tentatively identified NMHCs and OxHCs, respectively. Methanol was apparently derived from both the soil and vegetation and exhibited an average emission rate of 460 {+-} 73 {micro}g m-2 h-1 (1.4 {+-} 0.2 {micro}g g-1 h-1), which was the largest emission among the NMOCs. The year-to-year variation in the precipitation pattern greatly affected the NMOC emission rates. Emission rates normalized to biomass density exhibited a linear decrease as the growing season progressed. The emission rates of some NMOCs, particularly the OxHCs, from vegetation subjected to hypoxia, frost, and physical stresses were significantly greater than the average values observed at the site. Emissions of monoterpenes (a- and {beta}-pinene, limonene, and myrcene) and cis-3-hexen-1-ol were accelerated during the flowering of the plants and were much greater than those predicted by algorithms that correlated emission rates with temperature. Herbaceous vegetation is estimated to contribute about 40% and 50% of the total NMOC and monoterpene emissions, respectively, in grasslands; the remaining contributions are from woody species within grasslands. Contributions of isoprene emissions from herbaceous vegetation in grasslands are negligible. Grasslands are estimated to contribute about 10% of the total biogenic NMOC emissions in the United States.

Fukui, Y.; Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

1998-06-20

196

A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions  

E-print Network

standard by comparing the amount of n-octane "seen" by the FID to the amount of n-octane injected signal is determined by the number of carbons in and the complexity of each compound, an effective carbon number is used to calculate the moles of the compound from the integrated area. Acknowledgements

Collins, Gary S.

197

Effects of a combined Diesel particle filter-DeNOx system (DPN) on reactive nitrogen compounds emissions: a parameter study.  

PubMed

The impact of a combined diesel particle filter-deNO(x) system (DPN) on emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) was studied varying the urea feed factor (?), temperature, and residence time, which are key parameters of the deNO(x) process. The DPN consisted of a platinum-coated cordierite filter and a vanadia-based deNO(x) catalyst supporting selective catalytic reduction (SCR) chemistry. Ammonia (NH?) is produced in situ from thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid (HNCO). HNCO and NH? are both toxic and highly reactive intermediates. The deNO(x) system was only part-time active in the ISO8178/4 C1cycle. Urea injection was stopped and restarted twice. Mean NO and NO? conversion efficiencies were 80%, 95%, 97% and 43%, 87%, 99%, respectively, for ? = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2. HNCO emissions increased from 0.028 g/h engine-out to 0.18, 0.25, and 0.26 g/h at ? = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, whereas NH? emissions increased from <0.045 to 0.12, 1.82, and 12.8 g/h with maxima at highest temperatures and shortest residence times. Most HNCO is released at intermediate residence times (0.2-0.3 s) and temperatures (300-400 °C). Total RNC efficiencies are highest at ? = 1.0, when comparable amounts of reduced and oxidized compounds are released. The DPN represents the most advanced system studied so far under the VERT protocol achieving high conversion efficiencies for particles, NO, NO?, CO, and hydrocarbons. However, we observed a trade-off between deNO(x) efficiency and secondary emissions. Therefore, it is important to adopt such DPN technology to specific application conditions to take advantage of reduced NO(x) and particle emissions while avoiding NH? and HNCO slip. PMID:23214996

Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

2012-12-18

198

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at an urban site of Beijing: intercomparisons, emission ratios and factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) were used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in August - September, 2010 (summer) and December, 2010 - January, 2011 (winter) at an urban site on campus of Peking University. During the summer campaign, other instruments were also deployed at the site, including a custom-built GC-MS/FID, a GC-FID/PID, whole air samples (WAS) collected in canisters, and DNPH cartridges. VOCs concentrations measured by PTR-MS in the summer campaign compared well with the GC methods for most of the measured compounds. VOCs concentrations in winter strongly correlated with the combustion tracer CO for both hydrocarbons and oxygenates VOCs (OVOCs) and emission ratios to CO were calculated from linear fits of ambient concentrations. Emission ratios of aromatics in winter were significantly lower than those in summer, which may be due to: (1) higher CO emissions from coal burning for space heating in winter of Beijing; (2) higher industrial/solvent evaporations of aromatics in summer. The VOCs dataset with 19 species from PTR-MS and 56 species from GC-MS/FID was used for PMF analysis. A solution of five factors with no rotation (fPeak=0) was determined to be the best fit. Uncertainties of PMF analysis were explored by bootstrap method. The five factors included a fresh primary emissions factor (Factor 1, 27%), an aged primary emissions factor (Factor 2, 19%), a secondary & aged factor (Factor 3, 33%), a biogenic factor (Factor 4, 4%) and an industrial-like factor (Factor 5, 17%). The fresh and aged primary factor correlated well with NOx and CO, respectively. And the secondary & aged factor correlated well with PAN and Ox (O3+NO2). The contributions in different factors for various hydrocarbons are dependent on their reactivity. Comparing the obtained factor profiles shows that the aged primary emission factor and the secondary & aged factor are photochemically connected with the fresh primary emission factor. It suggested that PMF can provide information of photochemical processes in the atmosphere. The biogenic factor has a low MVK+MACR/isoprene ratio (0.506), indicating that it represents very fresh biogenic emissions and only transport no more than 0.5 hour in the urban environment.

Yuan, B.; Shao, M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Bon, D.; Wang, M.; Lu, S.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Y.

2011-12-01

199

75 FR 82363 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Measures for Lithographic and Letterpress Printing in Cleveland AGENCY: Environmental Protection...approved offset lithographic and letterpress printing volatile organic compound (VOC) rule...revised offset lithographic and letterpress printing rule (OAC 3745-21-22),...

2010-12-30

200

Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

1995-01-23

201

Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control  

E-print Network

in this program involves the evaluation of portable emission control systems. The systems are sized to process a slipstream of 100 to 300 cfm of solvent laden air (SLA) vented from the industrial processes. A number of different emission control technologie... to storage. Different types and qualit'es of foam are produced from different mixtures of base materials and differen concentrations of foaming agents. Duri g the demonstration, a slipstream of the exhaust was directed to the control equipment...

Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

202

Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

2005-10-01

203

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from nine tree species used in an urban tree-planting program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions of nine urban tree species were studied to assess the air quality impacts from planting a large quantity of these trees in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, through the Mile High Million tree-planting initiative. The deciduous tree species studied were Sugar maple, Ohio buckeye, northern hackberry, Turkish hazelnut, London planetree, American basswood, Littleleaf linden, Valley Forge elm, and Japanese zelkova. These tree species were selected using the i-Tree Species Selector (itreetools.org). BVOC emissions from the selected tree species were investigated to evaluate the Species Selector data under the Colorado climate and environmental growing conditions. Individual tree species were subjected to branch enclosure experiments in which foliar emissions of BVOC were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges. The cartridge samples were analyzed for monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), and other C10-C15 BVOC using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectroscopy (GC-FID/MS). Individual compounds and their emission rates (ER) were identified. MT were observed in all tree species, exhibiting the following total MT basal emission rates (BER; with a 1-? lower bound, upper bound uncertainty window): Sugar maple, 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) ?g g-1 h-1; London planetree, 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.33 (0.09, 0.57) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.42 (0.26, 0.58) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.71 (0.33, 1.09) ?g g-1 h-1; Valley Forge elm, 0.96 (0.01, 1.92) ?g g-1 h-1; Turkish hazelnut, 1.30 (0.32, 2.23) ?g g-1 h-1; American basswood, 1.50 (0.40, 2.70) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 6.61 (1.76, 11.47) ?g g-1 h-1. SQT emissions were seen in five tree species with total SQT BER of: London planetree, 0.11 (0.01, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.11 (0.05, 0.16) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 0.44 (0.06, 0.83) ?g g-1 h-1. The following trees exhibited emissions of other C10-C15 volatile organic compounds (VOC): Littleleaf linden, 0.15 (0.10, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Ohio buckeye, 0.39 (0.14, 0.65) ?g g-1 h-1; and Turkish hazelnut, 0.72 (0.49, 0.95) ?g g-1 h-1. All tree species studied in this experiment were confirmed to be low isoprene emitters. Compared to many other potential urban tree species, the selected trees can be considered low to moderate BVOC emitters under Colorado growing conditions, with total emission rates one-tenth to one-hundredth the rates of potential high-BVOC emitting trees. The emissions data were used to estimate the impact of this targeted tree planting on the urban BVOC flux and atmospheric VOC burden. Selecting the low-emitting tree species over known high BVOC emitters is equivalent to avoiding VOC emissions from nearly 500,000 cars from the inner city traffic.

Curtis, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Baroch, C.; Daly, R.; Davis, S.

2014-10-01

204

Ambient Concentrations and Emissions of a Comprehensive Suite of Volatile Organic Compounds at the CalNex-Bakersfield Supersite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient concentrations of ~250 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were measured hourly via in-situ gas chromatography at the Bakersfield, CA supersite in May & June 2010 as part of the California at the Nexus between Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) Experiment. Measurements included anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs containing 1 to 17 carbon atoms and a variety of functional groups (e.g. aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, halogens, sulfur, & nitrogen). We quantified a very broad range of primary gas-phase organics that lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and tropospheric ozone, and we also observed many gas-phase products of VOC photooxidation. Many of the observed VOCs are volatile and have been measured previously, but in this experiment we tailored the instrumentation to also measure compounds in the intermediate volatility range, which are thought to contribute significantly to SOA and have rarely or never been reported from in-situ measurements. Among the observed gas-phase VOCs with lower volatility are PAHs (e.g. naphthalene, methylnaphthalenes, and dimethylnaphthalenes), alkanes up to 17 carbon atoms, aromatics and cycloalkanes with multiple alkyl groups, and functionalized VOCs with lower volatility. Analyses of the diurnal variability, covariance between compounds, weekday/weekend differences, and statistical analyses for source apportionment such as Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) will be utilized to establish the major sources of these compounds and estimate regional emissions. Our VOC data provides excellent context for analysis of the broad array of gas and particle phase measurements during CalNex2010, which will be used to elucidate the chemistry leading to formation of SOA and tropospheric ozone in this polluted region of California with diverse urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural emission sources.

Gentner, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2010-12-01

205

The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines  

E-print Network

States, more deaths are attributed to lung cancer than breast, prostate, and colon cancers combined. It is estimated that 169,400 new cases were diagnosed in 2002 and 154,900 deaths were attributed to lung cancer [1] [2]. According to studies by World... THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL LINES A Thesis by ANUPAM MAROLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

Maroly, Anupam

2005-08-29

206

Improving the accuracy of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio determination for P, N, S, O, Cl, and Br-containing organic compounds using atomic emission detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate the dependence of atomic emission detector C and H response on microwave-induced plasma conditions and to improve the accuracy of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio determination for trialkylphosphates, herbicides, chlorophenols, and sulfur-containing organic compounds. Compounds which differed structurally from the analytes were used as reference compounds. It was found that when the oxygen concentration in

Elena S Chernetsova; Alexander I Revelsky; Dupont Durst; Tim G Sobolevsky; Igor A Revelsky

2005-01-01

207

Anthropogenic emissions in Nigeria and implications for atmospheric ozone pollution: A view from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria has a high population density and large fossil fuel resources but very poorly managed energy infrastructure. Satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) reveal very large sources of anthropogenic nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) from the Lagos megacity and oil/gas operations in the Niger Delta. This is supported by aircraft observations over Lagos and satellite observations of methane in the Niger Delta. Satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) show large seasonal emissions from open fires in December-February (DJF). Ventilation of central Nigeria is severely restricted at that time of year, leading to very poor ozone air quality as observed from aircraft (MOZAIC) and satellite (TES). Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) suggest that maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone exceeds 70 ppbv over the region on a seasonal mean basis, with significant contributions from both open fires (15-20 ppbv) and fuel/industrial emissions (7-9 ppbv). The already severe ozone pollution in Nigeria could worsen in the future as a result of demographic and economic growth, although this would be offset by a decrease in open fires.

Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K.; Lerot, C.; Zhang, L.; Yu, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Sauvage, B.

2014-12-01

208

Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.  

PubMed

This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. PMID:20416922

Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

2010-05-01

209

Canopy light cues affect emission of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced volatile organic compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The effects of plant competition for light on the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied by investigating how different light qualities that occur in dense vegetation affect the emission of constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced VOCs. Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) plants and Pieris brassicae caterpillars were used as a biological system to study the effects of light quality manipulations on VOC emissions and attraction of herbivores. VOCs were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and the effects of light quality, notably the red : far red light ratio (R : FR), on expression of genes associated with VOC production were studied using reverse transcriptase–quantitative PCR. The emissions of both constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced green leaf volatiles and terpenoids were partially suppressed under low R : FR and severe shading conditions. Accordingly, the VOC-based preference of neonates of the specialist lepidopteran herbivore P. brassicae was significantly affected by the R : FR ratio. We conclude that VOC-mediated interactions among plants and between plants and organisms at higher trophic levels probably depend on light alterations caused by nearby vegetation. Studies on plant–plant and plant–insect interactions through VOCs should take into account the light quality within dense stands when extrapolating to natural and agricultural field conditions. PMID:23845065

Kegge, Wouter; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Soler, Roxina; Eijk, Marleen Vergeer-Van; Dicke, Marcel; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

2013-01-01

210

Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

2014-10-01

211

Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds - Final Report - 08/15/1997 - 02/14/2001  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research was to determine if the shallow suspended growth reactor (SSGR) could provide sufficient treatment performance of organic and reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds, at 50 C to meet the EPA ''cluster rule'' regulatory limits. The biodegradation of a mixture of organic compounds that could be present in pulp and paper high volume low concentration gas streams was evaluated at 50 C in a bench-scale SSGR. The removal of methanol was followed in particular, and was mathematically modeled to evaluate the effect of process design and operating parameters on methanol removal. Additional tests were performed to obtain mass transfer and biodegradation kinetic parameters for the model. The acclimation of microbial populations capable of degrading TRS compounds from various seed sources was studied in batch reactors at 30 and 50 C. The degradation of TRS compounds in bench-scale SSGR was studied at 20-50 C. Also, the biodegradation kinetic and mass transfer coefficients for alpha-terpinene and gamma-terpinene were studied. Finally, a pilot plant was constructed and operated at Simpson pulp and paper mill in Tacoma, WA.

Stensel, H. David; Strand, Stuart E.

2001-03-14

212

Emission of volatile organic compounds during composting of municipal solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). A laboratory experiment was conducted using organic components of MSW that were decomposed under controlled aerobic conditions. Mixed paper primarily produced alkylated benzenes, alcohols and alkanes. Yard wastes primarily produced terpenes, alkylated

Dimitris P Komilis; Robert K Ham; Jae K Park

2004-01-01

213

Volatile organic compound emissions from different stages of Cananga odorata flower development.  

PubMed

Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was ?-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were ?-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and ?-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest. PMID:24979401

Qin, Xiao-Wei; Hao, Chao-Yun; He, Shu-Zhen; Wu, Gang; Tan, Le-He; Xu, Fei; Hu, Rong-Suo

2014-01-01

214

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INTERIOR ALKYD PAINT  

EPA Science Inventory

Alkyd paint continues to be used indoors for application to wood trim, cabinet surfaces, and some kitchen and bathroom walls. Paint may represent a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors depending on the frequency of use and amount of surface paint. The U...

215

Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the decomposition of plant litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during plant litter decomposition, and such VOCs can have wide-ranging impacts on atmospheric chemistry, terrestrial biogeochemistry, and soil ecology. However, we currently have a limited understanding of the relative importance of biotic versus abiotic sources of these VOCs and whether distinct types of litter emit different types and quantities of VOCs during decomposition. We

Christopher M. Gray; Russell K. Monson; Noah Fierer

2010-01-01

216

Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

2012-09-01

217

Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.  

PubMed

During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded. PMID:23179618

Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

2013-10-01

218

Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 ?g C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 ?g-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC-emitting species in the genera Bambusa, Elaeis, Eucalyptus, Hevea, Pinus, and Populus (among others). This could result in profound changes in atmospheric chemistry in these regions, for instance, terpene emissions from H. brasiliensis could increase wet season biogenic organic aerosol burdens by approximately a factor of 2 in the Xishuangbanna region. Increases in plantation area established with high isoprene emitting species, (e.g. Bambusa spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) are also projected for China and other parts of Southeast Asia in the near future. Thus, landcover change in South Asian landscapes is usually associated with large increases in BVOC flux with the potential to alter the atmospheric chemical composition and air quality over this rapidly developing region.

Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

219

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM 46 IN-USE PASSENGER CARS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions from automobiles have long been considered a prime source of pollutants involved in smog formation and ozone production. The reactive potential of the species emitted has been studied extensively, and many reactivity schemes have been proposed. Most of the data on the d...

220

Acoustic emission analysis as a non-destructive test procedure for fiber compound structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of acoustic emission analysis is explained in scientific terms. The detection of acoustic events, their localization, damage discrimination, and event summation curves are discussed. A block diagram of the concept of damage-free testing of fiber-reinforced synthetic materials is depicted. Prospects for application of the concept are assessed.

