Science.gov

Sample records for compound synthetic capacity

  1. Bioactive Compound Synthetic Capacity and Ecological Significance of Marine Bacterial Genus Pseudoalteromonas

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, John P.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas is a marine group of bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria that has come to attention in the natural product and microbial ecology science fields in the last decade. Pigmented species of the genus have been shown to produce an array of low and high molecular weight compounds with antimicrobial, anti-fouling, algicidal and various pharmaceutically-relevant activities. Compounds formed include toxic proteins, polyanionic exopolymers, substituted phenolic and pyrolle-containing alkaloids, cyclic peptides and a range of bromine-substituted compounds. Ecologically, Pseudoalteromonas appears significant and to date has been shown to influence biofilm formation in various marine econiches; involved in predator-like interactions within the microbial loop; influence settlement, germination and metamorphosis of various invertebrate and algal species; and may also be adopted by marine flora and fauna as defensive agents. Studies have been so far limited to a relatively small subset of strains compared to the known diversity of the genus suggesting that many more discoveries of novel natural products as well as ecological connections these may have in the marine ecosystem remain to be made. PMID:18463726

  2. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  3. USING ISOTHERMS TO PREDICT GAC'S CAPACITY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation involved operating a pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) plant to obtain capacity data under typical field conditions, determining isotherms for selected synthetic organic chemicals, and comparing the capacity predicted by the isotherm data with the pilot-pla...

  4. Synthetic applications of pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akira; Yusubov, Mekhman S; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-06-01

    Hypervalent iodine compounds have found wide practical application as versatile, efficient, and sustainable reagents for organic synthesis. Pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine derivatives are characterized by the presence of additional intramolecular non-covalent coordination at the iodine center, which leads to significant alteration of their physical and chemical properties. In comparison with common hypervalent iodine reagents, these pseudocyclic compounds have higher thermal stability, better solubility, and improved reactivity. In recent years, pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine reagents are increasingly used in organic synthesis as environmentally friendly selective oxidants and electrophiles. Furthermore, numerous enantioselective reactions mediated by chiral pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine species have been recently developed. In the present review, the preparation and structural features of pseudocyclic iodine(iii) and iodine(v) derivatives are discussed, and recent developments in their synthetic applications are summarized. PMID:27143521

  5. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SYNTHETIC CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS: EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental release of synthetic chlorinated compounds in the form of herbicides/pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, etc., has created major concerns with regard to their effects on human health because of the persistence of many such compounds. he persistence of these compound...

  6. Advances in Synthetic Applications of Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akira; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-03-01

    The preparation, structure, and chemistry of hypervalent iodine compounds are reviewed with emphasis on their synthetic application. Compounds of iodine possess reactivity similar to that of transition metals, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. These compounds are widely used in organic synthesis as selective oxidants and environmentally friendly reagents. Synthetic uses of hypervalent iodine reagents in halogenation reactions, various oxidations, rearrangements, aminations, C-C bond-forming reactions, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions are summarized and discussed. Recent discovery of hypervalent catalytic systems and recyclable reagents, and the development of new enantioselective reactions using chiral hypervalent iodine compounds represent a particularly important achievement in the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry. One of the goals of this Review is to attract the attention of the scientific community as to the benefits of using hypervalent iodine compounds as an environmentally sustainable alternative to heavy metals. PMID:26861673

  7. Low-Temperature Heat Capacity and Localized Vibrational Modes in Natural and Synthetic Tetrahedrites

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; May, Andrew F; Delaire, Olivier A; McGuire, Michael A; Lu, Xu; Li, Cheng-Yun; Case, Eldon D; Morelli, Donold

    2014-01-01

    The heat capacity of natural (Cu12-x (Fe, Zn, Ag)x(Sb, As)4S13) and synthetic (Cu12-xZnxSb4S13 with x=0, 1, 2) tetrahedrite compounds was measured between 2K and 380K. It was found that the temperature dependence of the heat capacity can be described using a Debye term and three Einstein oscillators with characteristic temperatures that correspond to energies of ~1.0 meV, ~2.8 meV and ~8.4 meV. The existence of localized vibration modes, which are assigned to the displacements of the trigonally coordinated Cu atoms in the structure, is discussed in the context of anharmonicity and its effect on the low lattice thermal conductivity exhibited by these compounds.

  8. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conduc...

  9. Novel strategies against Candida biofilms: interest of synthetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Marion; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A biofilm is a consortium of microbial cells that are attached to a substratum or an interface. It should be considered a reservoir that may induce serious infections. Indeed, Candidaspp. biofilms may be involved in the persistence or worsening of some chronic inflammatory diseases as well as in systemic infections, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. New strategies are currently being explored, utilizing several synthetic compounds to prevent or fight these Candida biofilms. This article focuses on active synthetic compounds classified with regards to their modes of action: inhibition of early adherence phase, inhibition or control of biofilm maturation and finally elimination of already formed biofilms. Some of them show promise in fighting biofilm. PMID:26673571

  10. Secrecy capacities of compound quantum wiretap channels and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Cai, Ning; Deppe, Christian

    2014-05-01

    We determine the secrecy capacity of the compound channel with quantum wiretapper and channel state information at the transmitter. Moreover, we derive a lower bound on the secrecy capacity of this channel without channel state information and determine the secrecy capacity of the compound classical-quantum wiretap channel with channel state information at the transmitter. We use this result to derive a proof for a lower bound on the entanglement generating capacity of the compound quantum channel. We also derive a proof for the formula for entanglement generating capacity of the compound quantum channel with channel state information at the encoder which was given in additional information [Bjelaković, Boche, and Nötzel, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory ISIT, Korea, 2009 (IEEE, New York, 2009), pp. 1889-1893].

  11. Antifungal and Antiaflatoxigenic Methylenedioxy-Containing Compounds and Piperine-Like Synthetic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Sun; Choi, Won-Sik; Park, Eun-Sil; Bae, In Kyung; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Paek, Ockjin; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Twelve methylenedioxy-containing compounds including piperine and 10 piperine-like synthetic compounds were assessed to determine their antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities against Aspergillus flavus ATCC 22546 in terms of their structure-activity relationships. Piperonal and 1,3-benzodioxole had inhibitory effects against A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B₁ production up to a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Ten piperine-like synthetic compounds were synthesized that differed in terms of the carbon length in the hydrocarbon backbone and the presence of the methylenedioxy moiety. In particular, 1-(2-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one had potent antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic effects against A. flavus up to a concentration of 1 μg/mL. This synthetic compound was remarkable because the positive control thiabendazole had no inhibitory effect at this concentration. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that five genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathways were down-regulated in A. flavus, i.e., aflD, aflK, aflQ, aflR, and aflS; therefore, the synthetic compound inhibited aflatoxin production by down-regulating these genes. PMID:27537912

  12. Antifungal and Antiaflatoxigenic Methylenedioxy-Containing Compounds and Piperine-Like Synthetic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young-Sun; Choi, Won-Sik; Park, Eun-Sil; Bae, In Kyung; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Paek, Ockjin; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Twelve methylenedioxy-containing compounds including piperine and 10 piperine-like synthetic compounds were assessed to determine their antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities against Aspergillus flavus ATCC 22546 in terms of their structure–activity relationships. Piperonal and 1,3-benzodioxole had inhibitory effects against A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production up to a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Ten piperine-like synthetic compounds were synthesized that differed in terms of the carbon length in the hydrocarbon backbone and the presence of the methylenedioxy moiety. In particular, 1-(2-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one had potent antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic effects against A. flavus up to a concentration of 1 μg/mL. This synthetic compound was remarkable because the positive control thiabendazole had no inhibitory effect at this concentration. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that five genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathways were down-regulated in A. flavus, i.e., aflD, aflK, aflQ, aflR, and aflS; therefore, the synthetic compound inhibited aflatoxin production by down-regulating these genes. PMID:27537912

  13. TECHNICAL NOTE: ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF GAC FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotherms are presented for 58 compounds in distilled-deionized water, filtered river water, and filtered groundwater. The compounds, which ranged from volatile organics to insecticides, are either regulated or being considered for regulation by the US Environmental Protection Ag...

  14. GPU-based beamformer: fast realization of plane wave compounding and synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Billy Y S; Tsang, Ivan K H; Yu, Alfred C H

    2011-08-01

    Although they show potential to improve ultrasound image quality, plane wave (PW) compounding and synthetic aperture (SA) imaging are computationally demanding and are known to be challenging to implement in real-time. In this work, we have developed a novel beamformer architecture with the real-time parallel processing capacity needed to enable fast realization of PW compounding and SA imaging. The beamformer hardware comprises an array of graphics processing units (GPUs) that are hosted within the same computer workstation. Their parallel computational resources are controlled by a pixel-based software processor that includes the operations of analytic signal conversion, delay-and-sum beamforming, and recursive compounding as required to generate images from the channel-domain data samples acquired using PW compounding and SA imaging principles. When using two GTX-480 GPUs for beamforming and one GTX-470 GPU for recursive compounding, the beamformer can compute compounded 512 x 255 pixel PW and SA images at throughputs of over 4700 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, for imaging depths of 5 cm and 15 cm (32 receive channels, 40 MHz sampling rate). Its processing capacity can be further increased if additional GPUs or more advanced models of GPU are used. PMID:21859591

  15. Low-temperature heat capacity and localized vibrational modes in natural and synthetic tetrahedrites

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Curzio, E. May, A. F.; Delaire, O.; McGuire, M. A.; Lu, X.; Liu, Cheng-Yun; Case, E. D.; Morelli, D. T.

    2014-05-21

    The heat capacity of natural (Cu{sub 12−x} (Fe, Zn, Ag){sub x}(Sb, As){sub 4}S{sub 13}) and synthetic (Cu{sub 12−x}Zn{sub x}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} with x = 0, 1, 2) tetrahedrite compounds was measured between 2 K and 380 K. It was found that the temperature dependence of the heat capacity can be described using a Debye term and three Einstein oscillators with characteristic temperatures that correspond to energies of ∼1.0 meV, ∼2.8 meV, and ∼8.4 meV. The existence of localized vibrational modes, which are assigned to the displacements of the trigonally coordinated Cu atoms in the structure, is discussed in the context of anharmonicity and its effect on the low lattice thermal conductivity exhibited by these compounds.

  16. Real-Time Biological Annotation of Synthetic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Christopher J; Hua, Bruce K; Wawer, Mathias J; Knowles, Jonathan P; Nelson, Shawn D; Verho, Oscar; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Wagner, Bridget K; Clemons, Paul A; Booker-Milburn, Kevin I; Boskovic, Zarko V; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2016-07-20

    Organic chemists are able to synthesize molecules in greater number and chemical complexity than ever before. Yet, a majority of these compounds go untested in biological systems, and those that do are often tested long after the chemist can incorporate the results into synthetic planning. We propose the use of high-dimensional "multiplex" assays, which are capable of measuring thousands of cellular features in one experiment, to annotate rapidly and inexpensively the biological activities of newly synthesized compounds. This readily accessible and inexpensive "real-time" profiling method can be used in a prospective manner to facilitate, for example, the efficient construction of performance-diverse small-molecule libraries that are enriched in bioactives. Here, we demonstrate this concept by synthesizing ten triads of constitutionally isomeric compounds via complexity-generating photochemical and thermal rearrangements and measuring compound-induced changes in cellular morphology via an imaging-based "cell painting" assay. Our results indicate that real-time biological annotation can inform optimization efforts and library syntheses by illuminating trends relating to biological activity that would be difficult to predict if only chemical structure were considered. We anticipate that probe and drug discovery will benefit from the use of optimization efforts and libraries that implement this approach. PMID:27398798

  17. Solvothermal and electrochemical synthetic method of HKUST-1 and its methane storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyu Lestari, Witri; Adreane, Marisa; Purnawan, Candra; Fansuri, Hamzah; Widiastuti, Nurul; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot

    2016-02-01

    A comparison synthetic strategy of Metal-Organic Frameworks, namely, Hongkong University of Techhnology-1 {HKUST-1[Cu3(BTC)]2} (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxylate) through solvothermal and electrochemical method in ethanol:water (1:1) has been conducted. The obtained material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Surface Area Analysis (SAA). While the voltage in the electrochemical method are varied, ranging from 12 to 15 Volt. The results show that at 15 V the texture of the material has the best degree of crystallinity and comparable with solvothermal product. This indicated from XRD data and supported by the SEM image to view the morphology. The thermal stability of the synthesized compounds is up to 320 °C. The shape of the nitrogen sorption isotherm of the compound corresponds to type I of the IUPAC adsorption isotherm classification for microporous materials with BET surface area of 629.2 and 324.3 m2/g (for solvothermal and electrochemical product respectively) and promising for gas storage application. Herein, the methane storage capacities of these compounds are also tested.

  18. Improving Synthetic Aperture Image by Image Compounding in Beamforming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Graullera, Oscar; Higuti, Ricardo T.; Martín, Carlos J.; Ullate, Luis. G.; Romero, David; Parrilla, Montserrat

    2011-06-01

    In this work, signal processing techniques are used to improve the quality of image based on multi-element synthetic aperture techniques. Using several apodization functions to obtain different side lobes distribution, a polarity function and a threshold criterium are used to develop an image compounding technique. The spatial diversity is increased using an additional array, which generates complementary information about the defects, improving the results of the proposed algorithm and producing high resolution and contrast images. The inspection of isotropic plate-like structures using linear arrays and Lamb waves is presented. Experimental results are shown for a 1-mm-thick isotropic aluminum plate with artificial defects using linear arrays formed by 30 piezoelectric elements, with the low dispersion symmetric mode S0 at the frequency of 330 kHz.

  19. Isoneocryptolepine, a synthetic indoloquinoline alkaloid, as an antiplasmodial lead compound.

    PubMed

    Van Miert, Sabine; Hostyn, Steven; Maes, Bert U W; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Mátyus, Péter; Dommisse, Roger; Lemière, Guy; Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc

    2005-05-01

    The antiprotozoal activities of three naturally occurring isomeric indoloquinoline alkaloids, i.e., cryptolepine (1), neocryptolepine (2), and isocryptolepine (3), and two dimeric indoloquinoline alkaloids, cryptoquindoline (6) and biscryptolepine (7), originally obtained from the plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, were compared with those of a new synthetic indoloquinoline isomer, isoneocryptolepine (4), and a quaternary derivative, N-methyl-isocryptolepinium iodide (5). The latter compounds showed a high antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain K1 (IC50 of 0.23 +/- 0.04 and 0.017 +/- 0.004 microM, respectively), while the cytotoxicity (L6 cells) was 4.32 +/- 0.04 and 12.7 +/- 2.0 microM, respectively. Isoneocryptolepine (4) was found to act as an inhibitor of beta-hematin formation and as a DNA-intercalating agent. PMID:15921407

  20. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25075608

  1. Effect of carrier on the immunogenic capacity of synthetic cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C O; Arnon, R; Sela, M

    1985-12-01

    In the design of the synthetic antigens and synthetic vaccines, primary consideration should be given to the choice of the carrier. Since small peptides which are being used as the relevant antigenic determinants are likely to be poor immunogens as such, the augmentation of their immunogenic capacity by the carrier or any other means is crucial for the induction of immunity. In the present study, we explored several approaches for the enhancement of the immune response towards synthetic peptides derived from the B-subunit of cholera toxin. The results indicate that the use of tetanus toxoid as a macromolecular carrier, polymerization of the peptide without any external carrier and the conjugation of dipalmityl side chain had comparable effects in enhancing the immune response to several synthetic peptides. This effect was manifested both at the level of antibodies produced and in their capacity to neutralize the biological activity of the cholera toxin. Prior exposure to the carrier resulted in a dose-dependent suppression against the synthetic epitope attached to it. PMID:2421153

  2. Synthetic Compounding in the English Interlanguage of Basque-Spanish Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pilar Garca Mayo, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of non-target language representations analysing data from the acquisition of novel English synthetic compounds by bilingual (Basque-Spanish) speakers. Past research indicated that English L1 acquirers do not include regular -s inflection within compounds, whereas they do include irregulars (*"clawsmarks" versus…

  3. FATE OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN AN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To be presented is an overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the statistical evaluation of concentrations obtained from the analysis of a suite of these compounds (e.g., Galaxolide®, musk xylene, and amino musk xylene) in different environmenta...

  4. Green Synthetic Alternatives to Organic Compounds and Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermedia...

  5. Mini-review: marine natural products and their synthetic analogs as antifouling compounds: 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Li, Zhongrui; Xu, Ying; Li, Yongxin; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This review covers 214 marine natural compounds and 23 of their synthetic analogs, which were discovered and/or synthesized from mid-2009 to August 2014. The antifouling (AF) compounds reported have medium to high bioactivity (with a threshold of EC(50) < 15.0 mg ml(-1)). Among these compounds, 82 natural compounds were identified as new structures. All the compounds are marine-derived, demonstrating that marine organisms are prolific and promising sources of natural products that may be developed as environmentally friendly antifoulants. However, this mini-review excludes more than 200 compounds that were also reported as AF compounds but with rather weak bioactivity during the same period. Also excluded are terrestrial-derived AF compounds reported during the last five years. A brief discussion on current challenges in AF compound research is also provided to reflect the authors' own views in terms of future research directions. PMID:25622074

  6. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  7. DETERMINATION OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN THE RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high usage and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. The U.S. EPA (Las Vegas) developed surface water monitoring me...

  8. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high use and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. We analyzed water samples from the confluence of three municipal...

  9. Synthetic routes to carbamoylmethylphosphoryl compounds — extractants for the processing of spent nuclear fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharova, E. V.; Artyushin, O. I.; Odinets, I. L.

    2014-02-01

    Data on synthetic routes to carbamoylmethylphosphoryl compounds are summarized. Arbuzov and Michaelis-Becker reactions are considered, as well as various methods of amidation of phosphorylacetic acids and their esters, including those using 'green' chemistry procedures. Various methods of introduction of carbamoylmethylphosphoryl moieties into calixarenes, cobalt carbollides, carboranes and other spatially pre-organized structures are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 114 references.

  10. Heat capacities of synthetic hedenbergite, ferrobustamite and CaFeSi2O6 glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T., Jr.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat capacities have been measured for synthetic hedenbergite (9-647 K), ferrobustamite (5-746 K) and CaFeSi2O6 glass (6-380 K) by low-temperature adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of each of these structural forms of CaFeSiO6 exhibits anomalous behavior at low temperatures. The X-peak in the hedenbergite heat-capacity curve at 34.5 K is due to antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe2+ ions. Ferrobustamite has a bump in its heat-capacity curve at temperatures less than 20 K, which could be due to weak cooperative magnetic ordering or to a Schottky anomaly. Surprisingly, a broad peak with a maximum at 68 K is present in the heat-capacity curve of the glass. If this maximum, which occurs at a higher temperature than in hedenbergite is caused by magnetic ordering, it could indicate that the range of distortions of the iron sites in the glass is quite small and that coupling between iron atoms is stronger in the glass than in the edge-shared octahedral chains of hedenbergite. The standard entropy change, So298.15 - So0, is 174.2 ?? 0.3, 180.5 ?? 0.3 and 185.7 ?? 0.4 J/mol??K for hedenbergite, ferrobustamite and CaFeSi2O6 glass, respectively. Ferrobustamite is partially disordered in Ca-Fe distribution at high temperatures, but the dependence of the configuratonal entropy on temperature cannot be evaluated due to a lack of information. At high temperatures (298-1600 K), the heat capacity of hedenbergite may be represented by the equation Cop(J/mol??K) = 3l0.46 + 0.01257T-2039.93T -1 2 - 1.84604?? l06T-2 and the heat capacity of ferrobustamite may be represented by Cop(J/mol??K) = 403.83-0.04444T+ 1.597?? 10-5T2-3757.3T -1 2. ?? 1987.

  11. Mass Spectrometry in Pharmacokinetic Studies of a Synthetic Compound for Spinal Cord Injury Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Lillo, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The studies of drugs that could constitute a palliative to spinal cord injury (SCI) are a continuous and increasing demand in biomedicine field from developed societies. Recently we described the chemical synthesis and antiglioma activity of synthetic glycosides. A synthetic sulfated glycolipid (here IG20) has shown chemical stability, solubility in polar solvents, and high inhibitory capacity over glioma growth. We have used mass spectrometry (MS) to monitor IG20 (m/z = 550.3) in cells and tissues of the central nervous system (CNS) that are involved in SCI recovery. IG20 was detected by MS in serum and homogenates from CNS tissue of rats, though in the latter a previous deproteinization step was required. The pharmacokinetic parameters of serum clearance at 24 h and half-life at 4 h were determined for synthetic glycoside in the adult rat using MS. A local administration of the drug near of spinal lesion site is proposed. PMID:26090386

  12. Natural and Semi synthetic Antimalarial Compounds: Emphasis on the Terpene Class.

    PubMed

    Silva, G N S; Rezende, L C D; Emery, F S; Gosmann, G; Gnoatto, S C B

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases since more than 40% of the world population is at risk. This disease is endemic to more than 100 nations and remains one of the main leading causes of death in children less than five years of age worldwide. Natural product-derived compounds have played a major role in drug discovery, often as prototypes to obtain more active semi synthetic derivatives. Antimalarial pharmacotherapy is a significant example of plant-derived medicines, such as quinine and artemisinin. This review highlights studies on terpenes and their semi synthetic derivatives from natural sources with antimalarial activity reported in the literature during eleven years (2002-2013). A total of 114 compounds are found among terpenes and their semi synthetic derivatives. Cytotoxicity of the compounds is also found in this review. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the terpenes addressed are discussed based on seven well established descriptors, which provide a useful source for the elaboration of a terpene library of antimalarial compounds. PMID:25553426

  13. Mosquitocidal Properties of Natural Product Compounds Isolated From Chinese Herbs and Synthetic Analogs of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    ANSTROM, DAVID M.; ZHOU, XIA; KALK, CODY N.; SONG, BAOAN; LAN, QUE

    2012-01-01

    Because of resistance to current insecticides and to environmental, health, and regulatory concerns, naturally occurring compounds and their derivatives are of increasing interest for the development of new insecticidal compounds against vectors of disease-causing pathogens. Fifty-eight compounds, either extracted and purified from plants native to China or synthetic analogs of curcumin, were evaluated for both their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.) and their ability to inhibit binding of cholesterol to Ae. aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 in vitro. Of the compounds tested, curcumin analogs seem especially promising in that of 24 compounds tested five were inhibitors of Ae. aegyptisterol carrier protein-2 with EC50 values ranging from 0.65 to 62.87 μM, and three curcumin analogs exhibited larvicidal activity against fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 values ranging from 17.29 to 27.90 μM. Adding to the attractiveness of synthetic curcumin analogs is the relative ease of synthesizing a large diversity of compounds; only a small fraction of such diversity has been sampled in this study. PMID:22493854

  14. Antibacterial Characterization of Novel Synthetic Thiazole Compounds against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Haroon; Reddy, P. V. Narasimha; Monteleone, Dennis; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S.; Cushman, Mark; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    . Collectively the present study demonstrates these synthetic thiazole compounds possess potent antibacterial activity against both MSSP and MRSP and warrant further investigation into their use as novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:26086336

  15. COMPARISON OF PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are under regulatory consideration for inclusion in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Adsorption is a cost-effective treatment technology for control of VOCs. Adsorption capacities were determined for fifteen VOCs in distill...

  16. Metal Based Synthetic Strategies and the Examination of Structure Determining Factors in Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuriko

    Last decades have witnessed a large expansion of the organometallic heavier alkaline earth metal species. However, continued growth of this promising area of chemistry has been slowed by severe restrictions and limitations in viable synthetic methodologies leading to difficulties in preparing and characterizing the target compounds. There is clearly a need for the further development of synthetic methodologies and detailed structure function analysis that will promote the further advancement of organoalkaline earth metal chemistry in applications as diverse as materials chemistry and catalysis. This thesis work greatly extends the synthetic options currently available towards organoalkaline earth metal species by introducing redox transmetallation protolysis (RTP), a reaction based on the readily available Ph3Bi as a non-toxic transmetallation agent. Based on a straightforward one-pot procedure and work-up, Ph3Bi based RTP presents a powerful synthetic alternative for the facile preparation of a large variety of heavy alkaline earth metal compounds. The second part of the thesis explores the effect of secondary non covalent interactions on the coordination chemistry as well as thermal properties of a series of novel alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth as well as heterobimetallic alkali/alkaline earth fluoroalkoxides. These compounds showcase the significance of non-covalent M···F-C and agostic interactions on metal stabilization and structural features, providing critical input on ligand design for the design of advanced metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursor materials. This work also showcases the impact of M···F-C interactions over M---co-ligand coordination, a critical precursor design element as well.

  17. Marine AChE inhibitors isolated from Geodia barretti: natural compounds and their synthetic analogs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elisabeth K; Hansen, Espen; W K Moodie, Lindon; Isaksson, Johan; Sepčić, Kristina; Cergolj, Marija; Svenson, Johan; Andersen, Jeanette H

    2016-02-01

    Barettin, 8,9-dihydrobarettin, bromoconicamin and a novel brominated marine indole were isolated from the boreal sponge Geodia barretti collected off the Norwegian coast. The compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of electric eel acetylcholinesterase. Barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin displayed significant inhibition of the enzyme, with inhibition constants (Ki) of 29 and 19 μM respectively towards acetylcholinesterase via a reversible noncompetitive mechanism. These activities are comparable to those of several other natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitors of marine origin. Bromoconicamin was less potent against acetylcholinesterase, and the novel compound was inactive. Based on the inhibitory activity, a library of 22 simplified synthetic analogs was designed and prepared to probe the role of the brominated indole, common to all the isolated compounds. From the structure-activity investigation it was shown that the brominated indole motif is not sufficient to generate a high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, even when combined with natural cationic ligands for the acetylcholinesterase active site. The four natural compounds were also analysed for their butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in addition and shown to display comparable activities. The study illustrates how both barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin display additional bioactivities which may help to explain their biological role in the producing organism. The findings also provide new insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:26695619

  18. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. PMID:24912728

  19. Synthetic polyamines: new compounds specific to actin dynamics for mammalian cell and fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Riveline, Daniel; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Carlier, Marie-France

    2014-01-01

    Actin is a major actor in the determination of cell shape. On the one hand, site-directed assembly/disassembly cycles of actin filaments drive protrusive force leading to lamellipodia and filopodia dynamics. Force produced by actin similarly contributes in membrane scission in endocytosis or Golgi remodeling. On the other hand, cellular processes like adhesion, immune synapse, cortex dynamics or cytokinesis are achieved by combining acto-myosin contractility and actin assembly in a complex and not fully understood manner. New chemical compounds are therefore needed to disentangle acto-myosin and actin dynamics. We have found that synthetic, cell permeant, short polyamines are promising new actin regulators in this context. They generate growth and stabilization of lamellipodia within minutes by slowing down the actin assembly/disassembly cycle and facilitating nucleation. We now report that these polyamines also slow down cytokinetic ring closure in fission yeast. This shows that these synthetic compounds are active also in yeasts, and these experiments specifically highlight that actin depolymerization is involved in the ring closure. Thus, synthetic polyamines appear to be potentially powerful agents in a quantitative approach to the role of actin in complex processes in cell biology, developmental biology and potentially cancer research. PMID:25664996

  20. Synthetic polyamines: new compounds specific to actin dynamics for mammalian cell and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Riveline, Daniel; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Carlier, Marie-France

    2014-01-01

    Actin is a major actor in the determination of cell shape. On the one hand, site-directed assembly/disassembly cycles of actin filaments drive protrusive force leading to lamellipodia and filopodia dynamics. Force produced by actin similarly contributes in membrane scission in endocytosis or Golgi remodeling. On the other hand, cellular processes like adhesion, immune synapse, cortex dynamics or cytokinesis are achieved by combining acto-myosin contractility and actin assembly in a complex and not fully understood manner. New chemical compounds are therefore needed to disentangle acto-myosin and actin dynamics. We have found that synthetic, cell permeant, short polyamines are promising new actin regulators in this context. They generate growth and stabilization of lamellipodia within minutes by slowing down the actin assembly/disassembly cycle and facilitating nucleation. We now report that these polyamines also slow down cytokinetic ring closure in fission yeast. This shows that these synthetic compounds are active also in yeasts, and these experiments specifically highlight that actin depolymerization is involved in the ring closure. Thus, synthetic polyamines appear to be potentially powerful agents in a quantitative approach to the role of actin in complex processes in cell biology, developmental biology and potentially cancer research. PMID:25664996

  1. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    PubMed

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively. PMID:26616976

  2. Synthetic organic compounds and their transformation products in groundwater: occurrence, fate and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Cristina; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Groundwater constitutes the main source of public drinking water supply in many regions. Thus, the contamination of groundwater resources by organic chemicals is a matter of growing concern because of its potential effects on public health. The present manuscript compiles the most recent works related to the study of synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) in groundwater, with special focus on the occurrence of contaminants not or barely covered by previously published reviews, e.g., pesticide and pharmaceutical transformation products, lifestyle products, and industrial chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors, brominated and organophosphate flame retardants, plasticizers, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Moreover, the main challenges in managed aquifer recharge, i.e., reclaimed water injection and infiltration, and riverbank filtration, regarding natural attenuation of organic micropollutants are discussed, and insights into the future chemical quality of groundwater are provided. PMID:24974362

  3. Engineering synthetic bacterial consortia for enhanced desulfurization and revalorization of oil sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Igor; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Rozas, Daniel; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The 4S pathway is the most studied bioprocess for the removal of the recalcitrant sulfur of aromatic heterocycles present in fuels. It consists of three sequential functional units, encoded by the dszABCD genes, through which the model compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) is transformed into the sulfur-free 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP) molecule. In this work, a set of synthetic dsz cassettes were implanted in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a model bacterial "chassis" for metabolic engineering studies. The complete dszB1A1C1-D1 cassette behaved as an attractive alternative - to the previously constructed recombinant dsz cassettes - for the conversion of DBT into 2HBP. Refactoring the 4S pathway by the use of synthetic dsz modules encoding individual 4S pathway reactions revealed unanticipated traits, e.g., the 4S intermediate 2HBP-sulfinate (HBPS) behaves as an inhibitor of the Dsz monooxygenases, and once secreted from the cells it cannot be further taken up. That issue should be addressed for the rational design of more efficient biocatalysts for DBT bioconversions. In this sense, the construction of synthetic bacterial consortia to compartmentalize the 4S pathway into different cell factories for individual optimization was shown to enhance the conversion of DBT into 2HBP, overcome the inhibition of the Dsz enzymes by the 4S intermediates, and enable efficient production of unattainable high added value intermediates, e.g., HBPS, that are difficult to obtain using the current monocultures. PMID:26802977

  4. "Word of mouse": indigenous harm reduction and online consumerism of the synthetic compound methoxphenidine.

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Methoxphenidine (MXP) was one of several NMDA antagonists marketed in 2013 to replace the recently controlled compound Methoxetamine (MXE). A steep rise in user interest was recorded, despite vendor cautioning of limited user feedback. The study presented a phenomenological analysis of MXP experiences amongst recreational drug users as posted on public Internet fora. Internet searches were carried out using specific key words; "methoxphenidine," "MXP" and in combination with "experience," "report," "forum," and "trip." Seven self-reported experiences and 28 thread discussions relating sole use of MXP were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Five themes and 61 categories emerged. MXP is marketed as a legal replacement for MXE, diphenidine, and ketamine, with a dissociative and stimulant wave outcome often lasting for days. Harm reduction tactics, awareness of prior tolerance to dissociative and optimal settings for use are discussed. Acute side-effects relate to hypertension and seizures. Chronic long-term memory loss and limb numbness is reported. Sense of empowerment occurs in the afterglow experience. Internet drug fora fuel information exchange and informed consumerism of synthetic compounds, and offer viable mechanisms for pre- and post-purchase decision making and indigenous harm reduction. Continued surveillance of synthetic market entries and user trends is warranted. PMID:25715070

  5. Monitoring of herbal mixtures potentially containing synthetic cannabinoids as psychoactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Dresen, Sebastian; Ferreirós, Nerea; Pütz, Michael; Westphal, Folker; Zimmermann, Ralf; Auwärter, Volker

    2010-10-01

    Herbal mixtures like 'Spice' with potentially bioactive ingredients were available in many European countries since 2004 and are still widely used as a substitute for cannabis, although merchandized as 'herbal incense'. After gaining a high degree of popularity in 2008, big quantities of these drugs were sold. In December 2008, synthetic cannabinoids were identified in the mixtures which were not declared as ingredients: the C(8) homolog of the non-classical cannabinoid CP-47,497 (CP-47,497-C8) and a cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole called JWH-018. In February 2009, a few weeks after the German legislation put these compounds and further pharmacologically active homologs of CP-47,497 under control, another cannabinoid appeared in 'incense' products: the aminoalkylindole JWH-073. In this paper, the results of monitoring of commercially available 'incense' products from June 2008 to September 2009 are presented. In this period of time, more than 140 samples of herbal mixtures were analyzed for bioactive ingredients and synthetic cannabimimetic substances in particular. The results show that the composition of many products changed repeatedly over time as a reaction to prohibition and prosecution of resellers. Therefore neither the reseller nor the consumer of these mixtures can predict the actual content of the 'incense' products. As long as there is no possibility of generic definitions in the controlled substances legislation, further designer cannabinoids will appear on the market as soon as the next legal step has been taken. This is affirmed by the recent identification of the aminoalkylindoles JWH-250 and JWH-398. As further cannabinoids can be expected to occur in the near future, a continuous monitoring of these herbal mixtures is required. The identification of the synthetic opioid O-desmethyltramadol in a herbal mixture declared to contain 'kratom' proves that the concept of selling apparently natural products spiked with potentially dangerous synthetic

  6. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:22868715

  7. Toward antituberculosis drugs: in silico screening of synthetic compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosisl,d-transpeptidase 2.

    PubMed

    Billones, Junie B; Carrillo, Maria Constancia O; Organo, Voltaire G; Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Sy, Jamie Bernadette A; Emnacen, Inno A; Clavio, Nina Abigail B; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the main causative agent of tuberculosis, is the main reason why this disease continues to be a global public health threat. It is therefore imperative to find a novel antitubercular drug target that is unique to the structural machinery or is essential to the growth and survival of the bacterium. One such target is the enzyme l,d-transpeptidase 2, also known as LdtMt2, a protein primarily responsible for the catalysis of 3→3 cross-linkages that make up the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex of Mtb. In this study, structure-based pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and in silico toxicity evaluations were employed in screening compounds from a database of synthetic compounds. Out of the 4.5 million database compounds, 18 structures were identified as high-scoring, high-binding hits with very satisfactory absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Two out of the 18 compounds were further subjected to in vitro bioactivity assays, with one exhibiting a good inhibitory activity against the Mtb H37Ra strain. PMID:27042006

  8. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS FROM FISH TISSUES WITH MEASUREMENT BY OC/MS/SIM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are used as inexpensive fragrance materials for the production
    of perfumes and as additives to soap, detergent, and shampoo. They have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. The ubiquity of this class of compounds in the env...

  9. Hydraphiles: A Rigorously Studied Class of Synthetic Channel Compounds with In Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Negin, Saeedeh; Smith, Bryan A.; Unger, Alexandra; Leevy, W. Matthew; Gokel, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydraphiles are a class of synthetic ion channels that now have a twenty-year history of analysis and success. In early studies, these compounds were rigorously validated in a wide range of in vitro assays including liposomal ion flow detected by NMR or ion-selective electrodes, as well as biophysical experiments in planar bilayers. During the past decade, biological activity was observed for these compounds including toxicity to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells due to stress caused by the disruption of ion homeostasis. The channel mechanism was verified in cells using membrane polarity sensitive dyes, as well as patch clamping studies. This body of work has provided a solid foundation with which hydraphiles have recently demonstrated acute biological toxicity in the muscle tissue of living mice, as measured by whole animal fluorescence imaging and histological studies. Here we review the critical structure-activity relationships in the hydraphile family of compounds and the in vitro and in cellulo experiments that have validated their channel behavior. This report culminates with a description of recently reported efforts in which these molecules have demonstrated activity in living mice. PMID:23401675

  10. Correlation and prediction of adsorption capacity and affinity of aromatic compounds on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenhao; Yang, Kun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of 22 nonpolar and polar aromatic compounds on 10 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various diameters, lengths and surface oxygen-containing group contents was investigated to develop predictive correlations for adsorption, using the isotherm fitting of Polanyi theory-based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model. Adsorption capacity of aromatic compounds on CNTs is negatively correlated with melting points of aromatic compounds, and surface oxygen-containing group contents and surface area ratios of mesopores to total pores of CNTs, but positively correlated with total surface area of CNTs. Adsorption affinity is positively correlated with solvatochromic parameters of aromatic compounds, independent of tube lengths and surface oxygen-containing group contents of CNTs, but negatively correlated with surface area ratios of mesopores to total pores of CNTs. The correlations of adsorption capacity and adsorption affinity with properties of both aromatic compounds and CNTs clearly have physical significance, can be used successfully with DA model to predict adsorption of aromatic compounds on CNTs from the well-known physiochemical properties of aromatic compounds (i.e., solvatochromic parameters, melting points) and CNTs (i.e., surface area and total acidic group contents), and thus can facilitate the environmental application of CNTs as sorbents and environmental risk assessment of both aromatic contaminants and CNTs. PMID:26521219

  11. Antagonism of human formyl peptide receptor 1 with natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Quinn, Mark T

    2016-08-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) regulates a wide variety of neutrophil functional responses and plays an important role in inflammation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. To date, a variety of natural and synthetic molecules have been identified as FPR1 ligands. Here, we review current knowledge on natural products and natural product-inspired small molecules reported to antagonize and/or inhibit the FPR1-mediated responses. Based on this literature, additional screening of selected commercially available natural compounds for their ability to inhibit fMLF-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in human neutrophils and FPR1 transfected HL-60 cells, and pharmacophore modeling, natural products with potential as FPR1 antagonists are considered and discussed in this review. The identification and characterization of natural products that antagonize FPR1 activity may have potential for the development of novel therapeutics to limit or alter the outcome of inflammatory processes. PMID:26382576

  12. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-03-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  13. In-situ monitoring of biologically active solar UV-B radiation: a new biosensor of vitamin D synthetic capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.; Gvozdovskyy, I. A.

    2001-06-01

    The new biosensor of vitamin D synthetic capacity of solar/artificial UV-B radiation is based on liquid crystal with provitamin D dopant. Nematic liquid crystals (LC-805, ZLI-1695) are converted into induced cholesteric phase using photosensitive steroid biomolecules of provitamin D3 (7- dehydrocholesterol). During UV exposure remarkable decrease in the number of the Cano-Grandjean stripes has been observed in the wedge-like cell as a result of UV initiated photoisomerization of provitamin D3 that changed helical twisting power of the dopant molecules.

  14. Phenolic mediators enhance the manganese peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of recalcitrant lignin model compounds and synthetic lignin.

