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Sample records for compounds xvi calorimetric

  1. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    SciTech Connect

    Ktari, L.; Abdelhedi, M.; Bouhlel, N.; Dammak, M.; Cousson, A.

    2009-08-05

    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  2. Device for calorimetric measurement

    DOEpatents

    King, William P; Lee, Jungchul

    2015-01-13

    In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material having an unknown composition.

  3. CHAPTER XVI TUNICATES AND LANCELETS

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER XVI TUNICATES AND LANCELETS #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE TUNICATA tunicates are crea,tures with a rather low and simple type of organization so that the older zoologists. Their sac- like body of ovaloI' more or less irregular shape is enclosed in a thick outer tunic called

  4. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Senturia, Stephen D. (Brookline, MA); Huber, Robert J. (Bountiful, UT)

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick.times.10 .mu.m wide.times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500.degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300.degree. C. (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H.sub.2 concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N.sub.2 /O.sub.2 mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used.

  5. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  6. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20-26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long-standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster-session, topics ranging from theoretical chemistry and molecular physics via fundamental problems in quantum theory to thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, soliton theory and finally cosmology, were examined and lively discussed. Nearly all the talks can also be viewed on the conference website. The majority of participants contributed to these Proceedings but some were unable to do so as their results were either previously submitted or published elsewhere. We refer to: · Quesne C 2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 102102. · Spera M 2013, (Nankai Series in Pure, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics): 11 Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics: pp. 593-598 Proceedings of the XXIX International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics Tianjin, China, 20 - 26 August 2012 (World Scientific, Singapore) · Snobl L and Winternitz P 2014, Classification and Identification of Lie Algebras, CRM Monograph Series 33 (Montreal) ISBN-10: 0-8218-4355-9, ISBN-13: 978-0-8218-4355-0 (http://www.ams.org/bookstore?fn=20&arg1=crmmseries&ikey=CRMM-33). Our personal thanks to Daniel and family! Endless support from the Schenk Family who, among other things, sponsored (yet again) the entire conference dinner (including wines and banquet hall) meant that some costs could be alleviated. We could therefore assist various colleagues from economically-weak countries, despite the lack of external funding. A financial deficit meant we would have had to forego the Conference Proceedings, published in previous years by IOP. After long deliberations, and with donations from Gerhard Berssenbrügge, Dr. Dr. Stephan Hauk and Dr. Volker Weisswange, this could be facilitated. We are very grateful to these private donors for their generous and wholehearted support. The staff of Collegium Mehrerau is also to be thanked for their hospitality. Finally, our sincere thanks to Yvette not only for her preparatory work and support during the conference, but also for her persistent interest and help in producing the Proceedings within a reasonable time. Dieter Schuch, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Mi

  7. San Antonio Water System Title XVI Feasibility Report

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    San Antonio Water System Title XVI Feasibility Report Brackish Groundwater Desalination Program for the Bureau of Reclamation May 2011 #12; Brackish Groundwater Desalination Program Title XVI ................................................................................................. 15 3.6 Source Water Facility Location

  8. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard XVI-Student activities. 36.43 Section 36.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional Support § 36.43 Standard XVI—Student activities....

  9. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard XVI-Student activities. 36.43 Section 36.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Instructional Support § 36.43 Standard XVI—Student activities....

  10. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals increase, are of concern to air pollution photochemistry because NO2 leads directly, through solar

  11. Calorimetric thermobarometry of experimentally shocked quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocker, Katherine D.; Gooding, James L.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1994-01-01

    Structural damage in experimentally shock-metamorphosed, granular quartz is quantitatively measurable by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Shock-induced loss of crystallinity is witnessed by disappearance of the alpha/beta phase transformation and evolution of a broad endoenthalpic strain peak at 650-900 K. The strain-energy peak grows rapidly at less than 10 GPa but declines with increasing shock pressure; it approaches zero at 32 GPa where vitrification is extensive. Effects of grain size and post-shock thermal history must be better understood before calorimetric thermobarometry of naturally shocked samples becomes possible.

  12. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 ?W/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  13. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  14. New calorimetric all-particle energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Both the maximum size N sub m and the sea level muon size N sub mu have been used separately to find the all-particle energy spectrum in the air shower domain. However the conversion required, whether from N sub m to E or from N sub mu to E, has customarily been carried out by means of calculations based on an assumed cascase model. It is shown here that by combining present data on N sub m and N sub mu spectra with data on: (1); the energy spectrum of air shower muons and (2) the average width of the electron profile, one can obtain empirical values of the N sub m to E and N sub mu to E conversion factors, and an empirical calorimetric all-particle spectrum, in the energy range 2 x 10 to the 6th power E 2 x 10 to the 9th power GeV.