Block, J.

1983-01-01

221

EMISSION OF SULFUR-BEARING COMPOUNDS FROM MOTOR VEHICLE AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES. A REPORT TO CONGRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was generated in response to section 403(g) of The Clean Air Act as amended August, 1977. The report covers (1) a review of emission factors for H2SO4, SO2, sulfate, H2S, and carbonyl sulfide from motor vehicles, motor vehicle engines and aircraft engines; (2) a revie...

222

Trends in the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on chassis dynamometers in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present fleet average VOC emission rate trends for the longest running in-use light-duty gasoline Vehicle Surveillance Program (VSP) in Southern California. Tailpipe emissions data from a limited number of vehicles tested as part of the VSP show that the 2003 fleet average emissions decreased by about 80% for most VOCs relative to the 1995 fleet. Vehicle evaporative emission rates decreased more than 90% for most compounds from the 1999 to the 2003 fleet. Tailpipe benzene-normalized emission rate ratios for most compounds were relatively stable. Evaporative emission rate ratios and weight percentages have changed significantly from the 1999 fleet to the 2003 fleet indicating a significant change in the evaporative emission species patterns. The tailpipe NMHC (Non-Methane HydroCarbon) emission reductions observed between the 1995 fleet and the 2003 fleet likely resulted from the retirement of non-catalyst vehicles in the fleets (49%) and the combined effect of the turn-over of catalyst-equipped vehicles and switch to Phase III gasoline (27%). Our results are consistent with those observed in the Swiss tunnel study. Benzene-normalized emission rate ratios for C2 compounds, aldehydes, and 1,3 butadiene are much higher in tailpipe exhaust than those in evaporative emissions. C4-C5 hydrocarbon ratios in evaporative emissions are much higher than those in exhaust. C8 aromatic compound ratios are comparable for tailpipe and evaporative emissions (hot-soak). Such ratio differences can be used to estimate the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust and evaporative emission to ambient VOCs. The contribution of emissions from malfunctioning vehicles to total fleet emissions increased from 16% to 32% for the 1995 fleet to the 2003 fleet even though the percentage of malfunctioning vehicles in the fleet decreased from 10% to 5%. Most malfunctioning vehicles are vehicles that are at least 10 years old and generally have higher acetylene emission rate ratios. The effective identification and control of these malfunctioning vehicles will become increasingly important for improving mobile source emission estimates as well as reducing future tailpipe emissions.

Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

2014-02-01

223

Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2, NO2, CO and EC concentrations, suggesting that the various controls on emissions implemented over the last two decades are well represented in the emission inventories developed in this study. These inventories were processed by SMOKE and are now ready to be used for regional chemistry transport model simulations over the 1990-2010 period.

Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

2013-08-01

224

Emission of volatile organic compounds from two silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth) clones grown under ambient and elevated CO 2 and different O 3 concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two clones (4 and 80) of silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth) trees exposed to doubled ambient CO 2 and O 3 singly and in combination, in open-top chambers. VOCs were collected in July and in August from detached twigs. The effect of twig detachment as such on emissions was separately studied, and it increased the emissions of green leaf volatiles. The emission in July from both clones was dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) germacrene D, ( E,E)- ?-farnesene, ?-copaene and ?-bourbonene, while in August, the emission was dominated by monoterpenes (MTs) ( E)- ?-ocimene and ( Z)-ocimene. Elevated CO 2 concentration marginally decreased total MT emission in July, while in August the total MT emission was enhanced by elevated CO 2. O 3 or CO 2+O 3-exposure did not have any effect on total MT or total SQT emissions. In general clones 4 and 80 emitted total quantified VOCs (19 compounds) 12520 and 8590 ng g -1 fw h -1 in July, and 4640 and 4990 ng g -1 fw h -1 in August, respectively. Clone 4 emitted more ?-pinene+myrcene, ( Z)-ocimene and ( E)- ?-ocimene in July than clone 80, which emitted more linalool in July, and hexanal in August than clone 4. Elevated CO 2 tended to decrease the emissions of nonanal and ( E)- ?-ocimene in July, while O 3 and CO 2+O 3 had no effects on emissions. Our results indicate that elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations do not have considerable effect on silver birch emissions by increasing the carbon allocation to VOCs or by inducing the emission of novel compounds. Other factors, such as temperature, light and herbivores might conceal the effects of these atmospheric gases. High SQT proportion in emission profile suggests that B. pendula may have substantial role in biogenic aerosol formation in boreal forests.

Vuorinen, Terhi; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Vapaavuori, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

225

Levels of selected organic compounds in materials for candle production and human exposure to candle emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) selected chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some volatile organic compounds (VOC) were analysed in the exhaust fumes of candles made from different waxes and finishing materials. To guarantee defined burning conditions a chamber was developed for the sampling of the exhaust fumes. Using a simple exposure model, the inhalative uptake of PCDD\\/PCDF by

C. Lau; H. Fiedler; O. Hutzinger; K.-H. Schwind; J. Hosseinpour

1997-01-01

226

Effect of methanol-containing additive on the emission of carbonyl compounds from a heavy-duty diesel engine.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at determining the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the emission of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) generated from the diesel engine. For this experiment, a heavy-duty diesel engine was connected with a full flow critical flow ventri (CFV) type dilution tunnel, a Schenck GS-350 DC dynamometer, and a DC-IV control system in series. The operating conditions of the heavy-duty diesel engine for both cold-start and hot-start Transient Cycle tests and for both low-load and high-load steady-state tests were ascertained. The exhaust of CBCs collected from a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH)-coated cartridge were first converted to corresponding hydrazone derivatives, which were then solvent-eluted and analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) with an ultraviolet-visible (UV) detector. When either 10% or 15% MCA was used, the emission factors of the CBCs acrolein and isovaleraldehyde increased by at least 91%. Accordingly, future studies must be done to cut down the emission of CBCs when MCA and methanol alternative fuels are used. PMID:10686377

Chao, H R; Lin, T C; Chao, M R; Chang, F H; Huang, C I; Chen, C B

2000-03-13

227

Emissions of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) as a landfill gas (LFG): A comparative study of young and old landfill facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To offer some insights into the processes associated with odor release from a strong source environment, concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) in landfill gas (LFG) were measured at two landfill (LF) facilities within a small city boundary through four seasons. The LF sites investigated in this study are distinguished in that the young LF (namely, YLF) was selected to represent a site of active RSC emissions, while the old LF (namely, OLF) was selected for its weak RSC emissions. The LFG composition, when analyzed for a number of RSCs (hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), methyl mercaptan (CH 3SH), dimethyl sulfide ((CH 3) 2S), carbon disulfide (CS 2) and dimethyl disulfide ((CH 3) 2S 2)), was consistently predominated by H 2S from both sites. The mean and SD value of H 2S in the YLF were measured to be 139,070±144,340 ppb, while its counterparts in the OLF being 3.86±3.41 ppb. The emission concentration levels of H 2S were found to be distinguished from those of the other RSCs, depending on the LF aging. The H 2S results for both LF sites, when compared across seasons, were generally characterized as notable enhancement during summer relative to other seasons. The comparative analysis of relative composition between RSCs and other LFG constituents (such as CH 4, CO 2, and VOC) consistently indicate that the relative proportion of RSCs is substantially larger during the active LF stage (YLF) than in the inactive one (OLF).

Kim, Ki-Hyun

228

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2012-01-01

229

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2012-01-01

230

On the Emission of Heavy Clusters from Medium Mass Compound Nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragments with atomic number 6?Z?28 were measured in singles and in coincidence with emitted light charged particles in the 78Kr+40Ca reactions at 5.5 AMeV incident energy by means of the 4?-INDRA array at GANIL. Kinematical features of the fragments are compatible with a binary fission from compound nucleus. The cross-sections ?Z indicate the coexistence of macroscopic behaviour and structure effects. Fragment-particle coincidences show that fragments with Z?12 are excited below the separation energies of light particles.

Ademard, G.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.

231

Non-methane volatile organic compounds predict odor emitted from five tunnel ventilated broiler sheds.  

PubMed

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from mechanically ventilated poultry sheds in similar stages (32-36 d) of broiler production were measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), then identified using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC2) and the NIST11 database. Calibration models predicting odor measured by dilution olfactometry from NMVOC concentrations via orthogonal projection to latent structures (O-PLS) made good predictions (Rp(2)=0.83-0.87, RMSEp=137-175OU) using one to eight NMVOCs with either one or two latent variables representing odor concentration and character, respectively. Similar changes in odorant composition were observed in each sampling campaign, with samples collected early in the day more odorous and more sulfurous than samples collected later in the day. High litter moisture favored sulfur-containing odorants over alcohols, aldehydes and ketones but had little bearing on perceived odor, whereas high bird density favored alcohols, aldehydes and ketones over sulfur-containing odorants. Eight VOCs that were important predictors of odor across all sheds in order of decreasing importance were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), 2-3 butanedione, 3-methyl-butanal, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetoin, and 2-butanone. Four additional NMVOCs also influenced perceived odor although less predictably; these were n-hexane, 2-butanol, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and 1-octen-3-ol. All of the odorants are associated with microbial or fungal activity in the litter and manure, except n-hexane, which may originate from hexane-extracted soybean meal in the chicken feed. The organosulfides measured in this study may have arisen from the field sites as well as from the degradation of thiols captured on sorbent tubes during analysis by TD-GC/MS. PMID:24188627

Murphy, Kathleen R; Parcsi, Gavin; Stuetz, Richard M

2014-01-01

232

Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75). The ?CC of the emission concentrations were 20.5 ppmV for B0 and 15.7 ppmV for B100. When considering fuel blends, the measured ?CC were 21.4 ppmV, 22.5 ppmV, 20.4 ppmV, 14.2 ppmV, 11.4 ppmV and 14.7 ppmV, respectively, for B2, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B75. Among the target CC, both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the major contributors to the observed total CC levels. Except for acrolein and formaldehyde, all CC showed a clear trend of reduction in the emissions from B2 to B100 (40% reduction, on average). Both individual and total CC emission factors (pg g -1 of fuel burnt) were calculated for all tested biodiesel-diesel blends. The lowest total CC emission factor (2271 pg g -1) was found when B50 was used; the individual emission factors determined (pg g -1) were: 539.7 (formaldehyde), 1411 (acetaldehyde), 30.83 (acrolein), and 310.7 (propionaldehyde).

Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

233

Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their potential impact on the European volatile organic compound budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds, AFO 2000). European beech was characterized as a substantial emitter of monoterpenes, with sabinene being the predominant compound released. The monoterpene emission from European beech was shown to be a function of light and temperature and agreed well to emission algorithms that consider a light and temperature dependent release of volatile organics. Standard emission factors that were measured from these sunlit leaves of European beech ranged up to 4-13 ?g g-1 h-1 (normalized to 1000 ?mol m-2 s-1, 30°C) in the years of 2003 and 2002, respectively. The nighttime emission of monoterpene compounds was negligible. Also the artificial darkening of the sunlit branch during daylight conditions led to an immediate cessation of monoterpene emission. European beech is the dominating deciduous tree species in Europe. To demonstrate the effect of an updated monoterpene emission factor for European beech in combination with the consideration of a light and temperature dependent monoterpene emission, we applied a species based model simulation on a European scale. With respect to conventional estimates of the European volatile organic compound budget, the latter simulation resulted in relative increases of 16% by taking solely this tree species into account. On local scales these increases exceeded even more than 100% depending on the respective vegetation area coverage of European beech.

Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; KöBle, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

2006-08-01

234

Characterization of chlorinated compounds using a dual chlorine-selective pulsed discharge emission detector–helium-pulsed discharge photoionization detector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cl-selective pulsed discharge emission detector (Cl-PDED) response is dependent only upon the Cl content, irrespective of the molecular structures of the compounds. This provides a simple, fast quantitative method of analysis for chlorinated compounds. The response of the helium-pulsed discharge photoionization detector (He-PDPID) is a function of the molecular structure and the number of photoionizable electrons using the He2

Kefu Sun; Wayne E Wentworth; Stanley D Stearns

2000-01-01

235

Theory of molecular-orbital and compound-nucleus x-ray emission in heavy-ion-atom collisions with nuclear sticking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations are made of x-ray emission in head-on 200-MeV (lab) Ni+Ni and 860-MeV (lab) Yb+Yb collisions for various values of the compound nucleus lifetime?. TheK x-ray emission probability is obtained by coherently summing the amplitude for a molecular-orbital x-ray transition from the 2p?, 2p?, 3p?, or 3p? to the 1s? molecular orbital with the amplitude for a compound-nucleus x-ray transition

R. Anholt

1979-01-01

236

The emission characteristics and the related malodor intensities of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) in a large industrial complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the concentrations of major reduced sulfur compounds (RSC: H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS, CS 2 and DMDS) were determined from various emission sources located within the Ban-Wall (BW)/ Si-Hwa (SH) industrial complex in Ansan city, Korea. The measurement data were obtained from a total of 202 individual points at 77 individual companies during 2004-2005. The highest RSC concentration levels came most dominantly from H 2S (300 (mean) and 0.86 ppb (median)) followed by CS 2, while the results of CH 3, DMS, and DMDS are notably lower at the mean concentration levels of a few ppb. These data were evaluated further after being grouped into two different classification schemes: 9 industry sectors and 9 processing unit types. The strongest emissions of RSC, when evaluated among different industry sectors, are generally found from such industry types as leather, food, paper/pulp, as well as waste/sewage related ones. In contrast, when these RSC data are compared across different processing units, the highest values were seen most frequently from such units as junction boxes, aeration tanks, and settling tanks. The assessment of data in terms of relative contribution to malodor intensity showed that H 2S and CH 3SH are more important than others. The overall results of the present study suggest that information combining RSC speciation and types of anthropogenic activities may be used to distinguish the patterns of odorous pollution in areas affected by strong source processes.

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Choi, Ye-Jin; Koo, Youn-Seo

237

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux-gradient similarity methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) took place in Blodgett Forest, a Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, during summer 2009. We deployed a Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) to measure fluxes and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Eighteen ion species including the major BVOC expected at the site were measured sequentially at 5 heights to observe their vertical gradient from the forest floor to above the canopy. Fluxes of the 3 dominant BVOCs methanol, 2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes, were measured above the canopy by the eddy covariance method. Canopy scale fluxes were also determined by the flux-gradient similarity method (K-theory). A universal K (Kuniv) was determined as the mean of individual K's calculated from the measured fluxes divided by vertical gradients for methanol, MBO, and monoterpenes. This Kuniv was then multiplied by the gradients of each observed ion species to compute their fluxes. The flux-gradient similarity method showed very good agreement with the Eddy Covariance method. Fluxes are presented for all measured species and compared to historical measurements from the same site, and used to test emission algorithms used to model fluxes at the regional scale. MBO was the dominant emission observed followed by methanol, monoterpenes, acetone, and acetaldehyde. The flux-gradient similarity method is shown to be a useful, and we recommend its use especially in experimental conditions when fast measurement of BVOC species is not available.

Park, J.-H.; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2012-09-01

238

From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: online seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce-dominated forest in central Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids dominate the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon-containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes, which were emitted most strongly in April. Finally, we evaluate the temperature-dependent algorithm that seems to describe the temperature-dependent emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde and monoterpenes but only with the use of the monthly derived values for emission potential, Es, and temperature dependency, ? factor.

Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

2014-07-01

239

Development and Application of a Fast Chromatography Technique for Analysis of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in Plant Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetation constitute the largest fraction (>90 %) of total global non-methane VOC supplied to the atmosphere, yet the chemical complexity of these emissions means that achieving comprehensive measurements of BVOCs, and in particular the less volatile terpenes, is not straightforward. As such, there is still significant uncertainty associated with the contribution of BVOCs to the tropospheric oxidation budget, and to atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The rate of BVOC emission from vegetation is regulated by environmental conditions such as light intensity and temperature, and thus can be highly variable, necessitating high time-resolution BVOC measurements. In addition, the numerous monoterpene and sesquiterpene isomers, which are indistinguishable by some analytical techniques, have greatly varying lifetimes with respect to atmospheric oxidants, and as such quantification of each individual isomer is fundamental to achieving a comprehensive characterisation of the impact of BVOCs upon the atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, established measurement techniques for these trace gases typically offer a trade-off between sample frequency and the level of speciation; detailed information regarding chemical composition may be obtained, but with reduced time resolution, or vice versa. We have developed a Fast-GC-FID technique for quantification of a range of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and oxygenated C10 BVOC isomers, which retains the separation capability of conventional gas chromatography, yet offers considerably improved sample frequency. Development of this system is ongoing, but currently a 20 m x 0.18 mm i.d resistively heated metal column is employed to achieve chromatographic separation of thirteen C10-C15 BVOCs, within a total cycle time of ~15 minutes. We present the instrument specifications and analytical capability, together with the first application of this Fast-GC technique for BVOC analysis, monitoring BVOC emissions from white spruce (Picea glauca) during plant chamber studies.

Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Yamazakii, S.; Kajii, Y. J.

2011-12-01

240

Emission characteristics of ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds in a commercial printing center.  

PubMed

Laser printers are one of the common indoor equipment in schools, offices, and various other places. Laser printers have recently been identified as a potential source of indoor air pollution. This study examines the characteristics of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter <100 nm) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from laser printers housed in a commercial printing center. The results indicated that apart from the printer type, the age of printers, and the number of pages printed, the characteristics of UFPs emitted from printers also depend on indoor ventilation conditions. It was found that at reduced ventilation rates of indoor air, there was a rise in the number concentration of UFPs in the printing center. Interestingly, the contribution of UFPs to the total number of submicrometer-sized particles was observed to be higher at a sampling point far away from the printer than the one in the immediate vicinity of the printer. Black carbon (BC) measurements showed a good correlation (rs = 0.82) with particles in the size range of 100-560 nm than those with diameters less than 100 nm (rs = 0.33 for 50-100 nm, and rs = -0.19 for 5.6-50 nm particles). Measurements of VOCs in the printing center showed high levels of m-, o-, and p-xylene, styrene, and ethylbenzenes during peak hours of printing. Although toluene was found in higher levels, its concentration decreased during peak hours compared to those during nonoperating hours of the printing center. PMID:22168093

Betha, Raghu; Selvam, Valliappan; Blake, Donald R; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2011-11-01

241

Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

Dibley, V. R., LLNL

1998-02-01

242

Few long-term effects of simulated climate change on volatile organic compound emissions and leaf chemistry of three subarctic dwarf shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is exposing arctic ecosystems to higher temperature, increased nutrient availability and shading due to the increasing cloud cover and the expanding forests. In this work, we assessed how these factors affect the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from three subarctic dwarf shrub species in a field experiment after 18 treatment years. Of the studied species the

Riikka Rinnan; A. Rinnan; Patrick Faubert; Päivi Tiiva; Jarmo K. Holopainen; Anders Michelsen

2011-01-01

243

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 7. CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE AT INDUSTRIAL SITE C-5  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incin...

244

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 8. CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE AT INDUSTRIAL SITE C-6  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incin...

245

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 5. CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE AT INDUSTRIAL SITE C-3  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incin...

246

Addendum published in Plant Signaling and Behavior 2(6) : e1-e2 (2007) Production and Emission of Volatile Compounds by Petal Cells  

E-print Network

1 Addendum published in Plant Signaling and Behavior 2(6) : e1-e2 (2007) Production and Emission of Volatile Compounds by Petal Cells Sylvie Baudinoa, *, Jean-Claude Caissarda , Véronique Bergougnouxa a Laboratoire de Biotechnologies Végétales, Plantes Aromatiques et Médicinales, EA 3061, Université Jean Monnet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

The emission patterns of volatile organic compounds during aerobic bio-treatment of municipal solid waste using continuous and intermittent aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the main concerns during municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment, the release patterns and the environmental effects of VOCs were investigated during lab-scale aerobic bio-treatments of MSW with continuous and intermittent negative ventilation. When the same airflow amounts were used, intermittent ventilation was found to reduce the total VOC emissions from continuous ventilation

He Pin-Jing; Tang Jia-Fu; Yang Na; Fang Jing-Jing; He Xiao; Shao Li-Ming

2012-01-01

248

Emissions of organo-metal compounds via the leachate and gas pathway from two differently pre-treated municipal waste materials -- A landfill reactor study.  

PubMed

Due to their broad industrial production and use as PVC-stabilisers, agro-chemicals and anti-fouling agents, organo-metal compounds are widely distributed throughout the terrestrial and marine biogeosphere. Here, we focused on the emission dynamics of various organo-metal compounds (e.g., di,- tri-, tetra-methyl tin, di-methyl mercury, tetra-methyl lead) from two different kinds of pre-treated mass waste, namely mechanically-biologically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MBP MSW) and municipal waste incineration ash (MWIA). In landfill simulation reactors, the emission of the organo-metal compounds via the leachate and gas pathway was observed over a period of 5 months simulating different environmental conditions (anaerobic with underlying soil layer/aerated/anaerobic). Both waste materials differ significantly in their initial amounts of organo-metal compounds and their environmental behaviour with regard to the accumulation and depletion rates within the solid material during incubation. For tri-methyl tin, the highest release rates in leachates were found in the incineration ash treatments, where anaerobic conditions in combination with underlying soil material significantly promoted its formation. Concerning the gas pathway, anaerobic conditions considerably favour the emission of organo-metal compounds (tetra-methyl tin, di-methyl mercury, tetra-methyl lead) in both the MBP material and especially in the incineration ash. PMID:16714103

Michalzik, B; Ilgen, G; Hertel, F; Hantsch, S; Bilitewski, B

2007-01-01

249

Emission of alcohols and carbonyl compounds from a spark ignition engine. Influence of fuel and air/fuel equivalence ratio.  

PubMed

A spark ignition engine was used to study the impact of fuel composition and of the air/fuel equivalence (lambda) ratio on exhaust emissions of alcohols and aldehydes/ketones. Fuel blends contained eight hydrocarbons (n-hexane, 1-hexene, cyclohexane, n-octane, isooctane, toluene, o-xylene, and ethylbenzene (ETB)) and four oxygenated compounds (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE)). Exhaust methanol is principally produced from fuel methanol and MTBE but also from ethanol, 2-propanol, isooctane, and hexane. Exhaust ethanol and 2-propanol are produced only from the respective fuel compounds. Exhaust formaldehyde is mainly produced from fuel methanol, acetaldehyde from fuel ethanol, and propionaldehyde from straight-chain hydrocarbons. Exhaust acroleine comes from fuel 1-hexene, acetone from 2-propanol, n-hexane, n-octane, isooctane, and MTBE. Exhaust crotonaldehyde comes from fuel 1-hexene, cyclohexane, n-hexane, and n-octane, methacroleine from fuel isooctane, and benzaldehyde from fuel aromatics. Light pollutants (C1-C2) are most likely formed from intermediate species which are quite independent of the fuel composition. An increase in A increases the exhaust concentration of acroleine, crotonaldehyde, methacroleine, and decreases these of the three alcohols for the alcohol-blended fuels. The concentration of methanol, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and benzaldehyde is a maximum atstoichiometry. The exhaust concentration of acetaldehyde and acetone presents a complex behavior: it increases in some cases, decreases in others, or presents a maximum at stoichiometry. The concentration of four aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and benzaldehyde) is also linked with the exhaust temperature and fuel H/C ratio. PMID:12075798

Zervas, E; Montagne, X; Lahaye, J

2002-06-01

250

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux-gradient similarity methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) took place in Blodgett Forest, a Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, during summer 2009. We deployed a proton transfer reaction-quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS) to measure fluxes and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Eighteen ion species, including the major BVOC expected at the site, were measured sequentially at 5 heights to observe their vertical gradient from the forest floor to above the canopy. Fluxes of the 3 dominant BVOCs methanol, 2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes were measured above the canopy by the disjunct eddy covariance (EC) method. Canopy-scale fluxes were also determined by the flux-gradient similarity method (K-theory). A universal K (Kuniv) was determined as the mean of individual K's calculated from the measured fluxes divided by vertical gradients for methanol, MBO, and monoterpenes. This Kuniv was then multiplied by the gradients of each observed ion species to compute their fluxes. The flux-gradient similarity method showed very good agreement with the disjunct EC method. Fluxes are presented for all measured species and compared to historical measurements from the same site, and used to test emission algorithms used to model fluxes at the regional scale. MBO was the dominant emission observed, followed by methanol, monoterpenes, acetone, and acetaldehyde. The flux-gradient similarity method is shown to be tenable, and we recommend its use, especially in experimental conditions when fast measurement of BVOC species is not available.

Park, J.-H.; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2014-01-01

251

Emission Rates of Volatile Organic Compounds Released from Newly Produced Household Furniture Products Using a Large-Scale Chamber Testing Method  

PubMed Central

The emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured to investigate the emission characteristics of five types of common furniture products using a 5?m3 size chamber at 25°C and 50% humidity. The results indicated that toluene and ?-pinene are the most dominant components. The emission rates of individual components decreased constantly through time, approaching the equilibrium emission level. The relative ordering of their emission rates, if assessed in terms of total VOC (TVOC), can be arranged as follows: dining table > sofa > desk chair > bedside table > cabinet. If the emission rates of VOCs are examined between different chemical groups, they can also be arranged in the following order: aromatic (AR) > terpenes (TER) > carbonyl (CBN) > others > paraffin (PR) > olefin (HOL) > halogenated paraffin (HPR). In addition, if emission strengths are compared between coated and uncoated furniture, there is no significant difference in terms of emission magnitude. Our results indicate that the emission characteristics of VOC are greatly distinguished between different furniture products in terms of relative dominance between different chemicals. PMID:22125421

Ho, Duy Xuan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ryeul Sohn, Jong; Hee Oh, Youn; Ahn, Ji-Won

2011-01-01

252

Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions.  

PubMed

A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm process to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan. The components of VOC were identified to be toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA). The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series, respectively, using 10- and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility. Experimental results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 +/- 605) mg/L of COD. A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m3 packing x d) was determined for the packed bed, in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow. A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 +/- 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system. Moreover, the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula, based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship, and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model. Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation revealed that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) were aerated into a gaseous phase, and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene were aerated. PMID:20108681

Cheng, Wen-Hsi

2009-01-01

253

Quantifying Marine Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Using Laboratory Measurements of Plankton Monocultures and Field Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been suggested to contribute significant portion of the organic carbon present in ocean atmosphere. In this study emission rates of 40 different hydrocarbons are quantified for lab-grown non-axenic phytoplankton monocultures and ambient samples from the Pamlico-Neuse Estuary, NC. The outcome of environmental conditions on production of BVOCs was examined for different light and temperature conditions. These different regimes are considered proxies for physiological stress-induced effects observed in natural ecosystems. The samples were incubated in a climate controlled room; they were then transferred to smaller volumes (200 ml) for analysis. BVOCs accumulated in the water and headspace above the water were measured by bubbling hydrocarbon-free gas mixture through the sample and passing the gas stream through a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system equipped with a sample pre-concentrator. Inside the pre-concentrator, the compounds were trapped on a sorbent material, heated, and flushed into the GC-MS column. The pre-concentrator/GC-MS system gave at least 1000 times magnification of the sample concentrations, allowing detection of low ppt levels of hydrocarbons. Here we report results for lab-grown diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana, prymnesiophyte Pleurochrysis carterae, and dinoflagellates Karina brevis and Procentrum minimum, as well as field samples. To make results widely usable, all the emissions are normalized to Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and cell counts. Our results show that diatoms had the highest isoprene production rate of 2.8 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 with ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 at light levels between 90 and 900 ?E m-2 s-1, respectively. The prymnesiophyte and dinoflagellate species had isoprene production rates of 1.3±0.4 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 with a similar light dependency as diatoms. Field samples had comparable isoprene production rate of 3.5 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 with ranges between 0.6 and 4.1 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 for similar light levels and temperatures between 18 to 30°C. Three monoterpenes detected were ?-pinene, camphene, and d-limonene. Diatoms had the highest ?-pinene and d-limonene production rates of 0.045 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 and 0.015 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1, respectively. The prymnesiophyte species had the highest camphene production of 0.021 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1. Production rates of d-limonene and camphene did not show a well-defined light dependency, but both isoprene and ?-pinene showed an increase in terpene production with increasing light intensities. Field samples show ?-pinene, d-limonene, and camphene production rates of 0.05 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1, 0.02 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1 and 0.018 ?mol (g Chl-a)-1 h-1, respectively. Field samples acclimated at 26°C had the highest terpene production rates. This study tabulates a large number of BVOC emission rates for various phytoplankton species under diverse environmental conditions.

Sabolis, A. W.; Meskhidze, N.; Kamykowski, D.; Reed, R. E.

2010-12-01

254

Comparison of two derivatization reagents for the simultaneous determination of organolead and organomanganese compounds using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection.  

PubMed

Two procedures for the simultaneous determination of organolead (tetraethyllead, triethyllead and trimethyllead) and organomanganese compounds (cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (CMT) and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)) are studied. Both procedures involve sample preconcentration by solid-phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography coupled to atomic emission detection, the main difference being the derivatizing agent used for the ionic alkylated lead species: sodium tetrapropylborate (NaBPr(4)) and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh(4)). The parameters affecting the derivatization and preconcentration steps, chromatographic separation as well as detection of the compounds were optimized. Higher sensitivity was attained for all compounds with the method involving propylation derivatization. In this case, detection limits ranged between 0.04 and 0.1 ng L(-1), depending on the compound. Detection limits of between 0.1 and 24.5 ng L(-1) were obtained, when using phenylation derivatization. A low CMT concentration was found in one of the seawater samples analyzed. PMID:22099678

Peñalver, Rosa; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

2011-12-15

255

Improving the accuracy of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio determination for P, N, S, O, Cl, and Br-containing organic compounds using atomic emission detection.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate the dependence of atomic emission detector C and H response on microwave-induced plasma conditions and to improve the accuracy of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio determination for trialkylphosphates, herbicides, chlorophenols, and sulfur-containing organic compounds. Compounds which differed structurally from the analytes were used as reference compounds. It was found that when the oxygen concentration in the helium was the maximum for the instrument (9%) relative errors in carbon-to-hydrogen ratio determination were 3-8%, irrespective of analyte and reference compound structure, whereas when working in the mode of operation recommended by the manufacturer of the instrument (1.5% oxygen in helium) the respective errors were 10-20% or higher. This improvement in the accuracy of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio determination was accompanied by a factor of ten decrease in sensitivity. PMID:15688154

Chernetsova, Elena S; Revelsky, Alexander I; Durst, Dupont; Sobolevsky, Tim G; Revelsky, Igor A

2005-05-01

256

Biogenic emissions and ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds and organic acids from ponderosa pine and cottonwood trees at rural and forested sites in Central New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct emission rates of carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons from Populus fremontil (cottonwood) and Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) trees were studied during the summer of 1997. Ambient air concentrations of these compounds in the vicinity of the sampled trees were also identified and quantified. Study sites were Socorro, NM and Langmuir Laboratory, NM a rural and forested, high mountain site, respectively, located in Central New Mexico. A dynamic branch enclosure method was used to perform the sampling of tree emissions, that are given at standard atmospheric temperature of 303 K, and 1000 ?mol m -2 s -1 PAR. Average emission rates of acetic and formic acid, respectively, from cottonwood were 470±540 and 310±300 ng g -1 h -1 and from ponderosa pine were 170±180 and 210±210 ng g -1 h -1. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average emission rates, respectively, from ponderosa pine were 500±400 and 250±190 ng g -1 h -1, and from cottonwood were 4070±3570 and 1190±1360 ng g -1 h -1. Cottonwood had an average isoprene emission rate of 9050±10700 ng g -1 h -1, while ponderosa pine had emission rates of ?-pinene and ?-pinene of 450±1100 and 520±1050 ng g -1 h -1, respectively. Total mass emissions of carbon compounds measured from cottonwood were four times larger than from ponderosa pine. Seasonal, diurnal, and temperature dependence of concentrations in ambient air and emission rates from trees are also discussed. Average ambient air concentrations of acetic and formic acid, respectively, were 2.7±3.8 and 0.7±0.9 ppbv for the rural site, and 1.7±2.0 and 0.6±0.5 ppbv for the mountain site. The average range of carbonyl compound concentrations in ambient air was from 0.3 to 3.4 ppbv for various carbonyl compounds with about 60% of the ambient carbonyls consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone. Isoprene and monoterpene concentrations in ambient air were usually below the detection limit.

Villanueva-Fierro, Ignacio; Popp, Carl J.; Martin, Randal S.

257

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission

Chia-Hsien Yen; Jao-Jia Horng

2009-01-01

258

Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber.  

PubMed

Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones from urban areas. Environmental conditions (atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity) did not alter the pollutant emission fluxes. PMID:24176707

Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X

2014-02-01

259

Screening volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from five marine phytoplankton species by head space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS).  