    PubMed

    Nousiainen, Paula; Kontro, Jussi; Manner, Helmiina; Hatakka, Annele; Sipilä, Jussi

    2014-11-01

    Fungal oxidative enzymes, such as peroxidases and laccases, are the key catalysts in lignin biodegradation in vivo, and consequently provide an important source for industrial ligninolytic biocatalysts. Recently, it has been shown that some syringyl-type phenolics have potential as industrial co-oxidants or mediators, in laccase-catalyzed modification of lignocellulosic material. We have now studied the effect of such mediators with ligninolytic peroxidases on oxidation of the most recalcitrant lignin model compounds. We found that they are able to enhance the manganese peroxidase (MnP) catalyzed oxidation reactions of small non-phenolic compounds, veratryl alcohol and veratrylglycerol β-guaiacyl ether (adlerol), which are not usually oxidized by manganese peroxidases alone. In these experiments we compared two peroxidases from white-rot fungi, MnP from Phlebia sp. Nf b19 and versatile peroxidase (VP) from Bjerkandera adusta under two oxidation conditions: (i) the Mn(III) initiated mediated oxidation by syringyl compounds and (ii) the system involving MnP-dependent lipid peroxidation, both with production of (hydrogen) peroxides in situ to maintain the peroxidase catalytic cycle. It was found that both peroxidases produced α-carbonyl oxidation product of veratryl alcohol in clearly higher yields in reactions mediated by phenoxy radicals than in lipid-peroxyl radical system. The oxidation of adlerol, on the other hand, was more efficient in lipid-peroxidation-system. VP was more efficient than MnP in the oxidation of veratryl alcohol and showed its lignin peroxidase type activity in the reaction conditions indicated by some cleavage of Cα-Cβ-bond of adlerol. Finally, the mediator assisted oxidation conditions were applied in the oxidation of synthetic lignin (DHP) and the structural analysis of the oxidized polymers showed clear modifications in the polymer outcome, e.g. the oxidation resulted in reduced amount of aliphatic hydroxyls indicated by (31)P NMR. PMID

  15. Overview of Alzheimer's Disease and Some Therapeutic Approaches Targeting Aβ by Using Several Synthetic and Herbal Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Srivastav, Saurabh; Yadav, Amarish Kumar; Srikrishna, Saripella; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex age-related neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we carefully detail amyloid-β metabolism and its role in AD. We also consider the various genetic animal models used to evaluate therapeutics. Finally, we consider the role of synthetic and plant-based compounds in therapeutics. PMID:27034741

  16. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality. PMID:25328215

  17. Riboflavin Phototransformation on the Changes of Antioxidant Capacities in Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Seol, Nam Gyu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2016-08-01

    Eight phenolic compounds including: p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, trolox, quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol were treated with riboflavin (RF) photosensitization and in vitro antioxidant capacities of the mixtures were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2' azino bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Mixtures containing p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid under RF photosensitization showed increases in ferric ion reducing ability and radical scavenging activity of DPPH, whereas mixtures of other compounds had decreases in both radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Hydroxycoumaric acid and conjugated hydroxycoumaric and coumaric acids were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized p-coumaric acid, whereas dimmers of vanillic acid were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized vanillic acid. RF photosensitization may be a useful method to enhance antioxidant properties like ferric ion reducing abilities of some selected phenolic compounds. PMID:27387389

  18. Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta B; Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Zimmermann, Benno F; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Fabricius, Heinz; Marx, Friedhelm; Maia, José G S; Almeida, Ossalin

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of methanol and ethanol seed extracts from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was studied with the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version. Cold methanol digestion was the most efficient extraction method with respect to the antioxidant capacity. The extracts exhibit good antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, similar to the capacity of the pulp. The antioxidant capacity against peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals is even higher. The main antioxidants identified by HPLC-MS and HPLC-CEAD are five different procyanidins (di- through pentamers); furthermore, protocatechuic acid and epicatechin were identified as minor compounds. Determination of TOSC values of HPLC seed extract fractions indicates that the procyanidins contribute substantially to the overall antioxidant capacity. In addition, however, other compounds that have not yet been identified are responsible for a large part of the observed antioxidant capacity. PMID:16756342

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 10 common edible flowers from China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Yang, Jiajia; Jiang, Yirong; Lu, Baiyi; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhou, Fei; Mao, Shuqin; Shen, Canxi

    2014-04-01

    The free and bound phenolic compounds in 10 common Chinese edible flowers were investigated using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Free factions were more prominent in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than bound fractions. Paeonia suffruticosa and Flos lonicerae showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) 235.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/g of dry weight and total flavonoid content 89.38 mg rutin equivalents/g of dry weight. The major phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin. P. suffruticosa had the highest antioxidant capacity in the DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, which were 1028, 2065, 990 μmol Trolox equivalents/g of dry weight, respectively, whereas Rosa chinensis had the highest FRAP value (2645 μmol Fe(2+) equivalents /g of dry weight). The P. suffruticosa soluble phenolics had the highest CAA, with the median effective dose (EC50 ) 26.7 and 153 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g of dry weight in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and no PBS wash protocol, respectively. TPC was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity (R = 0.8443 to 0.9978, P < 0.01), which indicated that phenolics were the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of the selected edible flowers. PMID:24621197

  20. Activity stabilization of Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytases immobilized on allophanic synthetic compounds and montmorillonite nanoclays.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Gianfreda, Liliana; Rao, Maria; Greiner, Ralf; Garrido, Elizabeth; de la Luz Mora, María

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the stabilization of the activity of two commercial microbial phytases (Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli) after immobilization on nanoclays and to establish optimal conditions for their immobilization. Synthetic allophane, synthetic iron-coated allophanes and natural montmorillonite were chosen as solid supports for phytase immobilization. Phytase immobilization patterns at different pH values were strongly dependent on both enzyme and support characteristics. After immobilization, the residual activity of both phytases was higher under acidic conditions. Immobilization of phytases increased their thermal stability and improved resistance to proteolysis, particularly on iron-coated allophane (6% iron oxide), which showed activation energy (E(a)) and activation enthalpy (ΔH(#)) similar to free enzymes. Montmorillonite as well as allophanic synthetic compounds resulted in a good support for immobilization of E. coli phytase, but caused a severe reduction of A. niger phytase activity. PMID:21856150

  1. Novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yushi; Ichimori, Kohji; Okano, Masahito; Goto, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    A novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds was developed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The assay is based on antioxidant’s scavenging ability against the tert-butoxyl radical generated photolytically from di-tert-butyl peroxide in ethyl acetate, and named the tert-butoxyl-based antioxidant capacity (BAC) assay. The radical was trapped by spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, and EPR signal intensity of the spin adduct was used as a quantitative marker of radical levels. Signal intensity decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of an antioxidant that competitively reacts with the radical, which was utilized to evaluate BAC values. The BAC method enabled the accurate estimation of antioxidant capacity for lipophilic materials that may counteract lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. The BAC values for quercetin and caffeic acid are 0.639 ± 0.020 and 0.118 ± 0.012 trolox equivalents, respectively, which are much smaller than values obtained by other aqueous methods such as H-ORAC and ORAC-EPR. Thus, antioxidants present in a non-aqueous environment should be evaluated using a non-aqueous system. In combination with in situ ascorbate reduction, the BAC method was capable of accurately determining the antioxidant capacity of water-insoluble materials that may be reduced in living cells. PMID:25759515

  2. Effect of drying method on volatile compounds, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of guava powders.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliana C; Lago, Mabel G; Castelo-Branco, Vanessa N; Oliveira, Felipe R; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Perrone, Daniel; Monteiro, Mariana

    2016-04-15

    We studied the chemical composition of oven and freeze dried guava powders for future use as antioxidant-rich flavour enhancers. Among thirty-one volatiles in guava powders, terpenes were predominant, even after both drying processes. In contrast, esters and aldehydes, volatiles characteristic of fresh guava fruit, appeared to have been decreased by drying. Insoluble phenolics were predominant and among the sixteen compounds identified, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and naringenin corresponded to 56% of total phenolics. Drying processes decreased total phenolics contents by up to 44%. Oven drying promoted the release of insoluble flavonoids, generating mainly quercetin. Antioxidant capacity also decreased due to both drying processes, but guava powders still presented similar antioxidant capacity in comparison to other tropical fruit powders. Our results suggest that oven drying is a viable option for the production of a functional ingredient that would improve the phenolic content of cereal foods while adding desirable guava flavour. PMID:26617030

  3. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    To test the ruggedness of a newly developed analytical method for synthetic musks, a 1-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota was conducted for Lake

    Mead (near Las Vegas, Nevada) as well as for combined sewage-dedicated effluent streams feeding Lake ...

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guihua; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong

    2007-01-24

    This paper reports the effects of heat treatment on huyou (Citrus paradisi Changshanhuyou) peel in terms of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used in this study for the analysis of phenolic acids (divided into four fractions: free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) in huyou peel (HP) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that after heat treatment, the free fraction of phenolic acids increased, whereas ester, glycoside, and ester-bound fractions decreased and the content of total FGs declined (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of HP increased (P < 0.05), which was evaluated by total phenolics contents (TPC) assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS*+) method, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The correlation coefficients among TPC, ABTS, FRAP assay, and total cinnamics and benzoics (TCB) in the free fraction were significantly high (P < 0.05), which meant that the increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of HP extract was due at least in part to the increase of TCB in free fraction. In addition, FGs may be destroyed when heated at higher temperature for a long time (for example, 120 degrees C for 90 min or 150 degrees C for 30 min). Therefore, it is suggested that a proper and reasonable heat treatment could be used to enhance the antioxidant capacity of citrus peel. PMID:17227062

  5. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Capacity in Edible Flowers: Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-González, Inmaculada; González-Barrio, Rocío; García-Valverde, Verónica; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Periago, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Edible flowers are commonly used in human nutrition and their consumption has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nutritional composition and the content and profile of phenolic compounds of three edible flowers, monks cress (Tropaeolum majus), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and paracress (Spilanthes oleracea), and to determine the relationship between the presence of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. Proximate composition, total dietary fibre (TDF) and minerals were analysed according to official methods: total phenolic compounds (TPC) were determined with Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, whereas antioxidant capacity was evaluated using Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. In addition, phenolic compounds were characterised by HPLC-DAD-MSn. In relation to the nutritional value, the edible flowers had a composition similar to that of other plant foods, with a high water and TDF content, low protein content and very low proportion of total fat—showing significant differences among samples. The levels of TPC compounds and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in T. erecta, followed by S. oleracea and T. majus. Thirty-nine different phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, with flavonols being the major compounds detected in all samples, followed by anthocyanins and hydroxycynnamic acid derivatives. In T. erecta small proportions of gallotannin and ellagic acid were also identified. PMID:25561232

  6. Concentrations of synthetic musk compounds in personal care and sanitation products and human exposure profiles through dermal application.

    PubMed

    Roosens, Laurence; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic musks, such as 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran (HHCB), musk ketone (MK) and musk xylene (MX), are used as an alternative for natural musk. Due to their widespread use, these synthetic compounds turned up in different environmental compartments, such as wastewater, human and animal tissues. Yet, little is known about their distribution and occurrence in personal care and household products, information needed in order to evaluate the different human exposure routes. This paper gives an overview of the synthetic musk levels in six different product categories: body lotions, perfumes, deodorants, hair care products, shower products and sanitation products. Especially body lotions, perfumes and deodorants contained high levels of synthetic musks. Maximum concentrations of HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK were 22 mg g(-1), 8 mg g(-1), 26 microg g(-1) and 0.5 microg g(-1), respectively. By combining these results with the average usage of consumer products, low-, medium- and high-exposure profiles through dermal application could be estimated. HHCB was the highest contributor to the total amount of synthetic musks in every exposure profile (18-23 700 microg d(-1)). Exposure to MK and MX did not increase substantially (10-20-fold) between low- and high-exposure profiles, indicating that these compounds cover a less broad range. In comparison, exposure to HHCB and AHTN increased up to 10 000 fold between low- and high-exposure. PMID:17631381

  7. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS FROM FISH TISSUES WITH MEASUREMENT BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH SELECTED-ION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues ...

  8. UV radiation, vitamin D, and cancer: how to measure the vitamin D synthetic capacity of UV sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, Irina; Orlova, Tatiana

    2005-09-01

    UV irradiation is widely used in phototherapy. Regardless of the fact that UV overexposure is liable to cause adverse health effect, in appropriate doses UV radiation initiates synthesis of vitamin D in skin that is absolutely essential for human health. As it proved, most people in northern industrial countries have a level of vitamin D in their bodies that is insufficient for optimum health, especially in winter. These low levels of vitamin D are now known to be associated with a wide spectrum of serious disease much of which leads on to premature death. The diseases associated with D deficiency involve more than a dozen types of cancer including colon, breast and prostate, as well as the classic bone diseases: rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Irradiation with artificial UV sources can prevent the vitamin D deficiency. However, in view of different irradiation spectra of UV lamps, their ability to initiate vitamin D synthesis is different. The reliable method based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis has been developed for direct measurement in situ of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of artificial UV sources during a phototherapeutic procedure

  9. Effect of trypsin treatments on the structure and binding capacity of volatile compounds of myosin.

    PubMed

    Lv, Tong; Wang, Ying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yangying; Chen, Yinji; Liu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism between flavor binding and proteins degradation during meat processing, the influence of different trypsin contents on the structure of myosin and the adsorption capacity on aldehydes and ketones was determined. The 1% treatment produced subfragment 2 (S2), light meromyosin (LMM) and decreased 18 and 16kDa light chains; 5% and 10% treatments produced 100 and 65kDa new bands and more S2, LMM and cleaned light chains. With the rising trypsin contents, β-sheet, β-turn, random coil, hydrophobicity and total sulfydryl content increased; solubility, α-helix and free percentages of aldehydes and ketones decreased. The increase of absorbing capacity could be attributed to the increased hydrophobicity and total sulphydryl and the unfolding of secondary structures by exposing reactive amino and thiol groups and hydrophobic sites; the decreased solubility was related to the increased hydrophobicity. The trypsin-dose dependent proteolysis of myosin increased the retention of volatile compounds. PMID:27507529

  10. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  11. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  12. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Sônia; Sá, Paulo; Lopes, Dielly; Costa, Edmar; Yamada, Elizabeth; e Silva, Consuelo; Arruda, Mara; Souza, Jesus; da Silva, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction) and M2 (infusion), were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg). Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h), concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL), strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity. PMID:26501245

  13. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  14. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

  15. Synthetic process for preparation of high surface area electroactive compounds for battery applications

    DOEpatents

    Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard

    2013-07-23

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of electroactive cathode compounds useful in lithium-ion batteries, comprising exothermic mixing of low-cost precursors and calcination under appropriate conditions. The exothermic step may be a spontaneous flameless combustion reaction. The disclosed process can be used to prepare any lithium metal phosphate or lithium mixed metal phosphate as a high surface area single phase compound.

  16. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes. PMID:25424262

  17. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Amat-ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD. PMID:26325402

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a specific tool for the interaction study of two surfactants with natural and synthetic organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Aude-Valérie; Frochot, Céline; Bersillon, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    Four different techniques were used to study the binding of cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and non-ionic nonylphenylethoxyl (NPE) surfactants to three synthetic organic components that mimic humic-like aggregates and to two natural aggregated humic substances (HS) extracted from aquatic suspended matter. The composition of synthetic organic components were chosen to be similar to high molecular weight highly processed terrigenous HS and low and high molecular weight less processed terrigenous (or aquatic terrigenous) HS. The natural HS were extracted under two different meteorological conditions (rainy and dry periods). No significant interaction between the non-ionic surfactant and any of the studied compounds was found. Concerning CTAB; pH, conductivity and turbidity measurements, along with fluorescence spectroscopy were combined to provide a better understanding of interactions between organic aggregates and the surfactant. The spectroscopic data show that a "highly processed terrigenous HS" fluorophore interacts in a different way with the cationic surfactant than an "aquatic terrigenous (or less processed terrigenous) HS" fluorophore does. Under similar conditions, some spectral changes in the fluorescence signal are correlated to changes in non-specific physical-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductivity) for the organic compounds tested. The complexation mechanism is essentially governed by charge neutralization, which can be monitored specifically by the fluorescence of the organic moieties.

  19. Identification of cetrimonium bromide and irinotecan as compounds with synthetic lethality against NDRG1 deficient prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Michel D.; Mendonca, Janet; Kim, Eunice; Kim, Eugene; Shim, Joong S.; Kaelber, Nadine S.; Kant, Huub; Hammers, Hans; Commes, Therese; Van Diest, Paul J.; Liu, Jun O.; Kachhap, Sushant K.

    2013-01-01

    The N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been identified as a metastasis-suppressor gene in prostate cancer (PCa). Compounds targeting PCa cells deficient in NDRG1 could potentially decrease invasion/metastasis of PCa. A cell based screening strategy was employed to identify small molecules that selectively target NDRG1 deficient PCa cells. DU-145 PCa cells rendered deficient in NDRG1 expression by a lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown strategy were used in the primary screen. Compounds filtered from the primary screen were further validated through proliferation and clonogenic survival assays in parental and NDRG1 knockdown PCa cells. Screening of 3360 compounds revealed irinotecan and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) as compounds that exhibited synthetic lethality against NDRG1 deficient PCa cells. A three-dimensional (3-D) invasion assay was utilized to test the ability of CTAB to inhibit invasion of DU-145 cells. CTAB was found to remarkably decrease invasion of DU-145 cells in collagen matrix. Our results suggest that CTAB and irinotecan could be further explored for their potential clinical benefit in patients with NDRG1 deficient PCa. PMID:23377825

  20. Toward antituberculosis drugs: in silico screening of synthetic compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase 2

    PubMed Central

    Billones, Junie B; Carrillo, Maria Constancia O; Organo, Voltaire G; Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Sy, Jamie Bernadette A; Emnacen, Inno A; Clavio, Nina Abigail B; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the main causative agent of tuberculosis, is the main reason why this disease continues to be a global public health threat. It is therefore imperative to find a novel antitubercular drug target that is unique to the structural machinery or is essential to the growth and survival of the bacterium. One such target is the enzyme l,d-transpeptidase 2, also known as LdtMt2, a protein primarily responsible for the catalysis of 3→3 cross-linkages that make up the mycolyl–arabinogalactan–peptidoglycan complex of Mtb. In this study, structure-based pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and in silico toxicity evaluations were employed in screening compounds from a database of synthetic compounds. Out of the 4.5 million database compounds, 18 structures were identified as high-scoring, high-binding hits with very satisfactory absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Two out of the 18 compounds were further subjected to in vitro bioactivity assays, with one exhibiting a good inhibitory activity against the Mtb H37Ra strain. PMID:27042006

  1. Selectivity in ligand binding to uranyl compounds: A synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, John

    2015-01-21

    The uranyl cation (UO₂²⁺) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. It is anticipated that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials. The focus of this study is to synthesize uranyl complexes incorporating amidinate and guanidinate ligands. Both synthetic and computational methods are used to investigate novel equatorial ligand coordination and how this affects the basicity of the oxo ligands. Such an understanding will later apply to designing ligands incorporating functionalities that can bind uranyl both equatorially and axially for highly selective sequestration. Efficient and durable chromatography supports for lanthanide separation will be generated by (1) identifying robust peptoid-based ligands capable of binding different lanthanides with variable affinities, and (2) developing practical synthetic methods for the attachment of these ligands to Dowex ion exchange resins.

  2. Biological Characterization and in Vivo Assessment of the Activity of a New Synthetic Macrocyclic Antifungal Compound.

    PubMed

    Deodato, Davide; Maccari, Giorgio; De Luca, Filomena; Sanfilippo, Stefania; Casian, Alexandru; Martini, Riccardo; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Bonchi, Carlo; Bugli, Francesca; Posteraro, Brunella; Vandeputte, Patrick; Sanglard, Dominique; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Visca, Paolo; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-04-28

    We recently identified a novel family of macrocyclic amidinoureas showing potent antifungal activity against Candida spp. In this study, we demonstrate the fungicidal effect of these compounds as well as their killing activity in a dose-dependent manner. Transcriptional analysis data indicate that our molecules induce a significant change in the transcriptome involving ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. Notably, experiments against Candida albicans mutants lacking those genes showed resistance to the compound, suggesting the involvement of ABC transporters in the uptake or intracellular accumulation of the molecule. To probe the mode of action, we performed fluorescence microscopy experiments on fungal cells treated with an ad-hoc synthesized fluorescent derivative. Fluorescence microscopy images confirm the ability of the compound to cross the membrane and show a consistent accumulation within the cytoplasm. Finally, we provide data supporting the in vivo efficacy in a systemic infection murine model setup with a drug-resistant strain of C. albicans. PMID:27045868

  3. Enzymes for synthetic biology of ambroxide-related diterpenoid fragrance compounds.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Ambrox and related ambroxides are highly priced in the fragrance industry, and valued for their delicate odor and fixative properties. Historically, ambrox was obtained from ambergris, a waxy excretion produced by sperm whales, now an endangered species. Synthetic ambroxides have replaced ambergris in perfume manufacture. Plant labdane diterpenoids can serve as starting material for ambroxide synthesis. Among these, the diterpene alcohol sclareol is the major industrial precursor obtained from cultivated clary sage (Salvia sclarea). In plants, a large family of diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes controls key reactions in diterpenoid biosynthesis. Advanced metabolite profiling and high-throughput sequencing of fragrant and medicinal plants have accelerated discovery of novel diTPS functions, providing a resource for combinatorial synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches. This chapter highlights recent progress on the discovery, characterization, and engineering of plant diTPSs with potential uses in ambroxide production. It features biosynthesis of sclareol, cis-abienol, and diterpene resin acids, as sources of genes and enzymes for diterpenoid bioproducts. PMID:25846965

  4. Green Synthetic Alternatives to Organic Compounds and Nanomaterials-May 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated reactive intermedia...

  5. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATION OF BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To be presented is an overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the statistical evaluation of concentrations obtained from the analysis of a suite of compounds (e.g., Galaxolide®, musk xylene, and amino musk xylene) in an aquatic ecological site.

  6. Insights into the adsorption capacity and breakthrough properties of a synthetic zeolite against a mixture of various sulfur species at low ppb levels.

    PubMed

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Deep, Akash; Jo, Sang-Hee; Szulejko, Jan E

    2016-01-15

    The sorptive removal properties of a synthetic A4 zeolite were evaluated against sulfur dioxide (SO2) and four reference reduced sulfur compounds (RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS, (CH3)2S), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, CH3SSCH3). To this end, a sorbent bed of untreated (as-received) A4 zeolite was loaded with gaseous standards at four concentration levels (10-100 part-per-billion (ppb (v/v)) at four different volumes (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 L increments) in both increasing (IO: 0.1-1.0 L) and decreasing volume order (DO: 1.0 to 0.1 L). Morphological properties were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, and BET analysis. The removal efficiency of SO2 decreased from 100% for all concentrations at 0.1 L (initial sample volume) to ∼82% (100 ppb) or ∼96% (10 ppb) at 3.6 L. In contrast, removal efficiency of RSC was near 100% at small loading volumes but then fell sharply, irrespective of concentration (10-100 ppb) (e.g., 32% (DMS) to 52% (H2S) at 100 ppb). The adsorption capacity of zeolite, if expressed in terms of solid-gas partition coefficient (e.g., similar to the Henry's law constant (mmol kg(-1) Pa(-1))), showed moderate variabilities with the standard concentration levels and S compound types such as the minimum of 2.03 for CH3SH (at 20 ppb) to the maximum of 13.9 for SO2 (at 10 ppb). It clearly demonstrated a notable distinction in the removal efficiency of A4 zeolite among the different S species in a mixture with enhanced removal efficiency of SO2 compared to the RSCs. PMID:26562781

  7. Changes in phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) during three edible maturity stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), individual phenolic compound content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of four phenolic fractions (free, esterified, glycosided and insoluble-bound) fro...

  8. Synthetic and Natural Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors as Potential Lead Compounds for Effective Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish; Srivastava, Amit K; Singour, Pradeep K; Gouda, Panchanan

    2016-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and B) play a critical role in the metabolism of intracellular neurotransmitters of the central nervous system. For decades, MAO inhibitors have proven their clinical efficacy as potential drug targets for several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Use of first generation non selective MAO inhibitors as neuropsychiatric drugs elicited several side effects like hypertensive crisis and cheese reaction. Therefore their use is now limited due to non-selectivity towards MAO isoforms and inhibition of metabolizing enzymes like cytochrome P450. Development of selective and specific MAO inhibitors like moclobemide, toloxatone improves their efficacy as disease-modifying effects in monotherapy as well as adjunctive therapy. Recently a lot of research has been done to elucidate the pharmacological potential of medicinal plants and their isolated bioactive constituents having MAO inhibitory activity. Herbs containing MAO inhibitors are extensively used for the development of potent synthetic drugs and as safe and effective alternatives to the available synthetic drugs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as depression, Parkinson and Alzheimer's. In several diseases like Parkinson natural MAO inhibitors prevented the neuron denaturalization by their dual action via enhancing neurotransmission of dopamine as well as lowering the generation of free radicals and toxins. Currently development of selective MAO inhibitors is still under study to achieve more effective therapies by using Computer Aided Drug Designing, Ligand-based models and structure-activity hypothesis. These approaches also facilitate understanding the interaction of newly designed molecule with MAO enzymes and the rationalization of probable mechanisms of action. PMID:26104056

  9. Fate of selected pharmaceuticals and synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during wastewater treatment and sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Vasilios G; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Mamais, Daniel; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2013-01-15

    The concentrations of nine emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (ibuprofen, IBF; naproxen, NPX; diclofenac, DCF; ketoprofen, KFN) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (triclosan, TCS; bisphenol, BPA; nonylphenol, NP; nonylphenol monoethoxylate, NP1EO; nonylphenol diethoxylate, NP2EO), were determined in wastewater and sludge samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Greece. Average concentrations in raw and treated wastewater ranged from 0.39 (KFN) to 12.52 μg L(-1) (NP) and from compounds during wastewater treatment ranged between 39% (DCF) and 100% (IBF). Except of DCF and BPA, similar removal efficiencies were observed in both WWTPs and no effect of WWTP's size and operational conditions was noticed. Use of mass balances showed that accumulation on sludge was a significant removal mechanism for NPs and TCS, while biodegradation/biotransformation was the major mechanism for the other compounds. Sampling of raw and digested sludge demonstrated that IBF and NPX are significantly removed (>80%) during anaerobic digestion, whereas removal of EDCs was lower, ranging up to 55% for NP1EO. PMID:23257325

  10. Synthetic lethal compound combinations reveal a fundamental connection between wall teichoic acid and peptidoglycan biosyntheses in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer; Singh, Atul K.; Santa Maria, John P.; Kim, Younghoon; Brown, Stephanie; Swoboda, Jonathan G.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Walker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus depends on the production of mecA, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A), an acquired peptidoglycan transpeptidase (TP) with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. PBP2A crosslinks nascent peptidoglycan when the native TPs are inhibited by beta-lactams. Although mecA expression is essential for beta-lactam resistance, it is not sufficient. Here we show that blocking the expression of wall teichoic acids (WTAs) by inhibiting the first enzyme in the pathway, TarO, sensitizes MRSA strains to beta-lactams even though the beta-lactam-resistant transpeptidase, PBP2A, is still expressed. The dramatic synergy between TarO inhibitors and beta-lactams is noteworthy not simply because strategies to overcome methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are desperately needed, but because neither TarO nor the activities of the native TPs are essential in MRSA strains. The “synthetic lethality” of inhibiting TarO and the native TPs suggests a functional connection between ongoing WTA expression and peptidoglycan assembly in S. aureus. Indeed, transmission electron microscopy shows that S. aureus cells blocked in WTA synthesis have extensive defects in septation and cell separation, indicating dysregulated cell wall assembly and degradation. Our studies imply that WTAs play a fundamental role in S. aureus cell division and raise the possibility that synthetic lethal compound combinations may have therapeutic utility for overcoming antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. PMID:20961110

  11. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  12. Mutagenicity of nitrogen compounds from synthetic crude oils: collection, separation and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, T K; Epler, J L; Guerin, M R; Clark, B R; Ho, C H

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the long range health effects such as carcinogenicity/mutagenicity/teratogenicity/toxicity, associated with the newly emerging energy technologies, we have utilized the Ames Salmonella assay to evaluate mutagenic properties of synthetic fuels. Coupling with class fractionation was necessary. Organic extraction and liquid/liquid partitioning was used to separate acidic and basic fraction. The neutral material was separated using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration into saturated and aromatic fractions of various ring sizes. The alkaline fraction was subfractionated eluting with benzene and ethanol on a basic alumina column and then with isopropanol and acetone using a Sephadex LH-20 gel column. The frameshift strain TA-98 was utilized along with Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S-9 mix) for the mutagenicity assay. The natural crude oils were slightly mutagenic, the polynucleararomatics constituting the activity, while the coal-derived fuels indicated mutagenicity associated with alkaline constituents as well as polyaromatics. Hydrotreated coal (H-coal, HDT) or Shale (Paraho-Shale oil, HDT) derived fuels were not mutagenic. Ninety percent of the mutagenic activity in alkaline fraction was recovered in the acetone subfraction. High resolution spectroscopy of this fraction indicates polycyclic aromatic primary amines along with azaarenes as organic constituents responsible for the mutagenic activity associated with shale- and coal-derived fuels.

  13. Caatinga plants: Natural and semi-synthetic compounds potentially active against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; da Silva, Gloria Narjara Santos; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Macedo, Alexandre José; Bastida, Jaume; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The treatment is based at 5'-nitroimidazoles, however, failure are related to resistance of T. vaginalis to chemotherapy. Caatinga is a uniquely Brazilian region representing a biome with type desert vegetation and plants present diverse biological activity, however, with few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity against T. vaginalis of different plants from Caatinga and identify the compounds responsible by the activity. A bioguided fractionation of Manilkara rufula was performed and four major compounds were identified: caproate of α-amyrin (1b), acetate of β-amyrin (2a), caproate of β-amyrin (2b), and acetate of lupeol (3a). In addition, six derivatives of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) and lupeol (3) were synthesized and tested against the parasite. Ursolic acid (5) reduced about 98% of parasite viability after 2h of incubation and drastic ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, 5 presented high cytotoxicity to HMVII and HeLa cell line and low cytotoxicity against Vero line at 50 μM (MIC against the parasite). Metronidazole effect against T. vaginalis resistant isolate was improved when in association with 5. PMID:27020521

  14. Synthetic musk compounds and benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in breast milk: Occurrence, time-course variation and infant health risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) and benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are used as additives in many consumer products. Limited data are available on the accumulation of SMCs in human fluids, and no data are available on BUVSs. In this study, 208 human breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during the lactation period at <7, 15, 30, and 90 days after delivery in Korea. The total concentrations of SMCs and BUVSs ranged from compounds were HHCB and AHTN for SMCs and UV-328 for BUVSs, consistent with consumption patterns of these contaminants. Over the lactation period, no significant changes were found in concentrations of SMCs and BUVSs for both parity groups. Maternal age, body mass index, and parity were not associated with the concentrations of SMCs and BUVSs, while gestational age and delivery mode were associated with these contaminants. The estimated daily intakes of HHCB and AHTN were lower than the provisional tolerable daily intake values, suggesting a limited health risk to Korean infants. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate the current levels, accumulation features, contributing factors of BUVSs associated with breast milk consumption in Korea. PMID:25988989

  15. Occurrence of UV-Absorbing, Mycosporine-Like Compounds among Cyanobacterial Isolates and an Estimate of Their Screening Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 20 strains of cyanobacteria (belonging to 13 genera) isolated from habitats exposed to strong insolation revealed that 13 strains contained one or more water-soluble, UV-absorbing, mycosporine amino acid (MAA)-like compounds. Some of the compounds were identical in several strains. In all, 13 distinct compounds were found. The UV absorption spectra of MAAs complemented well that of the extracellular sunscreen pigment scytonemin, which many of the strains also produced. Even though the specific MAA contents were variable among strains, they were invariably higher when the cultures were grown with UV radiation than when it was absent. In five strains tested, the MAA complement accumulated as a solute in the cytoplasmic cell fraction. The sunscreen capacities of MAA and scytonemin and their combined capacity were estimated for each strain and condition on the basis of the specific contents, cell size, and cellular location of the compounds. The estimates suggested that significant, albeit not complete, protection from UV photodamage could be gained from the possession of either MAA or scytonemin but especially from simultaneous screening by both types of compounds. PMID:16348839

  16. Total antioxidant capacity and content of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule): an Andean pseudocereal.

    PubMed

    Peñarrieta, J Mauricio; Alvarado, J Antonio; Akesson, Björn; Bergenståhl, Björn

    2008-06-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic compounds (TPH), total flavonoids (TF) and individual phenolic compounds were determined in canihua collected at approx. 3850 m altitude. The TAC values varied among samples from 2.7 to 44.7 by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method and from 1.8 to 41 by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) method expressed as micromol of Trolox equivalents/g dw. The content of TPH was 12.4-71.2 micromol gallic acid equivalents/g dw and that of the TF ranged between 2.2 and 11.4 micromol of catechin equivalents/g dw. The data obtained by the four methods showed several significant correlations. Prior to analysis by HPLC, the samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis and in the water-soluble extracts this led to an up to 20-fold increase in the TAC values in comparison with the values of the nonhydrolysed samples. HPLC analysis showed the presence of eight major compounds identified as catechin gallate, catechin, vanillic acid, kaempferol, ferulic acid, quercetin, resorcinol and 4-methylresorcinol. Their estimated contribution to the TAC value (FRAP method) indicated that resorcinols contributed most of the antioxidant capacity of the water-soluble extract. The results show that canihua is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and other bioactive compounds which can be important for human health. PMID:18537130

  17. S = 1 Excitations in Heat Capacity of the Haldane Compound TMNIN Doped with a Nonmagnetic Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawae, Tatsuya; Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the field dependence of the heat capacity of a typicalHaldane antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO)3 (TMNIN) doped with thenonmagnetic impurity Zn2+, as well as of a pure TMNIN. The overallfeatures of the magnetic heat capacity, including the characteristic broadmaximum, are almost reproduced by the theoretical curve with J/k B =-12 K for both systems in zero field. The field dependence in the impuresystems is described well by assuming the Schottky heat capacity with S =1, not S = 1/2 expected from the VBS model. A possible reason why the S= 1 model is suitable is discussed.

  18. An aryl dioxygenase shows remarkable double dioxygenation capacity for diverse bis-aryl compounds, provided they are carbocyclic.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Wray, Victor; Hofer, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    The bacterial dioxygenation of mono- or polycyclic aromatic compounds is an intensely studied field. However, only in a few cases has the repeated dioxygenation of a substrate possessing more than a single aromatic ring been described. We previously characterized the aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenase BphA-B4h, an artificial hybrid of the dioxygenases of the biphenyl degraders Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and Pseudomonas sp. strain B4-Magdeburg, which contains the active site of the latter enzyme, as an exceptionally powerful biocatalyst. We now show that this dioxygenase possesses a remarkable capacity for the double dioxygenation of various bicyclic aromatic compounds, provided that they are carbocyclic. Two groups of biphenyl analogues were examined: series A compounds containing one heterocyclic aromatic ring and series B compounds containing two homocyclic aromatic rings. Whereas all of the seven partially heterocyclic biphenyl analogues were solely dioxygenated in the homocyclic ring, four of the six carbocyclic bis-aryls were converted into ortho,meta-hydroxylated bis-dihydrodiols. Potential reasons for failure of heterocyclic dioxygenations are discussed. The obtained bis-dihydrodiols may, as we also show here, be enzymatically re-aromatized to yield the corresponding tetraphenols. This opens a way to a range of new polyphenolic products, a class of compounds known to exert multiple biological activities. Several of the obtained compounds are novel molecules. PMID:27147529

  19. Sorption capacity of ground tires for vapor-phase volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.K.; Edil, T.B.; Jhung, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    Batch sorption tests were conducted to determine the partition coefficient of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by ground tires. The partition coefficient in the vapor phase was estimated by dividing the partition coefficient in the aqueous phase by Henry`s law constant. Under a diluted condition VOCs are sorbed onto ground tires noncompetitively regardless of the existence of other VOCs. Polar compounds such as methylene chloride were less sorbed onto ground tires than nonpolar compounds. The vapor-phase partition coefficient was found to have a logarithmic relationship with the saturation vapor concentration. VOCs emitted from waste-water treatment facilities can be effectively retarded by the ground tires.

  20. Boronyl chemistry: the BO group as a new ligand in gas-phase clusters and synthetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Chen, Qiang; Bai, Hui; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-08-19

    Boronyl (BO) is a monovalent σ radical with a robust B≡O triple bond. Although BO/BO(-) are isovalent to CN/CN(-) and CO, the chemistry of boronyl has remained relatively unknown until recently, whereas CN/CN(-) and CO are well-known inorganic ligands. Further analogy may be established for BO versus H or Au ligands, which are all monovalent σ radicals. This Account intends to provide an overview of research activities over the past few years that are relevant to the development of boronyl chemistry, in particular, in size-selected gaseous clusters containing BO. The systems covered herein include transition metal boronyl clusters, carbon boronyl clusters, boron oxide clusters and boron boronyl complexes, the boronyl boroxine, and the first synthetic Pt-BO bulk compound. In these boronyl clusters and compounds, the BO groups show remarkable structural and chemical integrity as a ligand. Among transition metal boronyls, gold monoboronyl clusters Aun(BO)(-) and Aun(BO) (n = 1-3) have been characterized, and they are shown to possess electronic and structural properties similar to the corresponding Au(n+1)(-) and Au(n+1) bare clusters, demonstrating the BO/Au analogy. The Au-B bonding in the Au-BO clusters is highly covalent. A recent advance in boronyl chemistry is the successful synthesis and isolation of the first boronyl compound, trans-[(Cy3P)2BrPt(BO)]. This unique Pt-BO compound and other potential transition metal boronyl compounds may find applications in catalysis and as chemical building blocks. Carbon boronyl clusters versus boron carbonyl clusters is a topic of interest in designing new aromatic complexes. Experimental and theoretical data obtained to date show that carbon boronyl clusters are generally far more stable than their boron carbonyl counterparts, highlighting the potency of boronyl as a ligand in aromatic compounds. Notably, in light of the BO/H analogy, the perfectly hexagonal (CBO)6 cluster is a carbon boronyl analogue of benzene. The BO

  1. Linear solvation energy relationship for the adsorption of synthetic organic compounds on single-walled carbon nanotubes in water.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Chen, C; Zhang, X

    2016-01-01

    The linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was applied to predict the adsorption coefficient (K) of synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A total of 40 log K values were used to develop and validate the LSER model. The adsorption data for 34 SOCs were collected from 13 published articles and the other six were obtained in our experiment. The optimal model composed of four descriptors was developed by a stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) method. The adjusted r(2) (r(2)adj) and root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.84 and 0.49, respectively, indicating good fitness. The leave-one-out cross-validation Q(2) ([Formula: see text]) was 0.79, suggesting the robustness of the model was satisfactory. The external Q(2) ([Formula: see text]) and RMSE (RMSEext) were 0.72 and 0.50, respectively, showing the model's strong predictive ability. Hydrogen bond donating interaction (bB) and cavity formation and dispersion interactions (vV) stood out as the two most influential factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs onto SWCNTs. The equilibrium concentration would affect the fitness and predictive ability of the model, while the coefficients varied slightly. PMID:26854726

  2. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented <2 μg per mL of tocopherols, and ascorbic acid was not detected. The whole fruit extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS. PMID:27142444

  3. Antioxidant capacities of seven flavonoid compounds isolated from pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulp of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), ...

  4. Influence of coffee genotype on bioactive compounds and the in vitro capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Naira Poerner; Salva, Terezinha de Jesus Garcia; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2015-05-20

    The influence of green coffee genotype on the bioactive compounds and the in vitro antioxidant capacity against the principal reactive oxygen (ROO(•), H2O2, HO(•), and HOCl) and nitrogen (NO(•) and ONOO(-)) species of biological relevance was investigated. This is the first report on the capacity of green coffee to scavenge H2O2, HOCl, and NO(•). Variations in the contents of total chlorogenic acids (22.9-37.9 g/100 g), cinnamoyl-amino acid conjugates (0.03-1.12 g/100 g), trigonelline (3.1-6.7 g/100 g), and caffeine (3.9-11.8 g/100 g) were found. Hydrophilic extracts of Coffea canephora and Coffea kapakata were the most potent scavengers of ROO(•), H2O2, HO(•), NO(•), and ONOO(-) due to their chlorogenic acid contents, which were, on average, 30% higher than those found in Coffea arabica and Coffea racemosa. The results showed that genotype is a determinant characteristic in the bioactive compound contents and consequently in the antioxidant capacity of green coffee. PMID:25910038

  5. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. PMID:25863614

  6. Influence of Laccase and Tyrosinase on the Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Phenolic Compounds on Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Riebel, Matthias; Sabel, Andrea; Claus, Harald; Fronk, Petra; Xia, Ning; Li, Huige; König, Helmut; Decker, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds affect the color, odor and taste of numerous food products of plant origin. In addition to the visual and gustatory properties, they serve as radical scavengers and have antioxidant effects. Polyphenols, especially resveratrol in red wine, have gained increasing scientific and public interest due to their presumptive beneficial impact on human health. Enzymatic oxidation of phenolic compounds takes place under the influence of polyphenol oxidases (PPO), including tyrosinase and laccase. Several studies have demonstrated the radical scavenger effect of plants, food products and individual polyphenols in vitro, but, apart from resveratrol, such impact has not been proved in physiological test systems. Furthermore, only a few data exist on the antioxidant capacities of the enzymatic oxidation products of phenolic compounds generated by PPO. We report here first results about the antioxidant effects of phenolic substances, before and after oxidation by fungal model tyrosinase and laccase. In general, the common chemical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the biological tests using two different types of cell cultures (monocytes and endothelial cells) delivered similar results. The phenols tested showed significant differences with respect to their antioxidant activity in all test systems. Their antioxidant capacities after enzymatic conversion decreased or increased depending on the individual PPO used. PMID:26393557

  7. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...

  8. CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOUND IN WASTE-TREATMENT EFFLUENTS AND THEIR CAPACITY TO BIOACCUMULATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incorporation of chlorine into compounds during the disinfection of waste effluents with chlorine is an undesirable end result of effluent treatment due to an increase in the persistence and bioaccumulatability of the chloro-organics. The problems that arise with bioaccumulat...

  9. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 1. Adsorption capacity and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M.