  15. Automated analysis of calorimetric demicellization titrations.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Keller, Sandro

    2015-09-15

    Determination of the critical micellar concentration of surfactants and of the heat of demicellization by means of isothermal titration calorimetry usually involves either calculation of the first derivative of the heat of demicellization with respect to surfactant concentration or application of a generic sigmoidal fit to the demicellization isotherm. Here, we show that a combination of both approaches provides an unbiased and reproducible data analysis strategy without the need for user input other than the calorimetric data proper. The approach is explained and exemplified using demicellization isotherms of the fluorinated surfactant F6OPC (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluoro-n-octylphosphocholine) and the zwitterionic detergent CHAPSO (3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate). PMID:26079704

  16. Calorimetric sensors for energy deposition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, J.; Cooper, R.; Morgan, G.

    1998-12-31

    A calorimetric sensor with several novel design features has been developed. These sensors will provide an accurate sampling of thermal power density and energy deposition from proton beams incident on target components of accelerator-based systems, such as the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A small, solid slug (volume = 0.347 cc) of target material is suspended by kevlar fibers and surrounded by an adiabatic enclosure in an insulating vacuum canister of stainless steel construction. The slug is in thermal contact with a low-mass, calibrated, 100-k{Omega} thermistor. Power deposition caused by the passage of radiation through the slug is calculated from the rate of temperature rise of the slug. The authors have chosen slugs composed of Pb, Al, and LiAl.

  17. Nanowell-patterned TiO{sub 2} microcantilevers for calorimetric chemical sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongkyu Chae, Inseok; Thundat, Thomas; Kim, Seonghwan; Jeon, Sangmin

    2014-04-07

    A sensitive calorimetric sensor using a TiO{sub 2} microcantilever with nanowells patterned on one of its sides is described. This single material cantilever is sensitive to temperature change without relying on the metal deposition-based bimetallic effect. The thermomechanical sensitivity originates from the structure dependent variations in both the elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient due to the presence of ordered nanowells. These cantilever beams offer an alternate and efficient chemical sensing route for vapor phase analytes using photothermal spectroscopy. Selective and sensitive detection of organophosphorus compounds, as well as their photocatalytic decomposition under ultraviolet light exposure are demonstrated.

  18. A calorimetric method to determine water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg-1 to 3 mol kg-1 and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities.

  19. Adaptive measurement control for calorimetric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    The performance of a calorimeter is usually evaluated by constructing a Shewhart control chart of its measurement errors for a collection of reference standards. However, Shewhart control charts were developed in a manufacturing setting where observations occur in batches. Additionally, the Shewhart control chart expects the variance of the charted variable to be known or at least well estimated from previous experimentation. For calorimetric assay, observations are collected singly in a time sequence with a (possibly) changing mean, and extensive experimentation to calculate the variance of the measurement errors is seldom feasible. These facts pose problems in constructing a control chart. In this paper, the authors propose using the mean squared successive difference to estimate the variance of measurement errors based solely on prior observations. This procedure reduces or eliminates estimation bias due to a changing mean. However, the use of this estimator requires an adjustment to the definition of the alarm and warning limits for the Shewhart control chart. The authors propose adjusted limits based on an approximate Student`s t-distribution for the measurement errors and discuss the limitations of this approximation. Suggestions for the practical implementation of this method are provided also.

  20. Thermodynamic properties by non-calorimetric methods. Progress report, August 1, 1988--July 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Collier, W.B.; Strube, M.M. |

    1989-12-31

    This three year research program provides a valuable complement to the experimental programs currently in progress at NIPER for the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) and Advanced Exploration and Process Technology (AEPT) divisions of the Department of Energy. These experimental programs are focused on the calorimetric determination of thermodynamic properties of key polynuclear heteroatom-containing aromatic molecules. This project for the Office of Energy Research focuses on the non-calorimetric determination of thermodynamic properties through the extension of existing correlation methodologies and through molecular spectroscopy with statistical mechanics. The paper discusses progress in three areas: (1) Improvement of thermochemical and thermophysical property predictions via enhancement of group-contribution methods using two approaches, namely, development and improvement of group-contribution parameters via correlations involving the expanded modern thermodynamics data base and development of group-contribution parameters via molecular spectroscopy and statistical mechanics of key monocyclic organic compounds; (2) Molecular spectroscopy and statistical mechanics: equipment development and developments in interpretation and assignment of spectra; and (3) Thermophysical property correlations.

  1. Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation

    E-print Network

    Garrahan, Juan P.

    Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation Aaron S. Keysa Contributed by David Chandler, February 11, 2013 (sent for review November 15, 2012) The glass transition different on cooling than on heating, and the response to melting a glass depends markedly on the cooling

  2. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability...procedures for handling your request to file a disability claim when you have a pending...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for...