PubMed

Five marine cosmopolitan phytoplankton species namely; Calcidiscus leptoporus, Emiliania huxleyi, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chaetoceros neogracilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta were screened for emissions of selected VOCs using head space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) in single ion mode. The VOCs investigated included isoprene and various halogenated compounds. Among the different algae groups, the two diatoms Ch. neogracilis and P. tricornutum were the strongest emitters of methyl bromide (CH3Br), and Ch. neogracilis was the strongest emitter of isoprene. Furthermore, we present evidence that several chlorinated organic compounds, normally considered as anthropogenic, can be produced from marine phytoplankton (namely chloroform, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene). PMID:18392274

Colomb, Aurélie; Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan; Peeken, Ilka; Lochte, Karin

2008-03-01

260

Using IASI and MIPAS in combination to characterise CO and other volatile organic compound emissions from fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived species emitted from wildfires, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carry a lot of information on atmospheric processes relating to chemistry, convection and emission. These disruptive events are indirectly a climatological feature of the Earth's atmosphere and its climate response and occur at sufficient frequency to make studying and understanding biomass plume chemistry vital. Accurate measurement of trace gases from these events will also aid improvements in climate/chemistry models. In this study, we utilise IASI, MIPAS and ACE data to derive wildfire emissions of VOCs, in the context of two periods; the early 2009 Black Saturday fires and the BORTAS campaign fires. Using the complementary viewing angles of IASI (nadir) and MIPAS/ACE (limb), results will be shown which illustrate observations of aged plume composition, chemistry, distribution and area along with information about vertical distribution. The Black Saturday fires were a particularly severe event over South-Eastern Australia which burnt an area of 450,000 km2, with up to 400 individual fires being identified on February 7th 2009 alone. Driven by weeks of little or no rainfall and record-breaking temperatures, we show that the plumes from this event, contained enhanced VOC amounts and mixed within the lower stratosphere, reaching altitudes up to 18 km. Enhancement ratios, using CO as a reference, show potential secondary formation of HCOOH within the plume. We are able to track the evolution of the plume with IASI data for up to 20 days after the initial event. The second case study is comparison to results from a recent aircraft campaign over North America in July/August 2011 (BORTAS). The NERC-funded campaign was dedicated to studying the impact of local pollution events over North America and aged plumes originated from Asia and Siberia. In the context of the campaign aims, we investigated CO, VOC chemistry and aerosol signatures in boreal biomass plumes. The most significant event was a series of fires over North-west Ontario which we show released a significant quantity of CO and formic acid. The validation of IASI formic acid from this event with in-situ data is particularly good. We also derive the time-evolution of a variety of VOCs (including PAN) within aged plumes, using comparisons of MIPAS and ACE data. These plumes originate from both the boreal forests of North America and Siberia, and show excellent agreement between these independent datasets. Particularly large enhancements of PAN were discovered from Siberian forest fires in late July 2011.

Moore, David; Sembhi, Harjinder; Remedios, John; Tereszchuk, Keith

2013-04-01

261

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD reduced this by 7% while the EvCh reduced it by 13%. For other operating conditions, PM treated for volatile removal actually exhibited an increase in organic fraction on the order of 5%. This addition appears to be sensitive to the gaseous hydrocarbon concentrations in the exhaust although a precise correlation has not yet been derived. It has been concluded that VOCs are tightly bound to the PM carbon core and thus are not effectively removed by either treatment method.

Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

2012-01-01

262

Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel/methanol compound combustion engine with and without diesel oxidation catalyst.  

PubMed

The use of methanol in combination with diesel fuel is an effective measure to reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from in-use diesel vehicles. In this study, a diesel/methanol compound combustion (DMCC) scheme was proposed and a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine modified to operate on the proposed combustion scheme. The effect of DMCC and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the regulated emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx and PM was investigated based on the Japanese 13 Mode test cycle. Certain unregulated emissions, including methane, ethyne, ethene, 1,3-butadiene, BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene), unburned methanol and formaldehyde were also evaluated based on the same test cycle. In addition, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in the particulate and the particulate number concentration and size distribution were investigated at certain selected modes of operation. The results show that the DMCC scheme can effectively reduce NOx, particulate mass and number concentrations, ethyne, ethene and 1,3-butadiene emissions but significantly increase the emissions of THC, CO, NO(2), BTX, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, and the proportion of SOF in the particles. After the DOC, the emission of THC, CO, NO(2), as well as the unregulated gaseous emissions, can be significantly reduced when the exhaust gas temperature is sufficiently high while the particulate mass concentration is further reduced due to oxidation of the SOF. PMID:19919875

Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

2010-01-15

263

Measurements of volatile organic compounds in rural area of Yangtze River Delta region: Measurement comparison and source characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in ambient air were measured by three different methods in a city of Rudong in May and June 2010. Intercomparison of VOCs measurements was made among in-situ measurements and canister analyses with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). For 18 VOCs measured by GC/FID/MS, canister analyses and in-situ measurements were in reasonably good agreement (R2 > 0.90). However, alkenes and aromatics in canister samples were found to be lower than in-situ measurements likely due to adsorption of low volatile compounds onto the wall surface inside canisters. For comparison of GC/MS with PTR-MS, the correlations for isoprene, benzene, C8 aromatics, and C9 aromatics were highly significant (R2 ? 0.93) with each other. However, there were quantitative differences between GC/MS and PTR-MS. For example, isoprene measured by PTR-MS indicates existence of interferences from C5 alcohols, C5 aldehydes, and furan. During the latter part of the field campaign, elevated concentrations of VOCs and CO were observed when intensive burning of crop residues took place near the sampling site. The concentrations of ethane, propane, ethane, isoprene, acetone, acetaldehyde, and aromatics varied in the range between 0 and 30 ppbv. The observed VOCs concentrations are compared to model results by a regional chemistry-transport model for Asia. The modeled concentrations underestimated the observed concentrations by a factor of 10 for NMHCs, 100 for aromatics, 10 for oxygenated VOCs, implying that current emissions inventories miss a number of sources for these VOCs.

Kudo, S.; Saito, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Yamaji, K.; Xiaole, P.; Wang, Z.

2012-12-01

264

Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.  

PubMed

Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in ?-3-carene. PMID:25015120

Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

2014-09-01

265

[Polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) in city aerosols. 2. Measuring of emissions from domestic fuel and vehicle exhaust and from immission particles in Berlin (West)].  

PubMed

During April and May 1985, some emission samples from private coal firing (domestic fuel) were taken and were fired with two different kind of coal (bituminous and brown coal). Also, measurements were done under different combustion conditions (low and high concentrations of oxygenium during the combustion process). In June and November 1985, some emission samples from heavy diesel-engines were taken in a special tunnel equipment, at different engine conditions. During September 1985, also suspended particulates in a highway traffic tunnel were taken. All these samples were taken using high volume cascade impactors which give a fractionation of the suspended particulates into different particle sizes, according to their retention behaviour in the human respiratory system. The results of these emission samples and samples in the highway tunnel were compared with prior immission measurements of urban suspended particulates in Berlin-West, during January 1984. The etherextractable organic matter (= EEOM) of the total suspended particulate matter (= TPM) was determined using ultrasonic extraction method. The EEOM was separated into an acidic (= AF), a basic (= BF) and a neutral fraction (= NF) by dissolution in acidic and basic agents. Of the neutral fraction (NF), further separation was done into aliphatic compounds (= AIP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (= PAH) and polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) by using thin layer chromatography. From the PAH and POCN, single compounds were identified by gas chromatographic analysis with dual capillary collumns and internal standard method. All organic fractions were tested to their mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium mammalian microsome bioassay by Ames. The following results were gained: the neutral fraction (NF) made the highest part of the EEOM (greater than or equal to 60%) whereas the part of the AF amounted to 10-25% and of the basic fraction (BF) to approximatively 5-20%. Making further separation of the NF, some differences between the emission sources were gained. Now, the AIP amounted to a percentage of ca. 15% of the NF for coal firing emissions and to ca. 20-40% for diesel-emissions and samples in the highway tunnel. The percentages of the PAH and POCN varied in dependence of the combustion conditions on both emission sources and amounted to 20-50% for the PAH and 30-50% for the POCN. The gas chromatographic analysis showed also differences between the two emission sources. So, for coal firing emissions, higher concentrations for phenanthrene, benzo(a)-pyrene and dibenz(a.h)anthracene (for PAH) and 9-fluorenone (for POCN) were gained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2448974

Moriske, H J; Freise, R; Schneider, C; Rüden, H

1987-10-01

266

Monitoring of volatile compound emissions during dry anaerobic digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste by Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) formed during anaerobic digestion of aerobically pre-treated Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW), have been monitored over a 30 day period by a direct injection mass spectrometric technique: Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Most of the tentatively identified compounds exhibited a double-peaked emission pattern which is probably the combined result from the volatilization or oxidation of the biomass-inherited organic compounds and the microbial degradation of organic substrates. Of the sulfur compounds, hydrogen sulfide had the highest accumulative production. Alkylthiols were the predominant sulfur organic compounds, reaching their maximum levels during the last stage of the process. H(2)S formation seems to be influenced by the metabolic reactions that the sulfur organic compounds undergo, such as a methanogenesis induced mechanism i.e. an amino acid degradation/sulfate reduction. Comparison of different batches indicates that PTR-ToF-MS is a suitable tool providing information for rapid in situ bioprocess monitoring. PMID:23079412

Papurello, Davide; Soukoulis, Christos; Schuhfried, Erna; Cappellin, Luca; Gasperi, Flavia; Silvestri, Silvia; Santarelli, Massimo; Biasioli, Franco

2012-12-01

267

Valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy identification of carbide compounds in nanocrystalline Cr coatings deposited from Cr(III) electrolytes containing organic substances.  

PubMed

Valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy was applied to study a composition of chromium coatings electrodeposited from Cr(III) sulfate electrolytes with the addition of formic or oxalic acid. It was shown that the obtained crystallographically amorphous deposits contain chromium carbide compounds. These results indicate that nanodimensional Cr crystallites formed during the electrodeposition process are characterized by very high electrocatalytic activity. PMID:17107164

Safonov, Viktor A; Vykhodtseva, Ludmila N; Polukarov, Yurii M; Safonova, Olga V; Smolentsev, Grigory; Sikora, Marcin; Eeckhout, Sigrid G; Glatzel, Pieter

2006-11-23

268

New insights into halocarbon emissions in boreal regions: Forest fires and Alberta oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest fires and Alberta oil sands represent two major co-located trace gas emission sources within the boreal ecosystem. During the airborne ARCTAS mission in summer 2008, UC-Irvine performed the most comprehensive characterization of halocarbon emissions from boreal forest fires to date. In summer 2008 and 2010 we also performed the first independent characterizations of halocarbon emissions from Alberta's oil sands industry. In both cases the measurements were made using whole air sampling followed by gas chromatography analysis using electron capture detection and mass spectrometer detection. In the case of boreal forest fires, of 26 speciated halocarbons that were measured, only the simplest halocarbons were emitted from the fires (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I, 1,2-C2H4Cl2, C2H5Cl and CH2Br2) (Simpson et al., 2011). These compounds were released in relatively small quantities and together they represented <0.3% of the total carbon released from boreal forest fires in the form of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Even though CH3Cl was the most abundantly emitted halocarbon, its average global emission from boreal forest fires (0.011 ± 0.003 Tg yr-1) was very small compared to its global source budget. The poly-chlorinated compounds CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CH3CCl3 were not released from the fires. In the case of the Alberta oil sands, based on airborne measurements during the ARCTAS mission, 15 of 26 measured halocarbons were statistically enhanced over the oil sands compared to local background values (Simpson et al., 2010). The short-lived solvents C2HCl3, C2Cl4, C2H5Cl and CHCl3 were the most strongly enhanced halocarbons, with maximum values that were 1.5-34× the local background. A subsequent ground-based study in 2010 detected even stronger halocarbon enhancements downwind of upgraders and tailings sand at the oil sands surface mining sites. For example C2HCl3 and CHBrCl2 mixing ratios were up to 60-85× the local background values. Long-lived halocarbons such as HFC-152a, HFC-134a, HCFC-142b and HCFC-22 were also elevated downwind of the mining and upgrading operations. Together these results suggest that boreal forest fires are a relatively minor halocarbon source, and that halocarbon emissions from the Alberta oil sands industry require further investigation.

Simpson, I. J.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Marrero, J.; Rowland, F. S.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Blake, D. R.

2011-12-01

269

Overview of the ECHO Project: Emissions and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds - Investigations in and above a mixed forest stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. With estimated emission rates of 1150 TgC/year, biogenic emissions dominate over those from anthropogenic sources by one order of magnitude on a global scale. Due to their emission in large quantities and their high reactivity biogenic VOCs have a significant impact on the photochemical processes that lead to the formation of ozone and other photooxidants in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a typical forest stand as a net source of reactive trace compounds, the amount of primary emitted VOC which are transported directly into the PBL, and the amount of VOC which are chemically processed within the canopy, the products of which are transported into the PBL. ECHO is an integrated project which investigates the role of forests as source and chemical reactor of reactive trace gases. It comprises of a combination of large field campaigns, simulation experiments, and laboratory studies to investigate net VOC emissions from plants, chemical reactions of the emitted VOCs in the atmosphere, and transport processes in and above a forest stand. Here we describe the aims and concept of ECHO and present first results of the 2002 Intense phase of the field campaign.

Komenda, M.; Echo Team

2003-04-01

270

Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.  

PubMed

Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ? 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. PMID:24095967

Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

2014-01-15

271

Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers in national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimizing consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutants emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to different economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

2014-10-01

272

GAS-PHASE MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR PREDICTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) EMISSION RATES FROM INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an em...

273

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16

274

SEASONAL AND ANNUAL MODELING OF REDUCED NITROGEN COMPOUNDS OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: EMISSIONS, AMBIENT LEVELS, AND DEPOSITION AMOUNTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Detailed description of the distributions and seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen compounds is of considerable interest given their role in formation of acidic substances, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter and nutrient loading effects resulting from their deposition t...

275

Emission of odorous volatile organic compounds from a municipal manure treatment plant and their removal using a biotrickling filter.  

PubMed

Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal manure treatment facilities are considered as a major nuisance issue for operators and nearby residents. In this study, up to 71 odorous VOCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the manure treatment plant. These compounds can be classified into five different categories, including alkanes, olefins, aromatics, volatile organosulphur compounds and terpenes. Toluene, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl sulphide, xylene and ethylbenzene were the five most abundant pollutants. A pilot-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) was employed to treat the complex odorous gases. Correlation analysis showed that the removal efficiency (RE) of the BTF was related with the molecular weight and chemical structure of contaminants. Higher than 85% of REs could be reached for aromatic, terpenes and most alkanes compounds after 180 days of operation. Comparatively, most olefins and partial alkanes compounds with a molecular weight lower than 70 were not removed easily. The REs of these compounds ranged from 0% to 94%, and the average removal efficiency (RE) was only about 33.3%. PMID:25300536

Li, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yan-Di; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

2015-04-01

276

Measurement of ratios of Auger electrons emission probabilities and K-L shell vacancy transfer probability for bromine and iodine compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ratios of emission probabilities of Auger electrons (u = p(KLX)/p(KLL), ? = p(KXY)/p(KLL)) and the vacancy transfer probabilities from K to L shell, ?KL for Br and I compounds were studied using Ki (i = ?, ?) X-rays line intensities. The samples were excited by ?-rays 59.5 keV produced by an Am-241 radioisotope source. The K X-rays emitted from the samples were detected with a high resolution Si(Li) detector. Experimental results were compared with the other theoretical values of Br and I elements. The measured values of u, ? and ?KL for Br and I compounds are being reported here for the first time.

Kucukonder, A.; Durdu, B. G.

2013-07-01

277

Simultaneous determination of chlorinated organic compounds from environmental samples using gas chromatography coupled with a micro electron capture detector and micro-plasma atomic emission detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and sediment samples were screened simultaneously for the presence of polychlorinated organic compounds using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with an micro electron capture detector (?-ECD) and a newly developed helium plasma based on a micro-atomic emission detector (?-AED). The GC column effluent was split 15:85 between two detectors. In this way, two chromatograms, one obtained by ?-ECD and another by ?-AED, were recorded simultaneously. ?-, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane and p, p'-DDE were detected. RSDs of the monitoring results from the two detection methods were <20% for the three compounds. A detection limit of 8.5 pg and at least 3 orders of magnitude of linear range for ?-AED was observed.

Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Platzer, Bernhard; Chen, Jingwen; Gfrerer, Marion

2002-01-01

278

Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions  

SciTech Connect

United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

2006-04-01

279

CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT, VOC AND ALDEHYDE EMISSIONS, AND PAINT PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as "low-odor," "low-VOC (volatile organic compound)," or "no-VOC." Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints...

280

USE OF BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING MUTAGENIC COMPOUNDS IN URBAN AIR AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis fractionation has been used for 30 years to identify mutagenic classes of compounds in complex mixtures. Most studies have used the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, and we have recently applied this methodology to two standard reference sa...

281

A Novel Multifunctional Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Gel Preventing Mold\\/Mildew Growth and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing time people spend indoors, the indoor environment quality draws more and more attention. The concentration of indoor pollutants is usually much higher than outdoors, in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mold\\/mildew are both major pollutants and cause many health problems to residents. Efforts devoted from academy and industry to protecting people from indoor environment problems are

Yao Gao

2011-01-01

282

Emissions of organic compounds from biofuel combustion and influence of different control parameters using a laboratory scale incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at spanning the range of different wood combustion conditions by varying primarily load and airfeed in a controlled fashion, thereby investigating different combustion situations in this system. This was done using an experimental design. The aim was to see how these parameters effected organic emissions of PCDD\\/F, PCBz and PAH and to what extent their formation could

P. Andersson; S. Marklund

1998-01-01

283

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ORGANOTIN, ORGANOLEAD, AND ORGANOMERCURY COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES USING CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of a continuing evaluation of new analytical and sample preparation techniques conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the use of capillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED) for the simultaneous determination of organotin, organ...