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative PhACs (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one EDC (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two granular activated carbons (GAC) namely coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. The primary objective was to investigate preloading effects by natural organic matter (NOM) on adsorption capacity and kinetics under conditions and concentrations (i.e., ng/L) relevant for drinking water treatment. Isotherms demonstrated that all compounds were significantly negatively impacted by NOM fouling. Adsorption capacity reduction was most severe for the acidic naproxen, followed by the neutral carbamazepine and then the more hydrophobic nonylphenol. The GAC with the wider pore size distribution had considerably greater NOM loading, resulting in lower adsorption capacity. Different patterns for the change in Freundlich KF and 1/n with time revealed different competitive mechanisms for the different compounds. Mass transport coefficients determined by short fixed-bed (SFB) tests with virgin and preloaded GAC demonstrated that film diffusion primarily controls mass transfer on virgin and preloaded carbon. Naproxen suffered the greatest deteriorative effect on kinetic parameters due to preloading, followed by carbamazepine, and then nonylphenol. A type of surface NOM/biofilm, which appeared to add an additional mass transfer resistance layer and thus reduce film diffusion, was observed. In addition, electrostatic interactions between NOM/biofilm and the investigated compounds are proposed to contribute to the reduction of film diffusion. A companion paper building on this work describes treatability studies in pilot-scale GAC adsorbers and the effectiveness of a selected fixed-bed model. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Karamać, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-05-01

    Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. PMID:22494370

  11. Study of the Effect of Surfactants on Extraction and Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin–Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23472082

  12. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Hemmaty, Syavash

    2013-01-01

    Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V) potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23472082

  13. Isolation and identification of compounds responsible for antioxidant capacity of Euryale ferox seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Wei; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhou, Li-Li; Hou, Fan-Fan; Wang, Kai-Jin; Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Ning; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2011-02-23

    Euryale ferox seed is consumed medicinally or for food in China. The present study revealed it to contain significant antioxidant activity, which may be associated with its medical applications as a proteinuria inhibitor of diabetic nephropathy. This study resulted in the identification of 3 new sesquineolignans, named euryalins A-C (1-3), and 16 known compounds, which were all first isolated from this plant apart from 5,7,4-trihydroxy-flavanone. The antioxidant potential of the partial isolates was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and mesangial cellular assay. Compounds 2, rel-(2α,3β)-7-O-methylcedrusin (4), syringylglycerol-8-O-4-(sinapyl alcohol) ether (5), and (+)-syringaresinol (7) were found to be most active on DPPH assay, whereas compounds 2, 4, 7, (1R,2R,5R,6S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, and buddlenol E could significantly inhibit high glucose-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in mesangial cells. The results suggested that E. ferox seed could be considered as an excellent source of natural antioxidants and is useful in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21280632

  14. The pyridoxamine action on Amadori compounds: A reexamination of its scavenging capacity and chelating effect.

    PubMed

    Adrover, Miquel; Vilanova, Bartolomé; Frau, Juan; Muñoz, Francisco; Donoso, Josefa

    2008-05-15

    Amadori compounds act as precursors in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by non-enzymatic protein glycation, which are involved in ensuing protein damage. Pyridoxamine is a potent drug against protein glycation, and can act on several pathways in the glycation process. Nevertheless, the pyridoxamine inhibition action on Amadori compounds oxidation is still unclear. In this work, we have studied the Schiff base formation between pyridoxamine and various Amadori models at pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C in the presence of NaCNBH(3). We detected an adduct formation, which suggests that pyridoxamine reacts with the carbonyl group in Amadori compounds. The significance of this mechanism is tested by comparison of the obtained kinetics rate constants with that obtained for 4-(aminomethyl)-pyridine, a structural analogue of pyridoxamine without post-Amadori action. We also study the chelating effect of pyridoxamine on metal ions. We have determined the complexation equilibrium constants between pyridoxamine, N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan, aminoguanidine, and ascorbic acid in the presence of Zn(2+). The results show that the strong stability of pyridoxamine complexes is the key in its post-Amadori inhibition action. On the other hand results explain the lack of inhibition of aminoguanidine (a glycation inhibitor) in the post-Amadori reactions. PMID:18434162

  15. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of Lonicerae macranthoides by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Chen, Lin; Shi, Shuyun; Cai, Ping; Liang, Xuejuan; Zhang, Shuihan

    2016-05-30

    Lonicerae macranthoides with strong antioxidant activity is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and folk tea/beverage. However, detailed information about its antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds is limited. Then at first, we comparatively evaluated total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of water extract, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of L. macranthoides. Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest level of TPC (207.38 mg GAE/g DW), TFC (53.06 mg RE/g DW) and the best DPPH scavenge activity and reducing power. n-Butanol fraction showed the best ABTS(+) and O2(-) scavenging activities. Interestingly, water extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed stronger antioxidant activities than positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). After that, thirty-one antioxidant phenolic compounds, including twenty-two phenolic acids and nine flavonoids, were screened by DPPH-HPLC experiment and then identified using HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. It is noted that twenty-one compounds (1, 3-4, 6-17, 19, 23, 26, 28-29, and 31), as far as was known, were discovered from L. macranthoide for the first time, and eleven of them (3-4, 10-17, and 23) were reported in Lonicera species for the first time. Results indicated that L. macranthoides could serve as promising source of rich antioxidants in foods, beverages and medicines for health promotion. PMID:26970594

  16. LG308, a Novel Synthetic Compound with Antimicrotubule Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells, Exerts Effective Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Min; Peng, Shihong; Liu, Ning; Hu, Meichun; He, Yundong; Li, Guoliang; Chen, Huang; He, Yuan; Chen, Ang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Mingyao; Chen, Yihua; Yi, Zhengfang

    2015-12-01

    Microtubule plays many different essential roles in the process of tumorigenesis in many eukaryotes, and targeting mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics is used as a common strategy for cancer treatment. Microtubule-targeted drugs, including paclitaxel and Vinca alkaloids, were previously considered to work primarily by increasing or decreasing the cellular microtubule mass. The tubulin/microtubule system, which is an integral component of the cytoskeleton, is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer. In this study, we found a novel synthetic compound, 8-fluoro-N-phenylacetyl-1, 3, 4, 9-tetrahydro-β-carboline (LG308), which disrupted the microtubule organization via inhibiting the polymerization of microtubule in PC-3M and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Further study proved that LG308 induced mitotic phase arrest and inhibited G2/M progression significantly in LNCaP and PC-3M cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and these were associated with the upregulation of cyclin B1 and mitotic marker MPM-2 and the dephosphorylation of cdc2. Besides, the cell proliferation and colony formation of PC-3M and LNCaP cells were effectively inhibited by LG308. Furthermore, LG308 induced apoptosis and cell death in PC-3M and LNCaP cell lines in vitro. In vivo, LG308 dramatically suppressed the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in both xenograft and orthotopic models. All these data indicate that LG308 is a promising anticancer candidate with antimitotic activity for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26377911

  17. The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana.

    PubMed

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; Herken, Emine Nur; Yıldız, Aysun Yurdunuseven

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55°C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples. PMID:26471596

  18. Development of an Enhanced Phenotypic Screen of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Lytic Granule Exocytosis Suitable for Use with Synthetic Compound and Natural Product Collections.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ziyan; deMayo, James A; West, Ashley M; Balunas, Marcy J; Zweifach, Adam

    2016-07-01

    We previously developed an assay of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lytic granule exocytosis based on externalization of LAMP-1/CD107A using nonphysiological stimuli to generate maximal levels of exocytosis. Here, we used polystyrene beads coated with anti-CD3 antibodies to stimulate cells. Light scatter let us distinguish cells that contacted beads from cells that had not, allowing comparison of signaling events and exocytosis from stimulated and unstimulated cells in one sample. Bead stimulation resulted in submaximal exocytosis, making it possible to detect compounds that either augment or inhibit lytic granule exocytosis. Coupled with the assay's ability to distinguish responses in cells that have and have not contacted a stimulatory bead, it is possible to detect three kinds of compounds: inhibitors, stimulators, which cause exocytosis, and augmenters, which enhance receptor-stimulated exocytosis. To validate the assay, we screened a set of synthetic compounds identified using our previous assay and a library of 320 extracts prepared from tunicate-associated bacteria. One of the extracts augmented exocytosis threefold. Activity-guided fractionation and structure elucidation revealed that this compound is the known PKC activator teleocidin A-1. We conclude that our modified assay is suitable for screening synthetic compound plates and natural product collections, and will be useful for identifying immunologically active small molecules. PMID:27048485

  19. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals. PMID:23870885

  20. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of colored maize (Zea mays L.) kernels.

    PubMed

    Zilić, Slađana; Serpen, Arda; Akıllıoğlu, Gül; Gökmen, Vural; Vančetović, Jelena

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, β-carotene, and lutein as well as free, conjugated, and insoluble bound phenolic acids were determined in whole kernels of 10 different colored maize genotypes. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated as radical scavenging activity with ABTS (2,2-azino-bis/3-ethil-benothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) reagents. Generally, considerable differences in phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity were observed between the genotypes. The β-carotene and lutein contents ranged from 0 to 2.42 mg/kg d.m. and from 0 to 13.89 mg/kg d.m., respectively, whereas the total anthocyanin contents of anthocyanin-rich colored maize genotypes ranged from 2.50 to 696.07 mg CGE/kg d.m. (cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent) with cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy-3-Glu) as the most dominant form. The light blue ZPP-2 selfed maize genotype has a higher content of total phenolics, flavonoids, and ferulic acid as compared to other tested maize and the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. PMID:22248075

  1. EXPEDITIOUS SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic processes will be described for the synthesis of a variety of industrially significant compounds and intermediates namely, enamines, nitroalkenes, enones, oxidized sulfur compounds and ionic liquids. This solvent-free synthetic methodolo...

  2. Influence of extrusion on the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the bean/corn mixtures.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Licon, Efren; Ayala, Alma Leticia Martinez; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José-Alberto; Atienzo-Lazos, Martin; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia Eugenia; Gorinstein, Shela

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the influence of extrusion on the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of bean/corn mixtures. Whole bean flour and nixtamalized corn were mixed in a 60:40 proportion and extrusion was performed in different moisture (14.5%, 15.4%, 17.1% and 18.0%) and temperature (150°C, 160°C, 170°C, 180°C and 190°C) conditions in order to find the optimal extrusion conditions. According to their functional properties and antioxidant status, the mixtures 142°C/16.3% H, 170°C/16.3% H and 198°C/16.3% H were defined as optimal, moderate and bad, respectively. Total polyphenols and flavonoids in the mixture of 142°C/16.3% H (15.09±1.7 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight [DW] and 1.57±0.2 mg catechin equivalent [CE]/g DW) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the sample 170°C/16.3% H (9.42±1.1 mg GAE/g DW and 1.4±0.1 mg CE/g DW) and the mixture 198°C/16.3% H (6.46±0.8 mg GAE/g DW and 0.78±0.1 mg CE/g DW). The antioxidant activity (37.02±3.8 and 25.01±2.5 µM Trolox equivalent [TE]/g DW) of mixture 142°C/16.3% H, determined by the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and β-carotene-linoleic acid (β-carotene,% of inhibition) assays, was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in 170°C/16.3% H (25.69±2.8 and 17.02±1.8 µM TE/g DW) and in mixture 198°C/16.3% H (13.93±1.5 and 8.94±0.9 µM TE/g DW), respectively. The free polyphenols, flavonoids and the antioxidant activities showed lower results than the hydrolyzed ones. The correlation coefficients between polyphenols, flavonoids, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity capacities were between 0.93 and 0.99. In cereal proteins extracted and separated by electrophoresis, some differences were found in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein bands in the region from 36 to 45 kDa for 142°C/16.3% H, in comparison with other samples. Therefore, there is a need to find such conditions for the extrusion procedures

  3. Phenolic compounds of Brazilian beers from different types and styles and application of chemometrics for modeling antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Moura-Nunes, Nathália; Brito, Thárcila Cazaroti; da Fonseca, Nívea Dias; de Aguiar, Paula Fernandes; Monteiro, Mariana; Perrone, Daniel; Torres, Alexandre Guedes

    2016-05-15

    In the present study we aimed at investigating, for the first time, phenolic compounds in Brazilian beers of different types and styles. We also aimed at applying chemometrics for modeling beer's antioxidant capacity as a function of their physicochemical attributes (density, refractive index, bitterness and ethanol content). Samples (n=29) were analyzed by PCA originating five groups, especially according to ethanol contents and bitterness. In general, Group V (alcoholic beers with very high bitterness) presented higher refractive index, bitterness, ethanol and phenolics contents than Groups I (non-alcoholic beers) and II (alcoholic beers with low bitterness). Brazilian beers phenolics profile was distinct from that of European beers, with high contents of gallic acid (0.5-14.7 mg/L) and low contents of ferulic acid (0.2-1.8 mg/L). Using PLS, beer's antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay could be predicted with acceptable precision by data of ethanol content and density, bitterness and refractive index values. PMID:26775950

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of the Pygmy Loris Fecal Microbiome Reveals Unique Functional Capacity Related to Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Weijiang; Yang, Fuya; Li, Junjun; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-01-01

    The animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. An analysis of 78,619 pyrosequencing reads generated from pygmy loris fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and functional capacity of the pygmy loris gut microbiome. The taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic reads indicated that pygmy loris fecal microbiomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla. The hierarchical clustering of several gastrointestinal metagenomes demonstrated the similarities of the microbial community structures of pygmy loris and mouse gut systems despite their differences in functional capacity. The comparative analysis of function classification revealed that the metagenome of the pygmy loris was characterized by an overrepresentation of those sequences involved in aromatic compound metabolism compared with humans and other animals. The key enzymes related to the benzoate degradation pathway were identified based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway assignment. These results would contribute to the limited body of primate metagenome studies and provide a framework for comparative metagenomic analysis between human and non-human primates, as well as a comparative understanding of the evolution of humans and their microbiome. However, future studies on the metagenome sequencing of pygmy loris and other prosimians regarding the effects of age, genetics, and environment on the composition and activity of the metagenomes are required. PMID:23457582

  5. Evaluating the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw and steamed garlic as well as five organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Su, Min-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25365295

  6. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina da Silva; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valéria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbão Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 µM Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance. PMID:26817384

  7. The effects of cold stress on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Król, A; Amarowicz, R; Weidner, S

    2015-09-15

    According to some estimates, a 70% increase in crop yield could be achieved if the environmental conditions were close to the optimum ones for a given plant, which is why the identification and control of adverse environmental effects is a top priority in many countries worldwide. This paper contains a discussion of the changes in selected elements of the secondary metabolism in the leaves of two grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) with a different degree of tolerance to cold stress during prolonged and constant low temperature stress. The analyses have shown that the more-tolerant variety was characterized by a higher content of phenolic compounds, better radical-scavenging capacity and stronger reducing power. However, the cold stress caused a decrease in the concentration of the phenolics and decreased the scavenging capacity in the leaves of both varieties. Four phenolic acids have been identified in the extracts from the leaves of both grapevines: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and a caffeic acid derivative. Caffeic acid appeared in the highest concentrations in all the leaf extracts. Additionally, it has been noted that in the leaves of the varieties susceptible and tolerant to cold stress, the prolonged exposure to low temperature caused a considerable reduction of the content of all identified phenolic acids. The results of the analyses have demonstrated large differences in the functioning of the secondary metabolism in response to the same stressor. PMID:26555272

  8. Ab initio study of the structures and hydrogen storage capacity of (H2)nCH4 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minghui; Cheng, Xinlu; Ren, Dahua; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yongjian

    2015-05-01

    The hydrogen-rich compound (H2)nCH4 (for n = 1, 2, 3, 4) or for short (H2)nM is one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials. The (H2)4M molecule is the best hydrogen-rich compound among the (H2)nM structures and it can reach the hydrogen storage capacity of 50.2 wt.%. However, the (H2)nM always requires a certain pressure to remain stable. In this work, we first investigated the binding energy of the different structures in (H2)nM and energy barrier of H2 rotation under different pressures at ambient temperature, applying ab initio methods based on van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF). It was found that at 0 GPa, the (H2)nM is not stable, while at 5.8 GPa, the stability of (H2)nM strongly depends on its structure. We further investigate the Raman spectra of (H2)nM structures at 5.8 GPa and found the results were consistent with experiments. Excitingly, we found that boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) can be used to store (H2)4M, which give insights into hydrogen storage practical applications.

  9. The sensitizing capacity of naturally occurring quinones. Experimental studies in guinea pigs. I. Naphthoquinones and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K H; Garbe, I; Hausen, B M; Simatupang, M H

    1977-03-25

    Experimental studies on the sensitization capacity of naturally occurring naphthoquinones derived from plants and woods have been carried out with 6 compounds. With 4 of these substances (desoxylapachol, menadione, lapachenole andmacassar quinone) guinea pigs could be sensitized. Desoxylapachol, sensitizer from teak wood, and lapachenole, sensitizer from perobawood proved to be the most effective ones. Experiments with macassar quinone (oxidation product of a naphthalene constituent of macassar ebony) still demonstrate that even ortho-naphthoquinones are capable to induce contact allergy. Allergic cross reactions could be obtained with 9 out of 14 different napthoquinones. In animals sensitized with desoxylapachol menadione and lapachol showed the strongest eliciting effect. Furthermore the study demonstrated that the sensitizing effect of naphthoquinones depends on the length and position of the side chain attached to the quinoid ring as well as on the substitution of the carbon atom adjacent to the side chain bearing C-atom. With compounds substituted at this C-atom (e.g. position 3 of lapachol or didimethylallylnaphthoquinone) sensitization could not be obtained. PMID:857737

  10. Heat capacity, entropy, and magnetic properties of jarosite-group compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Glasnák, Peter; Fisher, Robert A.; White, Mary Anne; Johnson, Michel B.; Woodfield, Brian; Boerio-Goates, Juliana

    2010-10-01

    Jarosite phases are common minerals in acidic, sulfate-rich environments. Here, we report heat capacities ( C p) and standard entropies ( S°) for a number of jarosite samples. Most samples are close to the nominal composition AFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, where A = K, Na, Rb, and NH4. One of the samples has a significant number of defects on the Fe sites and is called the defect jarosite; others are referred to as A-jarosite. The samples, their compositions, and the entropies at T = 298.15 K are:

    Sample Chemical composition S o/(J mol-1 K-1) K-jarosite K0.92(H3O)0.08Fe2.97(SO4)2(OH)5.90(H2O)0.10 427.4 ± 0.7 Na-jarosite Na0.95(H3O)0.05Fe3.00(SO4)2(OH)6.00 436.4 ± 4.4 Rb-jarosite RbFe2.98(SO4)2(OH)5.95(H2O)0.05 411.9 ± 4.1 NH4-jarosite (NH4)0.87(H3O)0.13Fe3.00(SO4)2(OH)6.00
  11. Photosynthetic capacity is negatively correlated with the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds across a range of different species

    PubMed Central

    Sumbele, Sally; Fotelli, Mariangela N.; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Tooulakou, Georgia; Liakoura, Vally; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Adams, Mark A.; Karabourniotis, George

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Phenolic compounds are the most commonly studied of all secondary metabolites because of their significant protective–defensive roles and their significant concentration in plant tissues. However, there has been little study on relationships between gas exchange parameters and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds (total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT)) across a range of species. Therefore, we addressed the question: is there any correlation between photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and TP and CT across species from different ecosystems in different continents? Methodology A plethora of functional and structural parameters were measured in 49 plant species following different growth strategies from five sampling sites located in Greece and Australia. The relationships between several leaf traits were analysed by means of regression and principal component analysis. Principal results The results revealed a negative relationship between TP and CT and Amax among the different plant species, growth strategies and sampling sites, irrespective of expression (with respect to mass, area or nitrogen content). Principal component analysis showed that high concentrations of TP and CT are associated with thick, dense leaves with low nitrogen. This leaf type is characterized by low growth, Amax and transpiration rates, and is common in environments with low water and nutrient availability, high temperatures and high light intensities. Therefore, the high TP and CT in such leaves are compatible with the protective and defensive functions ascribed to them. Conclusions Our results indicate a functional integration between carbon gain and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds that reflects the trade-off between growth and defence/protection demands, depending on the growth strategy adopted by each species. PMID:23050073

  12. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p < 0.001). 14C-Acetate incorporation into cholesterol and cholesterol esters was not significantly different among treatment groups for male and female fish, however, 14C-enrichment was higher than expected in both triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure. PMID:17118198

  13. [Growth-regulating activity of N-benzyl- and O-benzyl-containing compounds belonging to a new group of synthetic analogues of natural auxins].

    PubMed

    Gafurov, R G; Makhmutova, A A

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of benzylamine, benzyl alcohol, and their derivatives (constituting a new group of synthetic analogues of natural auxins) on rooting of leaf and stem cuttings, rhizogenesis and growth of barley plantlets and tomato seedlings, and tomato plant productivity. These compounds promoted rooting of leaf and stem bean cuttings, increased rhizogenic activity, and stimulated the development of root systems in barley and tomato seeds. The activity of the compounds studied was similar to that of standard substances (3-indoleacetic acid potassium salt and 2-naphthylacetic acid). The benzyl group attached to the oxygen or nitrogen atom was shown to be the smallest molecular structure which provided auxin activity of the compounds. Derivatives of benzyl alcohol containing the quaternary ammonium fragment possessed auxin and anti-gibberellin (retardant) properties. They were selected by chemical synthesis of low-molecular-weight bioregulators with desired properties (a combination of chemical fragments with complementary physiological activity in the molecule). Auxin and anti-gibberellin (retardant) activities produced a synergistic effect. Germination of seeds treated with these compounds was accompanied by a more significant increase in the weight and length of roots (compared to standard auxins). The rate of seedling establishment reached 100%. The development of fruits and accumulation of reserve nutrient substances were synchronized and accelerated after spraying vegetating plants with solutions of studied compounds. The synergistic effect underlay a significant increase in the amount and quality of the crop (e.g., tomatoes). PMID:15859471

  14. Use of a flux-based field capacity criterion to identify effective hydraulic parameters of layered soil profiles subjected to synthetic drainage experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasta, Paolo; Romano, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of identifying the effective soil hydraulic parameterization of a layered soil profile by using a conventional unsteady drainage experiment leading to field capacity. The flux-based field capacity criterion is attained by subjecting the soil profile to a synthetic drainage process implemented numerically in the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) model. The effective hydraulic parameterization is associated to either aggregated or equivalent parameters, the former being determined by the geometrical scaling theory while the latter is obtained through the inverse modeling approach. Outcomes from both these methods depend on information that is sometimes difficult to retrieve at local scale and rather challenging or virtually impossible at larger scales. The only knowledge of topsoil hydraulic properties, for example, as retrieved by a near-surface field campaign or a data assimilation technique, is often exploited as a proxy to determine effective soil hydraulic parameterization at the largest spatial scales. Comparisons of the effective soil hydraulic characterization provided by these three methods are conducted by discussing the implications for their use and accounting for the trade-offs between required input information and model output reliability. To better highlight the epistemic errors associated to the different effective soil hydraulic properties and to provide some more practical guidance, the layered soil profiles are then grouped by using the FAO textural classes. For the moderately heterogeneous soil profiles available, all three approaches guarantee a general good predictability of the actual field capacity values and provide adequate identification of the effective hydraulic parameters. Conversely, worse performances are encountered for the highly variable vertical heterogeneity, especially when resorting to the "topsoil-only" information. In general, the best performances are guaranteed by the equivalent

  15. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. PMID:27173545

  16. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. PMID:25442634

  17. Fundamental characteristics of synthetic adsorbents intended for industrial chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tadashi; Isobe, Eiji

    2004-05-14

    With the aim of obtaining comprehensive information on the selection of synthetic adsorbents for industrial applications, effect of pore and chemical structure of industrial-grade synthetic adsorbents on adsorption capacity of several pharmaceutical compounds was investigated. For relatively low molecular mass compounds, such as cephalexin, berberine chloride and tetracycline hydrochloride, surface area per unit volume of polystyrenic adsorbents dominated the equilibrium adsorption capacity. On the contrary, effect of pore size of the polystyrenic adsorbents on the equilibrium adsorption capacity was observed for relatively high molecular mass compounds, such as rifampicin, Vitamin B12 and insulin. Polystyrenic adsorbent with high surface area and small pore size showed small adsorption capacity for relatively high molecular mass compounds, whereas polystyrenic adsorbent with relatively small surface area but with large pore size showed large adsorption capacity. Effect of chemical structure on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of several pharmaceutical compounds was also studied among polystyrenic, modified polystyrenic and polymethacrylic adsorbents. The modified polystyrenic adsorbent showed larger adsorption capacity for all compounds tested in this study due to enhanced hydrophobicity. The polymethacrylic adsorbent possessed high adsorption capacity for rifampicin and insulin, but it showed lower adsorption capacity for the other compounds studied. This result may be attributed to hydrogen bonding playing major role for the adsorption of compounds on polymethacrylic adsorbent. Furthermore, column adsorption experiments were operated to estimate the effect of pore characteristics of the polystyrenic adsorbents on dynamic adsorption behavior, and it is found that both surface area and pore size of the polystyrenic adsorbents significantly affect the dynamic adsorption capacity as well as flow rate. PMID:15139411

  18. Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida Cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC) from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties. Method The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed. Results As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole) exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections. PMID:23268761

  19. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of a novel series of synthetic phenylthiazole compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Haroon; Narasimha Reddy, P. V.; Monteleone, Dennis; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S.; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections are a significant global health challenge in part due to the emergence of strains exhibiting resistance to nearly all classes of antibiotics. This underscores the urgent need for the rapid development of novel antimicrobials to circumvent this burgeoning problem. Previously, whole-cell screening of a library of 2,5-disubstituted thiazole compounds revealed a lead compound exhibiting potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA. The present study, conducting a more rigorous analysis of the structure-activity relationship of this compound, reveals a nonpolar, hydrophobic functional group is favored at thiazole-C2 and an ethylidenehydrazine-1-carboximidamide moiety is necessary at C5 for the compound to possess activity against MRSA. Furthermore, the MTS assay confirmed analogues 5, 22d, and 25 exhibited an improved toxicity profile (not toxic up to 40 μg/mL to mammalian cells) over the lead 1. Analysis with human liver microsomes revealed compound 5 was more metabolically stable compared to the lead compound (greater than eight-fold improvement in the half-life in human liver microsomes). Collectively the results presented demonstrate the novel thiazole derivatives synthesized warrant further exploration for potential use as future antimicrobial agents for the treatment of multidrug-resistant S. aureus infections. PMID:25771109

  20. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of a novel series of synthetic phenylthiazole compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Haroon; Reddy, P V Narasimha; Monteleone, Dennis; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-04-13

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections are a significant global health challenge in part due to the emergence of strains exhibiting resistance to nearly all classes of antibiotics. This underscores the urgent need for the rapid development of novel antimicrobials to circumvent this burgeoning problem. Previously, whole-cell screening of a library of 2,5-disubstituted thiazole compounds revealed a lead compound exhibiting potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA. The present study, conducting a more rigorous analysis of the structure-activity relationship of this compound, reveals a nonpolar, hydrophobic functional group is favored at thiazole-C2 and an ethylidenehydrazine-1-carboximidamide moiety is necessary at C5 for the compound to possess activity against MRSA. Furthermore, the MTS assay confirmed analogs 5, 22d, and 25 exhibited an improved toxicity profile (not toxic up to 40 μg/mL to mammalian cells) over the lead 1. Analysis with human liver microsomes revealed compound 5 was more metabolically stable compared to the lead compound (greater than eight-fold improvement in the half-life in human liver microsomes). Collectively the results presented demonstrate the novel thiazole derivatives synthesized warrant further exploration for potential use as future antimicrobial agents for the treatment of multidrug-resistant S. aureus infections. PMID:25771109

    1. The effects of genotype and growing conditions on antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds, organic acid and individual sugars of strawberry.

      PubMed

      Gündüz, Kazim; Ozdemir, Emine

      2014-07-15

      In this study, the genotypic and environmental effects for bioactive compounds in strawberries were partitioned. 13 strawberry genotypes from diverse breeding programs were selected. The genotypes were grown in three growing conditions: greenhouse (GH), plastic tunnel (PT) and open-field (OF) for two growing seasons. The results indicated that the genotypes were significantly different for most of the characteristics tested except the ferric reducing ability assay (FRAP) and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC) in the second growing season, while the growing conditions were only significant for total phenolic content (TPC) and fructose and total sugar content in the first growing season. Genotype had 71% and 72% of the total variance for total monomeric anthocyanin contents (TMA), while it had only 12% and 13% of the variance for TPC in the first and second year of the experiment. Genotype effect was larger than that from the growing conditions for most of the bioactive component variables in the experiment indicated that breeding for bioactive components may be successful. PMID:24594188

    2. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus ofThevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

      PubMed

      Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

      2016-04-01

      The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile. PMID:26972464

    3. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of low molecular weight organic compounds and synthetic polymers using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles.

      PubMed

      Watanabe, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Arakawa, Ryuichi

      2008-08-01

      We have developed surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes (ZnO-SALDI-MS). The mass spectra showed low background noises in the low m/z, i.e. less than 500 u region. Thus, we succeeded in SALDI ionization on low molecular weight organic compounds, such as verapamil hydrochloride, testosterone, and polypropylene glycol (PPG) (average molecular weight 400) without using a liquid matrix or buffers such as citric acids. In addition, we found that ZnO-SALDI has advantages in post-source decay (PSD) analysis and produced a simple mass spectrum for phospholipids. The ZnO-SALDI spectra for synthetic polymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) showed the sensitivity and molecular weight distribution to be comparable to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectra with a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. ZnO-SALDI shows good performance for synthetic polymers as well as low molecular weight organic compounds. PMID:18286665

    4. Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry in Chagas’ Disease: Compounds at The Final Stage of “Hit-To-Lead” Phase

      PubMed Central

      Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

      2010-01-01

      Chagas’ disease, or American trypanosomosiasis, has been the most relevant illness produced by protozoa in Latin America. Synthetic medicinal chemistry efforts have provided an extensive number of chemodiverse hits at the “active-to-hit” stage. However, only a more limited number of these have been studied in vivo in models of Chagas’ disease. Herein, we survey some of the cantidates able to surpass the “hit-to-lead” stage discussing their limitations or merit to enter in clinical trials in the short term.

    5. A novel synthetic 1,3-phenyl bis-thiourea compound targets microtubule polymerization to cause cancer cell death.

      PubMed

      Shing, Jennifer C; Choi, Jae Won; Chapman, Robert; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N; Fauq, Abdul; Bram, Richard J

      2014-07-01

      Microtubules are essential cytoskeletal components with a central role in mitosis and have been particularly useful as a cancer chemotherapy target. We synthesized a small molecule derivative of a symmetrical 1,3-phenyl bis-thiourea, (1,1'-[1,3-phenylene]bis[3-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)thiourea], named "41J"), and identified a potent effect of the compound on cancer cell survival. 41J is cytotoxic to multiple cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Cell death occurred by apoptosis and was preceded by mitotic arrest in prometaphase. Prometaphase arrest induced by 41J treatment was accompanied by dissociation of cyclin B1 levels from the apparent mitotic stage and by major spindle abnormalities. Polymerization of purified tubulin in vitro was directly inhibited by 41J, suggesting that the compound works by directly interfering with microtubule function. Compound 41J arrested the growth of glioblastoma multiforme xenografts in nude mice at doses that were well-tolerated, demonstrating a relatively specific antitumor effect. Importantly, 41J overcame drug resistance due to β-tubulin mutation and P-glycoprotein overexpression. Compound 41J may serve as a useful new lead compound for anticancer therapy development. PMID:24755487

    6. Separation of pineal extracts by gelfiltration. VI. Isolation and identification from sheep pineals of biopterin; comparison of the isolated compound with some synthetic pteridines and the biological activity in in vitro and in vivo bioassays.

      PubMed

      van der Have-Kirchberg, M L; de Morée, A; van Laar, J F; Gerwig, G J; Versluis, C; Ebels, I

      1977-01-01

      Aqueous extracts of sheep pineal bodies were separated on Sephadex G-25. Two low molecular weight Sephadex G-25 fractions, F2 and F3, were ultrafiltrated through the Amicon membrane UM-2. The UM-2 filtrate was subsequently filtrated through the ultramembrane UM-05 and the UM-05 filtrate was separated on Sephadex G-10 columns. After paper electrophoresis, preparative paper chromatography was carried out. The fluorescent band showing a Rf value identical with synthetic 6-biopterin was eluted; gas liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the isolated compound were carried out. The mass spectra of the isolated compound were shown to be identical with synthetic 6-biopterin. The results of the Crithidia fasciculata test and thinlayer chromatography study revealed that the isolated compound is identical with 6-L-erythro-biopterin. The activities of the isolated compound and of synthetic biopterin in in vitro and in vivo bioassays are demonstrated. PMID:874473

    7. Screening of synthetic and plant-derived compounds for (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities.

      PubMed

      Bovee, Toine F H; Schoonen, Willem G E J; Hamers, Astrid R M; Bento, Marta Jorge; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M

      2008-02-01

      Recently we constructed yeast cells that either express the human estrogen receptor alpha or the human androgen receptor in combination with a consensus ERE or ARE repeat in the promoter region of a green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) read-out system. These bioassays were proven to be highly specific for their cognate agonistic compounds. In this study the value of these yeast bioassays was assessed for analysis of compounds with antagonistic properties. Several pure antagonists, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and plant-derived compounds were tested. The pure antiestrogens ICI 182,780 and RU 58668 were also classified as pure ER antagonists in the yeast estrogen bioassay and the pure antiandrogen flutamide was also a pure AR antagonist in the yeast androgen bioassay. The plant-derived compounds flavone and guggulsterone displayed both antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, while 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and equol combined an estrogenic mode of action with an antiandrogenic activity. Indol-3-carbinol (I3C) only showed an antiandrogenic activity. Coumestrol, genistein, naringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin were estrogenic and acted additively, while the plant sterols failed to show any effect. Although hormonally inactive, in vitro and in vivo metabolism of the aforementioned plant sterols may still lead to the formation of active metabolites in other test systems. PMID:18188547

    8. A synthetic compound that potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced transdifferentiation of myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype.

      PubMed

      Kato, Satoshi; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Tomita, Katsuro; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

      2011-03-01

      There is an urgent need to develop methods that lower costs of using recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to promote bone induction. In this study, we demonstrate the osteogenic effect of a low-molecular weight compound, SVAK-12, that potentiated the effects of BMP-2 in inducing transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype. Here, we report a specific compound, SVAK-12, which was selected based on in silico screenings of small-molecule databases using the homology modeled interaction motif of Smurf1-WW2 domain. The enhancement of BMP-2 activity by SVAK-12 was characterized by evaluating a BMP-specific reporter activity and by monitoring the BMP-2-induced expression of mRNA for osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which are widely accepted marker genes of osteoblast differentiation. Finally, we confirmed these results by also measuring the enhancement of BMP-2-induced activity of ALP. Smurf1 is an E3 ligase that targets osteogenic Smads for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Smurf1 is an interesting potential target to enhance bone formation based on the positive effects on bone of proteins that block Smurf1-binding to Smad targets or in Smurf1-/- knockout mice. Since Smads bind Smurf1 via its WW2 domain, we performed in silico screening to identify compounds that might interact with the Smurf1-WW2 domain. We recently reported the activity of a compound, SVAK-3. However, SVAK-3, while exhibiting BMP-potentiating activity, was not stable and thus warranted a new search for a more stable and efficacious compound among a selected group of candidates. In addition to being more stable, SVAK-12 exhibited a dose-dependent activity in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of myoblastic C2C12 cells even when multiple markers of the osteoblastic phenotype were parallelly monitored. PMID:21110071

    9. Phenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity of meals provided to elementary public schools in Chile during 2011.

      PubMed

      Lutz, Mariane; Barraza, Romina; Henríquez, Carolina

      2015-06-01

      The Chilean National School Feeding Program (NSFP) delivers breakfast and lunch meals that supply 250 and 450 kcal, respectively, along the country. In the last decades, a significant increase of obesity has been observed in primary education children, and it involves risk factors of non-communicable diseases. The dietary intake of foods containing phenolic compounds (PC) exerts favorable effects on health by reducing risk factors of prevalent diseases. The aim of the study was to measure the PC content and antioxidant capacity (AC) [ORAC and DPPH] of meals provided by the NSFP in Quillota, Chile, in 2011. The PC supply of the whole meals served ranged from 362.7 to 1,730 mg GAE. The best breakfast foods include whole grain cookie (2.59 ± 0.3 mg GAE/g), bread with avocado, quince jelly or strawberry jam (1.61 ± 0.13 to 2.05 ± 0.3 mg GAE/g); while the best lunch salads include beetroot, lettuce, and cabbage/fish (1.66 ± 0.3 to 2.35 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g), and main courses contain legumes, or mixed vegetables. The lowest PC contents were observed in pasta and rice preparations (p < 0.05). Among desserts, the best source of PC is fruit (1.81 ± 0.04 to 6.91 ± 0.31 mg GAE/g). The correlation between PC and AC varied according to the type of meal. PC content and AC are additional criteria for selecting the best quality meals, in addition to the nutrients and energy content. The results support the recommendation to increase the supply of fruits and vegetable/legumes preparations and fruits instead of starchy foods to scholars. PMID:26817378

    10. Normal reproductive capacity of heifers that originated from in vitro fertilized embryos cultured with an antiviral compound.

      PubMed

      Givens, M Daniel; Marley, Mylissa S D; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A

      2009-07-01

      Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can associate with in vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos despite washing and trypsin treatment. An antiviral compound, DB606 (2-(4-[2-imidazolinyl]phenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)furan), inhibits the replication of BVDV in bovine uterine tubal epithelial cells, Madin Darby bovine kidney cells, and fetal fibroblast cells. As well, DB606 in in vitro culture medium does not affect embryonic development. Antiviral-treated-IVF embryos placed into recipients developed into clinically normal calves. The objective of this project was to determine if these resultant heifer calves were capable of reproducing. Seven heifers from each of the treatment groups (natural breeding, IVF embryo, and IVF embryo cultured in DB606) of the previous study were used. At 20-27 months of age, the heifers were exposed to a fertile bull in a single pasture during a 63 d breeding season. Five of the seven heifers originating from natural breeding were pregnant 35 d after removal of the bull and calved. All of the heifers resulting from transfer of untreated IVF embryos were pregnant at 35 d; however, one aborted the fetus at 5-7 months of gestation. All of the heifers derived from transfer of IVF embryos cultured in DB606 were pregnant and calved. Offspring from dams of all treatment groups were clinically normal at birth. Adjusted 205 d weaning weights were not significantly different among the offspring of the treated and untreated dams. These results indicate that culture of bovine-IVF embryos in DB606 does not impair future reproductive capacity of resulting heifers. PMID:18691836

    11. The Formation of Biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Review of the Natural and Synthetic Compounds Interfering with Control Mechanisms

      PubMed Central

      2015-01-01

      P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium responsible for both acute and chronic infections. Beyond its natural resistance to many drugs, its ability to form biofilm, a complex biological system, renders ineffective the clearance by immune defense systems and antibiotherapy. The objective of this report is to provide an overview (i) on P. aeruginosa biofilm lifestyle cycle, (ii) on the main key actors relevant in the regulation of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa including QS systems, GacS/GacA and RetS/LadS two-component systems and C-di-GMP-dependent polysaccharides biosynthesis, and (iii) finally on reported natural and synthetic products that interfere with control mechanisms of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa without affecting directly bacterial viability. Concluding remarks focus on perspectives to consider biofilm lifestyle as a target for eradication of resistant infections caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:25866808

    12. Antitumor Effects of Synthetic 6,7-Annulated-4-substituted Indole Compounds in L1210 Leukemic Cells In Vitro

      PubMed Central

      PERCHELLET, JEAN-PIERRE H.; WATERS, ANDREW M.; PERCHELLET, ELISABETH M.; THORNTON, PAUL D.; BROWN, NEIL; HILL, DAVID; NEUENSWANDER, BEN; LUSHINGTON, GERALD H.; SANTINI, CONRAD; CHANDRASOMA, NALIN; BUSZEK, KEITH R.

      2014-01-01

      Background Because annulated indoles have almost no representation in the PubChem or MLSMR databases, an unprecedented class of an indole-based library was constructed, using the indole aryne methodology, and screened for antitumor activity. Sixty-six novel 6,7-annulated-4-substituted indole compounds were synthesized, using a strategic combination of 6,7-indolyne cycloaddition and cross-coupling reactions under both Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig conditions, and tested for their effectiveness against murine L1210 tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Materials and Methods Various markers of tumor cell metabolism, DNA degradation, mitotic disruption, cytokinesis and apoptosis were assayed in vitro to evaluate drug cytotoxicity. Results Most compounds inhibited the metabolic activity of leukemic cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner but only 9 of them were sufficiently potent to inhibit L1210 tumor cell proliferation by 50% in the low-μM range after 2 (IC50: 4.5–20.4 μM) and 4 days (0.5–4.0 μM) in culture. However, the antiproliferative compounds that were the most effective at day 4 were not necessarily the most potent at day 2, suggesting different speeds of action. A 3-h treatment with antiproliferative annulated indole was sufficient to inhibit, in a concentration-dependent manner, the rate of DNA synthesis measured in L1210 cells over a 0.5-h period of pulse-labeling with 3H-thymidine. Four of the antiproliferative compounds had weak DNA-binding activities but one compound reduced the fluorescence of the ethidium bromide-DNA complex by up to 53%, suggesting that some annulated indoles might directly interact with double-stranded DNA to disrupt its integrity and prevent the dye from intercalating into DNA base pairs. However, all 9 antiproliferative compounds induced DNA cleavage at 24 h in L1210 cells, containing 3H-thymidine-prelabeled DNA, suggesting that these antitumor annulated indoles might trigger an apoptotic pathway of DNA

    13. Bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. and their semi-synthetic derivatives as promising anti-Helicobacter pylori, anti-malarial and anti-leishmanial agents.

      PubMed

      De Monte, Celeste; Bizzarri, Bruna; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Carradori, Simone; Mollica, Adriano; Luisi, Grazia; Granese, Arianna; Alcaro, Stefano; Costa, Giosuè; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Scaltrito, Maria Maddalena; Masia, Carla; Sisto, Francesca

      2015-12-01

      Crocus sativus L. is known in herbal medicine for the various pharmacological effects of its components, but no data are found in literature about its biological properties toward Helicobacter pylori, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. In this work, the potential anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects of crocin and safranal, two important bioactive components in C. sativus, were explored, and also some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal were tested in order to establish which modifications in the chemical structure could improve the biological activity. According to our promising results, we virtually screened our compounds by means of molecular modeling studies against the main H. pylori enzymes in order to unravel their putative mechanism of action. PMID:25766747

    14. Guanidines from 'toxic substances' to compounds with multiple biological applications--detailed outlook on synthetic procedures employed for the synthesis of guanidines.

      PubMed

      Tahir, Shaista; Badshah, Amin; Hussain, Raja Azadar

      2015-04-01

      Guanidines to begin with, were thought of being harmful substances associated with medical ailment. With the advent of World War I and the impact it left on the populations at large research focus was shifted, towards polymer synthesis and that too on plastics and rubbers which were mostly employed in various artillery equipments. In the surge, to get plastics and rubbers with enhanced mechanical properties, many variedly substituted guanidines used as accelerators in vulcanization of polymers were synthesized using different procedures. Continuous research on guanidines, led scientists to develop different protocols and routes for the synthesis of these compounds, later these were tested for their possible use in various areas and now these are sought for their enhanced biomedical and catalytic applications. This review article presents thirty six different synthetic procedures employed for the synthesis of guanidines over the years including seventy schemes and a brief account on the reported wide ranging applications of some novel guanidines. PMID:25681571

    15. Concentrations of selected trace inorganic constituents and synthetic organic compounds in the water-table aquifers in the Memphis area, Tennessee

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      McMaster, B.W.; Parks, William Scott

      1988-01-01

      Water quality samples for analysis of selected trace inorganic constituents and synthetic organic compounds were collected from 29 private or observation wells in alluvium and fluvial deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary Age. The alluvium and fluvial deposits are the water table aquifers in the Memphis area. In addition, nine wells were installed in Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division well fields so that samples could be collected and analyzed to characterize the quality of water in the fluvial deposits at these well fields. Samples from seven of these wells (two were dry) were analyzed for major constituents and properties of water as well as for selected trace inorganic constituents and synthetic organic compounds. Analyses of the water from most of the 36 wells sampled indicated ranges in concentration values for the trace inorganic constituents that agreed with those previously known, although some new maximum values were established. The analysis of water from four wells indicated that the water is or may be contaminated. Concentrations of barium (1,400 micrograms/L -- ug/L), strontium (1,100 ug/L), and arsenic (15 ug/L), along with specific conductance (1,420 microsiemens/centimeter--us/cm) were in water from one well in the alluvium. Low concentrations (0.02 to 0.04 ug/L) of the pesticides aldrin, DDT, endosulfan, and perthane were present in water from two wells in the fluvial deposits. Water from one of these wells also contained 1,1,1 trichloroethane (4.4 ug/L). Analysis of water from another well in the fluvial deposits indicated values for specific conductance (1,100 uS/cm), alkalinity (508 milligrams per liter -- mg/L -- as CaCO3), hardness (550 mg/L as CaCO3), chloride (65 mg/L), and barium (240 ug/L) that are high for water from the fluvial deposits. (USGS)

    16. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

      PubMed Central

      Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

      2013-01-01

      Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds. PMID:23509707

    17. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom.