284

Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Patras (Greece). Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes

2008-11-15

285

The influence of ozone precursor emissions from four world regions on tropospheric composition and radiative climate forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence regional and global climate and air quality through changes in tropospheric O3 and oxidants, which also influence methane (CH4) and sulfate aerosols (SO42-). We examine changes in the tropospheric composition of O3, CH4, SO42- and global net radiative forcing (RF) for 20% reductions in global CH4 burden and in anthropogenic O3 precursor emissions (NOx, NMVOC, and CO) from four regions (East Asia, Europe and Northern Africa, North America, and South Asia) using the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, assessing uncertainty (mean ± 1 standard deviation) across multiple CTMs. We evaluate steady state O3responses, including long-term feedbacks via CH4. With a radiative transfer model that includes greenhouse gases and the aerosol direct effect, we find that regional NOx reductions produce global, annually averaged positive net RFs (0.2 ± 0.6 to 1.7 ± 2 mWm-2/Tg N yr-1), with some variation among models. Negative net RFs result from reductions in global CH4 (-162.6 ± 2 mWm-2 for a change from 1760 to 1408 ppbv CH4) and regional NMVOC (-0.4 ± 0.2 to -0.7 ± 0.2 mWm-2/Tg C yr-1) and CO emissions (-0.13 ± 0.02 to -0.15 ± 0.02 mWm-2/Tg CO yr-1). Including the effect of O3 on CO2 uptake by vegetation likely makes these net RFs more negative by -1.9 to -5.2 mWm-2/Tg N yr-1, -0.2 to -0.7 mWm-2/Tg C yr-1, and -0.02 to -0.05 mWm-2/Tg CO yr-1. Net RF impacts reflect the distribution of concentration changes, where RF is affected locally by changes in SO42-, regionally to hemispherically by O3, and globally by CH4. Global annual average SO42- responses to oxidant changes range from 0.4 ± 2.6 to -1.9 ± 1.3 Gg for NOxreductions, 0.1 ± 1.2 to -0.9 ± 0.8 Gg for NMVOC reductions, and -0.09 ± 0.5 to -0.9 ± 0.8 Gg for CO reductions, suggesting additional research is needed. The 100-year global warming potentials (GWP100) are calculated for the global CH4 reduction (20.9 ± 3.7 without stratospheric O3 or water vapor, 24.2 ± 4.2 including those components), and for the regional NOx, NMVOC, and CO reductions (-18.7 ± 25.9 to -1.9 ± 8.7 for NOx, 4.8 ± 1.7 to 8.3 ± 1.9 for NMVOC, and 1.5 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 for CO). Variation in GWP100 for NOx, NMVOC, and CO suggests that regionally specific GWPs may be necessary and could support the inclusion of O3 precursors in future policies that address air quality and climate change simultaneously. Both global net RF and GWP100 are more sensitive to NOx and NMVOC reductions from South Asia than the other three regions.

Fry, Meridith M.; Naik, Vaishali; West, J. Jason; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Fiore, Arlene M.; Collins, William J.; Dentener, Frank J.; Shindell, Drew T.; Atherton, Cyndi; Bergmann, Daniel; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hess, Peter; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Marmer, Elina; Schultz, Martin G.; Szopa, Sophie; Wild, Oliver; Zeng, Guang

2012-04-01

286

Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

Cooper, D. A.

287

Characterization of chlorinated compounds using a dual chlorine-selective pulsed discharge emission detector-helium-pulsed discharge photoionization detector system.  

PubMed

The Cl-selective pulsed discharge emission detector (Cl-PDED) response is dependent only upon the Cl content, irrespective of the molecular structures of the compounds. This provides a simple, fast quantitative method of analysis for chlorinated compounds. The response of the helium-pulsed discharge photoionization detector (He-PDPID) is a function of the molecular structure and the number of photoionizable electrons using the He2 band at 13.5-17.5 eV. The ratio of the responses of the two detectors is independent of concentration and can be used to characterize the Cl-containing compounds along with the retention time, or the ratio can be used as evidence for coelution. The dual Cl-PDED-He-PDPID detector system is a useful tool for peak identification. The effect of coeluting hydrocarbons on the Cl-PDED response was evaluated by spiking a gasoline sample with US Environmental Protection Agency mixture 502. All Cl-PDED responses were greater than 90% of the response in the absence of the hydrocarbons. PMID:10749496

Sun, K; Wentworth, W E; Stearns, S D

2000-03-01

288

Developmental patterns of emission of scent compounds and related gene expression in roses of the cultivar Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'.  

PubMed

2-Phenylethanol (2PE) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT) are characteristic scent compounds in specific roses such as Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'. We analyzed the endogenous concentrations and emission of 2PE and DMT during the unfurling process in different floral organs, as well as changes in transcript levels of the two key genes, PAR and OOMT2. The emission of both 2PE and DMT increased during floral development to reach peaks at the fully unfurled stage. The relative transcripts of PAR and OOMT2 also increased during floral development. Whereas the maximum for OOMT2 was found at the fully unfurled stage (stage 4), similar expression levels of PAR were detected at stage 4 and the senescence stage (stage 6). The results demonstrate a positive correlation between the expression levels of PAR and OOMT2 and the emission of 2PE and DMT. In addition, endogenous volatiles and relative transcripts showed tissue- and development-specific patterns. PMID:25576838

Chen, Xiaomin; Baldermann, Susanne; Cao, Shuyan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Caixia; Hirata, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Naoharu

2015-02-01

289

Asthma and the indoor environment: the significance of emission of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds from newly painted indoor surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the worldwide European Community Respiratory Health Survey, possible relations between asthma and emissions\\u000a from newly painted indoor surfaces were studied. The participants (n= 562) answered a self-administered questionnaire, with questions on symptoms and indoor exposures, including indoor painting,\\u000a during the last 12 months. The participants also underwent a structured interview, spirometry, peak flow measurements at home

G. Wieslander; D. Norbäck; E. Björnsson; C. Janson; G. Boman

1996-01-01

290

Statistical analysis of anthropogenic non-methane VOC variability at a European background location (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ measurements of 7 volatile hydrocarbons, CxHy, and 3 chlorinated organic compounds, CxHyClz, were performed at Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) during eight years (2000-2007). The analysis of 4-h resolved non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) was achieved by using gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variabilities in the NMVOC time series dataset were modeled by factor analysis (positive matrix factorization, PMF). Four factors defined the solution space and could be related to NMVOC sources and atmospheric processes. In order to facilitate factor interpretations the retrieved contributions were compared with independent measurements, such as trace gases (NOx, CO, and CH4) and back trajectories. The most dominant factor (accounting on average for ~42% of the total mixing ratio of the considered NMVOCs) was found to be most active in winter, co-varying with CO and CH4 and could be related to aged combustive emissions as well as natural gas distribution. The other three factors represent both industrial and evaporative sources. Trajectory statistics suggest that the most influential anthropogenic NMVOC sources for Jungfraujoch are located in Eastern Europe, but the Po Valley has been identified as a potential source region for specific industrial sources as well. Aging of the arriving NMVOCs, the derived factors as well as limitations of the methods are discussed. This is the first report of a PMF application on NMVOC data from a background mountain site.

Lanz, V. A.; Henne, S.; Staehelin, J.; Hueglin, C.; Vollmer, M. K.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.; Reimann, S.

2009-05-01

291

In vitro-in vivo study on the effects of plant compounds on rumen fermentation, microbial abundances and methane emissions in goats.  

PubMed

Two in vitro and one in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of a selection of plant compounds on rumen fermentation, microbial concentration and methane emissions in goats. Treatments were: control (no additive), carvacrol (CAR), cinnamaldehyde (CIN), eugenol (EUG), propyl propane thiosulfinate (PTS), propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), diallyl disulfide (DDS), a mixture (40 : 60) of PTS and PTSO (PTS+PTSO), and bromochloromethane (BCM) as positive control with proven antimethanogenic effectiveness. Four doses (40, 80, 160 and 320 µl/l) of the different compounds were incubated in vitro for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid from goats using two diets differing in starch and protein source within the concentrate (Experiment 1).The total gas production was linearly decreased (P<0.012) by all compounds, with the exception of EUG and PTS+PTSO (P? 0.366). Total volatile fatty-acid (VFA) concentration decreased (P? 0.018) only with PTS, PTSO and CAR, whereas the acetate:propionate ratio decreased (P? 0.002) with PTS, PTSO and BCM, and a tendency (P=0.064) was observed for DDS. On the basis of results from Experiment 1, two doses of PTS, CAR, CIN, BCM (160 and 320 µl/l), PTSO (40 and 160 µl/l) and DDS (80 and 320 µl/l) were further tested in vitro for 72 h (Experiment 2). The gas production kinetics were affected (P? 0.045) by all compounds, and digested NDF (DNDF) after 72 h of incubation was only linearly decreased (P? 0.004) by CAR and PTS. The addition of all compounds linearly decreased (P? 0.009) methane production, although the greatest reductions were observed for PTS (up to 96%), DDS (62%) and BCM (95%). No diet-dose interaction was observed. To further test the results obtained in vitro, two groups of 16 adult non-pregnant goats were used to study in vivo the effect of adding PTS (50, 100 and 200 mg/l rumen content per day) and BCM (50, 100 and 160 mg/l rumen content per day) during the 9 days on methane emissions (Experiment 3). The addition of PTS and BCM resulted in linear reductions (33% and 64%, respectively, P? 0.002) of methane production per unit of dry matter intake, which were lower than the maximum inhibition observed in vitro (87% and 96%, respectively). We conclude that applying the same doses in vivo as in vitro resulted in a proportional lower extent of methane decrease, and that PTS at 200 mg/l rumen content per day has the potential to reduce methane emissions in goats. Whether the reduction in methane emission observed in vivo persists over longer periods of treatments and improves feed conversion efficiency requires further research. PMID:24237672

Martínez-Fernández, G; Abecia, L; Martín-García, A I; Ramos-Morales, E; Hervás, G; Molina-Alcaide, E; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

2013-12-01

292

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast Asia. Moreover, in general the amount of aerosol mass produced from the emissions of the principally isoprene-emitting plants was less than would be expected from published single-VOC experiments, if co-emitted species were solely responsible for the final SOA mass. Interpretation of the results obtained from the fig data sets leaves room for a potential role for isoprene in inhibiting SOA formation under certain ambient atmospheric conditions, although instrumental and experimental constraints impose a level of caution in the interpretation of the results. Concomitant gas- and aerosol-phase composition measurements also provide a detailed overview of numerous key oxidation mechanisms at work within the systems studied, and their combined analysis provides insight into the nature of the SOA formed.

Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

2014-12-01

293

Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of portable wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by air velocity or sweep air flow rates that are either too low or too high to simulate field conditions. There is a need for correction factors to standardize flux chamber and wind tunnel measurements. In this manuscript, we present results of water evaporative flux and VOC flux measurements with the EPA flux chamber and a small wind tunnel. In the EPA flux chamber, water evaporative flux was positively correlated with sweep air flow rate (SAFR) between 1 and 20 L min-1 (r2 = 0.981-0.999) and negatively correlated with sweep air relative humidity between 0 and 80% (r2 = 0.982-0.992). Emissions of gas-film controlled compounds like NH3 and VOC at AFOs were positively correlated with evaporation rates between 0.6 and 2.8 mm d-1. We demonstrate a simple methodology for standardizing and comparing different chamber types by measuring water evaporation within the chamber using a gravimetric mass balance approach under controlled laboratory conditions. A water evaporative flux ratio correction factor (EFRCF) was used to improve the accuracy of field-measured VOC and NH3 chamber flux measurements. In a field study, both the EPA flux chamber (SAFR = 5 L min-1) and small wind tunnel (SAFR = 1 L min-1) underestimated the true field emissions of VOC, with EFRCFs of 2.42 and 3.84, respectively. EFRCFs are recommended for all but the driest of soil and manure conditions.

Parker, David; Ham, Jay; Woodbury, Bryan; Cai, Lingshuang; Spiehs, Mindy; Rhoades, Marty; Trabue, Steve; Casey, Ken; Todd, Rick; Cole, Andy

2013-02-01

294

Speciation of inorganic and organometallic compounds in solid biological samples by thermal vaporization and plasma emission spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

By means of thermal vaporization, inorganic, organic, and metallorganic species are separated and elemental emission in a microwave plasma is detected as a function of vaporization temperature. Solid samples of 250 mg or more are used to avoid problems with sample heterogeneity. The precision of characteristic appearance temperatures is +/-2/sup 0/C. The single electrode atmosphere pressure microwave plasma system is extremely tolerant to the introduction of water, organic solvents, and air. The measurement system contained a repetition wavelength scan device to allow background correction. The plasma temperature was 5500 K. The system was used to measure C, H, N, O, and Hg in orchard leaves and in tuna fish. 9 figures, 5 tables.

Hanamura, S.; Smith, B.W.; Winefordner, J.D.

1983-11-01

295

Determination of white phosphorus residues in ducks: An atomic emission detection/compound-independent calibration-based method of generating residue data for risk assessment and environmental monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of phosphorus concentrations in the gizzards of ducks harvested from munitions sites is necessary to ascertain if acute phosphorus toxicity was the cause of death and to estimate potential secondary hazards to predators and scavengers, such as eagles that readily consume the dead ducks. Gas chromatography-atomic emission detection analysis permitted compound-independent quantification of white phosphorus standards following analysis of the stable phosphorus-containing compound triethyl phosphate. The white phosphorus standards were then used to quantify white phosphorus residues in duck gizzard extracts by gas chromatography-flame photometric detection analysis. For gizzards containing less than 0.01 {micro}g of phosphorus, quantification was based on a three-point calibration curve. For gizzards containing 0.01 {micro}g or more of white phosphorus, single-point calibration was used. Mean recoveries for phosphorus-fortified gizzards ranged from 73 to 91%. The method limit of detection was 0.013 {micro}g of phosphorus. This method was successfully applied to the quantification of white phosphorus in ducks collected from Eagle River Flats, AK. Potential applications to risk assessment and environmental monitoring are also discussed.

Johnston, J.J.; Goldade, D.A.; Kohler, D.J.; Cummings, J.L.

2000-05-01

296

Purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection for volatile halogenated organic compounds determination in waters and beverages.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of 10 volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), including four trihalomethanes (THMs), in waters and beverages was developed. The analytes were stripped from the aqueous sample by a flow of helium, preconcentrated in a capillary trap and thermally desorbed using a purge-and-trap (PT) system. This was followed by capillary gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (GC-AED). For element-specific detection, three wavelengths were monitored, corresponding to chlorine (479 nm), bromine (478 nm) and iodine (193 nm). Each chromatographic run took 21 min, including the purge time. After careful choice of the experimental conditions, the performance of the system was evaluated. Calibration curves were obtained by plotting peak area versus concentration and the correlation coefficients for linear calibration were at least 0.9987. Detection limits, calculated for 5 ml sample volume, ranged from 0.05 microg l(-1) for chloroform to 0.5 microg l(-1) for tetrachloromethane. The method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of water samples of different origin and also of several beer and juice samples. The tap water samples analyzed contain variable concentrations of the four trihalomethanes, ranging from 1.0 to 66.5 microg l(-1), depending of the compound. Whereas chloroform, bromodichloromethane and bromoform were found in some of the juice samples, only chloroform was detected in the beer samples. The method is reliable and can be used for routine monitoring in water and beverages. PMID:15117067

Campillo, N; Viñas, P; López-García, I; Aguinaga, N; Hernández-Córdoba, M

2004-04-30

297

An improved system for modelling Spanish emissions: HERMESv2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission models play a key role in the development of high-resolution air quality modelling systems (AQMS). To minimise the uncertainty presented by these models, it is essential to match the high-resolution requirements of chemical transport models (CTMs) and to use up-to-date information and emission methodologies. During 2005 and 2006, the Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS) developed the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMES04), which is a model that estimates anthropogenic and biogenic emissions for Spain with a temporal and spatial resolution of 1 h and 1 km2, taking 2004 as the reference period. Due to both the changes in Spanish emissions patterns and the age of the activity data and methodologies used, it has become necessary to update and improve the whole system. Hence, a new high-resolution emission model for Spain (HERMESv2.0) has been developed. This work introduces the improved emission estimation methodologies and data on which the model is based, as well as an analysis of the results obtained. The annual emissions estimated by HERMESv2.0 for Spain in 2009 are: NOx, 924 kt; NMVOCs, 2331 kt; SO2, 278 kt; CO, 2178 kt; NH3, 339 kt; PM10, 139 kt; and PM2.5, 105 kt. Compared with HERMES04, major differences are found in NMVOCs (+1172 kt) and SO2 (-870 kt). Important changes in emission patterns are also observed in terms of spatial and temporal distributions. A numerical comparison of both models with the Spanish National Emission Inventory indicates that previous underestimations have been heavily reduced in HERMESv2.0, especially for NOx (from -669 kt·year-1 to -176 kt·year-1), CO (from -761 kt·year-1 to 271 kt·year-1) and NMVOCs (from -1217 kt·year-1 to 135 kt·year-1). The new model substitutes HERMES04 as the emission core of the operational air quality forecasting system for Spain CALIOPE.

Guevara, Marc; Martínez, Francesc; Arévalo, Gustavo; Gassó, Santiago; Baldasano, José M.

2013-12-01

298

The contributions of high- and low altitude emission sources to the near ground concentrations of air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scale of transport through the atmosphere depends on the effective height of an emission source, the meteorological conditions and the physico-chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Atmospheric surface temperature inversions play a significant role in the problem of air pollution since their upper edge acts as a natural barrier to the vertical dispersion of pollutants. When the altitude of an emission source is lower than the edge of the boundary layer, the pollution remains below the upper edge and spreads by advection inside the lower layer towards the ground. However, if the altitude of the emission source is higher than the edge of the boundary layer, then the pollution spreads above the barrier. An analysis of a pollution episode during one month (August 2004) in an urban atmosphere of industrial city, using results of continuous monitoring of minute-by-minute fluctuations of the pollutants' concentrations, is presented. Region of a developed industrial town as a model was investigated. The investigated region is characterized by maximum number of surface temperature inversions during the nights in August and their furlough during the day time. With a combination of local meteorological information, that is the number of surface temperature inversions of the atmosphere, the results showed that the concentrations of pollutants originating from low altitude emission sources, e.g. organic pollutants, were higher at night. The near ground concentrations of SO 2, originating from high-(industrial stacks) and low altitude (traffic) sources, and the PM 10 originating from various sources i.e. from complex mechanisms of formation e.g. traffic emissions, SOA mechanisms and re-suspensions, were the same during the night and during the day. However, concentrations of NH 3 from high altitude sources (fertilizer plant) were higher during the day. Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed associations of highest correlation between pollutants, which are constituents of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), which signify strong influences of emission from low altitude sources e.g. oil pollutants from near industrial zone.

?or?evi?, Dragana S.; Šolevi?, Tatjana M.

2008-02-01

299

Characterizing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Oil and Natural Gas Operations in Haynesville, Fayetteville, and Marcellus Shale Regions via Aircraft Observations During SENEX 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2013 SENEX (Southeast Nexus) field campaign took place in June and July 2013 with to ascertain how the interaction of natural and anthropogenic emissions influence climate change and air quality throughout the southeastern United States. Five of the research flights utilizing the NOAA WP-3D aircraft focused on areas of intensive oil and natural gas production from various shale plays. These areas included the Haynesville shale in eastern Texas and western Louisiana, the Fayetteville shale in northern Arkansas, and the Marcellus shale in western Pennsylvania. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2013 report, (1) the Haynesville, Fayetteville, and Marcellus shale collectively account for approximately 75% of the dry shale gas produced in the U.S., and (2) shale gas is expected to provide the largest source of growth in the U.S. natural gas supply over the next few decades. Depending on the particular shale formation, raw natural gas can contain significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons in the form of natural gas liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, butanes) and natural gas condensate (e.g., pentanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics). Trace gases including methane, aromatics, formaldehyde, other oxygenated VOCs, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides were measured by multiple instruments aboard the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft. Up to 72 whole air samples (WAS) were collected in flight and analyzed in the field post-flight for a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Whole air samples provide a detailed chemical snapshot that can be combined with higher time-resolved measurements in order to provide a more comprehensive chemical analysis. In this presentation, we will compare the emissions composition of the Haynesville, Fayetteville, and Marcellus shale plays to investigate the relative importance of primary VOC emissions on the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone, oxygenated VOCs, and secondary organic aerosol.

Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.; Aikin, K.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Wolfe, G. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.

2013-12-01

300

Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission.  

SciTech Connect

A new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Asia in the year 2006 is developed to support the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B) funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources, excluding biomass burning. We estimate total Asian anthropogenic emissions in the year 2006 as follows: 47.1 Tg SO{sub 2}, 36.7 Tg NO{sub x}, 298.2 Tg CO, 54.6 Tg NMVOC, 29.2 Tg PM{sub 10}, 22.2 Tg PM{sub 2.5}, 2.97 Tg BC, and 6.57 Tg OC. We emphasize emissions from China because they dominate the Asia pollutant outflow to the Pacific and the increase of emissions from China since 2000 is of great concern. We have implemented a series of improved methodologies to gain a better understanding of emissions from China, including a detailed technology-based approach, a dynamic methodology representing rapid technology renewal, critical examination of energy statistics, and a new scheme of NMVOC speciation for model-ready emissions. We estimate China's anthropogenic emissions in the year 2006 to be as follows: 31.0 Tg SO{sub 2}, 20.8 Tg NO{sub x}, 166.9 Tg CO, 23.2 Tg NMVOC, 18.2 Tg PM{sub 10}, 13.3 Tg PM{sub 2.5}, 1.8 Tg BC, and 3.2 Tg OC. We have also estimated 2001 emissions for China using the same methodology and found that all species show an increasing trend during 2001-2006: 36% increase for SO{sub 2}, 55% for NOx, 18% for CO, 29% for VOC, 13% for PM{sub 10}, and 14% for PM{sub 2.5}, BC, and OC. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 30 min x 30 min and can be accessed at our web site (http://mic.greenresource.cn/intex-b2006).

Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Carmichael, G. R.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Kannari, A.; Klimont, Z.; Park, I.; Reddy, S.; Fu, J.S.; Chen, D.; Duan, L.; Lei, Y.; Wang, L.; Yao, Z.; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis; Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies; UK Met Office; Univ. of Tennessee

2009-01-01

301

Advanced modeling of nitrogen oxide emissions in circulating fluidized bed combustors: Parametric study of coal combustion and nitrogen compound chemistries  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work-in-progress aimed at developing an emission model for circulating fluidized bed combustors using detailed homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical kinetics. The main emphasis is on nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O) but also unburned gases (CO, C{sub x}H{sub y}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) will be investigated in the long run. The hydrodynamics is described by a 1.5-dimensional model where the riser is divided into three regions: a dense bubbling bed at the bottom, a vigorously mixed splash zone, and a transport zone. The two latter zones are horizontally split into a core region and an annular region. The solids circulation rate is calculated from the known solids inventory and the pressure and mass balances over the entire circulation loop. The solids are divided into classes according to size and type or particle. The model assumes instantaneous fuel devolatilization at the bottom and an even distribution of volatiles in the suspension phase of the dense bed. For addition of secondary air, a complete penetration and an instantaneous mixing with the combustor gases in the core region is assumed. The temperature distribution is assumed to be known, and no energy balance is solved. A comprehensive kinetic scheme of about 300 elementary gas-phase reactions is used to describe the homogeneous oxidation of the volatiles including both hydrocarbon and volatile-nitrogen components (NH{sub 3}, HCN). Heterogeneous char combustion to CO and CO{sub 2}, and char-nitrogen conversion to NO, N{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} are described by a single particle model that includes 15 reaction steps given in the form of 6 net reaction paths. In the paper, the model is briefly described. A special emphasis is put on the evaluation of chemistry submodels. Modeling results on nitrogen oxides' formation are compared with measured concentration profiles in a 12 MW CFBC riser from literature. The importance of accurate chemistry description on predictions is illustrated by comparing modeling results using detailed kinetics to those obtained when hydrocarbon and volatile-nitrogen oxidation are described with empirical, global kinetic rate expressions from literature. Submodels that need further improvements are discussed.

Kilpinen, P.; Kallio, S.; Hupa, M.

1999-07-01

302

Global chemical transport model study of ozone response to changes in chemical kinetics and biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions due to increasing temperatures: Sensitivities to isoprene nitrate chemistry and grid resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global modeling studies show a wide variability in the response of the O3 budget to climate change as projected by applying Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios in climate models. We employ sensitivity studies to elucidate the major uncertainties in the response of tropospheric O3 to perturbations in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions and reaction rate coefficients due to

Akinori Ito; Sanford Sillman; Joyce E. Penner

2009-01-01

303

Potential odorous volatile organic compound emissions from feces and urine from cattle fed corn-based diets with wet distillers grains and solubles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are a concern at animal feeding operations (AFOs). The issue has become more prevalent as human residences move into areas once occupied only by agriculture. Odors near AFOs are generally caused by odorous VOCs emitted from manure, the mixture of feces and urine. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) are a by-product of the ethanol industry, and WDGS have become a staple in many beef cattle finishing diets. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from frozen feces and urine of cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45% WDGS. No differences in flux were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, indole, skatole, or 4-methylphenol (P > 0.23). Dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide flux in feces were not different across treatments (P > 0.35) and the flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric were not different across treatments (P > 0.25). There was a tendency for dimethyl disulfide flux from urine to be greater for cattle consuming an SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS than the other diets (P = 0.10). Furthermore, flux of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acid from the urine were not different (P > 0.61) across dietary treatment. There were no significant differences in odor activity value (OAV) across treatments for feces, and only a tendency for dimethyl disulfide in the feces (P = 0.09). Thus, there was no obvious indication that feeding WDGS in conjunction with SFC affects flux of odor or odorous VOC from beef manure. The summed OAV was three times higher in the urine than feces, and a single odorous compound (4-methylphenol) accounted for 97.6%and 67.3% of the OAV in urine and feces, respectively. Therefore, engineering or dietary strategies to reduce odor from beef cattle manure should focus on controlling or reducing 4-methylphenol concentrations in the urine and feces.

Hales, Kristin E.; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

2012-12-01

304

Production of phenolics and the emission of volatile organic compounds by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)/Neotyphodium lolii association as a response to infection by Fusarium poae.  

PubMed

Grasses very often form symbiotic associations with Neotyphodium/Epichloë endophytic fungi. These endophytes often allow the host grass to be protected from different pathogens. However, there is little known about the mechanisms of such endophyte influence on the host. Thus, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the N. lolii endophyte on the total production of phenolic compounds, VOCs emission and the resistance of three perennial ryegrass genotypes infected by pathogenic Fusarium poae. Analyses of total phenolics content were performed in control (not inoculated) and inoculated plants after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days (DAI) and for VOCs after 0, 3, 6 and 12 DAI. The presence of endophytes significantly reduced the disease index in two of the three genotypes relative to that in E-. Plants infected by N. lolii exhibited higher production of phenolics relative to the E- plants. The highest amounts of phenolics were observed on the second and sixth DAI. Genotype Nl22 showed the strongest effect of the endophyte on the production of phenolics, which increased by over 61%. Both the endophyte infected and non-infected plants emitted most abundantly two GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate), three terpenes (linalool, (Z)-ocimene, ?-caryophyllene) and three shikimic acid pathway derivatives (benzyl acetate, indole, and methyl salicylate). The endophyte presence and the intervals of VOCs detection were a highly significant source of variation for all emitted volatiles (P<0.001). The genotype of the perennial ryegrass significantly affected only the emission of methyl salicylate (P<0.05) and ?-caryophyllene (P<0.05). Most of the VOCs ((Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, linalool and methyl salicylate) reached their highest levels of emission on the sixth DAI, when averaged over genotypes and endophyte status. The results highlight the role of Neotyphodium spp. in the mediation of quadro-trophic interactions among plants, symbiotic endophytes, invertebrate herbivores and plant pathogenic fungi. Our results also confirm the fact that symbiotic plants can activate a defense reaction faster than non-symbiotic plants after a pathogen attack. Thus, N. lolii can be involved in the defense of perennial ryegrass against pathogens and potentially could be central to the host plants' protection. PMID:23566872

Pa?ka, Dariusz; Piesik, Dariusz; Jeske, Ma?gorzata; Baturo-Cie?niewska, Anna

2013-07-15

305

Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photooxidation under a range of controlled conditions (RH ∼65-89%, VOC/NOx ∼3-9 and NOx ∼2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line, chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene, but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measureable amounts of SOA via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e., in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photooxidation products of the minor VOCs co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally-isoprene emitting landscapes in Southeast Asia. Moreover, in general the amount of aerosol mass produced from the emissions of the principally-isoprene-emitting plants, was less than would be expected from published single-VOC experiments, if co-emitted species were solely responsible for the final SOA mass. Interpretation of the results obtained from the fig data sets, leaves room for a potential role for isoprene in inhibiting SOA formation under certain ambient atmospheric conditions, although instrumental and experimental constraints impose a level of caution in the interpretation of the results. Concomitant gas and aerosol phase composition measurements also provide a detailed overview of numerous key oxidation mechanisms at work within the systems studied and their combined analysis provides insight into the nature of the SOA formed.

Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

2014-06-01

306

Emission profile of 18 carbonyl compounds, CO, CO 2, and NO x emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and ternary blends containing diesel, ethanol and biodiesel or vegetable oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of vehicular emissions on air depends, among other factors, on the composition of fuel and the technology used to build the engines. The reduction of vehicular emissions requires changes in the fuel composition, and improving the technologies used in the manufacturing of engines and for the after-treatment of gases. In general, improvements to diesel engines have targeted not only emission reductions, but also reductions in fuel consumption. However, changes in the fuel composition have been shown to be a more rapid and effective alternative to reduce pollution. Some factors should been taken into consideration when searching for an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines, such as emissions, fuel stability, availability and its distribution, as well as its effects on the engine durability. In this work, 45 fuel blends were prepared and their stability was evaluated. The following mixtures (v/v/v) were stable for the 90-day period and were used in the emission study: diesel/ethanol - 90/10%, diesel/ethanol/soybean biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/castor biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/residual biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/soybean oil - 90/7/3%, and diesel/ethanol/castor oil - 90/7/3%. The diesel/ethanol fuel showed higher reduction of NO x emission at a lower load (2 kW) when compared with pure diesel. The other fuels showed a decrease of NO x emissions in the ranges of 6.9-75% and 4-85% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. The combustion efficiencies of the diesel can be enhanced by the addition of the oxygenate fuels, like ethanol and biodiesel/vegetable oil, resulting in a more complete combustion in terms of NO x emission. In the case of CO 2 the decreases were in the ranges of 5-24% and 4-6% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. Meanwhile, no differences were observed in CO emission. The carbonyl compounds (CC) studied were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, butanone, benzaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, valeraldehyde, o-toluenaldehyde, m-toluenaldehyde, p-toluenaldehyde, hexaldehyde, octaldehyde, 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde, and decaldehyde. Among them, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and propionaldehyde showed the highest emission concentrations. When ternary blend contains vegetable oil, there is a strong tendency to increase the emissions of the high weight CC and decrease the emissions of the low weight CC. The highest concentration of acrolein was observed when the fuel contains diesel, ethanol and biodiesel. With the exception of NO x, the use of ternary blended fuels resulted on the increase in the emission rates of the studied compounds.

Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; de Souza, Amanda Figueiredo; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; de Andrade, Jailson B.

307

Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: Effects of important parameters.  

PubMed

Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6×6km(2) for Greece and 2×2km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO2, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO2, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO2 (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. PMID:25461080

Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

2015-02-01

308

Investigation of compound-independent calibration and partial molecular formula determination by gas chromatography-atomic-emission detection for characterisation of organophosphorus and organosulfur agents related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Atomic-emission detection (AED) is a technique particularly-well suited to screening complex samples for multiple compounds containing heteroatoms such as phosphorus, sulfur, or nitrogen, which are especially relevant in verification of chemical disarmament. Among other GC detectors, AED has unique characteristics such as compound-independent calibration and possible raw-formula determination. Because contradictory results have been reported on these points, we set up a study with the objectives not only of applying these techniques to chemical weapons convention-related chemicals but of determining under which conditions they would yield satisfactory results. The extensive data collected in this study are evidence that the response of the detector, particularly for the phosphorus line, is very dependent on the molecular mass and concentration of the chemicals analysed whereas molecular structure seems to have less effect on the AED signal. Most interestingly, compound-independent calibration and subsequent partial molecular formula determination usually seem satisfactory when the reference compounds used to calibrate the system have GC retention times and molecular masses close to those of the unknown analytes (whose molecular mass may be determined by GC-CI-MS). We therefore suggest the use of a reference set of compounds covering a large chromatographic window, which enables the selection, within this set, of the most appropriate reference compound for calibration and for determination of the raw formula of an unknown analyte. For optimal performance, the use of a new discharge tube is also recommended. PMID:16240110

Juillet, Yannick; Gibert, Edmond; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

2005-11-01

309

Determination of butyl- and phenyltin compounds in human urine by HS-SPME after derivatization with tetraethylborate and subsequent determination by capillary GC with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method was developed and optimized for gas chromatographic separation and determination of commonly found organotin compounds in human urine after potential exposure. Butyl- and phenyltin compounds were in situ derivatized to ethylated derivatives by sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) directly in the urine matrix. The relevant parameters affecting the yield of the SPME procedure were examined using tetrabutyltin as internal standard. The method was optimized for direct use in the analysis of undiluted human urine samples and mono-, di- and tri-substituted butyl- and phenyltin compounds could be determined after a 15-min headspace extraction time at room temperature. The selectivity of the microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detector (MIP-AED) as an element specific detector in combination with the relatively selective sample preparation technique of HS-SPME allowed the interference-free detection of the organotin compounds in all cases. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used in parallel experiments as a detector for the confirmation of the identity molecular structure of the eluted compounds. The performance characteristics of the developed method are given for the determination of mixtures of these compounds. Finally the proposed method was applied to the analysis of several human urine samples. PMID:19203626

Zachariadis, G A; Rosenberg, E

2009-04-30

310

Photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs) for different emission sources of organic compounds under European conditions estimated with a Master Chemical Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the combined application of a speciated VOC emission inventory and an explicit chemical mechanism, a picture has been put together of the different contributions to photochemical ozone formation from 248 VOC emission source categories. The study has shown that the different VOC emission source categories show vastly different propensities for forming photochemical ozone as indexed by their photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs). POCPs range from close to zero for numerous processes, including halocarbon solvent usage, through to over 70 for diesel combustion and some reactive solvent and other product usage applications. The consequences of the large range in POCPs are highlighted for cost-effective VOC emission control strategies across north west Europe.

Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; Passant, N. R.; Pilling, M. J.

311

A BIOGENIC ROLE IN EXPOSURE TO TWO TOXIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biogenic sources play an important role in ozone and particulate concentrations through emissions of volatile organic compounds. The same emissions also contribute to chronic toxic exposures from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde because each compound arises through primary and se...

312

Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

313

Modelling of long-term trends and variability of tropospheric ozone and its precursors and their sensitivity to NOx emission changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric chemical composition has changed markedly over time. Particularly large changes have been observed during recent decades associated largely with economic growth and increased energy consumption. In the European RETRO project we compiled new global emission data sets for NOx, CO and NMVOC species and performed multi-decadal simulations using three state-of-the-art chemistry transport and chemistry climate models. The models were evaluated with available observations from satellite, ground based networks and aircraft sampling. Some historic data were re-analyzed specifically for the project. In spite of some biases found in the model simulations, all three models are generally consistent with respect to the overall trend in ozone and precursor concentrations. Longer-term changes are mostly related to changing emissions, while shorter term fluctuations are predominantly attributed to meteorological variability. Additional sensitivity calculations provide some insight into the modeled response to projected NOx emission changes.

Schultz, M. G.; Team, R.

2007-12-01

314

Identification of Seasonal Variations in Volatile Sulfur Compound Formation and Emission From the Secondary Treatment System at a Large Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Offensive odors associated with gaseous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a nuisance to residential communities that exist in close proximity to these facilities. The purpose of this study was to identify, quantify and determine source locations of significant volatile sulfur c...

315

Purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection for volatile halogenated organic compounds determination in waters and beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous determination of 10 volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), including four trihalomethanes (THMs), in waters and beverages was developed. The analytes were stripped from the aqueous sample by a flow of helium, preconcentrated in a capillary trap and thermally desorbed using a purge-and-trap (PT) system. This was followed by capillary gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic

N Campillo; P Viñas; I López-Garc??a; N Aguinaga; M Hernández-Córdoba

2004-01-01

316

Characterization of Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) biogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their role in secondary organic aerosol formation.  

PubMed

The formation of aerosols is a key component in understanding cloud formation in the context of radiative forcings and global climate modeling. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a significant source of aerosols, yet there is still much to be learned about their structures, sources, and interactions. The aims of this project were to identify the BVOCs found in the defense chemicals of the brown marmorated stink bug Halymorpha halys and quantify them using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and test whether oxidation of these compounds by ozone-promoted aerosol and cloud seed formation. The bugs were tested under two conditions: agitation by asphyxiation and direct glandular exposure. Tridecane, 2(5H)-furanone 5-ethyl, and (E)-2-decenal were identified as the three most abundant compounds. H. halys were also tested in the agitated condition in a smog chamber. It was found that in the presence of 100-180 ppm ozone, secondary aerosols do form. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) were used to characterize the secondary aerosols that formed. This reaction resulted in 0.23 microg/ bug of particulate mass. It was also found that these secondary organic aerosol particles could act as cloud condensation nuclei. At a supersaturation of 1%, we found a kappa value of 0.09. Once regional populations of these stink bugs stablilize and the populations estimates can be made, the additional impacts of their contribution to regional air quality can be calculated. PMID:24344570

Solomon, Danielle; Dutcher, Dabrina; Raymond, Timothy

2013-11-01

317

Compound Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Albert Einstein called compound interest the 8th wonder of the world. Find out why compound interest and the time value of money are so important. What is Interest Click on the following link to read about the different types of interest. Loans and Interest So why learn about compound interest? Using time and interest to your advantage, you can make more money than you have ever dreamed of. See how the time value of ...

Ms. Riches

2007-10-16

318

CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Continuous emissions monitoring of hazardous and mixed waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. pecies of particular interest include trace metals and organic compounds resulting from inco...

319

Anti-Stokes Yb3+ emission--valuable structure information in spectra of rare earth compounds measured with FT-Raman spectrometers.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful and simple method which proved to be very useful in studies of solids. The most widely used Raman spectrometers are FT-Raman instruments with YAG:Nd(3+) laser as an excitation source. However, in the case of samples containing rare earth elements, the quality of FT-Raman spectra is often low due to strong fluorescence effects. We show that, in such cases, anti-Stokes part of the Raman spectra often contains strong, well resolved bands identified as multiphonon-assisted emission bands of Yb(3+) present as an impurity. We show on several examples that analysis of these bands may provide useful structure information, similar to that obtained by "Eu structure probe" method in optical spectroscopy. The Yb(3+) emission can be also measured using standard luminescence detection systems. However, the application of FT-Raman system allows one to obtain good quality spectra in a much cheaper, easier and faster way (in times as short as a few seconds). Moreover, high-sensitivity of FT-Raman spectrometers allows to detect even very small amounts of Yb(3+) impurity. PMID:16716654

Kepi?ski, Leszek; Maczka, Miros?aw; Hanuza, Jerzy

2006-12-01

320

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES: DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND DOMESTIC WASTE OPEN BURN EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with...

321

The Influence of Ozone Precursor Emissions from Four World Regions on Tropospheric Composition and Radiative Climate Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence regional and global climate and air quality through changes in tropospheric O3 and oxidants, which also influence methane (CH4) and sulfate aerosols (SO4 (sup 2-)). We examine changes in the tropospheric composition of O3, CH4, SO4 (sup 2-) and global net radiative forcing (RF) for 20% reductions in global CH4 burden and in anthropogenic O3 precursor emissions (NOx, NMVOC, and CO) from four regions (East Asia, Europe and Northern Africa, North America, and South Asia) using the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, assessing uncertainty (mean plus or minus 1 standard deviation) across multiple CTMs. We evaluate steady state O3 responses, including long-term feedbacks via CH4. With a radiative transfer model that includes greenhouse gases and the aerosol direct effect, we find that regional NOx reductions produce global, annually averaged positive net RFs (0.2 plus or minus 0.6 to 1.7 2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg N yr(sup -1), with some variation among models. Negative net RFs result from reductions in global CH4 (-162.6 plus or minus 2 mWm(sup -2) for a change from 1760 to 1408 ppbv CH4) and regional NMVOC (-0.4 plus or minus 0.2 to 0.7 plus or minus 0.2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg C yr(sup -1) and CO emissions (-0.13 plus or minus 0.02 to -0.15 plus or minus 0.02 mWm(sup-2)/Tg CO yr(sup-1). Including the effect of O3 on CO2 uptake by vegetation likely makes these net RFs more negative by -1.9 to- 5.2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg N yr(sup -1), -0.2 to -0.7 mWm(sup -2)/Tg C yr(sup -1), and -0.02 to -0.05 mWm(sup -2)/ Tg CO yr(sup -1). Net RF impacts reflect the distribution of concentration changes, where RF is affected locally by changes in SO4 (sup -2), regionally to hemispherically by O3, and globally by CH4. Global annual average SO4 2 responses to oxidant changes range from 0.4 plus or minus 2.6 to -1.9 plus or minus 1.3 Gg for NOx reductions, 0.1 plus or minus 1.2 to -0.9 plus or minus 0.8 Gg for NMVOC reductions, and -0.09 plus or minus 0.5 to -0.9 plus or minus 0.8 Gg for CO reductions, suggesting additional research is needed. The 100-year global warming potentials (GWP(sub 100)) are calculated for the global CH4 reduction (20.9 plus or minus 3.7 without stratospheric O3 or water vapor, 24.2 plus or minus 4.2 including those components), and for the regional NOx, NMVOC, and CO reductions (18.7 plus or minus 25.9 to 1.9 plus or minus 8.7 for NOx, 4.8 plus or minus 1.7 to 8.3 plus or minus 1.9 for NMVOC, and 1.5 plus or minus 0.4 to 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 for CO). Variation in GWP(sub 100) for NOx, NMVOC, and CO suggests that regionally specific GWPs may be necessary and could support the inclusion of O3 precursors in future policies that address air quality and climate change simultaneously. Both global net RF and GWP100 are more sensitive to NOx and NMVOC reductions from South Asia than the other three regions.

Fry, Meridith; Naik, Vaishali; West, J. Jason; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Fiore, Arlene M.; Collins, William J.; Dentener, Frank J.; Shindell, Drew T.; Atherton, Cyndi; Bergmann, Daniel; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hess, Peter; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Marmer, Elina; Schultz, Martin G.; Szopa, Sophie; Wild, Oliver; Zeng, Guang

2012-01-01

322

Role of fossil fuel and wood burning emissions on Volatile Organic Compounds, Carbon monoxide and Black Carbon level and variability as determined from one-year measurements in Paris.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the French program PRIMEQUAL-FRANCIPOL 2010-2013, measurements of gaseous precursors of secondary organic aerosols have been performed at the LHVP (Laboratoire d'Hygiene de la Ville de Paris), an urban background site of Paris. A continuous real-time monitoring strategy using the high sensitivity PTR-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction- Mass Spectrometer) has been implemented for the measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) during a whole year (02/2010-03/2011). The data were acquired in mass-scan mode thus, allowing to follow a very wide range of analytes, namely between m/z 18 and 151. This broad range of compounds includes both well-known VOCs and less studied ones, providing a great exploration potential and the opportunity to establish novel valuable information. This unique dataset will enable to acquire a better understanding of the diurnal, weekday and seasonal trends and to determine the main sources that drive VOCs variability in Paris. The preliminary results herein aim to distinguish the biomass burning from the fuel fossil emissions and to evaluate their impact on the measured volatile organic compounds using tracers Black Carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). BC was measured and separated into fuel fossil (FF) and wood burning (WB) contributions which can both be used as tracers. The obtained FF contributions to BC are well correlated with measured concentrations of acetaldehyde (m/z 45), acetone (m/z 59), hexanal (m/z 83), probably chloroethane (m/z 85), dimethylbenzene (m/z 107) and trimethylbenzene (TMB) while WB contributions to BC correlate nicely with methanol and the mass 97, maybe related to furfural which has already been identified in smoke from woodburning.

Sarda Esteve, R.; Gros, V.; Kalogridis, A.-C.; Sciare, J.

2012-04-01

323

Speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin compounds in human urine by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection.  

PubMed

This work describes the development of a fast method for speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin species in urine samples after in situ derivatization by tetraethyl- or tetrapropyl-borate reagents. The alkylation reaction is done in the aqueous and urine medium and the less-polar derivatives are extracted in hexane by liquid-liquid extraction. The species were extracted and the extract was efficiently collected from the aqueous phase after centrifugation. Finally, the organometallic species are separated by gas chromatography and determined from the emission signals of elemental lead and tin. Atomic lead and tin are formed from the organolead and organotin compounds during atomization of the column eluate in a microwave-induced helium plasma source. The simultaneous measurement of lead (Pb) at 405.780 nm and tin (Sn) at 303.419 nm was achieved by an atomic emission detector. Finally, the analytes were determined with satisfactory precision (<5%) and detection limits of 0.05 ?g Pb/L and 0.48 ?g Sn/L, respectively, when 10 mL of urine is extracted with 1 mL of hexane and 1 ?L of extract is injected. PMID:22689489

Zachariadis, George A; Rosenberg, Erwin

2012-05-01

324

Method of removal of volatile organic compounds by using wet scrubber coupled with photo-Fenton reaction--preventing emission of by-products.  

PubMed

The photo-Fenton reaction was applied as a novel method for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase, and its effectiveness was experimentally examined. In conventional VOCs removal methods using a photocatalyst or ozone, VOCs are oxidized in the gas phase. Therefore, incompletely oxidized intermediates, which may have adverse effects on health, are likely to contaminate the treated air. On the other hand, in the VOCs removal method developed in this study, because the VOCs are oxidized in the liquid phase by the photo-Fenton reaction, any incompletely oxidized intermediates produced are confined to the liquid phase. As a result, the contamination of the treated air by these harmful intermediates can be prevented. Using a semi-batch process, it was found that the removal efficiency for toluene in a one-pass test (residence time of 17s) was 61%, for an inlet toluene gas concentration of 930 ppbv, an initial iron ion concentration of 20 mg L(-1), and an initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 630 mg L(-1). The removal efficiency was almost constant as long as H(2)O(2) was present in the solution. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the absence of any incompletely oxidized intermediates in the treated air. PMID:22871338

Tokumura, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Usami, Yuri; Yamaki, Takako; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Yukio

2012-11-01

325

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOEpatents

A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-22

326

Organosulfur Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts. This set of questions focuses on organosulfur compounds, with a special emphasis on thiols and sulfides.

Reich, Ieva

327

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOEpatents

A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

2010-08-10

328

Importance of activity data for improving the residential wood combustion emission inventory at regional level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of residential wood combustion (RWC) to emission inventory at local level was estimated using a bottom-up approach for the Lombardy Region of North Italy. A survey, based on the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing) method, has been undertaken through 18,000 interviews. The interviews had the objective to characterize the RWC use in this region, in term of both total and municipal wood consumption. Details on the type of appliances used in RWC were also gathered. The results of the survey were then statistically analyzed in order to allow an estimate of RWC with high spatial resolution (i.e., at municipal level) in relation to the size and altitude of the territory. The work provides new evidence of the importance of wood combustion as a key source for PM and NMVOC emissions at local level, and thus highlights the importance of technological improvements and new policies aimed at emission reduction in this sector. Considering the great differences in average PM emission factors between low efficiency appliances (fireplaces, old stoves) and high efficiency ones (new stoves, pellet burners), this work emphasizes the importance of obtaining more detailed information on the types of wood appliances used for arriving at a reliable PM emission inventory for RWC.

Pastorello, Cinzia; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Dilara, Panagiota; Galletti, Fabio

2011-06-01

329

Multipurpose Compound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

1983-01-01

330

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

Kramer, D.A.

2001-01-01

331

Global chlorine emissions from biomass burning: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of reactive chlorine-containing compounds from nine discrete classes of biomass burning were estimated on a 1° latitude by 1° longitude grid based on a biomass burning inventory for carbon emissions. Variations on approaches incorporating both emission ratios relative to CO and CO2 and the chlorine content of biomass burning fuels were used to estimate fluxes and associated uncertainties. Estimated,

Jürgen M. Lobert; William C. Keene; Jennifer A. Logan; Rosemarie Yevich

1999-01-01

332

Impact of aviation emissions on the Arctic environment - GEM-AC model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuing decrease of ice cover over the Artic allows for the increase in shipping and industrial activities in the region. These activities lead to the increase of anthropogenic emissions from shipping, prospecting, exploration, and smelting. Emissions from shipping are dominant and their magnitude and impact on the Arctic environment have been addressed in recent publications. The objective of this study is investigate the impact of the increased demand for commercial aviation transport to the Arctic on the air quality near the ground as well as the impact of aviation emissions injected at cruise altitudes (9-11 km ) which in many cases will be above the tropopause. We will present results from the GEM-AC model simulations for several aviation emissions scenarios. GEM-AC (Global Environmental Multiscale model for Atmospheric Chemistry) is a chemical weather model based on the GEM model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting where air quality, free tropospheric, and stratospheric chemistry process are on-line and interactive. In vertical, the model domain is defined on hybrid levels from the surface to ~60km. The gas-phase chemistry includes detailed reactions of Ox, NOx, HOx, CO, CH4, NMVOCs, halocarbons, ClOx and BrO. Also, the model can address aerosol microphysics and gas-aerosol partitioning. The model will be run on a global variable grid with ~30 km uniform horizontal resolution over the Arctic.