      PubMed

      Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

      2013-01-01

      Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds. PMID:23509707

    18. Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating synthetic wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Stuckey, David C; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

      2016-10-01

      This study investigated the behaviour and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in two anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs): MBRcontrol and MBRpharma, for treating municipal wastewater. Both protein and polysaccharides measured exhibited higher concentrations in the MBRpharma than the MBRcontrol. Molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis revealed that the presence of pharmaceuticals enhanced the accumulation of SMPs with macro- (13,091 kDa and 1587 kDa) and intermediate-MW (189 kDa) compounds in the anoxic MBRpharma, while a substantial decrease was observed in both MBR effluents. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence contours indicated that the exposure to pharmaceuticals seemed to stimulate the production of aromatic proteins containing tyrosine (10.1-32.6%) and tryptophan (14.7-43.1%), compared to MBRcontrol (9.9-29.1% for tyrosine; 11.8-42.5% for tryptophan). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed aromatics, long-chain alkanes and esters were the predominant SMPs in the MBRs. More peaks were present in the aerobic MBRpharma (196) than anoxic MBRpharma (133). The SMPs identified exhibited both biodegradability and recalcitrance in the MBR treatment processes. Only 8 compounds in the MBRpharma were the same as in the MBRcontrol. Alkanes were the most dominant SMPs (51%) in the MBRcontrol, while aromatics were dominant (40%) in the MBRpharma. A significant decrease in aromatics (from 16 to 7) in the MBRpharma permeate was observed, compared to the aerobic MBRpharma. Approximately 21% of compounds in the aerobic MBRcontrol were rejected by membrane filtration, while this increased to 28% in the MBRpharma. PMID:27479293

    19. Evolutionary Expansion of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily in Bacteria in Response to the Synthetic Compounds Molinate and Diuron

      PubMed Central

      Sugrue, Elena; Fraser, Nicholas J.; Hopkins, Davis H.; Carr, Paul D.; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Oakeshott, John G.; Scott, Colin

      2015-01-01

      The amidohydrolase superfamily has remarkable functional diversity, with considerable structural and functional annotation of known sequences. In microbes, the recent evolution of several members of this family to catalyze the breakdown of environmental xenobiotics is not well understood. An evolutionary transition from binuclear to mononuclear metal ion coordination at the active sites of these enzymes could produce large functional changes such as those observed in nature, but there are few clear examples available to support this hypothesis. To investigate the role of binuclear-mononuclear active-site transitions in the evolution of new function in this superfamily, we have characterized two recently evolved enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the synthetic herbicides molinate (MolA) and phenylurea (PuhB). In this work, the crystal structures, mutagenesis, metal ion analysis, and enzyme kinetics of both MolA and PuhB establish that these enzymes utilize a mononuclear active site. However, bioinformatics and structural comparisons reveal that the closest putative ancestor of these enzymes had a binuclear active site, indicating that a binuclear-mononuclear transition has occurred. These proteins may represent examples of evolution modifying the characteristics of existing catalysts to satisfy new requirements, specifically, metal ion rearrangement leading to large leaps in activity that would not otherwise be possible. PMID:25636851

    20. Evolutionary expansion of the amidohydrolase superfamily in bacteria in response to the synthetic compounds molinate and diuron.

      PubMed

      Sugrue, Elena; Fraser, Nicholas J; Hopkins, Davis H; Carr, Paul D; Khurana, Jeevan L; Oakeshott, John G; Scott, Colin; Jackson, Colin J

      2015-04-01

      The amidohydrolase superfamily has remarkable functional diversity, with considerable structural and functional annotation of known sequences. In microbes, the recent evolution of several members of this family to catalyze the breakdown of environmental xenobiotics is not well understood. An evolutionary transition from binuclear to mononuclear metal ion coordination at the active sites of these enzymes could produce large functional changes such as those observed in nature, but there are few clear examples available to support this hypothesis. To investigate the role of binuclear-mononuclear active-site transitions in the evolution of new function in this superfamily, we have characterized two recently evolved enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the synthetic herbicides molinate (MolA) and phenylurea (PuhB). In this work, the crystal structures, mutagenesis, metal ion analysis, and enzyme kinetics of both MolA and PuhB establish that these enzymes utilize a mononuclear active site. However, bioinformatics and structural comparisons reveal that the closest putative ancestor of these enzymes had a binuclear active site, indicating that a binuclear-mononuclear transition has occurred. These proteins may represent examples of evolution modifying the characteristics of existing catalysts to satisfy new requirements, specifically, metal ion rearrangement leading to large leaps in activity that would not otherwise be possible. PMID:25636851

    1. Use of screen-printed microelectrodes working as generator/collector systems for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds.

      PubMed

      René, Alice; Cugnet, Cyril; Hauchard, Didier; Authier, Laurent

      2013-04-01

      A new method using cheap homemade dual-electrodes has been developed to measure the antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds. These micro-sized electrodes are elaborated by successive screen-printing of conductive ink and insulator layers and are then used as generator/collector sensors. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry with a bipotentiostat have been used to test and characterize these sensors. The antioxidant capacity values found by this new method are compared with a classical method (using a macro-sized electrode) to demonstrate its reliability. PMID:23435011

    2. Efficacy of plant-derived and synthetic compounds on clothing as repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

      PubMed

      Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Dolan, Marc C

      2012-01-01

      We conducted field trials to compare the relative repellent activity of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol) with commercially available plant-derived (EcoSMART organic insect repellent) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment, nootkatone and carvacrol provided 100% repellency of I. scapularis adults, with nootkatone maintaining complete protection through 3 d, whereas carvacrol showed steadily declining repellency against I. scapularis during the 7-d course of the trials. Nootkatone was at least as effective against host-seeking A. americanum as against I. scapularis through 3 d. Carvacrol provided little protection against A. americanum adults. Both natural compounds performed well initially in comparison with the commercial products. After 7 d, nootkatone was the most effective against both species followed in order of activity by Permanone, EcoSMART, and carvacrol. Nootkatone seems to have offer considerable potential as a clothing repellent against both I. scapularis and A. americanum. PMID:22308777

    3. Synthetic cathinone abuse

      PubMed Central

      Capriola, Michael

      2013-01-01

      The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

    4. Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development.

      PubMed

      Wang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Feng

      2009-01-01

      Human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is one of the major CYPs in the liver ( approximately 13%) and metabolizes about 20% of clinically used drugs. CYP1A2 is a 515-residue protein with a molecular mass of 58,294 Dal. The recently published crystal structure of CYP1A2 in complex with alpha-naphthoflavone has showed a rather compact active site with a relatively small volume of the cavity of 375 A(3), which is 44.2% and 49.3% larger than that of CYP2A6 (260 A(3)) and CYP2E1 (190 A(3)), respectively. A series of residues in the substrate recognition regions of CYP1A2 (e.g. Arg108, Thr124, Thr223, Glu225, Phe226, Lys250, Arg251, Lys253, Asn312, Asp313, Glu318, Thr319, Asp320, Thr321, Val322, Leu382, Thr385, and Ile386) have been shown to play important roles in ligand-enzyme binding based on site-directed mutagenesis and homology modeling studies. Typical CYP1A2 substrates generally contain planar ring that can fit the narrow and planar active site of the enzyme, such as propranolol, clozapine, guanabenz, flutamide, imatinib, thalidomide, carbamazepine, lidocaine, theophylline, tacrine, tizanidine, zolpidem, riluzole, zileuton, and leflunomide. CYP1A2 is one of the major enzymes that bioactivate a number of procarcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene), heterocyclic aromatic amines/amides (e.g. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxin B(1)) and some natural compounds such as aristolochic acids present in several Chinese herbal medicines. This enzyme also metabolizes several important endogenous compounds including retinols, melatonin, steroids, uroporphyrinogen and arachidonic acids. Like many of other CYPs, CYP1A2 is subject to induction and inhibition by a number of compounds. In particular, several therapeutic drugs including antofloxacin, carbamazepine, dihydralazine, furafylline, isoniazid, rofecoxib, clorgyline, thiabendazole, and zileuton are mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP1A2. Reversible and

    5. Effect of UV-B light on soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of various specialty crops and pomaces

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      UV-B treatment is the basis of a novel value-added processing method that enhances the nutrient content of specialty crops by increasing the synthesis of terpenes, polyphenolic compounds, and nitrogen-containing compounds. Whole fruits and vegetables and thin layers of peel and pomace by-products we...

    6. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Capacity and Active Compounds of Extracts from Different Sections of Various Muscadine Cultivars

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grapes are rich in phenolics and other bioactive compounds. These compounds possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The objectives of this research were to determine which cultivars and what parts of the grape (concentrating on skin and seeds, the ric...

    7. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

      PubMed

      Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

      2006-09-20

      Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Thus, for routine screening of barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity. PMID:16968094

    8. Telomerase inhibition and telomere targeting in hematopoietic cancer cell lines with small non-nucleosidic synthetic compounds (BIBR1532).

      PubMed

      El Daly, Hesham; Martens, Uwe M

      2007-01-01

      Telomere maintenance has been shown to be essential for unlimited growth potential of human cells and is regarded as one hallmark of cancer. Telomere repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, which is active in most cancers and to some extend also in normal somatic cells. Therefore, targeting the telomerase/telomere complex offers great potential for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. An example of such a strategy is the small molecule BIBR1532 that is a selective, non-nucleosidic inhibitor of the catalytic component hTERT. Treatment of cancer cells with this compound leads to progressive telomere shortening, consecutive telomere dysfunction, and finally growth arrest after a lag period that is largely dependent on initial telomere length. We have additionally shown that using this class of telomerase inhibitor at higher concentrations exerts a direct cytotoxic effect on malignant cells of the hematopoietic system but not on normal stem cells, which appears to derive from direct damage to the structure of individual telomeres. PMID:18369817

    9. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of natural polyphenolic compounds using a macrocyclic Ni-(II) complex-catalysed Briggs-Rauscher reaction.

      PubMed

      Li, Mengshuo; Hu, Gang; Chen, Yangyang

      2016-04-15

      This paper reports a method for evaluating antioxidant capacity based on the inhibitory effects of a macrocyclic Ni(II) complex-catalysed Briggs-Rauscher reaction. The macrocyclic Ni(II) complex NiL(ClO4)2, in which L is 5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene, is a porphyrin-like compound, the structure of which can be found in certain enzymes. The experiments indicated that three natural compounds could temporarily quench the oscillations for a period of time prior to regeneration of oscillations. The inhibition time was related to the compound type and concentration; thus, procedures for evaluating the antioxidant activities of polyphenolic compounds were successfully established. Three polyphenolic compounds were tested to evaluate their antioxidant activities: protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and procyanidin. Of these three naturally occurring compounds, procyanidin was found to be the most efficient antioxidant. We have also discussed the reaction of the antioxidant with the hydroperoxyl radical (HOO) present in the oscillating system. PMID:26617044

    10. Estimation of the Heat Capacities of Organic Liquids as a Function of Temperature using Group Additivity. I. Hydrocarbon Compounds

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Růžička, Vlastimil; Domalski, Eugene S.

      1993-05-01

      A second-order group additivity method has been developed for the estimation of the heat capacity of liquid hydrocarbons as a function of temperature in the range from the melting temperature to the normal boiling temperature. The temperature dependence of group contributions and structural corrections has been represented by a polynomial expression. The adjustable parameters in the polynomials have been calculated using a weighted least squares minimization procedure. Recommended heat capacities from a large compilation of critically evaluated data that contains over 1300 organic liquids served as a database both for the development and testing of the method.

    11. Systematic Analyses of the Cytotoxic Effects of Compound 11a, a Putative Synthetic Agonist of Photoreceptor-Specific Nuclear Receptor (PNR), in Cancer Cell Lines

      PubMed Central

      Zhao, Zibo; Wang, Lu; Wen, Zhi; Ayaz-guner, Serife; Wang, Yidan; Ahlquist, Paul; Xu, Wei

      2013-01-01

      Photoreceptor cell-specific receptor (PNR/NR2E3) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a critical role in retinal development and photoreceptor maintenance. The disease-causing mutations in PNR have a pleiotropic effect resulting in varying retinal diseases. Recently, PNR has been implicated in control of cellular functions in cancer cells. PNR was reported to be a novel regulator of ERα expression in breast cancer cells, and high PNR expression correlates with favorable response to tamoxifen treatment. Moreover, PNR was shown to increase p53 stability in HeLa cells, implying that PNR may be a therapeutic target in this and other cancers that retain a wild type p53 gene. To facilitate further understanding of PNR functions in cancer, we characterized compound 11a, a synthetic, putative PNR agonist in several cell-based assays. Interestingly, we showed that 11a failed to activate PNR and its cytotoxicity was independent of PNR expression, excluding PNR as a mediator for 11a cytotoxicity. Systematic analyses of the cytotoxic effects of 11a in NCI-60 cell lines revealed a strong positive correlation of cytotoxicity with p53 status, i.e., p53 wild type cell lines were significantly more sensitive to 11a than p53 mutated or null cell lines. Furthermore, using HCT116 p53+/+ and p53-/- isogenic cell lines we revealed that the mechanism of 11a-induced cytotoxicity occurred through G1/S phase cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis. In conclusion, we observed a correlation of 11a sensitivity with p53 status but not with PNR expression, suggesting that tumors expressing wild type p53 might be responsive to this compound. PMID:24066170

    12. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

    13. 55P0110, a Novel Synthetic Compound Developed from a Plant Derived Backbone Structure, Shows Promising Anti-Hyperglycaemic Activity in Mice.

      PubMed

      Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Stadlbauer, Karin; Adorjan, Immanuel; Frobel, Klaus; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

      2015-01-01

      Starting off with a structure derived from the natural compound multiflorine, a derivatisation program aimed at the discovery and initial characterisation of novel compounds with antidiabetic potential. Design and discovery of the structures was guided by oral bioactivities obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests in mice. 55P0110, one among several new compounds with distinct anti-hyperglycaemic activity, was further examined to characterise its pharmacology and mode of action. Whereas a single oral dose of 55P0110 did not affect basal glycaemia, it markedly improved the glucose tolerance of healthy and diabetic mice (peak blood glucose in glucose tolerance test, mmol/l: healthy mice with 90 mg/kg 55P0110, 17.0 ± 1.2 vs. 10.1 ± 1.1; diabetic mice with 180 mg/kg 55P0110, 23.1 ± 0.9 vs. 11.1 ± 1.4; p<0.001 each). Closer examination argued against retarded glucose resorption from the gut, increased glucose excretion in urine, acute insulin-like or insulin sensitising properties, and direct inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as the cause of glucose lowering. Hence, 55P0110 seems to act via a target not exploited by any drug presently approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Whereas the insulinotropic sulfonylurea gliclazide (16 mg/kg) distinctly increased the circulating insulin-per-glucose ratio under basal conditions, 55P0110 (90 mg/kg) lacked such an effect (30 min. after dosing, nmol/mol: vehicle, 2.49 ± 0.27; 55P0110, 2.99 ± 0.35; gliclazide, 8.97 ± 0.49; p<0.001 each vs. gliclazide). Under an exogenous glucose challenge, however, 55P0110 increased this ratio to the same extent as gliclazide (20 min. after glucose feeding: vehicle, 2.53 ± 0.41; 55P0110, 3.80 ± 0.46; gliclazide, 3.99 ± 0.26; p<0.05 each vs. vehicle). By augmenting the glucose stimulated increase in plasma insulin, 55P0110 thus shows distinct anti-hyperglycaemic action in combination with low risk for fasting hypoglycaemia in mice. In summary, we have discovered a novel class of

    14. 55P0110, a Novel Synthetic Compound Developed from a Plant Derived Backbone Structure, Shows Promising Anti-Hyperglycaemic Activity in Mice

      PubMed Central

      Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Stadlbauer, Karin; Adorjan, Immanuel; Frobel, Klaus; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

      2015-01-01

      Starting off with a structure derived from the natural compound multiflorine, a derivatisation program aimed at the discovery and initial characterisation of novel compounds with antidiabetic potential. Design and discovery of the structures was guided by oral bioactivities obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests in mice. 55P0110, one among several new compounds with distinct anti-hyperglycaemic activity, was further examined to characterise its pharmacology and mode of action. Whereas a single oral dose of 55P0110 did not affect basal glycaemia, it markedly improved the glucose tolerance of healthy and diabetic mice (peak blood glucose in glucose tolerance test, mmol/l: healthy mice with 90 mg/kg 55P0110, 17.0±1.2 vs. 10.1±1.1; diabetic mice with 180 mg/kg 55P0110, 23.1±0.9 vs. 11.1±1.4; p<0.001 each). Closer examination argued against retarded glucose resorption from the gut, increased glucose excretion in urine, acute insulin-like or insulin sensitising properties, and direct inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as the cause of glucose lowering. Hence, 55P0110 seems to act via a target not exploited by any drug presently approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Whereas the insulinotropic sulfonylurea gliclazide (16 mg/kg) distinctly increased the circulating insulin-per-glucose ratio under basal conditions, 55P0110 (90 mg/kg) lacked such an effect (30 min. after dosing, nmol/mol: vehicle, 2.49±0.27; 55P0110, 2.99±0.35; gliclazide, 8.97±0.49; p<0.001 each vs. gliclazide). Under an exogenous glucose challenge, however, 55P0110 increased this ratio to the same extent as gliclazide (20 min. after glucose feeding: vehicle, 2.53±0.41; 55P0110, 3.80±0.46; gliclazide, 3.99±0.26; p<0.05 each vs. vehicle). By augmenting the glucose stimulated increase in plasma insulin, 55P0110 thus shows distinct anti-hyperglycaemic action in combination with low risk for fasting hypoglycaemia in mice. In summary, we have discovered a novel class of fully synthetic

    15. Occurrence of UV-absorbing, mycosporine-like compounds among cyanobacterial isolates and an estimate of their screening capacity

      SciTech Connect

      Garcia-Pichel, F.; Castenholz, R.W. )

      1993-01-01

      Many cyanobacteria inhabit environments with intense solar radiation. Among the mechanisms to prevent UV photodamage are negative photomovements and the synthesis of UV sunscreen compounds. To assess how common and diverse UV sunscreen substances are among cyanobacteria living under intense solar radiation, the researchers analysed isolates of cyanobacteria for mycosporine amino acids (MAAs)-like, UV-absorbing, water-soluable substances. The cellular locations and the effect of UV radiation on their specific contents were also investigated. MAAs are common but diverse among terrestrial cyanobacteria, most often occuring in species with extracellular scytonemin. The spectral complementation suggests that the combined action of scytonemin and MAA may be responsible for sunscreen effects at shorter UV wavelengths, while the effect at longer wavelenths must be due solely to scytonemin. The authors conclude that these compounds have a significant effect in preventing UV radiation damage. 34 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

    16. Antioxidant capacity of individual and combined virgin olive oil minor compounds evaluated at mild temperature (25 and 40°C) as compared to accelerated and antiradical assays.

      PubMed

      Mancebo-Campos, Vanessa; Salvador, María Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

      2014-05-01

      The individual and combined antioxidant and antiradical capacity of the main minor compounds of virgin olive oil (α-tocopherol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein aglycone) spiked in Purified Olive Oil (POO) as the lipid matrix model is described. The antioxidant activity was assessed under mild temperature conditions (25 and 40°C) to mimic the autoxidation process during real storage conditions. These results were compared with accelerated (Rancimat Induction Period) and antiradical (DPPH) tests. The higher concentration of o-diphenols (hydroxytyrosol or oleuropein aglycone) in olive oil led to a lower oxidation rate under the conditions studied, resulting in a strong antioxidant effect. Remarkably α-tocopherol acted as a pro-oxidant at 25 and 40°C, in particular during the first oxidation stage. In contrast, this compound behaved as an antioxidant under Rancimat and DPPH conditions. The oxidation rate constant as a function of the concentration of spiked compound fit an exponential decay model very well and therefore the progress of the oxidation reaction could be predicted. No synergistic or antagonistic effects were generally observed when combined antioxidant compounds were assayed. PMID:24360465

    17. Development of an in Silico Model of DPPH• Free Radical Scavenging Capacity: Prediction of Antioxidant Activity of Coumarin Type Compounds.

      PubMed

      Goya Jorge, Elizabeth; Rayar, Anita Maria; Barigye, Stephen J; Jorge Rodríguez, María Elisa; Sylla-Iyarreta Veitía, Maité

      2016-01-01

      A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging ability of 1373 chemical compounds, using DRAGON molecular descriptors (MD) and the neural network technique, a technique based on the multilayer multilayer perceptron (MLP), was developed. The built model demonstrated a satisfactory performance for the training ( R 2 = 0.713 ) and test set ( Q ext 2 = 0.654 ) , respectively. To gain greater insight on the relevance of the MD contained in the MLP model, sensitivity and principal component analyses were performed. Moreover, structural and mechanistic interpretation was carried out to comprehend the relationship of the variables in the model with the modeled property. The constructed MLP model was employed to predict the radical scavenging ability for a group of coumarin-type compounds. Finally, in order to validate the model's predictions, an in vitro assay for one of the compounds (4-hydroxycoumarin) was performed, showing a satisfactory proximity between the experimental and predicted pIC50 values. PMID:27338348

    18. Development of an in Silico Model of DPPH• Free Radical Scavenging Capacity: Prediction of Antioxidant Activity of Coumarin Type Compounds

      PubMed Central

      Goya Jorge, Elizabeth; Rayar, Anita Maria; Barigye, Stephen J.; Jorge Rodríguez, María Elisa; Sylla-Iyarreta Veitía, Maité

      2016-01-01

      A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging ability of 1373 chemical compounds, using DRAGON molecular descriptors (MD) and the neural network technique, a technique based on the multilayer multilayer perceptron (MLP), was developed. The built model demonstrated a satisfactory performance for the training (R2=0.713) and test set (Qext2=0.654), respectively. To gain greater insight on the relevance of the MD contained in the MLP model, sensitivity and principal component analyses were performed. Moreover, structural and mechanistic interpretation was carried out to comprehend the relationship of the variables in the model with the modeled property. The constructed MLP model was employed to predict the radical scavenging ability for a group of coumarin-type compounds. Finally, in order to validate the model’s predictions, an in vitro assay for one of the compounds (4-hydroxycoumarin) was performed, showing a satisfactory proximity between the experimental and predicted pIC50 values. PMID:27338348

    19. Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study

      SciTech Connect

      Ritter, C; Dhar, S K; Kulkarni, R; Provino, A; Paudyal, Durga; Manfrinetti, Pietro; Gschneidner, Karl A

      2014-08-14

      The synthesis of the new equiatomic RScSb ( R = La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu, Y) compounds has been recently reported. These rare earth compounds crystallize in two different crystal structures, adopting the CeScSi-type ( I 4/ mmm) for the lighter R (La-Nd, Sm) and the CeFeSi-type (P4 /nmm) structure for the heavier R ( R = Gd-Tm, Lu, Y). Here we report the results of neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity measurements on some of these compounds ( R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and Tb). Band structure calculations have also been performed on CeScSb and GdScGe (CeScSi-type), and on GdScSb and TbScSb (CeFeSi-type) to compare and understand the exchange interactions in CeScSi and CeFeSi structure types. The neutron diffraction investigation shows that all five compounds order magnetically, with the highest transition temperature of 66 K in TbScSb and the lowest of about 9 K in CeScSb. The magnetic ground state is simple ferromagnetic (τ = [0 0 0]) in CeScSb, as well in NdScSb for 32 >T > 22 K. Below 22 K a second magnetic transition, with propagation vector τ = [¼ ¼ 0], appears in NdScSb. PrScSb has a magnetic structure within, determined by mostly ferromagnetic interactions and antiferromagnetic alignment of the Pr-sites connected through the I-centering ( τ = [1 0 0]). A cycloidal spiral structure with a temperature dependent propagation vector τ = [δ δ ½] is found in TbScSb. The results of magnetization and heat capacity lend support to the main conclusions derived from neutron diffraction. As inferred from a sharp peak in magnetization, GdScSb orders antiferromagnetically at 56 K. First principles calculations show lateral shift of spin split bands towards lower energy from the Fermi level as the CeScSi-type structure changes to the CeFeSi-type structure. This rigid shift may force the system to transform from exchange split ferromagnetic state to the antiferromagnetic state in RScSb compounds (as seen for example in GdScSb and TbScSb) and is proposed to

    20. Polyphenolic compounds in the fruits of Egyptian medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida): characterization, quantitation and determination of antioxidant capacities.

      PubMed

      Pfundstein, Beate; El Desouky, Samy K; Hull, William E; Haubner, Roswitha; Erben, Gerhard; Owen, Robert W

      2010-07-01

      Thirty-four polyphenolic substances in methanol extracts of the fruits of Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida, three plants used in Egyptian folk medicine, were initially identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and quantitated by analytical HPLC after column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. After purification by semi-preparative HPLC the compounds were identified by their mass and fragmentation patterns using ESI-MS-MS. For several compounds detailed 1H/13C NMR analysis at 600 MHz was performed. Two polyphenolics, namely 4-O-(4''-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid and 4-O-(3'',4''-di-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid were identified by NMR. Antioxidant capacities of the raw fruit extracts and the major isolated substances were determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in vitro assays and indicated that chebulic ellagitannins have high activity which may correlate with high potential as cancer chemopreventive agents. Therefore, further studies (metabolism, bioavailability and toxicity) of the polyphenolics in Terminalia species using preclinical models and in vivo human intervention trials are warranted. PMID:20451939

    1. Effects of PAR and UV-B radiation on herbal yield, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity of some medicinal plants under controlled environmental conditions.

      PubMed

      Manukyan, Artur

      2013-01-01

      Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation are among the main environmental factors acting on herbal yield and biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biologically effective UV-B light (280-315 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm) on herbal yield, content and composition, as well as antioxidant capacity of essential oils and polyphenols of lemon catmint (Nepeta cataria L. f. citriodora), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) under controlled greenhouse cultivation. Intensive UV-B radiation (2.5 kJ m(-2)  d(-1) ) influenced positively the herbal yield. The essential oil content and composition of studied herbs were mainly affected by PAR and UV-B radiation. In general, additional low-dose UV-B radiation (1 kJ m(-2) d(-1) ) was most effective for biosynthesis of polyphenols in herbs. Analysis of major polyphenolic compounds provided differences in sensitivity of main polyphenols to PAR and UV-B radiation. Essential oils and polyphenol-rich extracts of radiated herbs showed essential differences in antioxidant capacity by the ABTS system. Information from this study can be useful for herbal biomass and secondary metabolite production with superior quality under controlled environment conditions. PMID:22989229

    2. Impact of UV–H2O2 Advanced Oxidation and Aging Processes on GAC Capacity for the Removal of Cyanobacterial Taste and Odor Compounds

      PubMed Central

      Zamyadi, Arash; Sawade, Emma; Ho, Lionel; Newcombe, Gayle; Hofmann, Ron

      2015-01-01

      Cyanobacteria and their taste and odor (T&O) compounds are a growing concern in water sources globally. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are the most commonly detected T&O compounds associated with cyanobacterial presence in drinking water sources. The use of ultraviolet and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation treatment for T&O control is an emerging technology. However, residual H2O2 (>80% of the initial dose) has to be removed from water prior final disinfection. Recently, granular activated carbon (GAC) is used to remove H2O2 residual. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of H2O2 quenching and aging processes on GAC capacity for the removal of geosmin and MIB. Pilot columns with different types of GAC and presence/absence of H2O2 have been used for this study. H2O2 removal for the operational period of 6 months has no significant impact on GAC capacity to remove the geosmin and MIB from water. PMID:26462247

    3. A novel synthetic compound MCAP suppresses LPS-induced murine microglial activation in vitro via inhibiting NF-kB and p38 MAPK pathways

      PubMed Central

      Kim, Byung-Wook; More, Sandeep Vasant; Yun, Yo-Sep; Ko, Hyun-Myung; Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Heesoon; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, In-Su; Choi, Dong-Kug

      2016-01-01

      Aim: To investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of a novel synthetic compound, 7-methylchroman-2-carboxylic acid N-(2-trifluoromethyl) phenylamide (MCAP) against LPS-induced microglial activation in vitro. Methods: Primary mouse microglia and BV2 microglia cells were exposed to LPS (50 or 100 ng/mL). The expression of iNOS and COX-2, proinflammatory cytokines, NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling molecules were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. The morphological changes of microglia and nuclear translocation of NF-ĸB were visualized using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Results: Pretreatment with MCAP (0.1, 1, 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in BV2 microglia cells. Similar results were obtained in primary microglia pretreated with MCAP (0.1, 0.5 μmol/L). MCAP dose-dependently abated LPS-induced release of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and mitigated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB by reducing the phosphorylation of IκBα in BV2 microglia cells. Moreover, MCAP attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, whereas SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, significantly potentiated MCAP-caused inhibition on the expression of MEF-2 (a transcription factor downstream of p38 MAPK). Conclusion: MCAP exerts anti-inflammatory effects in murine microglia in vitro by inhibiting the p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and proinflammatory responses. MCAP may be developed as a novel agent for treating diseases involving activated microglial cells. PMID:26838070

    4. Evaluating the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing a pharmaceutical and personal care product chemical cocktail: compound removal efficiency and effects on juvenile rainbow trout.

      PubMed

      Osachoff, Heather L; Mohammadali, Mehrnoush; Skirrow, Rachel C; Hall, Eric R; Brown, Lorraine L Y; van Aggelen, Graham C; Kennedy, Christopher J; Helbing, Caren C

      2014-10-01

      Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) can evade degradation in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and can be chronically discharged into the environment, causing concern for aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans that may be exposed to these bioactive chemicals. The ability of a common STP process, conventional activated sludge (CAS), to remove PPCPs (caffeine, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, estrone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, naproxen, 4-nonylphenol, tonalide, triclocarban and triclosan) from a synthetic wastewater was evaluated in the present study. The removal of individual PPCPs by the laboratory-scale CAS treatment plant ranged from 40 to 99.6%. While the efficiency of removal for some compounds was high, remaining quantities have the potential to affect aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to influent recreated model wastewater with methanol (IM, solvent control) or with PPCP cocktail (IC), or CAS-treated effluent wastewater with methanol (EM, treated control) or with PPCP cocktail (EC). Alterations in hepatic gene expression (evaluated using a quantitative nuclease protection plex assay) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) protein concentrations occurred in exposed fish. Although there was partial PPCP removal by CAS treatment, the 20% lower VTG transcript levels and 83% lower plasma VTG protein concentration found in EC-exposed fish compared to IC-exposed fish were not statistically significant. Thus, estrogenic activity found in the influent was retained in the effluent even though typical percent removal levels were achieved raising the issue that greater reduction in contaminant load is required to address hormone active agents. PMID:24963889

    5. Heat capacity and entropy at the temperatures 5 K to 720 K and thermal expansion from the temperatures 298 K to 573 K of synthetic enargite (Cu3AsS4)

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Seal, R.R., II; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Evans, H.T., Jr.

      1996-01-01

      The heat capacity of synthetic Cu3AsS4 (enargite) was measured by quasi-adiabatic calorimetry from the temperatures 5 K to 355 K and by differential scanning calorimetry from T = 339 K to T = 720 K. Heat-capacity anomalies were observed at T = (58.5 ?? 0.5) K (??trsHom = 1.4??R??K; ??trsSom = 0.02??R) and at T = (66.5 ?? 0.5) K (??trsHom = 4.6??R??K; ??trsSom = 0.08??R), where R = 8.31451 J??K-1??mol-1. The causes of the anomalies are unknown. At T = 298.15 K, Cop,m and Som(T) are (190.4 ?? 0.2) J??K-1??mol-1 and (257.6 ?? 0.6) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. The superambient heat capacities are described from T = 298.15 K to T = 944 K by the least-squares regression equation: Cop,m/(J??K-1??mol-1) = (196.7 ?? 1.2) + (0.0499 ?? 0.0016)??(T/K) -(1918 000 ?? 84 000)??(T/K)-2. The thermal expansion of synthetic enargite was measured from T = 298.15 K to T = 573 K by powder X-ray diffraction. The thermal expansion of the unit-cell volume (Z = 2) is described from T = 298.15 K to T = 573 K by the least-squares equation: V/pm3 = 106??(288.2 ?? 0.2) + 104??(1.49 ?? 0.04)??(T/K). ?? 1996 Academic Press Limited.

    6. In vitro antioxidant activities, free radical scavenging capacity, and tyrosinase inhibitory of flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames.

      PubMed

      Liang, Chung Pin; Chang, Chia Hao; Liang, Chien Cheng; Hung, Kuei Yu; Hsieh, Chang Wei

      2014-01-01

      In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA) from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W), water extraction using UAE (W+U), 75% ethanol extraction (E), 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid) in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g) and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g) content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis. PMID:24739930

    7. [Synthetic Studies of Bioactive Heterocyclic Natural Products and Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Based on the Thermal Electrocyclic or Azaelectocyclic Reaction of 6π-Electron or Aza-6π-electron Systems].

      PubMed

      Hibino, Satoshi

      2016-01-01

      Since 1979, synthetic studies of bioactive heterocyclic natural products and condensed heteroaromatic compounds based on the thermal electrocyclic reaction of 6π-electron or aza-6π-electron systems incorporating the double bond of the principal aromatic or heteroaromatic ring have been conducted by our research group. In this review, five types of electrocyclic and azaelectrocyclic reaction are described: 1) the synthesis of the carbazole alkaloids hyellazole and 6-chlorohyellazole through the electrocyclic reaction of 2,3-bisalkenylindoles; 2) synthetic studies of the pyridocarbazole alkaloids ellipticine and olivacine through the electrocyclic reactions of the indole-2,3- and pyridine-3,4-quinodimethane intermediates; 3) synthetic studies of polysubstituted carbazole alkaloids through the allene-mediated electrocyclic reactions involving the indole 2,3-bond; 4) synthetic studies of fused pyridine rings through the azaelectrocyclic reaction of the 1-aza-6π-electron system using the oxime or oxime ether; and 5) synthetic studies of fused pyridine rings through the azaelectrocyclic reaction of the 2-aza-6π-electron system using a carbodiimide or isocyanate. PMID:27040345

    8. Effect of viticulture practices on concentration of polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of Southern Italy red wines.

      PubMed

      Coletta, Antonio; Berto, Silvia; Crupi, Pasquale; Cravero, Maria Carla; Tamborra, Pasquale; Antonacci, Donato; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Prenesti, Enrico

      2014-01-01

      This study aims to assess the effect of three wine grape varieties, three training systems and two bud loads on the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and polyphenolic composition of Southern Italy red wines produced, during two vintages. Overall, Primitivo, Malvasia nera of Brindisi-Lecce and Montepulciano as grape varieties, single Guyot (SG), single spur pruned low cordon (SLC) and single spur pruned high wire cordon (HSLC) as training systems, 8 and 12 buds/plant as bud loads were compared. Significant differences in the polyphenolic families were shown by the grape varieties and by modifying the vine growing practices. Moreover, the results demonstrated that varieties influenced the TAC (indicating the Malvasia as the more effective one), that SLC led to the lowest level of TAC and that 8 buds/plant increased it. The relationship between antioxidant indexes and the concentration of single polyphenolic families was evaluated and the highest correlation was found between the total polyphenols and the proanthocyanidins family. PMID:24444963

    9. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

      PubMed

      Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

      2014-04-16

      Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

    10. Polyphenols: well beyond the antioxidant capacity: gallic acid and related compounds as neuroprotective agents: you are what you eat!

      PubMed

      Daglia, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed F; Talas, Zeliha S; Nabavi, Seyed M

      2014-01-01

      Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a phenolic acid widely distributed in many different families of higher plants, both in free state, and as a part of more complex molecules, such as ester derivatives or polymers. In nature, gallic acid and its derivatives are present in nearly every part of the plant, such as bark, wood, leaf, fruit, root and seed. They are present in different concentrations in common foodstuffs such as blueberry, blackberry, strawberry, plums, grapes, mango, cashew nut, hazelnut, walnut, tea, wine and so on. After consumption, about 70% of gallic acid is adsorbed and then excreted in the urine as 4-O-methylgallic acid. Differently, the ester derivatives of gallic acid, such as catechin gallate ester or gallotannins, are hydrolyzed to gallic acid before being metabolized to methylated derivatives. Gallic acid is a well known antioxidant compounds which has neuroprotective actions in different models of neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid and derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action. PMID:24938889

    11. Antioxidant Capacities and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Three Endemic Nolana Species by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS.

      PubMed

      Simirgiotis, Mario J; Benites, Julio; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

      2015-01-01

      The antioxidant features, polyphenolic composition and chromatographic fingerprints of the aerial parts from three Chilean endemic plants from the Paposo Valley located on the cost of the Atacama Desert were investigated for the first time using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization mass analysis (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) and spectroscopic methods. The phenolic fingerprints obtained for the plants were compared and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and quantification of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty phenolics were identified for the first time for these species, mostly phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, together with three saturated fatty acids (stearic, palmitic and arachidic acids). Nolana ramosissima showed the highest antioxidant activity (26.35 ± 1.02 μg/mL, 116.07 ± 3.42 μM Trolox equivalents/g dry weight and 81.23% ± 3.77% of inhibition in the DPPH, FRAP and scavenging activity (SA) assays, respectively), followed by  N. aplocaryoides (85.19 ± 1.64 μg/mL, 65.87 ± 2.33 μM TE/g DW and 53.27% ± 3.07%) and N. leptophylla (124.71 ± 3.01, 44.23 ± 5.18 μM TE/g DW and 38.63% ± 1.85%). PMID:26111178

    12. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of 13 plant extracts by three different methods: cluster analyses applied for selection of the natural extracts with higher antioxidant capacity to replace synthetic antioxidant in lamb burgers.

      PubMed

      Fernandes, R P P; Trindade, M A; Tonin, F G; Lima, C G; Pugine, S M P; Munekata, P E S; Lorenzo, J M; de Melo, M P

      2016-01-01

      The aims of this study were: to evaluate the total equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) and phenolic contents of 13 plants extracts; to select the most promising extracts regarding reducing activity using cluster analysis multivariate statistical technique; and to analyse evaluate sensory acceptance of lamb burgers produced with the most promising natural antioxidants replacing sodium erythorbate. Plant extracts were evaluated regarding TEAC by DPPH(•) and FRAP methods, and total phenolics contents by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The TEAC values ranged from 0.50 to 9.06 g trolox/100 g dry weight (dw) and from 43.6 to 472.32 μmol trolox/g dw for DPPH(•) and FRAP methods, respectively, and the total phenolic contents from 5.98 to 74.01 mg GAE/g dw. Extracts from Origanum vulgare, Melissa officinalis, Origanum majorana L. and Rosmarinus officinalis were grouped as the ones with higher antioxidant capacities by cluster analysis. All burgers produced with each one of these four plant extracts or with sodium erythorbate showed no differences (P > 0.05) regarding consumers' sensory acceptance. In conclusion, it is possible to replace sodium erythorbate in lamb burgers by any of the four natural extracts selected without compromising sensory acceptance of this meat product. PMID:26787964

    13. Heat capacity and heat content measurements on binary compounds in the Ru-Si, Ru-Ge, and Ru-Sn systems

      SciTech Connect

      Kuntz, J.J.; Gachon, J.C.; Feschotte, P.; Perring, L. |

      1997-11-01

      Molar heat capacities of Ru{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} Ru{sub 0.4}Si{sub 0.6}, Ru{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}, Ru{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6}, Ru{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}, and Ru{sub 0.3}Sn{sub 0.7} were determined every 10 K by differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range from 310 to 1080 K. The present results have been fitted by a polynomial function of temperature: C{sub p} = a+bT-cT{sup -2}. Heat contents of the six phases have been verified by drop calorimetry. Standard enthalpies of formation are given for the studied compounds.

    14. Forensic investigation of K2, Spice, and "bath salt" commercial preparations: a three-year study of new designer drug products containing synthetic cannabinoid, stimulant, and hallucinogenic compounds.

      PubMed

      Seely, Kathryn A; Patton, Amy L; Moran, Cindy L; Womack, Mary L; Prather, Paul L; Fantegrossi, William E; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Endres, Gregory W; Channell, Kermit B; Smith, Nathaniel H; McCain, Keith R; James, Laura P; Moran, Jeffery H

      2013-12-10

      New designer drugs such as K2, Spice, and "bath salts" present a formidable challenge for law enforcement and public health officials. The following report summarizes a three-year study of 1320 law enforcement cases involving over 3000 products described as vegetable material, powders, capsules, tablets, blotter paper, or drug paraphernalia. All items were seized in Arkansas from January 2010 through December 2012 and submitted to the Arkansas State Crime Laboratory for analysis. The geographical distribution of these seizures co-localized in areas with higher population, colleges, and universities. Validated forensic testing procedures confirmed the presence of 26 synthetic cannabinoids, 12 designer stimulants, and 5 hallucinogenic-like drugs regulated by the Synthetic Drug Prevention Act of 2012 and other state statutes. Analysis of paraphernalia suggests that these drugs are commonly used concomitantly with other drugs of abuse including marijuana, MDMA, and methamphetamine. Exact designer drug compositions were unpredictable and often formulated with multiple agents, but overall, the synthetic cannabinoids were significantly more prevalent than all the other designer drugs detected. The synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018, AM2201, JWH-122, JWH-210, and XLR11 were most commonly detected in green vegetable material and powder products. The designer stimulants methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone), and α-methylamino-valerophenone (pentedrone) were commonly detected in tablets, capsules, and powders. Hallucinogenic drugs were rarely detected, but generally found on blotter paper products. Emerging designer drug products remain a significant problem and continued surveillance is needed to protect public health. PMID:24314548

    15. Synthetic fuels

      SciTech Connect

      Sammons, V.O.

      1980-01-01

      This guide is designed for those who wish to learn more about the science and technology of synthetic fuels by reviewing materials in the collections of the Library of Congress. This is not a comprehensive bibliography, it is designed to put the reader on target. Subject headings used by the Library of Congress under which books on synthetic fuels can be located are: oil-shale industry; oil-shales; shale oils; synthetic fuels; synthetic fuels industry; coal gasification; coal liquefaction; fossil fuels; hydrogen as fuel; oil sands; petroleum, synthesis gas; biomass energy; pyrolysis; and thermal oil recovery. Basic texts, handbooks, government publications, journals, etc. were included. (DP)

    16. Antibacterial Evaluation of Synthetic Thiazole Compounds In Vitro and In Vivo in a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Skin Infection Mouse Model

      PubMed Central

      Mohammad, Haroon; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N.

      2015-01-01

      The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including strains resistant to current antibiotics, has contributed to an increase in the number of skin infections reported in humans in recent years. New therapeutic options are needed to counter this public health challenge. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of thiazole compounds synthesized by our research group to be used topically to treat MRSA skin and wound infections. The broth microdilution method confirmed that the lead thiazole compound and four analogues are capable of inhibiting MRSA growth at concentrations as low as 1.3 μg/mL. Additionally, three compounds exhibited a synergistic relationship when combined with the topical antibiotic mupirocin against MRSA in vitro via the checkerboard assay. Thus the thiazole compounds have potential to be used alone or in combination with mupirocin against MRSA. When tested against human keratinocytes, four derivatives of the lead compound demonstrated an improved toxicity profile (were found to be non-toxic up to a concentration of 20 μg/mL). Utilizing a murine skin infection model, we confirmed that the lead compound and three analogues exhibited potent antimicrobial activity in vivo, with similar capability as the antibiotic mupirocin, as they reduced the burden of MRSA present in skin wounds by more than 90%. Taken altogether, the present study provides important evidence that these thiazole compounds warrant further investigation for development as novel topical antimicrobials to treat MRSA skin infections. PMID:26536129

    17. Synthetic oils

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hatton, R. E.

      1973-01-01

      Synthetic lubricants are discussed by chemical class and their general strengths and weaknesses in terms of lubrication properties are analyzed. Comparative ratings are given for 14 chemical classes and are used as a guide for lubricant selection. The effects of chemical structure on the properties of the lubricant are described with special emphasis on thermal stability. The diversity of synthetic lubricants which is provided by the wide range of properties permits many applications, some of which are reported.

    18. A Modified Synthetic Pathway for the Synthesis of so far Inaccessible N1-Functionalized Tetrazole Ligands – Synthesis and Characterization of the 1D Chain-Type Spin Crossover Compound [Fe(3ditz)3](BF4)2

      PubMed Central

      Müller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Stöger, Berthold; Artner, Werner; Reissner, Michael; Weinberger, Peter

      2013-01-01

      A modified phase-transfer-catalyst-assisted synthetic pathway was developed that widens the pool of accessible 1-substituted tetrazoles, which are possible ligands for iron(II) spin-crossover compounds. Within the family of α,ω-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)alkanes, a series of ligands and their respective iron(II) spin-crossover compounds were synthesized and structurally and spectroscopically characterized in the past. The classical route to prepare these ligands is based on the respective amino-precursors. Hence the pool of accessible compounds is limited by the commercial or synthetical availability of α,ω-diaminoalkanes. Furthermore, the concomitant transformation to the tetrazole moieties turns out to be easier for diamino-alkanes with an even number of carbon atoms than for those with an odd number. In line with this observation, the shortest odd-numbered homologues such as 1,1-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)methane (1ditz) and 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)propane (3ditz) were inaccessible so far. In this paper, we report the successful preparation and characterisation of the classically inaccessible 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)propane (3ditz) and of its spin-crossover complex [Fe(3ditz)3](BF4)2, which features an abrupt and almost complete spin transition at T = 159 K. The single-crystal X-ray structure of the low-spin and the high-spin species is presented. The magnetic data are supported by variable-temperature IR, UV/Vis/NIR, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. PMID:23487581

    19. Geometric and electronic structures of the synthetic Mn4CaO4 model compound mimicking the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

      PubMed

      Shoji, Mitsuo; Isobe, Hiroshi; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

      2016-04-20

      Water oxidation by photosystem II (PSII) converts light energy into chemical energy with the concomitant production of molecular oxygen, both of which are indispensable for sustaining life on Earth. This reaction is catalyzed by an oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) embedded in the huge PSII complex, and its mechanism remains elusive in spite of the extensive studies of the geometric and electronic structures. In order to elucidate the water-splitting mechanism, synthetic approaches have been extensively employed to mimic the native OEC. Very recently, a synthetic complex [Mn4CaO4(Bu(t)COO)8(py)(Bu(t)COOH)2] () closely mimicking the structure of the native OEC was obtained. In this study, we extensively examined the geometric, electronic and spin structures of using the density functional theory method. Our results showed that the geometric structure of can be accurately reproduced by theoretical calculations, and revealed many similarities in the ground valence and spin states between and the native OEC. We also revealed two different valence states in the one-electron oxidized state of (corresponding to the S2 state), which lie in the lower and higher ground spin states (S = 1/2 and S = 5/2), respectively. One remarkable difference between and the native OEC is the presence of a non-negligible antiferromagnetic interaction between the Mn1 and Mn4 sites, which slightly influenced their ground spin structures (spin alignments). The major reason causing the difference can be attributed to the short Mn1-O5 and Mn1-Mn4 distances in . The introduction of the missing O4 atom and the reorientation of the Ca coordinating ligands improved the Mn1-O5 and Mn1-Mn4 distances comparable to the native OEC. These modifications will therefore be important for the synthesis of further advanced model complexes more closely mimicking the native OEC beyond . PMID:27055567

    20. Synthetic environments

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

      1996-02-01

      The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

    1. Screening Hofmann Compounds as CO 2 Sorbents: Nontraditional Synthetic Route to Over 40 Different Pore-Functionalized and Flexible Pillared Cyanonickelates

      SciTech Connect

      Culp, Jeffrey T.; Madden, Catherine; Kauffman, Kristi; Shi, Fan; Matranga, Christopher

      2013-04-15

      A simple reaction scheme based on the heterogeneous intercalation of pillaring ligands (HIPLs) provides a convenient method for systematically tuning pore size, pore functionality, and network flexibility in an extended series of pillared cyanonickelates (PICNICs), commonly referred to as Hofmann compounds. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated through the preparation of over 40 different PICNICs containing pillar ligands ranging from 4 to 15 Å in length and modified with a wide range of functional groups, including fluoro, aldehyde, alkylamine, alkyl, aryl, trifluoromethyl, ester, nitro, ether, and nonmetalated 4,4'-bipyrimidine. The HIPL method involves reaction of a suspension of preformed polymeric sheets of powdered anhydrous nickel cyanide with an appropriate pillar ligand in refluxing organic solvent, resulting in the conversion of the planar [Ni{sub 2}(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} networks into polycrystalline three-dimensional porous frameworks containing the organic pillar ligand. Preliminary investigations indicate that the HIPL reaction is also amenable to forming Co(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, and Fe(L)Pd(CN){sub 4} networks. The materials show variable adsorption behavior for CO{sub 2} depending on the pillar length and pillar functionalization. Several compounds show structurally flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the newly discovered flexible compounds include two flexible Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4} derivatives that are structurally related to previously reported porous spin-crossover compounds. The preparations of 20 pillar ligands based on ring-functionalized 4,4'-dipyridyls, 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzenes, and N-(4-pyridyl)isonicotinamides are also described.

    2. Screening Hofmann Compounds as CO{sub 2} Sorbents: Nontraditional Synthetic Route to Over 40 Different Pore-Functionalized and Flexible Pillared Cyanonickelates

      SciTech Connect

      Culp, Jeffrey T; Madden, Catherine; Kauffman, Kristi; Shi, Fan; Matranga, Christopher

      2013-03-29

      A simple reaction scheme based on the heterogeneous intercalation of pillaring ligands (HIPLs) provides a convenient method for systematically tuning pore size, pore functionality, and network flexibility in an extended series of pillared cyanonickelates (PICNICs), commonly referred to as Hofmann compounds. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated through the preparation of over 40 different PICNICs containing pillar ligands ranging from ∼4 to ∼15 Å in length and modified with a wide range of functional groups, including fluoro, aldehyde, alkylamine, alkyl, aryl, trifluoromethyl, ester, nitro, ether, and nonmetalated 4,4′-bipyrimidine. The HIPL method involves reaction of a suspension of preformed polymeric sheets of powdered anhydrous nickel cyanide with an appropriate pillar ligand in refluxing organic solvent, resulting in the conversion of the planar [Ni{sub 2}(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} networks into polycrystalline three-dimensional porous frameworks containing the organic pillar ligand. Preliminary investigations indicate that the HIPL reaction is also amenable to forming Co(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, and Fe(L)Pd(CN){sub 4} networks. The materials show variable adsorption behavior for CO{sub 2} depending on the pillar length and pillar functionalization. Several compounds show structurally flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the newly discovered flexible compounds include two flexible Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4} derivatives that are structurally related to previously reported porous spin-crossover compounds. The preparations of 20 pillar ligands based on ring-functionalized 4,4′-dipyridyls, 1,4-bis(4- pyridyl)benzenes, and N-(4-pyridyl)isonicotinamides are also described.

    3. Synthetic Jets

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Milanovic, Ivana M.

      2003-01-01

      Current investigation of synthetic jets and synthetic jets in cross-flow examined the effects of orifice geometry and dimensions, momentum-flux ratio, cluster of orifices, pitch and yaw angles as well as streamwise development of the flow field. This comprehensive study provided much needed experimental information related to the various control strategies. The results of the current investigation on isolated and clustered synthetic jets with and without cross-flow will be further analyzed and documented in detail. Presentations at national conferences and publication of peer- reviewed journal articles are also expected. Projected publications will present both the mean and turbulent properties of the flow field, comparisons made with the data available in an open literature, as well as recommendations for the future work.

    4. Single-crystal growth, crystallography, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and thermal expansion of the antiferromagnetic S=1 chain compound CaV[subscript 2]O[subscript 4

      SciTech Connect

      Niazi, A.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Schlagel, D.L.; Yan, J.Q.; Lograsso, T.A.; Kreyssig, A.; Das, S.; Nandi, S.; Goldman, A.I.; Honecker, A.; McCallum, R.W.; Reehuis, M.; Pieper, O.; Lake, B.; Johnston, D.C.

      2009-05-01

      The compound CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} contains V{sup +3} cations with spin S=1 and has an orthorhombic structure at room temperature containing zigzag chains of V atoms running along the c axis. We have grown single crystals of CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} and report crystallography, static magnetization, magnetic susceptibility x, ac magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity C{sub p}, and thermal expansion measurements in the temperature T range of 1.8--350 K on the single crystals and on polycrystalline samples. An orthorhombic-to-monoclinic structural distortion and a long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) transition were found at sample-dependent temperatures T{sub S}{approx}108--145 K and T{sub N}{approx}51--76 K, respectively. In two annealed single crystals, another transition was found at {approx}200 K. In one of the crystals, this transition is mostly due to V{sub 2}O{sub 3} impurity phase that grows coherently in the crystals during annealing. However, in the other crystal the origin of this transition at 200 K is unknown. The x(T) shows a broad maximum at {approx}300 K associated with short-range AF ordering and the anisotropy of x above T{sub N} is small. The anisotropic x(T{yields}0) data below T{sub N} show that the (average) easy axis of the AF magnetic structure is the b axis. The C{sub p}(T) data indicate strong short-range AF ordering above T{sub N}, consistent with the x(T) data. We fitted our x data by a J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} S=1 Heisenberg chain model, where J{sub 1}(J{sub 2}) is the (next)-nearest-neighbor exchange interaction. We find J{sub 1}{approx}230 K and surprisingly, J{sub 2}/J{sub 1}{approx}0 (or J{sub 1}/J{sub 2}{approx}0). The interaction J{sub {perpendicular}} between these S=1 chains leading to long-range AF ordering at T{sub N} is estimated to be J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 1}{approx_equal}0.04.

    5. Synthetic Astrobiology

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rothschild, Lynn J.

      2016-01-01

      Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

    6. Synthetic Astrobiology

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rothschild, Lynn J.

      2015-01-01

      Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

    7. Development and optimization of a cell-based assay for the selection of synthetic compounds that potentiate bone morphogenetic protein-2 activity.

      PubMed

      Okada, Motohiro; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Liu, Yunshan; Yoshida, Munehito; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

      2009-12-01

      reliability of our cell-based assay. Direct delivery of synthesized protein can be limited by high cost, instability or inadequate post-translational modifications. Thus, there would be a clear benefit for a low cost, cell penetrable chemical compound. We successfully used our gene expression-based assay to choose an active compound from a select group of compounds that were identified by computational screenings as the most likely candidates for mimicking the function of LMP-1. Among them, we selected SVAK-3, a compound that showed a dose-dependent potentiation of BMP-2 activity in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells. We show that either the full length LMP-1 protein or its potential mimetic compound consistently exhibit similar potentiation of BMP-2 activity even when multiple markers of the osteoblastic phenotype were parallely monitored. PMID:19862690

    8. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

      PubMed Central

      Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

      2013-01-01

      Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

    9. Synthesis and crystal structure of two synthetic oxofluoride framework compounds--Co2TeO3F2 and Co2SeO3F2.

      PubMed

      Hu, Shichao; Johnsson, Mats

      2012-11-01

      Two new isostructural Co(2+) containing tellurium and selenium oxofluoride compounds Co(2)TeO(3)F(2) and Co(2)SeO(3)F(2) are synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma with the unit cell parameters a = 7.3810(5) Å, b = 10.1936(7) Å, c = 5.3013(3) Å and a = 7.2655(8) Å, b = 10.0013(13) Å, c = 5.3564(6) Å, respectively. The Co(II) ion has octahedral coordination [CoO(3)F(3)] and builds up a 3D framework by corner- and edge sharing. The Se(IV) and the Te(IV) ions have the coordinations [SeO(3)E] and [TeO(3)E] respectively where E is the lone-pair electrons. The Se(IV) and Te(IV) ions are isolated from each other and bond only to the [CoO(3)F(3)] polyhedra. The electronegative element fluorine takes the role of a network builder like oxygen and helps to form the 3D framework structure. This is a difference compared to many oxohalide compounds containing Cl and Br where the halide ions are terminating ions preventing a 3D network from being formed. Long range antiferromagnetic interactions dominate at temperatures < 20 K. The magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie-Weiss law above 25 K with the Curie constant C = 5.62 emu K mol(-1), the Weiss temperature θ = -56 K and the effective magnetic moment μ(eff) = 4.74 μ(B) per cobalt atom. PMID:22968840

    10. Electrophysiological responses of the olfactory receptors of the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) to host-related and tick pheromone-related synthetic compounds.

      PubMed

      Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

      2012-12-01

      In the present study, host-related and tick pheromone-related chemical compounds were tested by means of the tip-recording technique in order to obtain electrophysiological responses in olfactory sensilla of non-fed Amblyomma cajennense ticks. The following chemicals were tested on the multiporose sensilla DI.1, located anterior to Haller's organ, and the sensillum DII.1, in the anterior pit of this organ: isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, trans-2-heptenal, heptanal, benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, nonanal, m-, o- and p-tolualdehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-pentanone, γ-valerolactone and 1-octen-3-ol (which are all vertebrate-associated volatiles); and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), 2-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate and nonanoic acid (tick pheromone components). These were used at 10(-3)M and 10(-2)M on at least 10 ticks per substance, and the chemicals that were found to be active at these concentrations were then tested as a series from 10(-6)M to 10(-2)M, in decadic steps, on at least 15 ticks per substance. 2,6-DCP was active on both sensilla, with detection thresholds of 10(-6)M on the DI.1 sensillum and 10(-4)M on the DII.1 sensillum. The olfactory neurons of this sensillum also responded to nonanal at the highest concentration used (10(-2)M), while those of DII.1 responded not only to 2.6 DCP but also to 2-nitrophenol (to the same extent as to 2,6-DCP) and to 1-octen-3-ol. These results confirm the importance of 2,6-DCP in the chemical ecology of A. cajennense and indicate other compounds that may interfere with the behavior of this tick and which should be investigated. PMID:22925715

    11. Quantification of individual phenolic compounds' contribution to antioxidant capacity in apple: a novel analytical tool based on liquid chromatography with diode array, electrochemical, and charged aerosol detection.

      PubMed

      Plaza, Merichel; Kariuki, James; Turner, Charlotta

      2014-01-15

      Phenolics, particularly from apples, hold great interest because of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity of different apple extracts obtained by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), which was compared with the conventional antioxidant assays. To measure the antioxidant capacity of individual antioxidants present in apple extracts, a novel method was developed based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (DAD), electrochemical (ECD), and charged aerosol (CAD) detection. HPLC-DAD-ECD-CAD enabled rapid, qualitative, and quantitative determination of antioxidants in the apple extracts. The main advantage of using CAD was that this detector enabled quantification of a large number of phenolics using only a few standards. The results showed that phenolic acids and flavonols were mainly responsible for the total antioxidant capacity of apple extracts. In addition, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, an unidentified phenolic acid, and a quercetin derivative presented the highest antioxidant capacities. PMID:24345041

    12. Synthetic chromosomes.

      PubMed

      Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

      2015-11-01

      What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes. PMID:26111960

    13. CPUY201112, a novel synthetic small-molecule compound and inhibitor of heat shock protein Hsp90, induces p53-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells

      PubMed Central

      Xu, Xiao-Li; Bao, Qi-chao; Jia, Jian-Min; Liu, Fang; Guo, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Ming-ye; Wei, Jin-lian; Lu, Meng-chen; Xu, Li-li; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; You, Qi-Dong; Sun, Hao-Peng

      2016-01-01

      Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is highly expressed in many tumor cells and is associated with the maintenance of malignant phenotypes. Targeting Hsp90 has had therapeutic success in both solid and hematological malignancies, which has inspired more studies to identify new Hsp90 inhibitors with improved clinical efficacy. Using a fragment-based approach and subsequent structural optimization guided by medicinal chemistry principles, we identified the novel compound CPUY201112 as a potent Hsp90 inhibitor. It binds to the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90 with a kinetic dissociation (Kd) constant of 27 ± 2.3 nM. It also exhibits potent in vitro antiproliferative effects in a range of solid tumor cells. In MCF-7 cells with high Hsp90 expression, CPUY201112 induces the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including HER-2, Akt, and c-RAF. We prove that treating MCF-7 cells with CPUY201112 results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the wild-type (wt) p53 pathway. CPUY201112 also synergizes with Nutlin-3a to induce cancer cell apoptosis. CPUY201112 significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 xenografts in nude mice without apparent body weight loss. These results demonstrate that CPUY201112 is a novel Hsp90 inhibitor with potential use in treating wild-type p53 related cancers. PMID:26743233

    14. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota, 1975-90

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Sullivan, Daniel J.; Stinson, Troy W.; Crawford, J. Kent; Schmidt, Arthur R.; Colman, John A.

      1998-01-01

      The distribution of pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota in the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin was examined from 1987 through 1990 as part of the pilot National Water-Quality Assesssment Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. Historical data for water and sediment collected from 1975 through 1986 were similar to data collected from 1987 through 1990. Some compounds were detected in concentrations that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Results from pesticide sampling at four stations in 1988 and 1989 identified several agricultural pesticides that were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in urban areas than in agricultural areas. Results from herbicide sampling at 17 stations in the Kankakee and Iroquois River Basins in 1990 indicated that atrazine concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water during runoff periods. Results from sampling for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in water indicate that, with one exception, all stations at which more than one compound was detected were within 2 miles downstream from the nearest point source. Detections at two stations in the Chicago urban area accounted for 37 percent of the total number of detections. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2-dichlorethane from stations in the Des Plaines River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water in one and two samples from the two stations in the Chicago area. Phenols and pentachlorophenols were detected most frequently in the Des Plaines River Basin where point-source discharges were common. Phenol concentrations were significantly different among the Des Plaines, Kankakee, and Fox River Basins. Phenols and pentachlorophenols never exceeded the general use and secondary contact standards

    15. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

      PubMed Central

      Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

      2015-01-01

      To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

    16. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

      MedlinePlus

      ... still unknown about how synthetic cathinones affect the human brain. Researchers do know that synthetic cathinones are chemically ... of the chemicals in synthetic cathinones affect the human brain. Synthetic cathinones can cause: nosebleeds paranoia increased sociability ...

    17. Effect of light exposure on sensorial quality, concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of radish microgreens during low temperature storage

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Daikon radish microgreens constitute a good source of bioactive compounds. However, the quality deteriorates rapidly during postharvest storage. In this study, we investigated the effects of light exposure and modified atmosphere packaging conditions on changes in sensorial quality and retention of ...

    18. Content of polyphenolic compounds in the Nigerian stimulants Cola nitida ssp. alba, Cola nitida ssp. rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl and their antioxidant capacity.

      PubMed

      Atawodi, Sunday Ene-Ojo; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert Wyn

      2007-11-28

      Varieties of kola nuts (Cola nitida alba, Cola nitida rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl), a group of popular Nigerian and West African stimulants, were analyzed for their content of secondary plant metabolites. The three varieties of the kola nuts contained appreciable levels of (+)-catechin (27-37 g/kg), caffeine (18-24 g/kg), (-)-epicatechin (20-21 g/kg), procyanidin B 1 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin] (15-19 g/kg), and procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin] (7-10 g/kg). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts and purified metabolites was assessed by two HPLC-based and two colorimetric in vitro assays. Extracts of all varieties exhibited antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values in the range 1.70-2.83 and 2.74-4.08 mg/mL in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine HPLC-based assays, respectively. Utilization of HPLC-based assays designed to reflect in situ generation of free radicals (e.g., HO(*)), as opposed to general assays (DPPH, FRAP) in common use which do not, indicate that, of the major secondary plant metabolites present in kola nut extracts, caffeine is potentially the more effective cancer chemopreventive metabolite in terms of its antioxidant capacity. PMID:17979235

    19. Docking studies and network analyses reveal capacity of compounds from Kandelia rheedii to strengthen cellular immunity by interacting with host proteins during tuberculosis infection

      PubMed Central

      Zaman, Aubhishek

      2012-01-01

      Kandelia rheedii (locally known as Guria or Rasunia), widely found and used in Indian subcontinent, is a well-known herbal cure to tuberculosis. However, neither the mechanism nor the active components of the plant extract responsible for mediating this action has yet been confirmed. Here in this study, molecular interactions of three compounds (emodin, fusaric acid and skyrin) from the plant extract with the host protein targets (casein kinase (CSNK), estrogen receptor (ERBB), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr)) has been found. These protein targets are known to be responsible for strengthening cellular immunity against Mycobacteria tuberculosis. The specific interactions of these three compounds with the respective protein targets have been discussed here. The insights from study should further help us designing molecular medicines against tuberculosis. PMID:23275699

    20. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced interleukin-6 production by synthetic lipid A partial structures in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

      PubMed Central

      Wang, M H; Flad, H D; Feist, W; Brade, H; Kusumoto, S; Rietschel, E T; Ulmer, A J

      1991-01-01

      The effect of two synthetic lipid A partial structures, compound 406 (or LA-14-PP, identical in structure to the lipid A precursor, known as Ia or IVa) and compound 401 (lipid X), on the in vitro modulation of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)-induced interleukin-6 production by human blood mononuclear cells was investigated. Lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella abortus equi and synthetic Escherichia coli-type lipid A (compound 506, or LA-15-PP) had potent interleukin-6-inducing capacities. The maximum release of interleukin-6 was found after stimulation with 1 to 10 ng of lipopolysaccharide or 10 to 100 ng of synthetic E. coli-type lipid A per ml. Both synthetic lipid A partial structures (compounds 406 and 401) failed to induce interleukin-6 release. However, they inhibited lipopolysaccharide- or lipid A-induced interleukin-6 production in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was found not only in mononuclear cells but also in purified monocytes and was not due to a shift in the kinetics of cytokine production. Suppression was manifested in the early stage of interleukin-6 production. Inhibition was also found in the presence of recombinant gamma interferon, indicating that compound 406 and recombinant gamma interferon act in different, independent pathways. Our data, therefore, indicate that the inhibition of interleukin-6 production by lipid A partial structures may help elucidate the mechanism of interaction of the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide with immune cells in the inflammatory reaction during gram-negative infection. PMID:1937825

    1. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

      PubMed

      Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

      2016-03-01

      Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits. PMID:26841704

    2. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2006-01-01

      In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

    3. Microbial synthetic biology for human therapeutics.

      PubMed

      Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana

      2012-06-01

      The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections. PMID:23730360

    4. Synthetic inhibitors of elastase.

      PubMed

      Edwards, P D; Bernstein, P R

      1994-03-01

      For more than two decades investigators around the world, in both academic and industrial institutions, have been developing inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase. A number of very elegant and insightful strategies have been reported. In the case of reversible peptidic inhibitors, this has resulted in the identification of some extremely potent compounds with dissociation constants in the 10(-11) M range. This is quite an accomplishment considering that these low molecular-weight inhibitors are only tri- and tetrapeptides. In the case of the heterocyclic-based inhibitors, the challenge of balancing the heterocycle's inherent reactivity and aqueous stability with the stability of the enzyme-inhibitor adduct has been meet by either using a latent, reactive functionality which is only activated within the enzyme, or by incorporating features which selectively obstruct deacylation but have little effect on the enzyme acylation step. The underlying goal of this research has been the identification of agents to treat diseases associated with HNE. Several animal models have been developed for evaluating the in vivo activity of elastase inhibitors, and compounds have been shown to be effective in all of these models by the intravenous, intratrachael or oral routes of administration. However, only a very small percentage of compounds have possessed all the necessary properties, including lack of toxicity, for progression into the clinic. The peptidyl TFMK ICI 200,880 (25-12) has many of the desired characteristics of a drug to treat the diseases associated with HNE: chemical stability, in vitro and in vivo activity, a long duration of action, and adequate metabolic stability. Currently ICI 200,880 is the only low molecular-weight HNE inhibitor known to be undergoing clinical trials, and may be the compound which finally demonstrates the clinical utility of a synthetic HNE inhibitor. PMID:8189835

    5. Identification of phenolic compounds in petals of nasturtium flowers (Tropaeolum majus) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC).

      PubMed

      Garzón, G Astrid; Manns, David C; Riedl, Ken; Schwartz, Steven J; Padilla-Zakour, Olga

      2015-02-18

      The contents and profile of polyphenols were analyzed in edible petals of nasturtium flowers (Tropaeolum majus) of three colors, and their oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were compared. Three primary anthocyanins (ACNs) and 15 non-ACN phenolic compounds including hydroxycinammic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives) were detected. Anthocyanin concentration was within 31.9 ± 21.7 and 114.5 ± 2.3 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy-3-glu)/100 g fresh weight (FW) in yellow and red petals, respectively. The concentration of HCAs varied between 33.3 ± 7.1 and 235.6 ± 8.1 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/100 g FW for red and yellow flowers, respectively. Red flowers had the highest level of flavonoids (315.1 ± 2.4 mg myricetin equivalents/100 g FW) and the highest ORAC radical-scavenging activity. These results show the diversity and abundance of polyphenolic compounds in nasturtium flowers, which could be the basis for applications in functional foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25659835

    6. Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds

      PubMed Central

      Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

      2005-01-01

      The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

    7. Trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents for modification of proteins† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic details for known compounds; materials and methods for bioconjugation reactions; copies of spectra of new compounds and compounds prepared according to new procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra20359g Click here for additional data file.

      PubMed Central

      Fisher, Martin J.; Williamson, Daniel J.; Burslem, George M.; Plante, Jeffrey P.; Manfield, Iain W.; Tiede, Christian; Ault, James R.; Stockley, Peter G.; Plein, Sven; Maqbool, Azhar; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Foster, Richard; Warriner, Stuart L.

      2015-01-01

      The development of novel protein-targeted MRI contrast agents crucially depends on the ability to derivatise suitable targeting moieties with a high payload of relaxation enhancer (e.g., gadolinium(iii) complexes such as Gd-DOTA), without losing affinity for the target proteins. Here, we report robust synthetic procedures for the preparation of trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents with various chemical handles for site-specific modification of biomolecules. The reagents were shown to successfully label proteins through isothiocyanate ligation or through site-specific thiol–maleimide ligation and strain-promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition. PMID:27019702

    8. Synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor

      DOEpatents

      Lancet, Michael S.; Curran, George P.

      1981-08-18

      A synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

    9. Synthetic cathinones: chemical phylogeny, physiology, and neuropharmacology.

      PubMed

      De Felice, Louis J; Glennon, Richard A; Negus, Sidney S

      2014-02-27

      This mini-review summarizes the history of cathinone and its synthesized derivatives from early records to the present day, including the appearance of synthetic cathinones in the drug combination known as bath salts. Bath salts may consist of one compound (MDPV) or combinations of MDPV and one or more other synthetic cathinones, which may also appear alone without MDPV. We briefly review recent in vitro studies of bath salts components alone or in combination, focusing on pharmacological and biophysical studies. Finally we summarize new data from in vivo procedures that characterize the abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of synthetic cathinones in rats. PMID:24231923

    10. Synthetic Cathinones: Chemical Phylogeny, Physiology, and Neuropharmacology

      PubMed Central

      De Felice, Louis J; Glennon, Richard A; Negus, Sidney S

      2014-01-01

      This mini-review summarizes the history of cathinone and its synthesized derivatives from early records to the present day, including the appearance of synthetic cathinones in the drug combination known as bath salts. Bath salts may consist of one compound (MDPV) or combinations of MDPV and one or more other synthetic cathinones, which may also appear alone without MDPV. We briefly review recent in vitro studies of bath salts components alone or in combination, focusing on pharmacological and biophysical studies. Finally we summarize new data from in vivo procedures that characterize the abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of synthetic cathinones in rats. PMID:24231923

    11. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

      PubMed

      Nouvel, Pascal

      2015-01-01

      In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. PMID:26238764

    12. Synthetic biology of fungal natural products

      PubMed Central

      Mattern, Derek J.; Valiante, Vito; Unkles, Shiela E.; Brakhage, Axel A.

      2015-01-01

      Synthetic biology is an ever-expanding field in science, also encompassing the research area of fungal natural product (NP) discovery and production. Until now, different aspects of synthetic biology have been covered in fungal NP studies from the manipulation of different regulatory elements and heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways to the engineering of different multidomain biosynthetic enzymes such as polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. The following review will cover some of the exemplary studies of synthetic biology in filamentous fungi showing the capacity of these eukaryotes to be used as model organisms in the field. From the vast array of different NPs produced to the ease for genetic manipulation, filamentous fungi have proven to be an invaluable source for the further development of synthetic biology tools. PMID:26284053

    13. Application of the Organic Synthetic Designs to Astrobiology

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kolb, V. M.

      2009-12-01

      In this paper we propose a synthesis of the heterocyclic compounds and the insoluble materials on the meteorites. Our synthetic scheme involves the reaction of sugars and amino acids, the so-called Maillard reaction. We have developed this scheme based on the combined analysis of the regular and retrosynthetic organic synthetic principles. The merits of these synthetic methods for the prebiotic design are addressed.

    14. Evolvable synthetic neural system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

      2009-01-01

      An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

    15. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

      PubMed

      Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

      2016-01-01

      An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested. PMID:27145593

    16. Synthetic phospholipids as specific substrates for plasma endothelial lipase.

      PubMed

      Papillon, Julien P N; Pan, Meihui; Brousseau, Margaret E; Gilchrist, Mark A; Lou, Changgang; Singh, Alok K; Stawicki, Todd; Thompson, James E

      2016-08-01

      We designed and prepared synthetic phospholipids that generate lyso-phosphatidylcholine products with a unique mass for convenient detection by LC-MS in complex biological matrices. We demonstrated that compound 4, formulated either as a Triton X-100 emulsion or incorporated in synthetic HDL particles can serve as a substrate for plasma EL with useful specificity. PMID:27344207

    17. Characterizing synthetic gypsum

      SciTech Connect

      Henkels, P.J.; Gaynor, J.C.

      1996-10-01

      Each gypsum wallboard manufacturer has developed its own general guidelines for synthetic gypsum. The guidelines vary accordingly for each manufacturer and are often modified to suite a particular source and end use. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of synthetic gypsum are characterized by several proprietary and published test methods. Characterizing a synthetic gypsum and determining its acceptability is a time consuming process and can be confusing, particularly to those outside the gypsum wallboard industry. This paper describes some of the more important characteristics and practical aspects of synthetic gypsum usage based on USG`s extensive experience in wall board manufacture.

    18. Synthetic biology in Streptomyces bacteria.

      PubMed

      Medema, Marnix H; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

      2011-01-01

      Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that the potential of Streptomyces species for the production of valuable secondary metabolites is even larger than previously realized. Accessing this rich genomic resource to discover new compounds by activating "cryptic" pathways is an interesting challenge for synthetic biology. This approach is facilitated by the inherent natural modularity of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, at the level of individual enzymes (such as modular polyketide synthases), but also of gene cassettes/operons and entire biosynthetic gene clusters. It also benefits from a long tradition of molecular biology in Streptomyces, which provides a number of specific tools, ranging from cloning vectors to inducible promoters and translational control elements. In this chapter, we first provide an overview of the synthetic biology challenges in Streptomyces and then present the existing toolbox of molecular methods that can be employed in this organism. PMID:21601100

    19. Experience with synthetic fluorinated fluid lubricants

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Conley, Peter L.; Bohner, John J.

      1990-01-01

      Since the late 1970's, the wet lubricant of choice for space mechanisms has been one of the family of synthetic perfluoro polyalkylether (PFPE) compounds, namely Fomblin Z-25 (Bray-815Z) or DuPont's Krytox 143xx series. While offering the advantages of extremely low vapor pressures and wide temperature ranges, these oils and derived greases have a complex chemistry compared to the more familiar natural and synthetic hydrocarbons. Many aerospace companies have conducted test programs to characterize the behavior of these compounds in a space environment, resulting in a large body of hard knowledge as well as considerable space lore concerning the suitability of the lubricants for particular applications and techniques for successful application. The facts are summarized and a few myths about the compounds are dispelled, and some performance guidelines for the mechanism design engineer are provided.

    20. Word Syntax of Nominal Compounds: Internal and Aphasiological Evidence from Turkish

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tat, Deniz

      2013-01-01

      This dissertation is an analysis of two types of nominal compounds in Turkish, primary compounds and synthetic compounds within the framework of Distributed Morphology. A nominal primary compound is formed by two nouns, and its meaning is largely determined by world knowledge. A synthetic compound, on the other hand, is formed by a noun and a…

    1. Designing synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Agapakis, Christina M

      2014-03-21

      Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology. PMID:24156739

    2. Synthetic facial implants.

      PubMed

      Quatela, Vito C; Chow, Jen

      2008-02-01

      This article presents a range of synthetic implant materials for use in facial plastic surgery. The authors discuss alternatives to autogenous tissue transfer in terms of biocompatibility, technique, complications, controversies, and cautions. The reader is presented information about a range of synthetic implant materials such as silicone, polyester fiber, polyamide mesh, metal, polyethylene, polyacrylamide gel, hydroxyapatite, polylactic acid, collagen, and others. PMID:18063244

    3. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleinberg, L. L.

      1986-01-01

      Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

    4. [Inhibitors of microtubule polymerization- new natural compounds as potential anti-cancer drugs].

      PubMed

      Rogalska, Aneta; Miśkiewicz, Klaudia; Marczak, Agnieszka

      2015-01-01

      Inhibitors of microtubule polymerization are compounds which, by binding to the tubulin dimer, prevent the normal course of cell division and lead to cell death. They cause inhibition of mitosis, affect the cytoskeleton and disrupt the process of angiogenesis. Inhibitors of microtubule polymerization include natural substances, synthetic and semi-synthetic analogs. They contain a group of compounds having the ability to bind to the vinca alkaloid and colchicine domain of β-tubulin. Among them are vinca alkaloids, dolastatins and halichondrins, which connect to the vinca alkaloids domain, and combretastatins binding the colchicine site of protein. Tumor cells have greater capacity for cell proliferation and are also more susceptible to damage by microtubule inhibitors. Their action has been widely used in cancer therapy. PMID:25983296

    5. Building synthetic memory

      PubMed Central

      Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

      2013-01-01

      Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

    6. Building synthetic memory.

      PubMed

      Inniss, Mara C; Silver, Pamela A

      2013-09-01

      Cellular memory - conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response - is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and re-engineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms, such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

    7. Synthetic Base Fluids

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

      The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

    8. Catalysts from synthetic genetic polymers

      PubMed Central

      Taylor, Alexander I.; Pinheiro, Vitor B.; Smola, Matthew J.; Morgunov, Alexey S.; Peak-Chew, Sew; Cozens, Christopher; Weeks, Kevin M.; Herdewijn, Piet; Holliger, Philipp

      2014-01-01

      The emergence of catalysis in early genetic polymers like RNA is considered a key transition in the origin of life1, predating the appearance of protein enzymes. DNA also demonstrates the capacity to fold into three-dimensional structures and form catalysts in vitro2. However, to what degree these natural biopolymers comprise functionally privileged chemical scaffolds3 for folding or the evolution of catalysis is not known. The ability of synthetic genetic polymers (XNAs) with alternative backbone chemistries not found in nature to fold into defined structures and bind ligands4 raises the possibility that these too might be capable of forming catalysts (XNAzymes). Here we report the discovery of such XNAzymes, elaborated in four different chemistries (ANA (arabino nucleic acids)5, FANA (2′-fluoroarabino nucleic acids)6, HNA (hexitol nucleic acids) and CeNA (cyclohexene nucleic acids)7 directly from random XNA oligomer pools, exhibiting in trans RNA endonuclease and ligase activities. We also describe an XNA-XNA ligase metalloenzyme in the FANA framework, establishing catalysis in an entirely synthetic system and enabling the synthesis of FANA oligomers and an active RNA endonuclease FANAzyme from its constituent parts. These results extend catalysis beyond biopolymers and establish technologies for the discovery of catalysts in a wide range of polymer scaffolds not found in nature8. Evolution of catalysis independent of any natural polymer has implications for the definition of chemical boundary conditions for the emergence of life on earth and elsewhere in the universe9. PMID:25470036

    9. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

      MedlinePlus

      ... those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception —awareness of surrounding objects and conditions symptoms of ... those produced by marijuana: elevated mood relaxation altered perception symptoms of psychosis Synthetic cannabinoids can also cause ...

    10. Analysis of Synthetic Polymers.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Charles G.; And Others

      1989-01-01

      Reviews techniques for the characterization and analysis of synthetic polymers, copolymers, and blends. Includes techniques for structure determination, separation, and quantitation of additives and residual monomers; determination of molecular weight; and the study of thermal properties including degradation mechanisms. (MVL)

    11. Models for synthetic biology

      PubMed Central

      Kaznessis, Yiannis N

      2007-01-01

      Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal. PMID:17986347

    12. Synthetic microbial communities☆

      PubMed Central

      Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

      2014-01-01

      While natural microbial communities are composed of a mix of microbes with often unknown functions, the construction of synthetic microbial communities allows for the generation of defined systems with reduced complexity. Used in a top-down approach, synthetic communities serve as model systems to ask questions about the performance and stability of microbial communities. In a second, bottom-up approach, synthetic microbial communities are used to study which conditions are necessary to generate interaction patterns like symbiosis or competition, and how higher order community structure can emerge from these. Besides their obvious value as model systems to understand the structure, function and evolution of microbial communities as complex dynamical systems, synthetic communities can also open up new avenues for biotechnological applications. PMID:24632350

    13. Comparative Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Plant Polyphenols.

      PubMed

      Csepregi, Kristóf; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Hideg, Éva

      2016-01-01

      Thirty-seven samples of naturally occurring phenolic compounds were evaluated using three common in vitro assays for total antioxidant activity (TAC) testing: the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, in addition to the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent reactivity (FCR). We found that antioxidant hierarchies depended on the choice of assay and applied ANOVA analyses to explore underlying structure-TAC dependencies. In addition to statistically confirming the empirically established connection between flavonoid ring-B catechol and high TEAC or FRAP, new correlations were also found. In flavonoids, (i) hydroxyl groups on ring-B had a positive effect on all four TAC assays; (ii) the presence of a 3-hydroxyl group on ring-C increased TEAC and FRAP, but had no effect on DPPH or FCR; (iii) Phenolic acids lacking a 3-hydroxyl group had significantly lower FRAP or DPPH than compounds having this structure, while TEAC or FCR were not affected. Results demonstrated that any TAC-based ranking of phenolic rich samples would very much depend on the choice of assay, and argue for use of more than one technique. As an illustration, we compared results of the above four assays using either grapevine leaf extracts or synthetic mixtures of compounds prepared according to major polyphenols identified in the leaves. PMID:26867192

    14. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

      PubMed

      Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

      2014-01-01

      This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

    15. Synthetic Vision Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

      2009-01-01

      A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

    16. Active synthetic soil

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Henninger, Donald L. (Inventor); Allen, Earl R. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

      1995-01-01

      A synthetic soil/fertilizer for horticultural application having all the agronutrients essential for plant growth is disclosed. The soil comprises a synthetic apatite fertilizer having sulfur, magnesium and micronutrients dispersed in a calcium phosphate matrix, a zeolite cation exchange medium saturated with a charge of potassium and nitrogen cations, and an optional pH buffer. Moisture dissolves the apatite and mobilizes the nutrient elements from the apatite matrix and the zeolite charge sites.