Kaminski, J. W.; Porebska, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.

2013-12-01

333

Reducing emissions of carbonyl compounds and regulated harmful matters from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with paraffinic/biodiesel blends at one low load steady-state condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) and regulated harmful matters (traditional pollutants) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at one low load steady-state condition, 24.5% of the max load (40 km h -1), using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.3-75.4% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 9.74% and 2.89%, respectively. However, using PF80P20 and PF95P05 as alternative fuels significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 24.2%, respectively. Using PF95P05 instead of D100 decreased CBCs by 30.3%, PM by 11.1%, THC by 39.0%, CO by 34.0%, NOx by 24.3%, and CO 2 by 7.60%. The wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment. However, it should be noted that only one engine operated at one low load steady-state condition was investigated.

Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Ou-Yang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chung-Bang

334

75 FR 34671 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Delaware; Limiting Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds From Consumer Products AGENCY...Delaware concerning the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The revision amends...41)--Limiting Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Consumer and...

2010-06-18

335

Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per cent (-6 ?g m-3 on average). The urban areas are VOC-controlled, therefore the reduction on NOx emissions involves a minor increase on tropospheric O3 concentration (Jiménez and Baldasano, 2004), up to 1.5 per cent at some points. Nevertheless, the O3 precursors reduction has positive effects in the downwind areas affected by the urban plume, slightly reducing the O3 levels, but at the regional scale the reduction applied on urban traffic emissions has negligible effects. Both scenarios tested are very similar in terms of emissions reductions and air quality changes, which means that the NOx/NMVOCs ratio do not involve an O3-sensitivity regime variation among scenarios. The HEC scenario is more effective in reducing NO2 levels in urban areas than the NGC scenario (with maximum reductions affecting a larger area) and involves a larger increase in urban O3 concentration.

Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

2007-12-01

336

A32A-0126: A BIOGENIC ROLE IN EXPOSURE TO TWO TOXIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biogenic sources play an important role in ozone and particulate concentrations through emissions of volatile organic compounds. The same emissions also contribute to chronic toxic exposures from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde because each compound arises through primary and sec...

337

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

Kramer, D.A.

2003-01-01

338

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

Kramer, D.A.

2006-01-01

339

Low emission turbo compound engine system  

DOEpatents

A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. The power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.

Vuk; Carl T. (Denver, IA)

2011-05-31

340

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

Kramer, D.A.

2002-01-01

341

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2011-01-01

342

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2010-01-01

343

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

Kramer, D.A.

2007-01-01

344

Fun with Compound Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and create compound words We will be studying compound words! First we need to find out what a compound word is, go to this website and read about compound words.What is a compound word Now that you have read about compound words lets do some fun activities to help us review. First go to Compound word flashcards, here you will ...

Ms. Huggins

2012-04-12

345

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOEpatents

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01

346

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOEpatents

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

1998-05-05

347

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

Kramer, D.A.

2012-01-01

348

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

1986-01-14

349

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1986-01-14

350

Environmental effects of the recent emission changes in China: implications for particulate matter pollution and soil acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by a rapid increase of energy consumption and emerging pollution control policies, air pollutant emissions have changed dramatically in China during 2005-2010. This study developed a multi-pollutant emission inventory, and used the community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system to evaluate the impact of the emission changes on particulate matter pollution and soil acidification. During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 decreased by 14.9%, 15.1% and 11.7%, respectively. In contrast, the emissions of NOX, NMVOC and NH3 increased by 33.8%, 21.0% and 10.4%, respectively. The emission trends differed notably in different regions. Driven by emission changes, PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 2-17 ?g m-3 in most of the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while increasing by 4.5-16 ?g m-3 in most of the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei. The changes of PM2.5 emissions led to the decline of primary PM2.5 concentrations in most of Eastern China. As an effect solely of emission changes, nitrate concentrations increased across most of China; sulfate concentrations decreased in most of Eastern China, with the largest reduction in the North China Plain, while they increased in the Sichuan Basin and parts of the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei. The concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and the extinction coefficient increased in most of China, especially in the Sichuan Basin and Eastern Hubei, implying that the NOX and NH3 emissions should be reduced simultaneously in China. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the exceedance of critical loads decreased across the country, but increased in the Sichuan Basin, the Pearl River Delta and Eastern Hubei, where the soil acidification was the most serious. Different control policies need to be implemented in different regions.

Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Dong, Xinyi; Wang, Jiandong; Duan, Lei; Fu, Xiao; Hao, Jiming; Fu, Joshua

2013-06-01

351

78 FR 69995 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Restriction of Emission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emission of Sulfur Compounds and Emissions Banking and Trading AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Revisions to the Missouri rule ``Emissions Banking and Trading'' removes all definitions...rule 10 CSR 10-6.410, ``Emissions Banking and Trading'' removes all...

2013-11-22

352

Compounded Fractures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This VIS image taken in the region east of Alba Patera shows the complex relations that can occur in regions of multiple structural events. There are fractures and graben in this area that intersect at multiple angles.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

353

Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e. 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipments were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2 and NO2 concentrations, suggesting that the various controls on SO2 and NOx emissions implemented over the last two decades are well represented in the emission inventories developed in this study. These inventories were processed by SMOKE and are now ready to be used for regional chemistry transport model simulations over the 1990-2010 period.

Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

2012-11-01

354

Modeling an air pollution episode in northwestern United States: Identifying the effect of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compound emission changes on air pollutants formation using direct sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality impacts of VOCs and NOx emissions from major sources over the northwestern United States are simulated. The comprehensive nested modeling system is comprised of three models: CMAQ, WRF and SMOKE. In addition, the DDM-3D is used to determine the sensitivities of pollutant concentrations to changes in precursor emissions during a severe smog episode in July of 2006. The

Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Marcus Trail; Yongtao Hu; Athanasios Nenes; Armistead G. Russell

2012-01-01

355

GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

356

PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

357

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MODEL (VERSION 1.8) (FOR MICROCOMPUTERS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Future emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and costs of their control can be estimated by applying growth factors, emission constraints, control cost functions, and capacity retirement rates to the base line estimates of VOC emissions and industrial VOC source capacity...

358

Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.-E.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

2013-10-01

359

Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

2014-03-01

360

Field and Smog Chamber Studies of Agricultural Emissions and Reaction Products.  

E-print Network

??Agricultural emissions are an important contributor to atmospheric aerosol. These emissions include nitrogen containing organic compounds, primarily as amines, which have not been well investigated… (more)

Price, Derek J.

2010-01-01

361

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt...Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating...

2010-07-01

362

Gaseous emissions from flooded rice paddy agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of continental land for agricultural use has increased over the last century. Atmospheric impact of this land use change has only been addressed for a few ecosystems and compounds. This paper provides, to date, the most comprehensive examination of gaseous emissions from rice paddies. We report seasonal emission ranges and integrated emission totals for 55 chemical species. This paper

K. R. Redeker; S. Meinardi; D. Blake; R. Sass

2003-01-01

363

Mutagenicity assay of emission extracts from wood stoves: comparison with other emission parameters.  

PubMed

The emission from wood stoves of several types of air pollutants has been measured under standardized burning conditions with emphasis on the amount of organic compounds and determination of the mutagenic activity with the Salmonella/microsome assay. The study corroborates earlier findings that conventional wood stoves can be a significant source of hydrocarbon and tar compounds in the ambient air. The emission of mutagenic compounds comprise both compounds requiring mammalian activation and compounds which are active in the test without exogenous activation. The mutagenicity tests show that nitroaromatic compounds are present in wood stove emissions, although the emission of nitrogen oxides is low. A wood stove constructed using the downdraft principle emitted much less hydrocarbons and tar, less mutagenic components and slightly less carbon monoxide than conventional wood stoves. PMID:3547645

Löfroth, G; Lazaridis, G; Rudling, L

1986-12-31

364

Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of "typical" (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1° × 1° spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999-2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R2 = 0.71-0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO2, 2.8 Tg of NOx, 1100 Tg of CO2, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH4, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH3. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of ±65% for CO2 emissions in Japan to a high of ±700% for BC emissions in India.

Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.

2003-12-01

365

Luminescence and structure of europium compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europium complexes in the +3 oxidation state, with coordination numbers six, seven, eight, nine and ten are under consideration. In most cases, single crystals or isomorphous compounds were studied by X-ray structural analyses. An attempt is made to correlate the results with the emission spectrum interpretation. Only articles containing both aspects are included in this review. Some general remarks concerning

G Vicentini; L. B Zinner; J Zukerman-Schpector; K Zinner

2000-01-01

366

Synthesis and studies on luminescent biphenyl compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new soluble compounds based on a combination of biphenyl and stilbene structural elements having a low tendency to crystallize is described. Investigations on the effect of different substituents on the photoluminescence (PL) are presented. The new biphenyls are suitable as blue emissive layers in light emitting diodes (LEDs).

D Hohnholz; K.-H Schweikart; L. R Subramanian; A Wedel; W Wischert; M Hanack

2000-01-01

367

CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC emission rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...

368

TANKS Emissions Estimation Software, Version 4.09D  

EPA Science Inventory

TANKS is a Windows-based computer software program that estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from fixed- and floating-roof storage tanks. TANKS is based on the emission estimation procedures from ...

369

Spatiotemporal distribution of carbonyl compounds in China.  

PubMed

A sampling campaign was carried out at nine Chinese cities in 2010/2011. Fifteen monocarbonyls (C# = 1-9) were quantified. Temperature is the rate-determining factor of the summertime carbonyl levels. The carbonyl emissions in winter are mainly driven by the primary anthropogenic sources like automobile. A molar ratio of propionaldehyde to nonaldehyde is a barometer of the impact of atmospheric vegetation emission which suggesting that strong vegetation emissions exist in summer and high propionaldehyde abundance is caused by fossil fuel combustion in winter. Potential health risk assessment of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was conducted and the highest cumulative risks were observed at Chengdu in summer and Wuhan in winter. Because of the strong photochemical reaction and large amount of anthropogenic emissions, high concentrations of carbonyl compounds were observed in Chengdu. The use of ethanol-blended gasoline in Wuhan is the key reason of acetaldehyde emission and action should be taken to avoid potential health risks. PMID:25433759

Ho, K F; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Huang, R-J; Dai, W T; Cao, J J; Tian, Linwei; Deng, W J

2015-02-01

370

EVALUATION OF THE WALKTHROUGH SURVEY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND LEAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

During 1978 and 1979, the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards conducted a fugitive volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sampling program in organic chemical manufacturing plants and petroleum refineries. As a part ...

371

Assessment of biomass open burning emissions in Indonesia and potential climate forcing impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an emission inventory (EI) for biomass open burning (OB) sources including forest, agro-residue and municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indonesia for year 2007. The EI covered toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and was presented as annual and monthly average for every district, and further on a grid of 0.25° × 0.25°. A rigorous analysis of activity data and emission factor ranges was done to produce the low, best and high emission estimates for each species. Development of EI methodology for MSW OB which, to our best knowledge, has not been presented in detail in the literature was a focus of this paper. The best estimates of biomass OB emission of toxic air pollutants for the country, in Gg, were: 9.6 SO2; 98 NOx; 7411 CO; 335 NMVOC; 162 NH3; 439 PM10; 357 PM2.5; 24 BC; and 147 OC. The best emission estimates of GHGs, in Gg, were: 401 CH4, 57,247 CO2; and 3.6 N2O. The low and high values of the emission estimates for different species were found to range from -86% to +260% of the corresponding best estimates. Crop residue OB contributed more than 80% of the total biomass OB emissions, followed by forest fire of 2-12% (not including peat soil fire emission) and MSW (1-8%). An inter-annual active fires count for Indonesia showed relatively low values in 2007 which may be attributed to the high rainfall intensity under the influence of La Niña climate pattern in the year. Total estimated net climate forcing from OB in Indonesia was 110 (20 year horizon) and 73 (100 year horizon) Tg CO2 equivalents which is around 0.9-1.1% of that reported for the global biomass OB for both time horizons. The spatial distribution showed higher emissions in large urban areas in Java and Sumatra Island, while the monthly emissions indicated higher values during the dry months of August-October.

Permadi, Didin Agustian; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

2013-10-01

372

RESEARCH AREA -- MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS (EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION AND PREVENTION BRANCH, APPCD, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this program is to characterize mobile source emissions which are one of the largest sources of tropospheric ozone precursor emissions (CO, NOx, and volotile organic compounds) in the U.S. The research objective of the Emissions Characterization and Prevention Br...

373

78 FR 70007 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Restriction of Emission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction of Emission of Sulfur Compounds and Emissions Banking and Trading AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...will be amended. Revisions to the Missouri rule ``Emissions Banking and Trading'' will remove all definitions, as they are...

2013-11-22

374

[Analysis of sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking gasoline].  

PubMed

Sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) gasolines from Refinery of SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company and Refinery of Shijiazhuang were analyzed by gas chromatograph connected with flame photometric detector (FPD) and atomic emission detector (AED). Twelve and 26 kinds of sulfur compounds were detected by AED in RFCC gasolines from Yanshan and Shijiazhuang respectively. Only 0 and 19 kinds of sulfur compounds were found by FPD in these two gasolines respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that AED is more sensitive and selective to sulfur compounds than FPD. It also indicated that thiophenes were the major sulfur compounds in the RFCC gasoline. In addition, mercaptan, sulfoether and disulfide species were found. PMID:12541959

Liang, Yong-mei; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yao-fang

2002-05-01

375

Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds  

PubMed Central

The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

2005-01-01

376

Focused ion beam and field-emission microscopy of metallic filaments in memory devices based on thin films of an ambipolar organic compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on the mechanism of operation of organic thin film resistive memory architectures based on an ambipolar compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units. Cross-sections of the devices have been imaged by electron microscopy both before and after applying a voltage. The micrographs reveal the growth of filaments, with diameters of 50?nm–100?nm, on the metal cathode. We suggest that these are formed by the drift of aluminium ions from the anode and are responsible for the observed switching and negative differential resistance phenomena in the memory devices.

Pearson, Christopher; Bowen, Leon; Lee, Myung Won; Fisher, Alison L.; Linton, Katherine E.; Bryce, Martin R.; Petty, Michael C.

2013-01-01

377

MANUAL METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF REDUCED SULFUR COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual method for measuring reduced sulfur compounds in Kraft pulp mill and sulfur recovery plant emissions was evaluated. The method involves removing SO2 from the gas stream (if present) with a citric acid-potassium citrate buffer, that passes reduced sulfur compounds; therma...

378

Gaseous emissions from flooded rice paddy agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of continental land for agricultural use has increased over the last century. Atmospheric impact of this land use change has only been addressed for a few ecosystems and compounds. This paper provides, to date, the most comprehensive examination of gaseous emissions from rice paddies. We report seasonal emission ranges and integrated emission totals for 55 chemical species. This paper is the first to report emissions of isoprene, ethyl chloride, bromoform, alkyl nitrates, bromodichloromethane, hexane, and benzene from rice paddies. Emissions of alkyl nitrates, bromoform, ethyl chloride, and bromodichloromethane by terrestrial ecosystems have never before been observed. For species where emissions were observed we tentatively ascribe possible mechanisms of production; photochemical or biological production in the water column or rice plant mediated. For some compounds, during periods of maximum emissions, ambient rice paddy air concentrations may be concentrated enough to affect regional atmospheric chemistry.

Redeker, K. R.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Sass, R.

2003-07-01

379

Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: Types, sources, and characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples are given of occupant activities and consumer and construction products inside residences that cause transient and persistent emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Transient emissions arise from window cleaning, carpet laying, smoking, and automobile operations. Persistent VOC emitters include gasoline, mothballs and pressed-wood products containing urea-formaldehyde resins. Simple screening methods are given for making indoor measurements of VOC. Detailed

R. B. Gammage; T. G. Matthews

1987-01-01

380

[Ubiquitous perfluorinated compounds].  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds are derivatives of hydrocarbons, in which all or most of hydrogen atoms are substitiuted by fluorine atoms. These compounds are commonly used in many branches of industry. Perfluorinated compounds are in the limelight because of numerous reports concerning their toxicity and negative effects on human health as well as contradictory information about their cancerogenic effect. The above compounds are used in production of many commonly used products including such brand names as Gore-Tex, Teflon, Stainmaster. The most common ways of penetrating these compounds into a human organism are: via food, inhalation and skin contact. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:21980858

Kucharska, Agnieszka; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Snopczy?iski, Tomasz; Ludwicki, Jan K

2011-01-01

381

Endocrine disrupting chemical emissions from combustion sources: diesel particulate emissions and domestic waste open burn emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with endocrine effects. In this work, multidimensional gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) was used to characterize emissions from both controlled (diesel engine) and uncontrolled (open burning of domestic waste) combustion sources. The results of this study suggest that, by using MDGC-MS, one can resolve a much greater percentage of the chromatogram and identify about 84% of these resolved compounds. This increase in resolution helped to identify and quantify various classes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the combustion emissions that had n