    17. Active synthetic soil

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Henninger, Donald L. (Inventor); Allen, Earl R. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

      1995-01-01

      A synthetic soil/fertilizer for horticultural application having all the agronutrients essential for plant growth is disclosed. The soil comprises a synthetic apatite fertilizer having sulfur, magnesium, and micronutrients dispersed in a calcium phosphate matrix, a zeolite cation exchange medium saturated with a charge of potassium and nitrogen cations, and an optional pH buffer. Moisture dissolves the apatite and mobilizes the nutrient elements from the apatite matrix and the zeolite charge sites.

    18. Synthetic chemistry with nitrous oxide.

      PubMed

      Severin, Kay

      2015-10-01

      This review article summarizes efforts to use nitrous oxide (N2O, 'laughing gas') as a reagent in synthetic chemistry. The focus will be on reactions which are carried out in homogeneous solution under (relatively) mild conditions. First, the utilization of N2O as an oxidant is discussed. Due to the low intrinsic reactivity of N2O, selective oxidation reactions of highly reactive compounds are possible. Furthermore, it is shown that transition metal complexes can be used to catalyze oxidation reactions, in some cases with high turnover numbers. In the final part of this overview, the utilization of N2O as a building block for more complex molecules is discussed. It is shown that N2O can be used as an N-atom donor for the synthesis of interesting organic molecules such as triazenes and azo dyes. PMID:26104268

    19. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

      2016-06-15

      The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. PMID:27284033

    20. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

      PubMed

      Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

      2015-01-01

      New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder". PMID:26074740

    1. Synthetic polymers are more effective than natural flocculants for the clarification of tobacco leaf extracts.

      PubMed

      Buyel, Johannes F; Fischer, Rainer

      2015-02-10

      The use of synthetic polymers as flocculants can increase filter capacity and thus reduce the costs of downstream processing during the production of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins, but this may also attract regulatory scrutiny due to the potential toxicity of such compounds. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of three non-toxic natural flocculants (chitosan, kaolin and polyphosphate) alone and in combination with each other or with a synthetic polymer (Polymin P) during the clarification of tobacco leaf extracts. We used a design-of-experiments approach to determine the impact of each combination on filter capacity. We found that Polymin P was most effective when used on its own but the natural flocculants were more effective when used in combination. The combination of chitosan and polyphosphate was the most effective natural flocculant, and this was identified as a potential replacement for Polymin P under neutral and acidic extraction conditions independent of the conductivity, even though the efficiency of flocculation was lower than for Polymin P. None of the tested flocculants reduced the concentration of total soluble protein in the feed stream or the recovery of the model fluorescent protein DsRed. PMID:25545028

    2. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

      SciTech Connect

      Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

      2005-02-07

      We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

    3. Automated synthetic scene generation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Givens, Ryan N.

      Physics-based simulations generate synthetic imagery to help organizations anticipate system performance of proposed remote sensing systems. However, manually constructing synthetic scenes which are sophisticated enough to capture the complexity of real-world sites can take days to months depending on the size of the site and desired fidelity of the scene. This research, sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Sensors Directorate, successfully developed an automated approach to fuse high-resolution RGB imagery, lidar data, and hyperspectral imagery and then extract the necessary scene components. The method greatly reduces the time and money required to generate realistic synthetic scenes and developed new approaches to improve material identification using information from all three of the input datasets.

    4. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

      1982-01-01

      Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

    5. Synthetic guide star generation

      DOEpatents

      Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

      2008-06-10

      A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

    6. Synthetic guide star generation

      DOEpatents

      Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

      2004-03-09

      A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

    7. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

      PubMed

      Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

      1995-10-01

      Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. PMID:8529223

    8. Detection of multiple steroidal compounds in synthetic urine using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) combined with a molecularly imprinted polymer clean-up protocol.

      PubMed

      Zulfiqar, Adnan; Morgan, Geraint; Turner, Nicholas W

      2014-10-01

      A method capable of screening for multiple steroids in urine has been developed, using a series of twelve structurally similar, and commercially relevant compounds as target analytes. A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up step was used to make the sample suitable for injection onto a GC×GC-MS setup. Significant improvements compared to a commercially available C-18 material were observed. Each individual steroid was able to be separated and identified, using both the retention profile and diagnostic fragmentation ion monitoring abilities of the comprehensive chromatographic-mass spectrometry method. Effective LODs of between 11.7 and 27.0 pg were calculated for individual steroids, effectively equivalent to concentration levels of between 0.234 and 0.540 ng mL(-1) in urine, while the application of multiple screen was demonstrated using a 10 ng mL(-1) mixed sample. The nature of this study also removes the need for sample derivitisation which speeds up the screening process. PMID:25083511

    9. Caffeine in your drink: natural or synthetic?

      PubMed

      Zhang, Lijun; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Federherr, Eugen; Schmidt, Torsten C; Jochmann, Maik A

      2012-03-20

      Owing to possible adulteration and health concerns, it is important to discriminate between natural and synthetic food ingredients. A new method for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) by coupling high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HT-RPLC/IRMS) was developed for discrimination of natural and synthetic caffeine contained in all types of drinks. The analytical parameters such as stationary phase, column inner diameter, and column temperature were optimized for the separation of caffeine directly from drinks (without extraction). On the basis of the carbon isotope analysis of 42 natural caffeine samples including coffee beans, tea leaves, guaraná powder, and maté leaves, and 20 synthetic caffeine samples from different sources by high-temperature reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry, it is concluded that there are two distinguishable groups of caffeine δ(13)C-values: one between -25 and -32‰ for natural caffeine, and the other between -33 and -38‰ for synthetic caffeine. Isotope analysis by HT-RPLC/IRMS has been applied to identify the caffeine source in 38 drinks. Four mislabeled products were detected due to added but nonlabeled synthetic caffeine with δ(13)C-values lower than -33‰. This work is the first application of HT-RPLC/IRMS to real-world food samples, which showed several advantages: simple sample preparation (only dilution), high throughput, long-term column stability, and high precision of δ(13)C-value. Thus, HT-RPLC/IRMS can be a very promising tool in stable isotope analysis of nonvolatile compounds. PMID:22339647

    10. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

      DOEpatents

      Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

      2013-01-01

      The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

    11. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

      1998-01-01

      Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

    12. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

      1999-01-01

      The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

    13. Synthetic Bursae for Robots

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lovchik, Christopher S.

      2005-01-01

      Synthetic bursae are under development for incorporation into robot joints that are actuated by motor-driven cables in a manner similar to that of arthropod joints actuated by muscle-driven tendons. Like natural bursae, the synthetic bursae would serve as cushions and friction reducers. A natural bursa is a thin bladder filled with synovial fluid, which serves to reduce friction and provide a cushion between a bone and a muscle or a tendon. A synthetic bursa would be similar in form and function: It would be, essentially, a compact, soft roller consisting of a bladder filled with a non-Newtonian fluid. The bladder would be constrained to approximately constant volume. The synthetic bursa would cushion an actuator cable against one of the members of a robot joint and would reduce the friction between the cable and the member. Under load, the pressure in the bladder would hold the opposite walls of the bladder apart, making it possible for them to move freely past each other without rubbing.

    14. Synthetic River Valleys

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

      2011-12-01

      The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

    15. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1991-10-02

      The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

    16. Analysis of Parent Synthetic Cannabinoids in Blood and Urinary Metabolites by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

      PubMed

      Knittel, Jessica L; Holler, Justin M; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Vorce, Shawn P; Magluilo, Joseph; Levine, Barry; Ramos, Gerardo; Bosy, Thomas Z

      2016-04-01

      Synthetic cannabinoids emerged on the designer drug market in recent years due to their ability to produce cannabis-like effects without the risk of detection by traditional drug testing techniques such as immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As government agencies work to schedule existing synthetic cannabinoids, new, unregulated and structurally diverse compounds continue to be developed and sold. Synthetic cannabinoids undergo extensive metabolic conversion. Consequently, both blood and urine specimens may play an important role in the forensic analysis of synthetic cannabinoids. It has been observed that structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids follow common metabolic pathways, which often produce metabolites with similar metabolic transformations. Presented are two validated quantitative methods for extracting and identifying 15 parent synthetic cannabinoids in blood, 17 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in urine and the qualitative identification of 2 additional parent compounds. The linear range for most synthetic cannabinoid compounds monitored was 0.1-10 ng/mL with the limit of detection between 0.01 and 0.5 ng/mL. Selectivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect were also examined and determined to be acceptable for each compound. The validated methods were used to analyze a compilation of synthetic cannabinoid investigative cases where both blood and urine specimens were submitted. The study suggests a strong correlation between the metabolites detected in urine and the parent compounds found in blood. PMID:26792810

    17. Acclimation to Chronic O3 in Field-grown Soybean is Characterized by Increased Levels of TCA Cycle Transcripts and ROS Scavenging Compounds in Addition to Decreased Photosynthetic Capacity

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant that is generated by volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and sunlight. When plants take in O3 through stomata, harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced that induce the production of ROS scavenging antioxidants. Climate change predictions indic...

    18. Parts plus pipes: synthetic biology approaches to metabolic engineering

      PubMed Central

      Boyle, Patrick M.; Silver, Pamela A.

      2011-01-01

      Synthetic biologists combine modular biological “parts” to create higher-order devices. Metabolic engineers construct biological “pipes” by optimizing the microbial conversion of basic substrates to desired compounds. Many scientists work at the intersection of these two philosophies, employing synthetic devices to enhance metabolic engineering efforts. These integrated approaches promise to do more than simply improve product yields; they can expand the array of products that are tractable to produce biologically. In this review, we explore the application of synthetic biology techniques to next-generation metabolic engineering challenges, as well as the emerging engineering principles for biological design. PMID:22037345

    19. Novel sulfamides and sulfamates derived from amino esters: Synthetic studies and anticonvulsant activity.

      PubMed

      Villalba, Maria L; Enrique, Andrea V; Higgs, Josefina; Castaño, Rocío A; Goicoechea, Sofía; Taborda, Facundo D; Gavernet, Luciana; Lick, Ileana D; Marder, Mariel; Bruno Blanch, Luis E

      2016-03-01

      We report herein the design and optimization of a novel series of sulfamides and sulfamates derived from amino esters with anticonvulsant properties. The structures were designed based on the pharmacophoric pattern previously proposed, with the aim of improving the anticonvulsant action. The compounds were obtained by a new synthetic procedure with microwave assisted heating and the use of adsorbents in the isolation process. All the derivatives showed protection against the maximal electroshock seizure test (MES test) in mice at the lowest dose tested (30mg/kg) but they did not show significant protection against the chemical induced convulsion by pentylenetetrazole. These results verify the ability of the computational model for designing new anticonvulsants structures with anti-MES activity. Additionally, we evaluated the capacity of the synthesized structures to bind to the benzodiazepine binding site (BDZ-bs) of the γ-aminobutiric acid receptor (GABAA receptor). Some of them showed medium to low affinity for the BDZ-bs. PMID:26849942

    20. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yumoto, K.

      2011-12-01

      Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

    1. Compound chondrules: an experimental investigation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

      1994-07-01

      Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

    2. Synthetic environment technologies in STOW 97

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Turner, Jeffrey T.; Koklauner, Karl

      1997-10-01

      The synthetic theater of war (STOW) is the major application of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) thrust in advanced distributed simulation (ADS). The STOW Program focuses on an advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD) termed STOW 97 sponsored by DARPA with the United States Atlantic Command (USACOM). The successful implementation of STOW 97 technologies in November 1997 with the United Endeavor 98-1 exercise will mark the full operational capacity of the USACOM Joint Training, Analysis and Simulation Center. To support ADS applications up to the Joint Task Force level, STOW seeks to develop and demonstrate technologies enabling the integration of war-fighting through virtual and constructive simulations from geographically distributed locations in a common synthetic battlespace.

    3. Synthetic Origin of Tramadol in the Environment.

      PubMed

      Kusari, Souvik; Tatsimo, Simplice Joel N; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

      2016-01-01

      The presence of tramadol in roots of Sarcocephalus latifolius trees in Northern Cameroon was recently attributed to point contamination with the synthetic compound. The synthetic origin of tramadol in the environment has now been unambiguously confirmed. Tramadol samples isolated from tramadol pills bought at a street market in downtown Maroua and highly contaminated soil at Houdouvou were analyzed by high-precision (14)C measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry ((14)C AMS): Tramadol from the pills did not contain any radiocarbon, thus indicating that it had been synthesized from (14)C-free petroleum-derived precursors. Crucially, tramadol isolated from the soil was also radiocarbon-free. As all biosynthetic plant compounds must contain radiocarbon levels close to that of the contemporary environment, these results thus confirm that tramadol isolated from the soil cannot be plant-derived. Analyses of S. latifolius seeds, in vitro grown plants, plants from different origins, and stable-isotope labeling experiments further confirmed that synthetic tramadol contaminates the environment. PMID:26473295

    4. Synthetic biology approaches to fluorinated polyketides.

      PubMed

      Thuronyi, Benjamin W; Chang, Michelle C Y

      2015-03-17

      The catalytic diversity of living systems offers a broad range of opportunities for developing new methods to produce small molecule targets such as fuels, materials, and pharmaceuticals. In addition to providing cost-effective and renewable methods for large-scale commercial processes, the exploration of the unusual chemical phenotypes found in living organisms can also enable the expansion of chemical space for discovery of novel function by combining orthogonal attributes from both synthetic and biological chemistry. In this context, we have focused on the development of new fluorine chemistry using synthetic biology approaches. While fluorine has become an important feature in compounds of synthetic origin, the scope of biological fluorine chemistry in living systems is limited, with fewer than 20 organofluorine natural products identified to date. In order to expand the diversity of biosynthetically accessible organofluorines, we have begun to develop methods for the site-selective introduction of fluorine into complex natural products by engineering biosynthetic machinery to incorporate fluorinated building blocks. To gain insight into how both enzyme active sites and metabolic pathways can be evolved to manage and select for fluorinated compounds, we have studied one of the only characterized natural hosts for organofluorine biosynthesis, the soil microbe Streptomyces cattleya. This information provides a template for designing engineered organofluorine enzymes, pathways, and hosts and has allowed us to initiate construction of enzymatic and cellular pathways for the production of fluorinated polyketides. PMID:25719427

    5. Synthetic biology approaches to fluorinated polyketides

      PubMed Central

      Thuronyi, Benjamin W.; Chang, Michelle C. Y.

      2016-01-01

      Conspectus The catalytic diversity of living systems offers a broad range of opportunities for developing new methods to produce small molecule targets such as fuels, materials, and pharmaceuticals. In addition to providing cost-effective and renewable methods for large-scale commercial processes, the exploration of the unusual chemical phenotypes found in living organisms can also enable the expansion of chemical space for discovery of novel function by combining orthogonal attributes from both synthetic and biological chemistry. In this context, we have focused on the development of new fluorine chemistry using synthetic biology approaches. While fluorine has become an important feature in compounds of synthetic origin, the scope of biological fluorine chemistry in living systems is limited, with fewer than 20 organofluorine natural products identified to date. In order to expand the diversity of biosynthetically accessible organofluorines, we have begun to develop methods for the site-selective introduction of fluorine into complex natural products by engineering biosynthetic machinery to incorporate fluorinated building blocks. To gain insight into how both enzyme active sites and metabolic pathways can be evolved to manage and select for fluorinated compounds, we have studied one of the only characterized natural hosts for organofluorine biosynthesis, the soil microbe Streptomyces cattleya. This information provides a template for designing engineered organofluorine enzymes, pathways, and hosts and has allowed us to initiate construction of enzymatic and cellular pathways for the production of fluorinated polyketides. PMID:25719427

    6. Synthetic cathinones: "a khat and mouse game".

      PubMed

      Katz, Daniel P; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Bhattacharya, Subhrajit; Deruiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

      2014-09-01

      The birth of the twenty first century has provoked a substantial rise in the use of designer drugs, such as synthetic cathinones, because of a decrease in the availability and purity of other drugs of abuse. The khat plant or Catha edulis, contains cathinone, the parent compound. Synthetic cathinones are sold under the name "bath salts" as a ploy to circumvent legislation from banning their use. Constant modification of the chemical structure by covert laboratories allows manufacturers to stay one step ahead of the legal process. Currently, the widespread distribution of "bath salts" has negative consequences for law enforcement officials and public health resources. Comparable mechanisms of action, between the synthetic cathinones and amphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA are attributed to the similarities in their chemical structures. Synthetic cathinone's potent stimulatory effects, coupled with their high abuse potential, and propensity for addiction demands additional pharmacological and toxicological evaluations for these existing and new designer drugs of abuse. If these drugs are designed carefully, they might also have a significant therapeutic value. PMID:24973490

    7. Synthetic Foveal Imaging Technology

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

      2013-01-01

      Apparatuses and methods are disclosed that create a synthetic fovea in order to identify and highlight interesting portions of an image for further processing and rapid response. Synthetic foveal imaging implements a parallel processing architecture that uses reprogrammable logic to implement embedded, distributed, real-time foveal image processing from different sensor types while simultaneously allowing for lossless storage and retrieval of raw image data. Real-time, distributed, adaptive processing of multi-tap image sensors with coordinated processing hardware used for each output tap is enabled. In mosaic focal planes, a parallel-processing network can be implemented that treats the mosaic focal plane as a single ensemble rather than a set of isolated sensors. Various applications are enabled for imaging and robotic vision where processing and responding to enormous amounts of data quickly and efficiently is important.

    8. Synthetic ligaments. Current status.

      PubMed

      Funk, F J

      1987-06-01

      Many techniques for ligamentous reconstruction have been developed in recent years. In the United States, injuries of the knee have been increasingly treated with innovative methods of surgical reconstruction, most of which have used normal structures. There are obvious theoretic advantages in using synthetic materials that might simplify surgery, spare normal tissues, and possibly facilitate stronger repairs. To these ends, several synthetic substances have been used experimentally and clinically. This is a brief summary of eight of the materials that have been or are being investigated in the United States. Some are no longer in use, others are currently being used in clinical trials. As of this writing, only the Gortex ligament has received a general device release from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:3034461

    9. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

      PubMed

      Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

      2016-06-17

      The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors. PMID:26833859

    10. Engineered Asymmetric Synthetic Vesicles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lu, Li; Chiarot, Paul

      2013-11-01

      Synthetic vesicles are small, fluid-filled spheres that are enclosed by a bilayer of lipid molecules. They can be used as models for investigating membrane biology and as delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals. In practice, it is difficult to simultaneously control membrane asymmetry, unilamellarity, vesicle size, vesicle-to-vesicle uniformity, and luminal content. Membrane asymmetry, where each leaflet of the bilayer is composed of different lipids, is of particular importance as it is a feature of most natural membranes. In this study, we leverage microfluidic technology to build asymmetric vesicles at high-throughput. We use the precise flow control offered by microfluidic devices to make highly uniform emulsions, with controlled internal content, that serve as templates to build the synthetic vesicles. Flow focusing, dielectrophoretic steering, and interfacial lipid self-assembly are critical procedures performed on-chip to produce the vesicles. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy are used to evaluate the vesicle characteristics.

    11. New syntheses of diazo compounds.

      PubMed

      Maas, Gerhard

      2009-01-01

      Diazo compounds (R1R2C=N2) are known as versatile and useful substrates for an array of chemical transformations and, therefore, diazo chemistry is still far from losing anything of its long-standing fascination. In addition to many studies on the subsequent chemistry of the diazo group, the inventory of methods for the preparation of diazo compounds is continuously supplemented by new methods and novel variations of established procedures. Several of these synthetic approaches take into account the lability and remarkable chemical reactivity of certain classes of diazo compounds, and environmentally more benign procedures also continue to be developed. PMID:19790217

    12. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

      SciTech Connect

      Reinhard, R.R.; Yaffe, R.

      1980-10-07

      Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprises a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester, a polyhydroxy anthraquninone, an alkylamine salt of 3-amino-triazole-dodecenylsuccinamic acid, 2-hydroxylpropyl-n, n-dibutyldithiocarbamate, and an alkyl amine salt of a methyl acid phosphate.

    13. Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria

      SciTech Connect

      Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

      1993-04-01

      The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates.

    14. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

      PubMed

      Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

      2016-08-01

      In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

    15. Method for producing and regenerating a synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor

      DOEpatents

      Lancet, M. S.; Curran, G. P.; Gorin, E.

      1982-05-18

      A method is described for producing a synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor by feeding a mixture of finely divided silica and at least one finely divided calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate to a fluidized bed; operating the fluidized bed at suitable conditions to produce pellets of synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor and recovering the pellets of synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor from the fluidized bed. Optionally, spent synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor can be charged to the fluidized bed to produce regenerated pellets of synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor. 1 fig.

    16. Method for producing and regenerating a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor

      DOEpatents

      Lancet, Michael S [Pittsburgh, PA; Curran, George P [Pittsburgh, PA; Gorin, Everett [San Rafael, CA

      1982-01-01

      A method for producing a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor by feeding a mixture of finely divided silica and at least one finely divided calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate to a fluidized bed; operating the fluidized bed at suitable conditions to produce pellets of synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor and recovering the pellets of synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor from the fluidized bed. Optionally, spent synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor can be charged to the fluidized bed to produce regenerated pellets of synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor.

    17. Synthetic seismograms for a complex crustal model

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sandmeier, K.-J.; Wenzel, F.

      1986-01-01

      The algorithm of the original Reflectivity Method has been vectorized and implemented on a CDC CYBER 205 computer. Calculation times are shortened by a factor of 20 to 30 compared with a general purpose computer with a capacity of several million floating point operations per second (MFLOP). The rapid calculation of synthetic seismograms for complex models, high frequency sources and all offset ranges is a provision for modeling not only particular phases but the whole observed wavefield. As an example we model refraction data of the Black Forest, Southwest Germany and are able to derive rather tight constraints on the physical properties of the lower crust.

    18. Information capacity of specific interactions.

      PubMed

      Huntley, Miriam H; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

      2016-05-24

      Specific interactions are a hallmark feature of self-assembly and signal-processing systems in both synthetic and biological settings. Specificity between components may arise from a wide variety of physical and chemical mechanisms in diverse contexts, from DNA hybridization to shape-sensitive depletion interactions. Despite this diversity, all systems that rely on interaction specificity operate under the constraint that increasing the number of distinct components inevitably increases off-target binding. Here we introduce "capacity," the maximal information encodable using specific interactions, to compare specificity across diverse experimental systems and to compute how specificity changes with physical parameters. Using this framework, we find that "shape" coding of interactions has higher capacity than chemical ("color") coding because the strength of off-target binding is strongly sublinear in binding-site size for shapes while being linear for colors. We also find that different specificity mechanisms, such as shape and color, can be combined in a synergistic manner, giving a capacity greater than the sum of the parts. PMID:27155013

    19. Microbial Production of Isoprenoids Enabled by Synthetic Biology

      PubMed Central

      Immethun, Cheryl M.; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison G.; Balassy, Andrea; Moon, Tae Seok

      2013-01-01

      Microorganisms transform inexpensive carbon sources into highly functionalized compounds without toxic by-product generation or significant energy consumption. By redesigning the natural biosynthetic pathways in an industrially suited host, microbial cell factories can produce complex compounds for a variety of industries. Isoprenoids include many medically important compounds such as antioxidants and anticancer and antimalarial drugs, all of which have been produced microbially. While a biosynthetic pathway could be simply transferred to the production host, the titers would become economically feasible when it is rationally designed, built, and optimized through synthetic biology tools. These tools have been implemented by a number of research groups, with new tools pledging further improvements in yields and expansion to new medically relevant compounds. This review focuses on the microbial production of isoprenoids for the health industry and the advancements though synthetic biology. PMID:23577007

    20. Synthetic Cathinones: A New Public Health Problem

      PubMed Central

      Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

      2015-01-01

      New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: “new psychoactive substances”, “synthetic cathinones”, “substituted cathinones”, “mephedrone”, “methylone”, “MDPV”, “4-MEC”, “addiction”, and “substance use disorder”. PMID:26074740

    1. Degradation, metabolism and toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids.

      PubMed Central

      Miyamoto, J

      1976-01-01

      Synthetic pyrethroidal compounds undergo biodegradation in mammals both oxidatively and hydrolytically, and depending on the type of compound, either of the pathways may predominate. Thus, (+) - or (+/-) -trans isomers of the chrysanthemumate ester of primary alcohols such as fenothrin, furamethrin, proparthrin, resmethrin, and tetramethrin (and possibly permethrin, too) are metabolized mainly through hydrolysis of the ester linkage, with subsequent oxidation and/or conjugation of the component alcohol and acid moieties. On the other hand, the corresponding (+)-cis enantiometers and chrysanthemumate of secondary alcohols like allethrin are resistant to hydrolytic attack, and biodegraded via oxidation at various sites of the molecule. These rapid metabolic degradations, together with the presumable incomplete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, would generally contribute to the low acute toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids. These compounds are neither skin irritants nor skin sensitizers, and inhalation toxicity as well as dermal toxicity are fairly low. Neither is teratogenic in rats, mice, and/or rabbits or mutagenic on various bacterial strains. Subacute and chronic feeding of higher amounts of the compounds to rats invariably causes some histopathological changes in liver; however, these are neither indicative nor suggestive of tumorigenicity. Based on existing toxicological information, the present recommended use patterns might afford sufficient safety margin on human population. However, in extending usage to agricultural pest control, much more extensive investigations should be forthcoming from both chemical and biological aspects, since there is scant information on the fate of these pyrethroids in the environment. Also several of the compounds may be very toxic to certain kinds of fish and arthropods. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:789062

    2. Compound matrices

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kravvaritis, Christos; Mitrouli, Marilena

      2009-02-01

      This paper studies the possibility to calculate efficiently compounds of real matrices which have a special form or structure. The usefulness of such an effort lies in the fact that the computation of compound matrices, which is generally noneffective due to its high complexity, is encountered in several applications. A new approach for computing the Singular Value Decompositions (SVD's) of the compounds of a matrix is proposed by establishing the equality (up to a permutation) between the compounds of the SVD of a matrix and the SVD's of the compounds of the matrix. The superiority of the new idea over the standard method is demonstrated. Similar approaches with some limitations can be adopted for other matrix factorizations, too. Furthermore, formulas for the n - 1 compounds of Hadamard matrices are derived, which dodge the strenuous computations of the respective numerous large determinants. Finally, a combinatorial counting technique for finding the compounds of diagonal matrices is illustrated.

    3. Antiparasitic Compounds That Target DNA

      PubMed Central

      Wilson, W. David; Tanious, Farial A.; Mathis, Amanda; Tevis, Denise; Hall, James Edwin; Boykin, David W.

      2008-01-01

      Designed, synthetic heterocyclic diamidines have excellent activity against eukaryotic parasites that cause diseases such as sleeping sickness and leishmania and adversely affect millions of people each year. The most active compounds bind specifically and strongly in the DNA minor groove at AT sequences. The compounds enter parasite cells rapidly and appear first in the kinetoplast that contains the mitochondrial DNA of the parasite. With time the compounds are also generally seen in the cell nucleus but are not significantly observed in the cytoplasm. The kinetoplast decays over time and disappears from the mitochondria of treated cells. At this point the compounds begin to be observed in other regions of the cell, such as the acidocalcisomes. The cells typically die in 24–48 hours after treatment. Active compounds appear to selectively target extended AT sequences and induce changes in kinetoplast DNA minicircles that cause a synergistic destruction of the catenated kinetoplast DNA network and cell death. PMID:18343228

    4. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

      PubMed Central

      Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

      2014-01-01

      Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

    5. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols.

      PubMed

      Batovska, Daniela; Todorova, Iva; Parushev, Stoyan; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Ubukata, Makoto

      2008-01-01

      The antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols (MAGs) was studied against two human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The active compounds inhibited selectively S. aureus. The most active compounds amongst them were those with medium size aliphatic chain and aromatic MAGs with electron withdrawing substituents at the aryl ring. The introduction of one or two-carbon spacer between the aryl ring and the carboxylic function did not influence antibacterial effectiveness. PMID:19004249

    6. Changes in composition of spider orb web sticky droplets with starvation and web removal, and synthesis of sticky droplet compounds

      PubMed Central

      Townley, Mark A.; Tillinghast, Edward K.; Neefus, Christopher D.

      2006-01-01

      Summary The sticky spiral of araneoid spider orb webs consists of silk fibers coated with adhesive droplets. The droplets contain a variety of low-molecular-mass compounds (LMM). Within a species, a fairly consistent ratio of LMM is often observed, but substantial variability can exist. To gain insight into factors influencing LMM composition, spiders of three araneid species were starved and LMM from their webs were analyzed for changes in composition. To determine if these changes were consistent with the spider’s ability to synthesize the different organic LMM, synthetic capacities were estimated following the feeding of radiolabeled metabolites. Some changes in droplet composition were broadly consistent with differing synthetic capacities: molar percentages of less readily synthesized compounds (e.g., choline, isethionate, n-acetyltaurine) typically declined with starvation, at least during a portion of the imposed fast, while more readily synthesized compounds (e.g., GABamide, glycine) tended to increase. Most striking was the apparent partial substitution of n-acetylputrescine by the more readily synthesized GABamide in fasting Argiope trifasciata. However, departures from expected compositional shifts demonstrated that synthetic capacity alone does not adequately predict sticky droplet compositional shifts with starvation. Moreover, feeding controls exhibited some changes in composition similar to starving spiders. As the webs of both feeding and starving spiders were removed for chemical analysis and could not be recycled, the loss of LMM contained in these webs likely contributed to similarities between treatments. In addition, feeding spiders molted, oviposited, and/or built heavier webs. The added metabolic demands of these activities may have contributed to changes in composition similar to those resulting from starvation. PMID:16574806

    7. Anticoagulant activity of original synthetic peptide derivatives.

      PubMed

      Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Miphtakhova, N T; Voyushina, T L; Sergeev, M E

      2008-01-01

      Original synthetic peptide derivatives exhibit anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. They delayed fibrin clot formation from human blood plasma in tests for the intrinsic coagulation pathway (activated partial thromboplastin time) and final stage of plasma coagulation (thrombin time) and inhibited amidolytic activity of thrombin. We determined the minimum effective dose of the most active compound providing a 2-fold lengthening of blood clotting time (activated partial thromboplastin time test and thrombin time test), which persisted for 2-3 h. PMID:19024001

    8. Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities

      PubMed Central

      Chiu, Hsuan-Chao; Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

      2014-01-01

      Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity – instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a “Goldilocks” principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together, our results

    9. Analog synthetic biology

      PubMed Central

      Sarpeshkar, R.

      2014-01-01

      We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog–digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA–protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

    10. Analog synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Sarpeshkar, R

      2014-03-28

      We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

    11. Synthetic Virology: Engineering Viruses for Gene Delivery

      PubMed Central

      Guenther, Caitlin M.; Kuypers, Brianna E.; Lam, Michael T.; Robinson, Tawana M.; Zhao, Julia; Suh, Junghae

      2014-01-01

      The success of gene therapy relies heavily on the performance of vectors that can effectively deliver transgenes to desired cell populations. As viruses have evolved to deliver genetic material into cells, a prolific area of research has emerged over the last several decades to leverage the innate properties of viruses as well as to engineer new features into them. Specifically, the field of synthetic virology aims to capitalize on knowledge accrued from fundamental virology research in order to design functionally enhanced gene delivery vectors. The enhanced viral vectors, or “bionic” viruses, feature engineered components, or “parts”, that are natural (intrinsic to viruses or from other organisms) and synthetic (such as man-made polymers or inorganic nanoparticles). Various design strategies – rational, combinatorial, and pseudo-rational – have been pursued to create the hybrid viruses. The gene delivery vectors of the future will likely criss-cross the boundaries between natural and synthetic domains to harness the unique strengths afforded by the various functional parts that can be grafted onto virus capsids. Such research endeavours will further expand and enable enhanced control over the functional capacity of these nanoscale devices for biomedicine. PMID:25195922

    12. Microbial transformation of bioactive compounds and production of ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein from natural fermented soybean paste.

      PubMed

      Roh, Changhyun

      2014-01-01

      Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds. PMID:25513748

    13. Trifluoromethyl nitrogen heterocycles: synthetic aspects and potential biological targets.

      PubMed

      Meyer, F

      2016-02-21

      Recent advances regarding the synthetic chemistry of fluorinated aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines and their lactam/amino acid counterparts are presented. These heterocycles are of high importance both as building blocks for more complex structures and as active parts of medicinal chemistry-oriented compounds. PMID:26783567

    14. Inspired by flowers: synthetic routes to scalemic deltamethrinic acid.

      PubMed

      Krief, Alain; Jeanmart, Stephane; Kremer, Adrian

      2009-03-15

      This review reports different syntheses of deltamethrinic acid, especially those originating from our laboratory. Deltamethrinic acid is a synthetic compound whose structure is inspired from those present in the flower head of the plant Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. Its ester 'deltamethrin' exhibits an extremely high insecticidal activity (DDTx35.000) and an extremely low toxicity to mammals. PMID:19231205

    15. Structure and Properties of a Synthetic Analogue of Bacterial Iron-Sulfur Proteins

      PubMed Central

      Herskovitz, T.; Averill, B. A.; Holm, R. H.; Ibers, James A.; Phillips, W. D.; Weiher, J. F.

      1972-01-01

      The compound (Et4N)2[Fe4S4(SCH2Ph)4] has been prepared and its structure determined by x-ray diffraction. The Fe4S4 core of the anion possesses a configuration of D2d symmetry that is closely related to the Fe4S4 active-site structures of the high-potential iron protein from Chromatium and the ferredoxin from Micrococcus aerogenes. Electronic properties of the tetrameric anion have been partially characterized by measurement of proton magnetic resonance, Mössbauer, photoelectron, and electronic spectra, and magnetic susceptibility. Comparison of corresponding properties of [Fe4S4(SCH2Ph)4]2- and the proteins implies that the oxidation levels of the synthetic tetramer, the reduced form of the high-potential protein, and the oxidized form of the 8-Fe ferredoxins are equivalent. The tetramer possesses the one-electron redox capacity associated with the 4-Fe centers of the ferredoxins. The structural and collective electronic features of [Fe4S4(SCH2Ph)4]2- reveal it to be the first well-defined synthetic analogue of the active site of an iron-sulfur protein. PMID:4506765

    16. Synthetic spectra: a tool for correlation spectroscopy

      SciTech Connect

      Sinclair, Michael B.; Butler, Michael A.; Ricco, Anthony J. Senturia, Stephen D.

      1997-05-01

      We show that computer-generated diffractive optical elements can be used to synthesize the infrared spectra of important compounds, and we describe a modified phase-retrieval algorithm useful for the design of elements of this type. In particular, we present the results of calculations of diffractive elements that are capable of synthesizing portions of the infrared spectra of gaseous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Further, we propose a new type of correlation spectrometer that uses these diffractive elements rather than reference cells for the production of reference spectra. Storage of a large number of diffractive elements, each producing a synthetic spectrum corresponding to a different target compound, in compact-disk-like format will allow a spectrometer of this type to rapidly determine the composition of unknown samples. Other advantages of the proposed correlation spectrometer are also discussed. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

    17. Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis.

      PubMed

      Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C

      2005-10-01

      Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of some of the compounds were investigated. PMID:16111726

    18. Heat capacity of alkanolamine aqueous solutions

      SciTech Connect

      Chiu, L.F.; Li, M.H.

      1999-12-01

      Heat capacities of monoethanoloamine, diglycolamine, diethanolamine, di-w propanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol, and 2-piperidineethanol aqueous solutions were measured from 30 to 80 C with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mole fractions of alkanolamines studied are 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. Heat capacities of N-methyldiethanolamine aqueous solutions have been measured to verify the validity of C{sub p} measurements for alkanolamine aqueous solutions. The estimated uncertainty of the measured heat capacities is {plus{underscore}minus}3%, including the effect of up to 5% impurities in a substance. An excess molar heat capacity expression using the Redlich-Kister equation for the composition dependence is used to represent the measured C{sub p} of alkanolamine aqueous solutions. For a total of 374 data points, the calculation results for eight alkanolamine solutions give the overall average absolute deviations of 11.9% and 0.29% for the excess molar heat capacity and the heat capacity, respectively. The heat capacities presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations. Solutions of alkanolamines are industrially important mixtures used in the natural gas industry, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia plants for the removal of acidic components such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams.

    19. Synthetic organic chemicals in earthworms from agriculture soil amended with municipal biosolids

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Introduction: Biosolids resulting from municipal wastewater treatment are known to contain residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other synthetic organic compounds. Many of these are contaminants of emerging concern for their potential endocrine disruption of fish and wildli...

    20. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

      PubMed Central

      Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

      2016-01-01

      Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

    1. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues-Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress.

      PubMed

      Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

      2016-01-01

      Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

    2. Synthetic antibiofilm peptides.

      PubMed

      de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; de Souza Cândido, Elizabete; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Hancock, Robert E W

      2016-05-01

      Bacteria predominantly exist as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms that are associated with at least two thirds of all infections and exhibit increased adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotic therapies. Therefore, biofilms are major contributors to the global health problem of antibiotic resistance, and novel approaches to counter them are urgently needed. Small molecules of the innate immune system called host defense peptides (HDPs) have emerged as promising templates for the design of potent, broad-spectrum antibiofilm agents. Here, we review recent developments in the new field of synthetic antibiofilm peptides, including mechanistic insights, synergistic interactions with available antibiotics, and their potential as novel antimicrobials against persistent infections caused by biofilms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26724202

    3. Progress toward synthetic cells.

      PubMed

      Blain, J Craig; Szostak, Jack W

      2014-01-01

      The complexity of even the simplest known life forms makes efforts to synthesize living cells from inanimate components seem like a daunting task. However, recent progress toward the creation of synthetic cells, ranging from simple protocells to artificial cells approaching the complexity of bacteria, suggests that the synthesis of life is now a realistic goal. Protocell research, fueled by advances in the biophysics of primitive membranes and the chemistry of nucleic acid replication, is providing new insights into the origin of cellular life. Parallel efforts to construct more complex artificial cells, incorporating translational machinery and protein enzymes, are providing information about the requirements for protein-based life. We discuss recent advances and remaining challenges in the synthesis of artificial cells, the possibility of creating new forms of life distinct from existing biology, and the promise of this research for gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of living systems. PMID:24606140

    4. Multidimensional synthetic estimation filter

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

      1990-01-01

      The synthetic estimation filter (SEF) crafts an affine variation into its response to a changing parameter (e.g. scale or rotation). Sets of such filters are used in an estimation correlator to reduce the number of filters required for a given tracking accuracy. By overspecifying the system (one more SEF than parameters to be tracked), the ratio of correlation responses between filters forms a robust estimator into the spanned domain of the parameters. Previous results dealt with a laboratory correlator which could track a single parameter. This paper explores the SEF and the estimator's extension to more dimensions. A 2D example is given in which a reduction of filters from 25 to 3 is demonstrated to span a 4-degree square portion of pose space.

    5. Scaling Reversible Adhesion in Synthetic and Biological Systems

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bartlett, Michael; Irschick, Duncan; Crosby, Alfred

      2013-03-01

      High capacity, easy release polymer adhesives, as demonstrated by a gecko's toe, present unique opportunities for synthetic design. However, without a framework that connects biological and synthetic adhesives from basic nanoscopic features to macroscopic systems, synthetic mimics have failed to perform favorably at large length scales. Starting from an energy balance, we develop a scaling approach to understand unstable interfacial fracture over multiple length scales. The simple theory reveals that reversibly adhesive polymers do not rely upon fibrillar features but require contradicting attributes: maximum compliance normal to the substrate and minimum compliance in the loading direction. We use this counterintuitive criterion to create reversible, easy release adhesives at macroscopic sizes (100 cm2) with unprecedented force capacities on the order of 3000 N. Importantly, we achieve this without fibrillar features, supporting our predictions and emphasizing the importance of subsurface anatomy in biological adhesive systems. Our theory describes adhesive force capacity as a function of material properties and geometry and is supported by over 1000 experiments, spanning both synthetic and biological adhesives, with agreement over 14 orders of magnitude in adhesive force.

    6. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluorine compounds; tolerances for... § 180.145 Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for combined residues of the insecticidal fluorine compounds cryolite and synthetic cryolite (sodium...

    7. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorine compounds; tolerances for... § 180.145 Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for combined residues of the insecticidal fluorine compounds cryolite and synthetic cryolite (sodium...

    8. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fluorine compounds; tolerances for... § 180.145 Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for combined residues of the insecticidal fluorine compounds cryolite and synthetic cryolite (sodium...

    9. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorine compounds; tolerances for... § 180.145 Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for combined residues of the insecticidal fluorine compounds cryolite and synthetic cryolite (sodium...

    10. 40 CFR 180.145 - Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fluorine compounds; tolerances for... § 180.145 Fluorine compounds; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for combined residues of the insecticidal fluorine compounds cryolite and synthetic cryolite (sodium...

    11. Synthetic Genomics and Synthetic Biology Applications Between Hopes and Concerns

      PubMed Central

      König, Harald; Frank, Daniel; Heil, Reinhard; Coenen, Christopher

      2013-01-01

      New organisms and biological systems designed to satisfy human needs are among the aims of synthetic genomics and synthetic biology. Synthetic biology seeks to model and construct biological components, functions and organisms that do not exist in nature or to redesign existing biological systems to perform new functions. Synthetic genomics, on the other hand, encompasses technologies for the generation of chemically-synthesized whole genomes or larger parts of genomes, allowing to simultaneously engineer a myriad of changes to the genetic material of organisms. Engineering complex functions or new organisms in synthetic biology are thus progressively becoming dependent on and converging with synthetic genomics. While applications from both areas have been predicted to offer great benefits by making possible new drugs, renewable chemicals or clean energy, they have also given rise to concerns about new safety, environmental and socio-economic risks – stirring an increasingly polarizing debate. Here we intend to provide an overview on recent progress in biomedical and biotechnological applications of synthetic genomics and synthetic biology as well as on arguments and evidence related to their possible benefits, risks and governance implications. PMID:23997647

    12. Building Leadership Capacity

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Flanary, Dick

      2009-01-01

      The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

    13. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

      PubMed

      Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

      2016-01-01

      The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892

    14. Synthetic clay excels in {sup 90}Sr removal

      SciTech Connect

      Komarneni, Sridhar; Kodama, Tatsuya; Paulus, William J.; Carlson, C.

      2000-06-01

      Tests with actual ground water from Hanford site, and fundamental studies of 2Na{sup +}{yields}Sr{sup 2+} exchange equilibria revealed that a synthetic clay is extremely selective for {sup 90}Sr with a high capacity for uptake. Comparative studies with existing Sr selective ion exchangers clearly revealed that the present synthetic clay exhibited the best performance for {sup 90}Sr removal from actual ground water collected from three different locations at Hanford. This novel Sr ion sieve is expected to be useful for the decontamination of the environment after accidental release and contamination with {sup 90}Sr. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.

    15. Synthetic biology: An emerging research field in China

      PubMed Central

      Pei, Lei; Schmidt, Markus; Wei, Wei

      2011-01-01

      Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy. PMID:21729747

    16. A synthetic approach to abiogenesis.

      PubMed

      Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

      2014-05-01

      Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction (resynthesis) rather than deconstruction (analysis). Here we discuss how such an approach could be applied to assemble synthetic quasibiological systems able to replicate and evolve, illuminating universal properties of life and the search for its origins. PMID:24781322

    17. Synthetic Foveal Imaging Technology

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hoenk, Michael; Monacos, Steve; Nikzad, Shouleh

      2009-01-01

      Synthetic Foveal imaging Technology (SyFT) is an emerging discipline of image capture and image-data processing that offers the prospect of greatly increased capabilities for real-time processing of large, high-resolution images (including mosaic images) for such purposes as automated recognition and tracking of moving objects of interest. SyFT offers a solution to the image-data processing problem arising from the proposed development of gigapixel mosaic focal-plane image-detector assemblies for very wide field-of-view imaging with high resolution for detecting and tracking sparse objects or events within narrow subfields of view. In order to identify and track the objects or events without the means of dynamic adaptation to be afforded by SyFT, it would be necessary to post-process data from an image-data space consisting of terabytes of data. Such post-processing would be time-consuming and, as a consequence, could result in missing significant events that could not be observed at all due to the time evolution of such events or could not be observed at required levels of fidelity without such real-time adaptations as adjusting focal-plane operating conditions or aiming of the focal plane in different directions to track such events. The basic concept of foveal imaging is straightforward: In imitation of a natural eye, a foveal-vision image sensor is designed to offer higher resolution in a small region of interest (ROI) within its field of view. Foveal vision reduces the amount of unwanted information that must be transferred from the image sensor to external image-data-processing circuitry. The aforementioned basic concept is not new in itself: indeed, image sensors based on these concepts have been described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Active-pixel integrated-circuit image sensors that can be programmed in real time to effect foveal artificial vision on demand are one such example. What is new in SyFT is a synergistic combination of recent

    18. Recent advances in synthetic biosafety

      PubMed Central

      Simon, Anna J.; Ellington, Andrew D.

      2016-01-01

      Synthetically engineered organisms hold promise for a broad range of medical, environmental, and industrial applications. Organisms can potentially be designed, for example, for the inexpensive and environmentally benign synthesis of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, for the cleanup of environmental pollutants, and potentially even for biomedical applications such as the targeting of specific diseases or tissues. However, the use of synthetically engineered organisms comes with several reasonable safety concerns, one of which is that the organisms or their genes could escape their intended habitats and cause environmental disruption. Here we review key recent developments in this emerging field of synthetic biocontainment and discuss further developments that might be necessary for the widespread use of synthetic organisms. Specifically, we discuss the history and modern development of three strategies for the containment of synthetic microbes: addiction to an exogenously supplied ligand; self-killing outside of a designated environment; and self-destroying encoded DNA circuitry outside of a designated environment.

    19. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

      PubMed

      Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

      2012-12-01

      In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation. PMID:23234589

    20. Synthetic cannabinoids 2015: An update for pediatricians in clinical practice.

      PubMed

      Castellanos, Daniel; Gralnik, Leonard M

      2016-02-01

      Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of substances in the world of designer drugs that have become increasingly popular over the past few years. Synthetic cannabinoids are a chemically diverse group of compounds functionally similar to THC. Since first appearing on the world market a few years ago these compounds have evolved rapidly. Newer more potent analogues have been developed. Identifying youth who abuse these substances can be difficult. Newer forms of consumption have also evolved. These products are now manufactured in products that look like natural cannabis resin and in liquid cartridges used in electronic cigarettes. Synthetic cannabinoids appear to be associated with potentially dangerous health effects that are more severe than that of marijuana. Some synthetic cannabinoid compounds have been associated with serious physical consequences, such as, seizures, myocardial infarction and renal damage. In addition, psychoactive effects, such as aggression, confusion, anxiety and psychosis have also been reported. The diagnosis remains primarily clinical with toxicological confirmation difficult due to manufacturers constantly developing new analogues to avoid detection. Pediatricians are urged to familiarize themselves with these drugs and the typical presentations of patients who use them. PMID:26862498

    1. Synthetic cannabinoids 2015: An update for pediatricians in clinical practice

      PubMed Central

      Castellanos, Daniel; Gralnik, Leonard M

      2016-01-01

      Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of substances in the world of designer drugs that have become increasingly popular over the past few years. Synthetic cannabinoids are a chemically diverse group of compounds functionally similar to THC. Since first appearing on the world market a few years ago these compounds have evolved rapidly. Newer more potent analogues have been developed. Identifying youth who abuse these substances can be difficult. Newer forms of consumption have also evolved. These products are now manufactured in products that look like natural cannabis resin and in liquid cartridges used in electronic cigarettes. Synthetic cannabinoids appear to be associated with potentially dangerous health effects that are more severe than that of marijuana. Some synthetic cannabinoid compounds have been associated with serious physical consequences, such as, seizures, myocardial infarction and renal damage. In addition, psychoactive effects, such as aggression, confusion, anxiety and psychosis have also been reported. The diagnosis remains primarily clinical with toxicological confirmation difficult due to manufacturers constantly developing new analogues to avoid detection. Pediatricians are urged to familiarize themselves with these drugs and the typical presentations of patients who use them. PMID:26862498

    2. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

      SciTech Connect

      Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

      2012-02-01

      Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

    3. Free-Radical-Scavenging, Antityrosinase, and Cellular Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activities of Synthetic Isoflavones.

      PubMed

      Lu, Tzy-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Ng, Lean-Teik; Hsieh, Yen-Pin

      2015-06-01

      In this study, we examined the potential of synthetic isoflavones for application in cosmeceuticals. Twenty-five isoflavones were synthesized and their capacities of free-radical-scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, as well as their impact on cell viability of B16F10 murine melanoma cells and HaCaT human keratinocytes were evaluated. Isoflavones that showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities were further studied on reduction of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activities in B16F10 melanocytes in vitro. Among the isoflavones tested, 6-hydroxydaidzein (2) was the strongest scavenger of both ABTS(.+) and DPPH(.) radicals with SC50 values of 11.3 ± 0.3 and 9.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Texasin (20) exhibited the most potent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 14.9 ± 4.5 μM), whereas retusin (17) showed the most efficient inhibition both of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activity in B16F10 melanocytes, respectively. In summary, both retusin (17) and texasin (20) exhibited potent free-radical-scavenging capacities as well as efficient inhibition of cellular melanogenesis, suggesting that they are valuable hit compounds with potential for advanced cosmeceutical development. PMID:26080742

    4. Polybenzimidazole compounds

      DOEpatents

      Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

      2010-08-10

      A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

    5. Synthetic antimicrobial peptide design.

      PubMed

      Powell, W A; Catranis, C M; Maynard, C A

      1995-01-01

      To guide the design of potential plant pathogen-resistance genes, synthetic variants of naturally occurring antimicrobial gene products were evaluated. Five 20-amino acid (ESF1, ESF4, ESF5, ESF6, ESF13), one 18-amino acid (ESF12), and one 17-amino acid (ESF17) amphipathic peptide sequences were designed, synthesized, and tested with in vitro bioassays. Positive charges on the hydrophilic side of the peptide were shown to be essential for antifungal activity, yet the number of positive charges could be varied with little or no change in activity. The size could be reduced to 18 amino acids, but at 17 amino acids a significant reduction in activity was observed. ESF1, 5, 6, and 12 peptides were inhibitory to the germination of conidia from Cryphonectria parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Septoria musiva but did not inhibit the germination of pollen from Castanea mollissima and Salix lucida. ESF12 also had no effect on the germination of Malus sylvestris and Lycopersicon esculentum pollen, but inhibited the growth of the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the active ESF peptides were similar to those of the naturally occurring control peptides, magainin II and cecropin B. The significant differential in sensitivity between the microbes and plant cells indicated that the active ESF peptides are potentially useful models for designing plant pathogen-resistance genes. PMID:7579625

    6. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

      2007-02-01

      State-of-the-art methods in high-resolution three-dimensional optical microscopy require that the focus be scanned through the entire region of interest. However, an analysis of the physics of the light-sample interaction reveals that the Fourier-space coverage is independent of depth. Here we show that, by solving the inverse scattering problem for interference microscopy, computed reconstruction yields volumes with a resolution in all planes that is equivalent to the resolution achieved only at the focal plane for conventional high-resolution microscopy. In short, the entire illuminated volume has spatially invariant resolution, thus eliminating the compromise between resolution and depth of field. We describe and demonstrate a novel computational image-formation technique called interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). ISAM has the potential to broadly impact real-time three-dimensional microscopy and analysis in the fields of cell and tumour biology, as well as in clinical diagnosis where in vivo imaging is preferable to biopsy.

    7. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ralston, Tyler S.

      State-of-the-art interferometric microscopies have problems representing objects that lie outside of the focus because the defocus and diffraction effects are not accounted for in the processing. These problems occur because of the lack of comprehensive models to include the scattering effects in the processing. In this dissertation, a new modality in three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM), is introduced to account for the scattering effects. Comprehensive models for interferometric microscopy, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) are developed, for which forward, adjoint, normal, and inverse operators are formulated. Using an accurate model for the probe beam, the resulting algorithms demonstrate accurate linear estimation of the susceptibility of an object from the interferometric data. Using the regularized least squares solution, an ISAM reconstruction of underlying object structure having spatially invariant resolution is obtained from simulated and experimental interferometric data, even in regions outside of the focal plane of the lens. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3D interferometric data is used to resolve objects outside of the confocal region with minimal loss of resolution, unlike in OCT. Therefore, high-resolution details are recovered from outside of the confocal region. Models and solutions are presented for the planar-scanned, the rotationally scanned, and the full-field illuminated geometry. The models and algorithms presented account for the effects of a finite beam width, the source spectrum, the illumination and collection fields, as well as defocus, diffraction and dispersion effects.

    8. Synthetic retinoids in dermatology

      PubMed Central

      Heller, Elizabeth H.; Shiffman, Norman J.

      1985-01-01

      The potential of vitamin A, or retinol, in the treatment of a variety of skin diseases has long been recognized, but because of serious toxic effects this substance generally could not be used. The recent development and marketing of two relatively nontoxic synthetic analogues, which are known as retinoids, has made it possible to treat some of the diseases that are resistant to standard forms of therapy. Isotretinoin is very effective in cystic and conglobate acne, while etretinate is especially useful in the more severe forms of psoriasis. Good results have also been obtained in other disorders of keratinization. Vitamin A and its derivatives apparently have an antineoplastic effect as well and may come to be used in both the prevention and the treatment of epithelial cancer. In many of these diseases the retinoids act by enhancing the normal differentiation and proliferation of epidermal tissues, but the exact mechanisms are not well understood. Their influence on the intracellular polyamines that control the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins may be an important factor. Although the retinoids have few serious systemic effects, they are teratogenic, and because they persist in the body their use in women of childbearing potential is limited. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:3158386

    9. Computing with synthetic protocells.

      PubMed

      Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

      2015-09-01

      In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise. PMID:25969126

    10. Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry.

      PubMed

      Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A

      2007-09-01

      The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead of simply analyzing existing molecules, chemists began to synthesize them--including molecules that did not exist in nature. The combination of this new synthetic approach with more traditional analytical approaches revolutionized chemistry, leading to a deep understanding of the fundamental principles of chemical structure and reactivity and to the emergence of the modern pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The history of synthetic chemistry offers a possible roadmap for the development and impact of synthetic biology, a nascent field in which the goal is to build novel biological systems. PMID:17710092

    11. Antioxidant behavior of mearnsetin and myricetin flavonoid compounds — A DFT study

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.

      2011-06-01

      The molecular characteristics of two naturally occurring flavonoid compounds mearnsetin and myricetin have been computed using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The computation and analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy magnitudes for all the OH sites for both the compounds clearly denotes the contribution of the B-ring for the antioxidant activity. The analysis has also indicated the higher values of BDE on the C5-OH radical species in both the compounds. The computed vibrational frequency analysis indicates the absence of imaginary frequency in the neutral as well as radical species of both the flavonoid compounds. The ionisation potential (IP) analysis was found to be within the range of the IP of synthetic food additives. In addition, various molecular descriptors such as electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity, electrophilic index have also been calculated and the validity of Koopman's theorem is verified. The plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for both the compounds have been computed and interpreted. The polar nature and their polarizing capacity are well established through the analysis of dipole moment and polarisability magnitudes.

    12. Distributed and collaborative synthetic environments

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bajaj, Chandrajit L.; Bernardini, Fausto

      1995-01-01

      Fast graphics workstations and increased computing power, together with improved interface technologies, have created new and diverse possibilities for developing and interacting with synthetic environments. A synthetic environment system is generally characterized by input/output devices that constitute the interface between the human senses and the synthetic environment generated by the computer; and a computation system running a real-time simulation of the environment. A basic need of a synthetic environment system is that of giving the user a plausible reproduction of the visual aspect of the objects with which he is interacting. The goal of our Shastra research project is to provide a substrate of geometric data structures and algorithms which allow the distributed construction and modification of the environment, efficient querying of objects attributes, collaborative interaction with the environment, fast computation of collision detection and visibility information for efficient dynamic simulation and real-time scene display. In particular, we address the following issues: (1) A geometric framework for modeling and visualizing synthetic environments and interacting with them. We highlight the functions required for the geometric engine of a synthetic environment system. (2) A distribution and collaboration substrate that supports construction, modification, and interaction with synthetic environments on networked desktop machines.

    13. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yates, Gillian

      Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

    14. SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. Emergent genetic oscillations in a synthetic microbial consortium.

      PubMed

      Chen, Ye; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Hirning, Andrew J; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R

      2015-08-28

      A challenge of synthetic biology is the creation of cooperative microbial systems that exhibit population-level behaviors. Such systems use cellular signaling mechanisms to regulate gene expression across multiple cell types. We describe the construction of a synthetic microbial consortium consisting of two distinct cell types—an "activator" strain and a "repressor" strain. These strains produced two orthogonal cell-signaling molecules that regulate gene expression within a synthetic circuit spanning both strains. The two strains generated emergent, population-level oscillations only when cultured together. Certain network topologies of the two-strain circuit were better at maintaining robust oscillations than others. The ability to program population-level dynamics through the genetic engineering of multiple cooperative strains points the way toward engineering complex synthetic tissues and organs with multiple cell types. PMID:26315440

    15. Rapid screening of environmental chemicals for estrogen receptor binding capacity.

      PubMed Central

      Bolger, R; Wiese, T E; Ervin, K; Nestich, S; Checovich, W

      1998-01-01

      Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemicals. While it is clear that in vivo methods will be required to identify adverse effects produced by these chemicals, in vitro assays can define particular mechanisms of action and have the potential to be employed as rapid and low-cost screens for use in large scale EDC screening programs. Traditional estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays are useful for characterizing a chemical's potential to be an estrogen-acting EDC, but they involve displacement of a radioactive ligand from crude receptor preparations at low temperatures. The usefulness of these assays for realistically determining the ER binding interactions of weakly estrogenic environmental and industrial compounds that have low aqueous solubility is unclear. In this report, we present a novel fluorescence polarization (FP) method that measures the capacity of a competitor chemical to displace a high affinity fluorescent ligand from purified, recombinant human ER-[alpha] at room temperature. The ER-[alpha] binding interactions generated for 15 natural and synthetic compounds were found to be similar to those determined with traditional receptor binding assays. We also discuss the potential to employ this FP technology to binding studies involving ER-ss and other receptors. Thus, the assay introduced in this study is a nonradioactive receptor binding method that shows promise as a high throughput screening method for large-scale testing of environmental and industrial chemicals for ER binding interactions. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9721254

    16. Synthetic Biology for Therapeutic Applications

      PubMed Central

      2015-01-01

      Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug discovery and production, as well as vaccine development and treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders. PMID:25098838

    17. Synthetic Fillers for Facial Rejuvenation.

      PubMed

      Lee, Johnson C; Lorenc, Z Paul

      2016-07-01

      Soft tissue filler procedures have increased dramatically in popularity in the United States. Synthetic fillers such as calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), and silicone provide initial volume replacement but have an additional biostimulatory effect to supplement facial volumization. Indications include human immunodeficiency virus lipoatrophy and nasolabial folds for CaHA and PLLA and atrophic acne scars for PMMA. Most clinical use of these synthetic fillers is in an off-label fashion. Beyond the proper choice of a synthetic filler, careful consideration of dilution, injection method, and postprocedural care allows for successful and consistent results. PMID:27363763

    18. On Gaussian feedback capacity

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Dembo, Amir

      1989-01-01

      Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

    19. PROCESSING EFFECTS ON POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF BLUEBERRIES

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Polyphenolic compounds contribute to the antioxidant properties of blueberries. Due to limited availability of fresh fruit, blueberries are commonly preserved by canning and freezing, and used for baking. Unfortunately, the effect of these treatments on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity ...

    20. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

      PubMed

      Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

      2015-11-01

      Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. PMID:26021783

    1. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

      SciTech Connect

      A. Findikakis

      2004-11-01

      The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

    2. Mapping the Emergence of Synthetic Biology.

      PubMed

      Raimbault, Benjamin; Cointet, Jean-Philippe; Joly, Pierre-Benoît

      2016-01-01

      In this paper, we apply an original scientometric analyses to a corpus comprising synthetic biology (SynBio) publications in Thomson Reuters Web of Science to characterize the emergence of this new scientific field. Three results were drawn from this empirical investigation. First, despite the exponential growth of publications, the study of population level statistics (newcomers proportion, collaboration network structure) shows that SynBio has entered a stabilization process since 2010. Second, the mapping of textual and citational networks shows that SynBio is characterized by high heterogeneity and four different approaches: the central approach, where biobrick engineering is the most widespread; genome engineering; protocell creation; and metabolic engineering. We suggest that synthetic biology acts as an umbrella term allowing for the mobilization of resources, and also serves to relate scientific content and promises of applications. Third, we observed a strong intertwinement between epistemic and socio-economic dynamics. Measuring scientific production and impact and using structural analysis data, we identified a core set of mostly American scientists. Biographical analysis shows that these central and influential scientists act as "boundary spanners," meaning that their importance to the field lies not only in their academic contributions, but also in their capacity to interact with other social spaces that are outside the academic sphere. PMID:27611324

    3. Multipurpose Compound

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1983-01-01

      Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

    4. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites.

      PubMed

      Oste, Leonard A; Lexmond, Theo M; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

      2002-01-01

      In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type, faujasite-type, zeolite X, zeolite P, and two zeolites A) and one natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Zeolite A appeared to have the highest binding capacity between pH 5 and 6.5 and was stable above pH 5.5. The second objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zeolite addition on the dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration. Since zeolites increase soil pH and bind Ca, their application might lead to dispersion of organic matter. In a batch experiment, the DOM concentration increased by a factor of 5 when the pH increased from 6 to 8 as a result of zeolite A addition. A strong increase in DOM was also found in the leachate of soil columns, particularly in the beginning of the experiment. This resulted in higher metal leaching caused by metal-DOM complexes. In contrast, the free ionic concentration of Cd and Zn strongly decreased after the addition of zeolites, which might explain the reduction in metal uptake observed in plant growth experiments. Pretreatment of zeolites with acid (to prevent a pH increase) or Ca (to coagulate organic matter) suppressed the dispersion of organic matter, but also decreased the metal binding capacity of the zeolites due to competition of protons or Ca. PMID:12026084

    5. Synthetic Turf Multiplies Stadium Use.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Leach, Richard

      1979-01-01

      The high school stadium in Flint, Michigan, once was used only for varsity football games. After the installation of synthetic turf, an average of 332 events have been staged there each year. (Author/MLF)

    6. A Course on Synthetic Fuels.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

      1985-01-01

      A senior-level, elective course on synthetic fuels was developed for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The topics covered in this course, instructional strategies used, and independent student projects are described. (JN)

    7. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

      PubMed

      Holm, Sune

      2015-12-01

      A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms. PMID:26205204

    8. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

      2010-12-01

      In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented. PMID:22132053

    9. Toward Engineering Synthetic Microbial Metabolism

      PubMed Central

      McArthur, George H.; Fong, Stephen S.

      2010-01-01

      The generation of well-characterized parts and the formulation of biological design principles in synthetic biology are laying the foundation for more complex and advanced microbial metabolic engineering. Improvements in de novo DNA synthesis and codon-optimization alone are already contributing to the manufacturing of pathway enzymes with improved or novel function. Further development of analytical and computer-aided design tools should accelerate the forward engineering of precisely regulated synthetic pathways by providing a standard framework for the predictable design of biological systems from well-characterized parts. In this review we discuss the current state of synthetic biology within a four-stage framework (design, modeling, synthesis, analysis) and highlight areas requiring further advancement to facilitate true engineering of synthetic microbial metabolism. PMID:20037734

    10. SYNTHETIC SLING FAILURE - EVALUATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

      SciTech Connect

      MACKEY TC; HENDERSON CS

      2009-10-26

      The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

    11. Superresolution and Synthetic Aperture Radar

      SciTech Connect

      DICKEY,FRED M.; ROMERO,LOUIS; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

      2001-05-01

      Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. The application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar is investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. A criterion for judging superresolution processing of an image is presented.

    12. The Wide and Unpredictable Scope of Synthetic Cannabinoids Toxicity

      PubMed Central

      Blaak, Christa; Tam, Eric; Rajayer, Salil; Morante, Joaquin; Yeh, Angela; Butala, Ashvin

      2015-01-01

      Drug use and abuse continue to be a large public health concern worldwide. Over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and become increasingly popular. In the recent past, compounds similar to tetrahydrocannabinoid (THC), the active ingredient of marijuana, have been synthetically produced and offered commercially as legal substances. Since the initial communications of their abuse in 2008, few case reports have been published illustrating the misuse of these substances with signs and symptoms of intoxication. Even though synthetic cannabinoids have been restricted, they are still readily available across USA and their use has been dramatically increasing, with a concomitant increment in reports to poison control centers and emergency department (ED) visits. We describe a case of acute hypoxemic/hypercapnic respiratory failure as a consequence of acute congestive heart failure (CHF) developed from myocardial stunning resulting from a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) following the consumption of synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:26788376

    13. Variable capacity gasification burner

      SciTech Connect

      Saxon, D.I.

      1985-03-05

      A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

    14. Liquid heat capacity lasers

      DOEpatents

      Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

      2007-05-01

      The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

    15. Problems of Excess Capacity

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Douglas, G.

      1972-01-01

      The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

    16. Who needs capacity?

      PubMed

      Buchanan, Alec

      2015-01-01

      The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

    17. Nanofluid heat capacities

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

      2011-12-01

      Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-α olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

    18. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2001-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

    19. Physiologically based synthetic models of hepatic disposition.

      PubMed

      Hunt, C Anthony; Ropella, Glen E P; Yan, Li; Hung, Daniel Y; Roberts, Michael S

      2006-12-01

      Current physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are inductive. We present an additional, different approach that is based on the synthetic rather than the inductive approach to modeling and simulation. It relies on object-oriented programming. A model of the referent system in its experimental context is synthesized by assembling objects that represent components such as molecules, cells, aspects of tissue architecture, catheters, etc. The single pass perfused rat liver has been well described in evaluating hepatic drug pharmacokinetics (PK) and is the system on which we focus. In silico experiments begin with administration of objects representing actual compounds. Data are collected in a manner analogous to that in the referent PK experiments. The synthetic modeling method allows for recognition and representation of discrete event and discrete time processes, as well as heterogeneity in organization, function, and spatial effects. An application is developed for sucrose and antipyrine, administered separately and together. PBPK modeling has made extensive progress in characterizing abstracted PK properties but this has also been its limitation. Now, other important questions and possible extensions emerge. How are these PK properties and the observed behaviors generated? The inherent heuristic limitations of traditional models have hindered getting meaningful, detailed answers to such questions. Synthetic models of the type described here are specifically intended to help answer such questions. Analogous to wet-lab experimental models, they retain their applicability even when broken apart into sub-components. Having and applying this new class of models along with traditional PK modeling methods is expected to increase the productivity of pharmaceutical research at all levels that make use of modeling and simulation. PMID:17051440

    20. The toxicology of bath salts: a review of synthetic cathinones.

      PubMed

      Prosser, Jane M; Nelson, Lewis S

      2012-03-01

      Synthetic cathinones have recently emerged and grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Their dramatic increase has resulted in part from sensationalized media attention as well as widespread availability on the Internet. They are often considered "legal highs" and sold as "bath salts" or "plant food" and labeled "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Cathinone is a naturally occurring beta-ketone amphetamine analogue found in the leaves of the Catha edulis plant. Synthetic cathinones are derivatives of this compound. Those that are being used as drugs of abuse include butylone, dimethylcathinone, ethcathinone, ethylone, 3- and 4-fluoromethcathinone, mephedrone, methedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, and pyrovalerone. Synthetic cathinones are phenylalkylamines derivatives, and are often termed "bk-amphetamines" for the beta-ketone moiety. They may possess both amphetamine-like properties and the ability to modulate serotonin, causing distinct psychoactive effects. Desired effects reported by users of synthetic cathinones include increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms are the most common adverse effects reported in synthetic cathinone users who require medical care. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have been reported. Exposure to and use of synthetic cathinones are becoming increasingly popular despite a lack of scientific research and understanding of the potential harms of these substances. The clinical similarities to amphetamines and MDMA specifically are predictable based on the chemical structure of this class of agents. More work is necessary to understand the mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, metabolism, clinical and psychological effects as well as the potential for addiction and withdrawal of these agents. PMID:22108839

    1. Simultaneous measurement of heat capacity and internal relaxation time.

      PubMed

      Nagasawa, Mitsuharu

      2016-05-01

      A new steady-state method is proposed to simultaneously measure the heat capacity and internal relaxation time using superimposed constant and square-wave power. This method is appropriate for small sample systems with low thermal conductance. The accuracies of the heat capacity and internal relaxation time are almost the same as those determined using other similar methods, but correction for the effect of internal relaxation on the heat capacity is more flexible. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are also simultaneously determined for rod- and slab-shaped samples. We demonstrate the method for small slabs of synthetic silica in the 80-320 K temperature range. PMID:27250459

    2. Effect-based detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine.

      PubMed

      Pitardi, Danilo; Cini, Barbara; Paleologo, Maurizio; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; van der Linden, Sander; Vincenti, Marco; Capra, Pierluigi; Gili, Marilena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena

      2015-01-01

      Challenges to testing for the illicit use of anabolic substances in meat-producing animals stem from the production of new synthetic compounds and the administration of low-dose cocktails to circumvent detection by the surveillance schemes of European Union member states. This work evaluated for the first time GR-CALUX, a highly sensitive reporter gene assay, as a screening tool for the detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine. In order to verify the effect of natural corticosteroids on the method, the bioassay was tested first using blank urine samples collected at the farm and the slaughterhouse. Next, the dose-response curves were measured for the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids. The bioassay's ability to detect them in spiked and incurred samples of bovine urine was then evaluated. Finally, its performance was compared against a commercially available ELISA kit ordinarily used in screening activities. GR-CALUX performance did not appear to be influenced by physiological levels of endogenous corticosteroids in the farm samples, whereas an increase in these hormones might invalidate the analysis in samples obtained at the slaughterhouse. Using pure compounds, GR-CALUX showed a high sensitivity toward the synthetic glucocorticosteroids tested in order of relative potencies: flumethasone ≫ dexamethasone > betamethasone > methylprednisolone > prednisolone. As expected, the bioassay failed to detect the prohormone prednisone. The results obtained from analysis of the spiked and incurred specimens reproduced those of the blank samples and the pure compounds. GR-CALUX is a promising screening tool for the detection of illicit treatments in meat-producing bovines. Its ability to detect the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids was comparable with the ELISA test. Importantly, it appeared to be less susceptible to matrix effects than ELISA. PMID:25569131

    3. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

      PubMed Central

      Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

      1991-01-01

      In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

    4. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

      PubMed

      Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

      1991-03-01

      In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

    5. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Fishbein, Meyer

      1939-01-01

      A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

    6. Fluorescence imaging using synthetic GFP chromophores.

      PubMed

      Walker, Christopher L; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Yampolsky, Ilia V; Mishin, Alexander S; Bommarius, Andreas S; Duraj-Thatte, Anna M; Azizi, Bahareh; Tolbert, Laren M; Solntsev, Kyril M

      2015-08-01

      Green fluorescent protein and related proteins carry chromophores formed within the protein from their own amino acids. Corresponding synthetic compounds are non-fluorescent in solution due to photoinduced isomerization of the benzylideneimidiazolidinone core. Restriction of this internal rotation by binding to host molecules leads to pronounced, up to three orders of magnitude, increase of fluorescence intensity. This property allows using GFP chromophore analogs as fluorogenic dyes to detect metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and other hosts. For example, RNA aptamer named Spinach, which binds to and activates fluorescence of some GFP chromophores, was proved to be a unique label for live-cell imaging of specific RNAs, endogenous metabolites and target proteins. Chemically locked GFP chromophores are brightly fluorescent and represent potentially useful dyes due to their small size and high water solubility. PMID:26117808

    7. Synthetic musk emissions from wastewater aeration basins.

      PubMed

      Upadhyay, Nabin; Sun, Qinyue; Allen, Jonathan O; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

      2011-01-01

      Wastewater aeration basins at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) can be emission sources for gaseous or aerosolized sewage material. In the present study, particle and gas phase emissions of synthetic musks from covered and uncovered aeration basins were measured. Galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), and celestolide (ADBI) were the most abundant, ranging from 6704 to 344,306 ng m(-3), 45-3816 ng m(-3), and 2-148 ng m(-3) in the gas phase with particle phase concentrations 3 orders of magnitude lower. The musk species were not significantly removed from the exhaust air by an odor control system, yielding substantial daily emission fluxes (∼ 200 g d(-1) for HHCB) into the atmosphere. However, simple dispersion modeling showed that the treatment plants are unlikely to be a major contributor to ambient air concentrations of these species. Emission of synthetic musk species during wastewater treatment is a substantial fate process; more than 14% of the influent HHCB is emitted to the atmosphere in a POTW as opposed to the <1% predicted by an octanol-water partition coefficient and fugacity-based US EPA fate model. The substantial atmospheric emission of these compounds is most likely due to active stripping that occurs in the aeration basins by bubbling air through the sludge. PMID:21122886

    8. Capacity loss on storage and possible capacity recovery for HST nickel-hydrogen cells

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lowery, John E.

      1992-01-01

      Negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells will experience a useable capacity loss during extended open circuit storage periods. Some of the lost capacity can be recovered through cycling. Capacity recovery through cycling can be enhanced by cycling at high depths of discharge (DOD). The most timely procedure for recovering the faded capacity is to charge the cell fully and allow the cell to sit open-circuit at room temperature. This procedure seems to be effective in part because of the enlarged structure of the active materials. The compounds that formed during storage at the low electrode potentials can more easily dissolve and redistribute. All of the original capacity cannot be recovered because the lattice structure of the active material is irreversibly altered during storage. The recommendation is to use positively precharged cells activated with 26 percent KOH if possible. In aerospace applications, the benefits of negative precharge are offset by the possibility of delays and storage periods.

    9. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Curtis, T. G.

      2013-05-01

      Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

    10. High-temperature heat capacity of YVO4

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Denisova, L. T.; Chumilina, L. G.; Denisov, V. M.

      2014-12-01

      The molar heat capacity of YVO4 has been measured as a function of temperature (363-1000 K). The thermodynamic properties of the oxide compound have been calculated from the experimental data. The generalized equation describing the temperature effect on the heat capacity of yttrium orthovanadate in the range of 25-1000 K has been derived.

    11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

      PubMed Central

      Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

      2015-01-01

      First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 Project: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. PMID:26272997

    12. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

      PubMed

      Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

      2015-08-01

      First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. PMID:26272997

    13. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

      2016-07-01

      This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10–15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann–Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

    14. Synthetic cannabinoids: the dangers of spicing it up.

      PubMed

      Salani, Deborah A; Zdanowicz, Martin M

      2015-05-01

      Cannabinoids are the most commonly used illegal substances in the world. Spice and K2 are synthetic cannabinoid (SC) products that contain a mixture of herbs and plant matter combined with synthetic compounds similar to tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Because the effects of Spice and K2 are similar to cannabis, many users are smoking these products as legal substitutes despite package labeling that they are not designed for human consumption. These SC products appeal to users because they are easily accessible and not readily detected in standard urine drug screens. The active components in SC products are highly potent and poorly characterized. Use of these agents has been associated with serious psychological and physiological side effects. Because abuse of SC products has become a national public health issue, nurses should be aware of the effects of SC compounds and must take a lead role in educating patients about the dangers of their use. PMID:25974923

    15. A Survey of Synthetic and Natural Phytotoxic Compounds and Phytoalexins as Potential Antimalarial Compounds

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Objectives: The apicomplexan parasites pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. possess an apicoplast, a plastid organelle similar to those of plants. The apicoplast has some essential plant-like metabolic pathways and processes, making these parasites susceptible to inhibitors of these functions. The mai...

    16. [Analysis of a synthetic onion aroma (author's transl)].

      PubMed

      Ledl, F

      1975-02-01

      A complex mixture of compounds possessing an intensive aroma of onions is obtained, when propionaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde are treated with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Dihydrodithiazines, diethyltrithiolane, diethyl-methyl-1,3-dithiine and in small quantities diethyltetrathiane, dimethylthiophene, dipropyldisulfide, dipropenylsulfide, alkylpyridines, and the condensation products of aldehydes can be proved by the GC-MS-technic. The compositions of the synthetic onion aroma corresponds slightly with the composition of the natural onion aroma. PMID:1224790

    17. Compound chondrules: An experimental investigation. [Abstract only

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

      1994-01-01

      Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

    18. Synthetic genomics and the construction of a synthetic bacterial cell.

      PubMed

      Glass, John I

      2012-01-01

      The first synthetic cellular organism was created in 2010 and based on a very small, very simple bacterium called Mycoplasma mycoides. The bacterium was called synthetic because its DNA genome was chemically synthesized rather than replicated from an existing template DNA, as occurs in all other known cellular life on Earth. The experiment was undertaken in order to develop a system that would allow creation of a minimal bacterial cell that could lead to a better understand of the first principles of cellular life. The effort resulted in new synthetic genomics techniques called genome assembly and genome transplantation. The ability of scientists to design and build bacteria opens new possibilities for creating microbes to solve human problems. PMID:23502559

    19. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

      SciTech Connect

      Gormley, Robert J.; Link, Dirk D.; Baltrus, John P.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

      2009-01-01

      A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

    20. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

      SciTech Connect

      Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

      2008-01-01

      A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

    1. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2003-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

    2. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Campbell, A. Malcolm

      2005-01-01

      The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

    3. A Combinatorial Algorithm for Microbial Consortia Synthetic Design

      PubMed Central

      Julien-Laferrière, Alice; Bulteau, Laurent; Parrot, Delphine; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Stougie, Leen; Vinga, Susana; Mary, Arnaud; Sagot, Marie-France

      2016-01-01

      Synthetic biology has boomed since the early 2000s when it started being shown that it was possible to efficiently synthetize compounds of interest in a much more rapid and effective way by using other organisms than those naturally producing them. However, to thus engineer a single organism, often a microbe, to optimise one or a collection of metabolic tasks may lead to difficulties when attempting to obtain a production system that is efficient, or to avoid toxic effects for the recruited microorganism. The idea of using instead a microbial consortium has thus started being developed in the last decade. This was motivated by the fact that such consortia may perform more complicated functions than could single populations and be more robust to environmental fluctuations. Success is however not always guaranteed. In particular, establishing which consortium is best for the production of a given compound or set thereof remains a great challenge. This is the problem we address in this paper. We thus introduce an initial model and a method that enable to propose a consortium to synthetically produce compounds that are either exogenous to it, or are endogenous but where interaction among the species in the consortium could improve the production line. PMID:27373593

    4. A Combinatorial Algorithm for Microbial Consortia Synthetic Design.

      PubMed

      Julien-Laferrière, Alice; Bulteau, Laurent; Parrot, Delphine; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Stougie, Leen; Vinga, Susana; Mary, Arnaud; Sagot, Marie-France

      2016-01-01

      Synthetic biology has boomed since the early 2000s when it started being shown that it was possible to efficiently synthetize compounds of interest in a much more rapid and effective way by using other organisms than those naturally producing them. However, to thus engineer a single organism, often a microbe, to optimise one or a collection of metabolic tasks may lead to difficulties when attempting to obtain a production system that is efficient, or to avoid toxic effects for the recruited microorganism. The idea of using instead a microbial consortium has thus started being developed in the last decade. This was motivated by the fact that such consortia may perform more complicated functions than could single populations and be more robust to environmental fluctuations. Success is however not always guaranteed. In particular, establishing which consortium is best for the production of a given compound or set thereof remains a great challenge. This is the problem we address in this paper. We thus introduce an initial model and a method that enable to propose a consortium to synthetically produce compounds that are either exogenous to it, or are endogenous but where interaction among the species in the consortium could improve the production line. PMID:27373593

    5. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

      2016-07-01

      The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

    6. Control theory meets synthetic biology

      PubMed Central

      2016-01-01

      The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. PMID:27440256

    7. Refinery Capacity Report

      EIA Publications

      2016-01-01

      Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

    8. Knudsen heat capacity

      SciTech Connect

      Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

      2014-05-15

      We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

    9. Refinery Capacity Report

      EIA Publications

      2015-01-01

      Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

    10. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

      SciTech Connect

      Wilson, James F.

      2010-11-15

      In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

    11. Panama Canal capacity analysis

      SciTech Connect

      Bronzini, M.S.

      1995-04-27

      Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

    12. Targeting Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA with Oxazole-Containing Macrocyclic Compounds

      PubMed Central

      Pilch, Daniel S.; Barbieri, Christopher M.; Rzuczek, Suzanne G.; La Voie, Edmond J.; Rice, Joseph E.

      2008-01-01

      Oxazole-containing macrocycles, which include the natural product telomestatin, represent a promising class of anticancer agents that target G-quadruplex DNA. Two synthetic hexaoxazole-containing macrocyclic compounds (HXDV and HXLV-AC) have been characterized with regard to their cytotoxic activities versus human cancer cells, as well as the mode, thermodynamics, and specificity with which they bind to the intramolecular (3+1) G-quadruplex structural motif formed in the presence of K+ ions by human telomeric DNA. Both compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities versus human lymphoblast (RPMI 8402) and oral carcinoma (KB3-1) cells, with associated IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 µM. The compounds bind solely to the quadruplex nucleic acid form, but not to the duplex or triplex form. Binding to the quadruplex is associated with a stoichiometry of two ligand molecules per DNA molecule, with one ligand molecule binding to each end of the host quadruplex via a nonintercalative “terminal capping” mode of interaction. For both compounds, quadruplex binding is primarily entropy driven, while also being associated with a negative change in heat capacity. These thermodynamic properties reflect contributions from favorable ligand-induced alterations in the loop configurational entropies of the quadruplex, but not from changes in net hydration. The stoichiometry and mode of binding revealed by our studies have profound implications with regard to the number of ligand molecules that can potentially bind the 3′-overhang region of human telomeric DNA. PMID:18439430

    13. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

      PubMed Central

      de Araújo, Keline Medeiros; de Lima, Alessandro; Silva, Jurandy do N.; Rodrigues, Larissa L.; Amorim, Adriany G. N.; Quelemes, Patrick V.; dos Santos, Raimunda C.; Rocha, Jefferson A.; de Andrades, Éryka O.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; da Trindade, Reginaldo Almeida

      2014-01-01

      Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid. PMID:26784670

    14. Application of bicyclic and cage compounds

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Clark, R. D.; Archuleta, B. S.

      1976-01-01

      The results of a literature survey of the field of bicyclic and cage compounds were presented, with the objective of identifying those types of compounds with unusual physical and chemical stability, and determining what practical applications have been found for these compounds. Major applications have been as polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and pesticides. Lesser applications have included fuels, fuel additives, lubricants, lubricant additives, and perfumes. Several areas where further work might be useful were also outlined; these are primarily in the areas of polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and synthetic lubricants.

    15. Synthetic Peptides as Protein Mimics

      PubMed Central

      Groß, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Sticht, Heinrich; Eichler, Jutta

      2016-01-01

      The design and generation of molecules capable of mimicking the binding and/or functional sites of proteins represents a promising strategy for the exploration and modulation of protein function through controlled interference with the underlying molecular interactions. Synthetic peptides have proven an excellent type of molecule for the mimicry of protein sites because such peptides can be generated as exact copies of protein fragments, as well as in diverse chemical modifications, which includes the incorporation of a large range of non-proteinogenic amino acids as well as the modification of the peptide backbone. Apart from extending the chemical and structural diversity presented by peptides, such modifications also increase the proteolytic stability of the molecules, enhancing their utility for biological applications. This article reviews recent advances by this and other laboratories in the use of synthetic protein mimics to modulate protein function, as well as to provide building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26835447

    16. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

      PubMed Central

      Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

      2016-01-01

      Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are “Not for Human Consumption”, therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance use disorder treatment centers. Urine Drug Testing is utilized as a clinical diagnostic tool in substance use disorder treatment centers, and the furious pace at which new synthetic stimulants are introduced to the black market are making the detection via urine increasingly difficult. This article will discuss the prevalence, pharmacology and difficulty developing laboratory assays to detect synthetic stimulants.

    17. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

      DOEpatents

      Stappaerts, Eddy A.

      2005-04-12

      A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

    18. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

      PubMed Central

      Rey, Mariana; Coirini, Héctor

      2015-01-01

      Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABAA receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions. PMID:25788907

    19. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

      PubMed

      Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

      2015-01-01

      Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

    20. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

    1. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

    2. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

    3. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

    4. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

    5. BTF Potts compound texture model

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Haindl, Michal; Reměs, Václav; Havlíček, Vojtěch

      2015-03-01

      This paper introduces a method for modeling mosaic-like textures using a multispectral parametric Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) compound Markov random field model (CMRF). The primary purpose of our synthetic texture approach is to reproduce, compress, and enlarge a given measured texture image so that ideally both natural and synthetic texture will be visually indiscernible, but the model can be easily applied for BFT material editing. The CMRF model consist of several sub-models each having different characteristics along with an underlying structure model which controls transitions between these sub models. The proposed model uses the Potts random field for distributing local texture models in the form of analytically solvable wide-sense BTF Markovian representation for single regions among the fields of a mosaic approximated by the Voronoi diagram. The control field of the BTF-CMRF is generated by the Potts random field model build on top of the adjacency graph of a measured mosaic. The compound random field synthesis combines the modified fast Swendsen- Wang Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the hierarchical Potts MRF part with the fast and analytical synthesis of single regional BTF MRFs. The local texture regions (not necessarily continuous) are represented by an analytical BTF model which consists of single factors modeled by the adaptive 3D causal auto-regressive (3DCAR) random field model which can be analytically estimated as well as synthesized. The visual quality of the resulting complex synthetic textures generally surpasses the outputs of the previously published simpler non-compound BTF-MRF models.

    6. Synthetic biology in cellular immunotherapy

      PubMed Central

      Chakravarti, Deboki; Wong, Wilson W.

      2015-01-01

      The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells with cancer-targeting receptors has shown tremendous promise for eradicating tumors in clinical trials. This form of cellular immunotherapy presents a unique opportunity to incorporate advanced systems and synthetic biology approaches to create cancer therapeutics with novel functions. Here, we first review the development of synthetic receptors, switches, and circuits to control the location, duration, and strength of T cell activity against tumors. In addition, we discuss the cellular engineering and genome editing of host cells (or the chassis) to improve the efficacy of cell-based cancer therapeutics, and to reduce the time and cost of manufacturing. PMID:26088008

    7. Gearing up for synthetic lubricants

      SciTech Connect

      Shelley, S.

      1993-07-01

      Much of today's plant machinery operates at faster speeds, closer tolerances and higher temperatures than ever before. Without the help of lubricants to reduce wear, remove heat, and prevent corrosion, the chemical process industries would grind to a halt. Traditional, petroleum-derived products--called mineral oils-- have long starred in these roles. But today, synthetics, such as polyalphaolefins, carboxylic acid esters, phosphate esters and polyglycols are stealing the limelight, thanks to their inherent resistance to oxidation and hydrolysis and their extended range of service temperatures. The paper reviews the advantages of the synthetic lubricants.

    8. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

      PubMed

      Joseph, John H

      2015-11-01

      There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do. PMID:26505540

    9. The design of synthetic genes.

      PubMed Central

      Presnell, S R; Benner, S A

      1988-01-01

      Computer programs are described that aid in the design of synthetic genes coding for proteins that are targets of a research program in site directed mutagenesis. These programs "reverse-translate" protein sequences into general nucleic acid sequences (those where codons have not yet been selected), map restriction sites into general DNA sequences, identify points in the synthetic gene where unique restriction sites can be introduced, and assist in the design of genes coding for hybrids and evolutionary intermediates between homologous proteins. Application of these programs therefore facilitates the use of modular mutagenesis to create variants of proteins, and the implementation of evolutionary guidance as a strategy for selecting mutants. PMID:2451218

    10. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

      PubMed Central

      Merzlyak, Anna; Lee, Seung-Wuk

      2014-01-01

      Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy. PMID:24991085

    11. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2010-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

    12. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2002-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

    13. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2011-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

    14. Geomorphological analysis and prioritization of sub-watersheds using Snyder's synthetic unit hydrograph method

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Singh, Nivedita; Singh, K. K.

      2014-11-01

      The present study makes an attempt to prioritize sub-watersheds based on Snyder's synthetic unit hydrograph method. Snyder's method of synthetic unit hydrograph calculates peak discharge and lag time of the unit hydrograph for each sub-watersheds. Compound values of ranking are calculated from assigned rankings to parameters, viz. peak discharge and lag time. Depending on the range of the compound values sub-watersheds are classified as high, medium and low soil-erosive sub-watersheds. The priorities obtained from Snyder's synthetic unit hydrograph method are compared with the methods of morphometric analysis and land use/land cover analysis. On comparison of priorities for Dangri River watershed, Panchkula District, Haryana (India), among the three methods it was found that the sub-watershed (SW1) has the same priority. Among all the three methods, Snyder's synthetic unit hydrograph is a better method, as it is easier to use and less data intensive.

    15. Clinical toxicology and management of intoxications with synthetic cathinones ("bath salts").

      PubMed

      Mas-Morey, P; Visser, M H M; Winkelmolen, L; Touw, D J

      2013-08-01

      Synthetic cathinones are synthetic derivatives of the natural cathinone, one of the psychoactive compounds present in Catha edulis (khat). There are at least 12 different types of synthetic cathinones, with mephedrone and 3,4-methylendioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) being the most commonly used by the purchasers. The legal control of these substances is especially difficult because when a specific compound is banned, a new slightly modified chemical variant is introduced into the market. It has been described that patients after taking synthetic cathinones may show signs and symptoms of the sympathicomimetic toxidrome, including agitation, psychosis, tachycardia, hypertension, and seizures. Furthermore, some cases of deaths related to their consumption have also been reported. Nowadays, there is no established treatment protocol for the clinical management of these intoxications. Because of this, we have developed some recommendations that may be useful to determine the treatment of these patients. PMID:23178412

    16. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2007-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

    17. Intermetallic Compounds

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

      2014-06-01

      We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

    18. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

      2005-03-01

      The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

    19. The art of trans-boundary governance: the case of synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Joy Y

      2013-09-01

      Synthetic biology raises few, if any, social concerns that are distinctively new. Similar to many other convergent technologies, synthetic biology's interface across various scientific communities and interests groups presents an incessant challenge to political and conceptual boundaries. However, the scale and intensity of these interfaces seem to necessitate a reflection over how corresponding governance capacities can be developed. This paper argues that, in addition to existing regulatory approaches, such capacities may be gained through the art of trans-boundary governance, which is not only attentive to the crossing and erosion of particular boundaries but also adept in keeping up with the dynamics among evolving networks of actors. PMID:24432148

    20. Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

      2007-01-01

      Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

    1. Synthetic substrates for enzyme analysis

      DOEpatents

      Bissell, E.R.; Mitchell, A.R.; Pearson, K.W.; Smith, R.E.

      1983-06-14

      Synthetic substrates are provided which may be represented as A-D. The A moiety includes an amino acid, polypeptide, or derivative. The D moiety includes 7-amino coumarin derivatives having an electron withdrawing substituent group at the 3 position carbon or fused between the 3 and 4 position carbons. No Drawings

    2. Synthetic substrates for enzyme analysis

      DOEpatents

      Bissell, Eugene R.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pearson, Karen W.; Smith, Robert E.

      1983-01-01

      Synthetic substrates are provided which may be represented as A-D. The A moiety thereof includes an amino acid, polypeptide, or derivative thereof. The D moiety thereof includes 7-amino coumarin derivatives having an electron withdrawing substituent group at the 3 position carbon or fused between the 3 and 4 position carbons.

    3. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rothschild, Lynn J.

      2016-01-01

      Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

    4. Future of synthetic aperture radar

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Barath, F. T.

      1978-01-01

      The present status of the applications of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) is reviewed, and the technology state-of-the art as represented by the Seasat-A and SIR-A SARs examined. The potential of SAR applications, and the near- and longer-term technology trends are assessed.

    5. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Henderson, F. M.

      1981-01-01

      The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

    6. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

      PubMed

      Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

      2016-06-15

      Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. PMID:27284030

    7. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

      PubMed

      Friedrich, Kathrin

      2013-06-01

      In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities. PMID:23578486

    8. A study of various synthetic routes to produce a halogen-labeled traction fluid

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Jones, W. R., Jr.; Zimmer, H.

      1978-01-01

      Several synthetic routes were studied for the synthesis of the compound 1, 1, 3-trimethyl-1, 3-dicyclohexyl-2 chloropropane. This halogen-labeled fluid would be of use in the study of high traction lubricants under elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions using infrared emission spectroscopy. The synthetic routes included: dimerization of alpha-methylstyrene, methanol addition to alpha-methylstyrene, a Wittig reaction, and an organometallic approach. Because of steric hindrance and competing reactions, none of these routes were successful.

    9. Process for gasification using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor

      DOEpatents

      Lancet, Michael S.; Curran, George P.

      1980-01-01

      A gasification process is disclosed using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

    10. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

      2010-01-01

      Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

    11. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

      SciTech Connect

      Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

      2015-01-01

      The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

    12. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

      DOEpatents

      Wolfe, R.W.

      1984-10-30

      A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

    13. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

      DOEpatents

      Wolfe, Robert W.

      1984-01-01

      A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

    14. A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: Evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits.

      PubMed

      Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

      2017-02-01

      Currently, the food industry is focused in replacing the use of synthetic by natural antioxidants. The present study focused on the use of fennel and chamomile extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, as natural antioxidants in biscuits and compared their performance with a synthetic antioxidant widely used, the butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The complete nutritional profile, free sugars, fatty acids and antioxidant activity were determined immediately after baking and also after 15, 30, 45 and 60days of storage. The results showed that the incorporation of natural and synthetic additives did not cause significant changes in colour or in nutritional value of biscuits when compared with control samples. Both natural and synthetic additives conferred similar antioxidant activity to the biscuits. Therefore, natural additives are a more convenient solution for consumers who prefer foods "free" from synthetic additives. Additionally, natural additives were obtained by aqueous extraction, an environment friendly and safe process. PMID:27596429

    15. Magnesium compounds

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Kramer, D.A.

      2012-01-01

      Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

    16. Bismaleimide compounds

      DOEpatents

      Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

      1986-01-14

      Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

    17. Bismaleimide compounds

      DOEpatents

      Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

      1986-01-14

      Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

    18. Organic silicon compounds anf hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas by mineral and adsorbent

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Choi, J.

      2015-12-01

      Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds and hydrogen sulfide , as their burning has damaging effects on utilities and humans; organic silicon compounds and hydrogen sulfide can be found in biogas produced from biomass wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product,such as cosmetics, detergents and paints.Siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Ajhar et al., 2010); aim of the present work is to find a single practical andeconomic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both hydrogen sulfide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleoneet al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing both hydrogen sulphide and volatile siloxane (Decamethycyclopentasiloxane or D5) in a nitrogen stream,typically 25-300 ppm D5 over N2, through an clay minerals, Fe oxides and Silica; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best silica shows an adsorption capacity of 0.2 g D5 per gram of silica. The next thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests.The capacity results depend on D5 and hydrogen sulphide concentrations. A regenerative silica process is then carried out byheating the silica bed up to 200 ° C and flushing out the adsorbed D5 and hydrogen sulphide samples in a nitrogen stream in athree step heating procedure up to 200 ° C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cyclingthe samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles.

    19. Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*

      PubMed Central

      Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

      1970-01-01

      New pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. Two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin I to female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity. PMID:4392939

    20. An overview of the synthetic routes to the best selling drugs containing 6-membered heterocycles

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      Summary This review which is the second in this series summarises the most common synthetic routes as applied to the preparation of many modern pharmaceutical compounds categorised as containing a six-membered heterocyclic ring. The reported examples are based on the top retailing drug molecules combining synthetic information from both scientific journals and the wider patent literature. It is hoped that this compilation, in combination with the previously published review on five-membered rings, will form a comprehensive foundation and reference source for individuals interested in medicinal, synthetic and preparative chemistry. PMID:24204439

    1. An overview of the synthetic routes to the best selling drugs containing 6-membered heterocycles.

      PubMed

      Baumann, Marcus; Baxendale, Ian R

      2013-01-01

      This review which is the second in this series summarises the most common synthetic routes as applied to the preparation of many modern pharmaceutical compounds categorised as containing a six-membered heterocyclic ring. The reported examples are based on the top retailing drug molecules combining synthetic information from both scientific journals and the wider patent literature. It is hoped that this compilation, in combination with the previously published review on five-membered rings, will form a comprehensive foundation and reference source for individuals interested in medicinal, synthetic and preparative chemistry. PMID:24204439

    2. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

      2015-12-01

      Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

    3. The Moral Capacity Profile

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

      2011-01-01

      Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

    4. Programmable flow system for automation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using pyrogallol red for estimation of antioxidant reactivity.

      PubMed

      Ramos, Inês I; Gregório, Bruno J R; Barreiros, Luísa; Magalhães, Luís M; Tóth, Ildikó V; Reis, Salette; Lima, José L F C; Segundo, Marcela A

      2016-04-01

      An automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method based on programmable flow injection analysis was developed for the assessment of antioxidant reactivity. The method relies on real time spectrophotometric monitoring (540 nm) of pyrogallol red (PGR) bleaching mediated by peroxyl radicals in the presence of antioxidant compounds within the first minute of reaction, providing information about their initial reactivity against this type of radicals. The ORAC-PGR assay under programmable flow format affords a strict control of reaction conditions namely reagent mixing, temperature and reaction timing, which are critical parameters for in situ generation of peroxyl radical from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The influence of reagent concentrations and programmable flow conditions on reaction development was studied, with application of 37.5 µM of PGR and 125 mM of AAPH in the flow cell, guaranteeing first order kinetics towards peroxyl radicals and pseudo-zero order towards PGR. Peroxyl-scavenging reactivity of antioxidants, bioactive compounds and phenolic-rich beverages was estimated employing the proposed methodology. Recovery assays using synthetic saliva provided values of 90 ± 5% for reduced glutathione. Detection limit calculated using the standard antioxidant compound Trolox was 8 μM. RSD values were <3.4 and <4.9%, for intra and inter-assay precision, respectively. Compared to previous batch automated ORAC assays, the developed system also accounted for high sampling frequency (29 h(-1)), low operating costs and low generation of waste. PMID:26838448

    5. Synthetic Zeolites and Other Microporous Oxide Molecular Sieves

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sherman, John D.

      1999-03-01

      Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow "tailoring" of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol.

    6. Synthetic cathinones and their rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents.

      PubMed

      Watterson, Lucas R; Olive, M Foster

      2014-06-01

      Synthetic cathinones, colloquially referred to as "bath salts", are derivatives of the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone found in Catha edulis (Khat). Since the mid-to-late 2000's, these amphetamine-like psychostimulants have gained popularity amongst drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and constantly evolving chemical structures. Concomitant with their increased use is the emergence of a growing collection of case reports of bizarre and dangerous behaviors, toxicity to numerous organ systems, and death. However, scientific information regarding the abuse liability of these drugs has been relatively slower to materialize. Recently we have published several studies demonstrating that laboratory rodents will readily self-administer the "first generation" synthetic cathinones methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methylone via the intravenous route, in patterns similar to those of methamphetamine. Under progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, the rank order of reinforcing efficacy of these compounds are MDPV ≥ methamphetamine > methylone. MDPV and methylone, as well as the "second generation" synthetic cathinones α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) and 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), also dose-dependently increase brain reward function. Collectively, these findings indicate that synthetic cathinones have a high abuse and addiction potential and underscore the need for future assessment of the extent and duration of neurotoxicity induced by these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:25328910

    7. Synthetic cathinones and their rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents

      PubMed Central

      Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

      2014-01-01

      Synthetic cathinones, colloquially referred to as “bath salts”, are derivatives of the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone found in Catha edulis (Khat). Since the mid-to-late 2000’s, these amphetamine-like psychostimulants have gained popularity amongst drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and constantly evolving chemical structures. Concomitant with their increased use is the emergence of a growing collection of case reports of bizarre and dangerous behaviors, toxicity to numerous organ systems, and death. However, scientific information regarding the abuse liability of these drugs has been relatively slower to materialize. Recently we have published several studies demonstrating that laboratory rodents will readily self-administer the “first generation” synthetic cathinones methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methylone via the intravenous route, in patterns similar to those of methamphetamine. Under progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, the rank order of reinforcing efficacy of these compounds are MDPV ≥ methamphetamine > methylone. MDPV and methylone, as well as the “second generation” synthetic cathinones α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) and 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), also dose-dependently increase brain reward function. Collectively, these findings indicate that synthetic cathinones have a high abuse and addiction potential and underscore the need for future assessment of the extent and duration of neurotoxicity induced by these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:25328910

    8. Molten gallium flux synthesis of known thermoelectric and novel magnetic inorganic clathrate compounds: Improving thermoelectric performance

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bryan, John Daniel

      Molten gallium metal has been used as a solvent to grow large single crystals of known inorganic thermoelectric clathrates Sr8Ga 16Ge30, Ba8Ga16Ge30, and Ba8Ga16Si30. X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, electron microprobe, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry, temperature dependent electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements characterized the single crystals. The Thermoelectric performance was shown to be heavily dependent on the synthetic conditions including container choice, thermal history and impurity concentration. Inorganic Clathrates have attracted intense interest in last several years as potential new materials for thermoelectric devices. If a small to moderate increase in thermoelectric performance over the currently used materials is realized, substantial environmental and technological gains could be achieved. Since thermoelectric refrigeration modules require no moving parts or heat exchange gas (freon) they offer significant advantages over conventional refrigeration technology that tends to fail due to the finite lifetime of the pumping equipment. High temperature devices are also extremely useful for power generation in harsh unforgiving environments where excess heat is available. The thermoelectric performance, primarily at room temperature, of these compounds was found to be heavily dependent on the synthetic procedures used to obtain them. A flux growth procedure was developed to overcome the problems of the traditional melt-quench-anneal solid-state chemical approach. This procedure yielded large single crystals of the Sr8Ga16Ge 30, Ba8Ga16Ge30 and Ba8Ga 16Si30 compounds which ready facilitated their chemical and electronic study. Finally, an outlook on the application of these compounds as thermoelectric devices is given. Application of the flux method to other systems was also successful in the discovery of two new inorganic clathrate compounds: type IV Eu4Ga 8Ge16 and type V Yb8Ga16Ge14. The Eu4Ga8Ge16 compound was found to

    9. Designing synthetic vaccines for HIV.

      PubMed

      Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Haynes, Barton F; Danishefsky, Samuel J

      2015-06-01

      Despite three decades of intensive research efforts, the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine against HIV remains an unrealized goal in the global campaign to contain the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Recent characterization of novel epitopes for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies has fueled research in the design and synthesis of new, well-defined antigenic constructs for the development of HIV envelope-directed vaccines. The present review will cover previous and recent efforts toward the design of synthetic vaccines based on the HIV viral envelope glycoproteins, with special emphasis on examples from our own laboratories. The biological evaluation of some of the most representative vaccine candidates, in terms of their antigenicity and immunogenicity, will also be discussed to illustrate the current state-of-the-art toward the development of fully synthetic HIV vaccines. PMID:25824661

    10. Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes

      PubMed Central

      López-Pérez, Sara; Dinarès, Immaculada

      2011-01-01

      Summary The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethyl)inden-5-yl)]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenyl)acetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones. PMID:22238553

    11. Developing technologies for synthetic fuels

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sprow, F. B.

      1981-05-01

      After consideration of a likely timetable for the development of a synthetic fuels industry and its necessary supporting technology, the large variety of such fuels and their potential roles is assessed along with their commercialization outlook. Among the fuel production methods considered are: (1) above-ground retorting of oil shale; (2) in-situ shale retorting; (3) open pit mining of tar sands; (4) in-situ steam stimulation of tar sands; (5) coal gasification; (6) methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen; and (7) direct coal liquefaction by the hydrogenation of coal. It is shown that while the U.S. has very limited resource bases for tar sands and heavy crudes, the abundance of shale in the western states and the abundance and greater geographical dispersion of coal will make these the two most important resources of a future synthetic fuels industry.

    12. Synthetic Metal-Containing Polymers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Manners, Ian

      2004-04-01

      The development of the field of synthetic metal-containing polymers - where metal atoms form an integral part of the main chain or side group structure of a polymer - aims to create new materials which combine the processability of organic polymers with the physical or chemical characteristics associated with the metallic element or complex. This book covers the major developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of synthetic metal-containing macromolecules, and includes chapters on the preparation and characterization of metal-containing polymers, metallocene-based polymers, rigid-rod organometallic polymers, coordination polymers, polymers containing main group metals, and also covers dendritic and supramolecular systems. The book describes both polymeric materials with metals in the main chain or side group structure and covers the literature up to the end of 2002.

    13. Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#

      PubMed Central

      Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

      2012-01-01

      Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of microbial ecosystem engineering. We argue that simply engineering individual microbes will lead to fragile homogenous populations that are difficult to sustain, especially in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable environments. Instead, engineered microbial ecosystems are likely to be more robust and able to achieve complex tasks at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for truly programmable biology. PMID:22722235

    14. Synthetic RR Lyrae velocity curves

      SciTech Connect

      Liu, Tianxing Boston Univ., MA )

      1991-02-01

      An amplitude correlation between the pulsation velocity curves and visual light curves of ab-type RR Lyrae stars is derived from a large number of RR Lyrae that have high-precision radial-velocity and photometric data. Based on the determined AVp, AV ralation, a synthetic radial-velocity curve for a typical ab-type RR Lyrae star is constructed. This would be of particular use in determining the systemic velocities of RR Lyrae. 17 refs.

    15. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

      SciTech Connect

      Forte, Trudy M.; Nikanjam, Mina

      2012-08-28

      The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

    16. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays.

      PubMed

      Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

      2005-03-23

      This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply a competitive reaction scheme, in which antioxidant and substrate compete for thermally generated peroxyl radicals through the decomposition of azo compounds. These assays include inhibition of induced low-density lipoprotein autoxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and crocin bleaching assays. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes color when reduced. The degree of color change is correlated with the sample's antioxidant concentrations. ET-based assays include the total phenols assay by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), "total antioxidant potential" assay using a Cu(II) complex as an oxidant, and DPPH. In addition, other assays intended to measure a sample's scavenging capacity of biologically relevant oxidants such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical are also summarized. On the basis of this analysis, it is suggested that the total phenols assay by FCR be used to quantify an antioxidant's reducing capacity and the ORAC assay to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. To comprehensively study different aspects of antioxidants, validated and specific assays are needed in addition to these two commonly accepted assays. PMID:15769103

    17. Cell microencapsulation with synthetic polymers

      PubMed Central

      Olabisi, Ronke M

      2015-01-01

      The encapsulation of cells into polymeric microspheres or microcapsules has permitted the transplantation of cells into human and animal subjects without the need for immunosuppressants. Cell-based therapies use donor cells to provide sustained release of a therapeutic product, such as insulin, and have shown promise in treating a variety of diseases. Immunoisolation of these cells via microencapsulation is a hotly investigated field, and the preferred material of choice has been alginate, a natural polymer derived from seaweed due to its gelling conditions. Although many natural polymers tend to gel in conditions favorable to mammalian cell encapsulation, there remain challenges such as batch to batch variability and residual components from the original source that can lead to an immune response when implanted into a recipient. Synthetic materials have the potential to avoid these issues; however, historically they have required harsh polymerization conditions that are not favorable to mammalian cells. As research into microencapsulation grows, more investigators are exploring methods to microencapsulate cells into synthetic polymers. This review describes a variety of synthetic polymers used to microencapsulate cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 846–859, 2015. PMID:24771675

    18. Approaches to synthetic platelet analogs.

      PubMed

      Modery-Pawlowski, Christa L; Tian, Lewis L; Pan, Victor; McCrae, Keith R; Mitragotri, Samir; Sen Gupta, Anirban

      2013-01-01

      Platelet transfusion is routinely used for treating bleeding complications in patients with hematologic or oncologic clotting disorders, chemo/radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, trauma and surgery. Currently, these transfusions mostly use allogeneic platelet concentrates, while products like lyophilized platelets, cold-stored platelets and infusible platelet membranes are under investigation. These natural platelet-based products pose considerable risks of contamination, resulting in short shelf-life (3-5 days). Recent advances in pathogen reduction technologies have increased shelf-life to ~7 days. Furthermore, natural platelets are short in supply and also cause several biological side effects. Hence, there is significant clinical interest in platelet-mimetic synthetic analogs that can allow long storage-life and minimum side effects. Accordingly, several designs have been studied which decorate synthetic particles with motifs that promote platelet-mimetic adhesion or aggregation. Recent refinement in this design involves combining the adhesion and aggregation functionalities on a single particle platform. Further refinement is being focused on constructing particles that also mimic natural platelet's shape, size and elasticity, to influence margination and wall-interaction. The optimum design of a synthetic platelet analog would require efficient integration of platelet's physico-mechanical properties and biological functionalities. We present a comprehensive review of these approaches and provide our opinion regarding the future directions of this research. PMID:23092864

    19. Nano-enabled synthetic biology

      PubMed Central

      Doktycz, Mitchel J; Simpson, Michael L

      2007-01-01

      Biological systems display a functional diversity, density and efficiency that make them a paradigm for synthetic systems. In natural systems, the cell is the elemental unit and efforts to emulate cells, their components, and organization have relied primarily on the use of bioorganic materials. Impressive advances have been made towards assembling simple genetic systems within cellular scale containers. These biological system assembly efforts are particularly instructive, as we gain command over the directed synthesis and assembly of synthetic nanoscale structures. Advances in nanoscale fabrication, assembly, and characterization are providing the tools and materials for characterizing and emulating the smallest scale features of biology. Further, they are revealing unique physical properties that emerge at the nanoscale. Realizing these properties in useful ways will require attention to the assembly of these nanoscale components. Attention to systems biology principles can lead to the practical development of nanoscale technologies with possible realization of synthetic systems with cell-like complexity. In turn, useful tools for interpreting biological complexity and for interfacing to biological processes will result. PMID:17625513

    20. Cell microencapsulation with synthetic polymers.

      PubMed

      Olabisi, Ronke M

      2015-02-01

      The encapsulation of cells into polymeric microspheres or microcapsules has permitted the transplantation of cells into human and animal subjects without the need for immunosuppressants. Cell-based therapies use donor cells to provide sustained release of a therapeutic product, such as insulin, and have shown promise in treating a variety of diseases. Immunoisolation of these cells via microencapsulation is a hotly investigated field, and the preferred material of choice has been alginate, a natural polymer derived from seaweed due to its gelling conditions. Although many natural polymers tend to gel in conditions favorable to mammalian cell encapsulation, there remain challenges such as batch to batch variability and residual components from the original source that can lead to an immune response when implanted into a recipient. Synthetic materials have the potential to avoid these issues; however, historically they have required harsh polymerization conditions that are not favorable to mammalian cells. As research into microencapsulation grows, more investigators are exploring methods to microencapsulate cells into synthetic polymers. This review describes a variety of synthetic polymers used to microencapsulate cells. PMID:24771675

    1. Synthetic metabolons for metabolic engineering.

      PubMed

      Singleton, Chloe; Howard, Thomas P; Smirnoff, Nicholas

      2014-05-01

      It has been proposed that enzymes can associate into complexes (metabolons) that increase the efficiency of metabolic pathways by channelling substrates between enzymes. Metabolons may increase flux by increasing the local concentration of intermediates, decreasing the concentration of enzymes needed to maintain a given flux, directing the products of a pathway to a specific subcellular location or minimizing the escape of reactive intermediates. Metabolons can be formed by relatively loose non-covalent protein-protein interaction, anchorage to membranes, and (in bacteria) by encapsulation of enzymes in protein-coated microcompartments. Evidence that non-coated metabolons are effective at channelling substrates is scarce and difficult to obtain. In plants there is strong evidence that small proportions of glycolytic enzymes are associated with the outside of mitochondria and are effective in substrate channelling. More recently, synthetic metabolons, in which enzymes are scaffolded to synthetic proteins or nucleic acids, have been expressed in microorganisms and these provide evidence that scaffolded enzymes are more effective than free enzymes for metabolic engineering. This provides experimental evidence that metabolons may have a general advantage and opens the way to improving the outcome of metabolic engineering in plants by including synthetic metabolons in the toolbox. PMID:24591054

    2. Synthetic biology with RNA motifs.

      PubMed

      Saito, Hirohide; Inoue, Tan

      2009-02-01

      Structural motifs in naturally occurring RNAs and RNPs can be employed as new molecular parts for synthetic biology to facilitate the development of novel devices and systems that modulate cellular functions. In this review, we focus on the following: (i) experimental evolution techniques of RNA molecules in vitro and (ii) their applications for regulating gene expression systems in vivo. For experimental evolution, new artificial RNA aptamers and RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been selected in vitro. These functional RNA molecules are likely to be applicable in the reprogramming of existing gene regulatory systems. Furthermore, they may be used for designing hypothetical RNA-based living systems in the so-called RNA world. For the regulation of gene expressions in living cells, the development of new riboswitches allows us to modulate the target gene expression in a tailor-made manner. Moreover, recently RNA-based synthetic genetic circuits have been reported by employing functional RNA molecules, expanding the repertory of synthetic biology with RNA motifs. PMID:18775792

    3. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

      1984-01-01

      The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

    4. Ultrafast Screening of Synthetic Cannabinoids and Synthetic Cathinones in Urine by RapidFire-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

      PubMed

      Neifeld, Jillian R; Regester, Laura E; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Magluilo, Joseph; Ramos, Gerardo; Bosy, Thomas Z

      2016-06-01

      Screening for emerging drugs of abuse, specifically synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, is difficult for high-throughput laboratories as immunoassay kits are often unavailable. Consequently, most laboratories employ liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening, which can be complex and time consuming as these techniques may require involved sample preparation and lengthy analysis times. The increasing demand for novel psychoactive substance testing necessitates alternative screening methods that are sensitive, fast and versatile. The RapidFire tandem mass spectrometry system (RF-MS-MS) provides a rapid and highly specific screen for these emerging drugs of abuse with minimal sample preparation and an instrumental analysis time of <14 s per sample. Presented here are two RF-MS-MS screening methods used to analyze 28 emerging drugs of abuse, 14 synthetic cannabinoids and 14 synthetic cathinones, in urine with run times of 9 and 12.6 s, respectively. Sample preparation and hydrolysis were performed in a 96-well plate with one multiple reaction monitoring transition used for the identification of each compound. Eighteen thousand urine specimens were screened by liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-MS-MS analysis, and the results were compared with those obtained using the RF-MS-MS screening method. The analytical data illustrate the advantages of the RF-MS-MS methods. PMID:27185820

    5. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

      SciTech Connect

      El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

      2013-08-13

      Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

    6. Seismic capacity of switchgear

      SciTech Connect

      Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

      1989-01-01

      As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

    7. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters.

      PubMed

      Nakata, Haruhiko

      2005-05-15

      In this study, the occurrence of the polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydeonaphthalene) in marine mammals and sharks collected from Japanese coastal waters is reported. HHCB was present in the blubbers of all finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) analyzed (n = 8), at levels ranging from 13 to 149 ng/g on a wet weight basis. A fetus sample of finless porpoise contained a notable concentration of HHCB (26 ng/g wet wt), suggesting transplacental transfer of this compound. Among 12 tissues and organs of a finless porpoise analyzed, the highest HHCB concentration was found in blubber, followed by kidney. This indicates that HHCB accumulates in lipid-rich tissues in marine mammals, which is similar to the accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDTs. In general, the residue levels of AHTN and nitro musks were low or below the detection limits in finless porpoises, implying either less usage in Japan or high metabolic capacity of these compounds in this animal. HHCB was also found in the livers of five hammerhead sharks (Sphrna lewini) from Japanese coastal waters, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 48 ng/g wet wt. Occurrence of HHCB in higher trophic organisms strongly suggests that it is less degradable in the environment and accumulates in the top predators of marine food chains. This is the first report on the accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks. PMID:15952346

    8. Enhancing capacity management.

      PubMed

      Rees, Susan; Houlahan, Beth; Lavrenz, Dennise

      2014-03-01

      It is essential for organizations to be able to accept patients requiring care. Capacity planning and management are necessary to ensure an organization has an accepting physician/service, an available bed, and staff to care for the patient and family. This organization implemented strategies including communication plans, staffing guidelines, morning rounds, proactive planning, and an escalation process to reverse the trend of not being able to accept all patients. PMID:24531280

    9. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

      1980-01-01

      The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

    10. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound. Final report, June 13, 1990--September 12, 1991

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1991-10-02

      The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

    11. [Choosing the right synthetic progestogen].

      PubMed

      Rozenbaum, H

      1983-11-01

      A number of synthetic progestogens are currently available which differ greatly among themselves in various ways. The common property of all progestogens is that they transform a proliferative endometrium into a secretory or luteal endometrium by fixing the progestogen or 1 of its metabolites to the progesterone receptor. Most progestogens also have a greater or lesser affinity for other hormonal receptors, and some cause modifications in metabolism, especially of lipids and glucose. Synthetic progestogens can be classified according to their chemical formulas, biologic properties, and efficiency in relation to hormone receptors, but none of the current classification systems is a satisfactory guide to use. It is not yet definitively known whether pro-hormones, which must be transformed into norethindrone in vivo before taking effect, are advantageous or disadvantageous for therapeutic use. Synthetic progestogens have been found to have varying metabolic effects according to their content and dosage; hepatic function, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, coagulation factors, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are among the functions affected. The metabolic effects of synthetic progestogens are the principal criteria of choice. High dose 19 norsteroids are recommended only for cancer treatment, 19 nor-pregnane derivatives and progesterone isomers appear suitable for treatment of conditions such as endometriosis, premenopausal menstrual irregularities, and menstrual irregularity resulting from luteal insufficiency in younger women. Low-dose 19 norsteroids remain the best choice for contraception. Levonorgestrel has been preferred over norethindrone for some time because it is effective at a dose of .150 mcg compared to 1 mg for norethindrone, but some recent research suggests that even at a much smaller dose, levonorgestrel may cause more metabolic modifications than norethindrone. The pro-hormones ethynodial diacetate and lynestrel have additional

    12. CSTI High Capacity Power

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Winter, Jerry M.

      1989-01-01

      The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

    13. CSTI high capacity power

      SciTech Connect

      Winter, J.M.

      1994-09-01

      The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

    14. Hijacking of Basic Research: The Case of Synthetic Cannabinoids

      PubMed Central

      Wiley, Jenny L.; Marusich, Julie A.; Huffman, John W.; Balster, Robert L.; Thomas, Brian F.

      2012-01-01

      Gathering and communicating knowledge are important aspects of the scientific endeavor. Yet presentation of data in public forums such as scientific meetings and publications makes it available not only to scientists, but also to others who may have different ideas about how to use research findings. A recent example of this type of hijacking is the introduction of synthetic cannabinoids that are sprayed on herbal products and subsequently smoked for their marijuana-like intoxicating properties. Originally developed for the legitimate research purpose of furthering understanding of the cannabinoid system, these synthetic cannabinoids are being abused worldwide, creating issues for regulatory and law enforcement agencies that are struggling to keep up with the growing number of compounds of various structural motifs. Basic and clinical scientists need to provide advice now to facilitate decision-making about the health threats posed by this emerging problem. PMID:23397508

    15. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

      PubMed Central

      Schöner, Daniel; Kalisch, Markus; Leisner, Christian; Meier, Lukas; Sohrmann, Marc; Faty, Mahamadou; Barral, Yves; Peter, Matthias; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter

      2008-01-01

      Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W) as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process. PMID:18194531

    16. Synthetic Cannabinoids: Epidemiology, Pharmacodynamics, and Clinical Implications*

      PubMed Central

      Castaneto, Marisol S.; Gorelick, David A.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Hartman, Rebecca L.; Pirard, Sandrine; Huestis, Marilyn A.

      2014-01-01

      Background Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are a heterogeneous group of compounds developed to probe the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutics. Clandestine laboratories subsequently utilized published data to develop SC variations marketed as abuseable “designer drugs.” In the early 2000’s, SC became popular as “legal highs” under brand names such as “Spice” and “K2,” in part due to their ability to escape detection by standard cannabinoid screening tests. The majority of SC detected in herbal products have greater binding affinity to the cannabinoid CB1 receptor than does Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in the cannabis plant, and greater affinity at the CB1 than the CB2 receptor. In-vitro and animal in-vivo studies show SC pharmacological effects 2-100 times more potent than THC, including analgesic, anti-seizure, weight-loss, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer growth effects. SC produce physiological and psychoactive effects similar to THC, but with greater intensity, resulting in medical and psychiatric emergencies. Human adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath or depressed breathing, hypertension, tachycardia, chest pain, muscle twitches, acute renal failure, anxiety, agitation, psychosis, suicidal ideation, and cognitive impairment. Long-term or residual effects are unknown. Due to these public health consequences, many SC are classified as controlled substances. However, frequent structural modification by clandestine laboratories results in a stream of novel SC that may not be legally controlled or detectable by routine laboratory tests. Methods We present here a comprehensive review, based on a systematic electronic literature search, of SC epidemiology and pharmacology and their clinical implications. PMID:25220897

    17. Evaluation of synthetic coumarins for antiausterity cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancers.

      PubMed

      Farley, Conner M; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Hall, Eric A; Awale, Suresh; Magolan, Jakob

      2016-03-01

      A series of functionalized coumarins were synthesized and evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the resistance to starvation of pancreatic cancer cells. This form of cytotoxicity, termed 'antiausterity' activity, was evaluated using a preferential cytotoxicity assay that compared cell survival in nutrient poor and nutrient rich conditions. Six of the seventeen compounds showed weak antiausterity activity against PANC-1. Compound 34 was active against PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and Capan-1 cancer cell lines. All of the compounds tested were simplified structural analogs of previously reported natural product leads. Six of the compounds, including 34, contain functionalized triazoles as novel potential bioisosteres of the side chain of the natural product angelmarin. Overall, the analogs were found to have low antiausterity activity relative to the corresponding natural products. PMID:26832787

    18. Synthetic Biological Approaches to Natural Product Biosynthesis

      PubMed Central

      Winter, Jaclyn M; Tang, Yi

      2012-01-01

      Small molecules produced in Nature continue to be an inspiration for the development of new therapeutic agents. These natural products possess exquisite chemical diversity, which gives rise to their wide range of biological activities. In their host organism, natural products are assembled and modified by dedicated biosynthetic pathways that Nature has meticulously developed. Often times, the complex structures or chemical modifications instated by these pathways are difficult to replicate using traditional synthetic methods. An alternative approach for creating or enhancing the structural variation of natural products is through combinatorial biosynthesis. By rationally reprogramming and manipulating the biosynthetic machinery responsible for their production, unnatural metabolites that were otherwise inaccessible can be obtained. Additionally, new chemical structures can be synthesized or derivatized by developing the enzymes that carry out these complicated chemical reactions into biocatalysts. In this review, we will discuss a variety of combinatorial biosynthetic strategies, their technical challenges, and highlight some recent (since 2007) examples of rationally designed unnatural metabolites, as well as platforms that have been established for the production and modification of clinically important pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22221832

    19. Small scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

      SciTech Connect

      Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; White, C.M.

      1982-03-01

      In order to assess any changes in the environmental impact of industrial or utility boiler exhaust gases upon changing from petroleum-based fuels to synthetic fuels, detailed characterizations of the exhaust emissions from both types of fuels burned under identical combustion conditions are required. A 20-hp (approximately 5 gallons of liquid fuel feed per hour) firetube boiler has been installed in the Combustion Technology Division of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) so such experiments can be performed. The boiler is fully instrumented for heat and material balance measurements, including analysis of the major and minor components of the combustion gases and the total hydrocarbons and particulates present in the gases. In addition, the exhaust duct of the boiler has a sampling port adjacent to the one used for major and minor components; this port is used to sample exhaust gases for the analysis of the trace organic compounds present in the gases. The Analytical Chemistry Division of PETC is developing the sampling and analytical methodologies for the trace organics. The effort to date has been focused on the problems involved in sampling the hot (ca. 350/sup 0/F) exhaust gases and on the analysis of the gases for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

    20. Ureaplasma urealyticum-induced crystallization of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphates in synthetic urine.

      PubMed

      Grenabo, L; Brorson, J E; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

      1984-10-01

      Crystallization of struvite and calcium phosphates was studied in vitro as encrustations on glass rods immersed in synthetic urine, to evaluate the crystallization capacity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and compare it with that of known urease and non-urease-producing bacteria. Inoculation of the synthetic urine with Ureaplasma urealyticum resulted in alkalinization of the synthetic urine and crystallization of struvite and brushite. Inoculation with Proteus mirabilis caused a faster and more pronounced alkalinization as well as crystallization of struvite and apatite. The alkalinization and crystallization caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Proteus mirabilis was completely prevented by acetohydroxamic acid, a potent urease inhibitor, linking the crystallization to the urease activity of the microorganisms. When the synthetic urine was inoculated with urease-negative Escherichia coli no alkalinization and no crystallization were seen. PMID:6381769