  3. New calorimetric AC loss measurement technique involving superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Baudouy, B.J.P.; Bartholomew, K.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have developed a new calorimetric AC loss measurement facility involving superfluid helium (He II). At present, the Test of AC Loss (TACL) facility performs AC loss measurements on Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICC) under development for the NHMFL 45 Tesla hybrid superconducting outsert magnet. TACL can handle large scale conductors up to one meter in length. Measurements utilize the exceptional high heat conductivity of He II, which provides an isothermal environment and is the dominant enthalpy in the system. The test conductors are placed in an independent cryostat containing He II which is inserted in a superconducting dipole magnet producing a transverse magnetic field up to 7 T. For a change of the magnetic field and associated AC loss, the temperature variation of the He II surrounding the conductor is measured and directly converted to enthalpy variation of the He II. This paper describes the measurement technique and compares its resolution to that of more conventional calorimetric AC loss measurements.

  4. Measurement of the calorimetric energy scale in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnell, Jeffrey J.

    2005-06-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A neutrino beam is created at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois and fired down through the Earth. Measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the neutrino beam are made both at the source using the Near detector and 735 km away at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota using the Far detector. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the neutrino beam between the two detectors neutrino oscillations can be observed. Such a comparison depends on the accuracy of the relative calorimetric energy scale. This thesis details a precise measurement of the calorimetric energy scale of the MINOS Far detector and Calibration detector using stopping muons with a new ''track window'' technique. These measurements are used to perform the relative calibration between the two detectors. This calibration has been accomplished to 1.7% in data and to significantly better than 2% in the Monte Carlo simulation, thus achieving the MINOS relative calibration target of 2%. A number of cross-checks have been performed to ensure the robustness of the calorimetric energy scale measurements. At the Calibration detector the test-beam energy between run periods is found to be consistent with the detector response to better than 2% after the relative calibration is applied. The muon energy loss in the MINOS detectors determined from Bethe-Bloch predictions, data and Monte Carlo are compared and understood. To estimate the systematic error on the measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters caused by a relative miscalibration a study is performed. A 2% relative miscalibration is shown to cause a 0.6% bias in the values of {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}).

  5. Calorimetric determination of the enthalpy of formation for pyrophyllite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodova, L. P.; Kiseleva, I. A.; Mel'Chakova, L. V.; Vigasina, M. F.; Spiridonov, E. M.

    2011-09-01

    A calorimetric study of the natural pyrophyllite was performed by high-temperature melt calorimetry on a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. Based on experimentally determined in this work for pyrophyllite and gibbsite, as well as previously obtained for corundum and quartz, the total value of the enthalpy increment for the sample heated from room temperature to 973 K and the enthalpy of dissolution at 973 K by Hess's law, the enthalpy of formation of pyrophyllite of Al2[(OH)2/Si4O10] composed of elements was calculated at 298.15 K: ?f H {el/o}(298.15 K) = -5639.8 ± 5.7 kJ/mol.

  6. Novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy for mine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. |; Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Datskou, I.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have developed a novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used in mine detection applications. In this technique target molecules are allowed to adsorb on the surface of sub-femtojoule sensitive micromechanical thermal detectors. The adsorption of molecules on the thermal detector surface causes a differential surface stress resulting in an initial trigger. By exposing each element in an array of thermal detectors to different photon wavelengths, an extremely sensitive and unique photothermal signature response can be obtained. The authors present their results on target chemicals adsorbed on the detector surface at sub-monolayer coverage levels. They will present infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns the photothermal spectra of DIMP and TNT exhibit a number of peaks and are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption spectra found in the literature. Chemical detectors based on micro-calorimetric spectroscopy can be used to sensitively sense small number of molecules adsorbed on a thermal detector surface. The photothermal signature resulting from photon irradiation can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  7. Nanoclay modified polycarbonate blend nanocomposites: Calorimetric and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Kalnins, Martins; Maksimovs, Roberts

    2014-05-01

    The research is devoted to characterization of polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS) blend nanocomposites in respects to it mechanical and calorimetric properties. It is shown that PC blend with 10wt% of ABS is more suitable for development of polymer-clay nanocomposites than PC blend with 40wt.% of ABS. It is revealed that the greatest modulus and strength increment is observed for PC/10wt.%ABS blend nanocomposites, containing aromatic organomodifier treated clay (Dellite 43B). It is also determined that optimal nanofiller content for the investigated PC/10%ABS blend is 1.5 wt.%. Increase of mechanical characteristics of PC/10wt.%ABS blend nanocomposites is accompanied with the rise of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric phases, particularly that of PC.

  8. ac-Calorimetric Measurements of Transverse Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Brill, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    We are developing an ac-calorimetric technique, heating one surface of a thin sample with oscillating power and measuring the temperature oscillations on the opposite surface, to measure the thermal conductivity of solids. While the temperature oscillations are inversely proportional to the heat capacity at low frequencies, at higher frequencies the response is limited by the transverse thermal diffusivity. Because of the response times of thermometers and the fact that the magnitude of the temperature oscillation varies inversely with frequency, this technique is most useful for materials with low thermal conductivities, such as the interlayer conductivity in layered materials. We will show results on ``standard'' materials (teflon, sapphire) as well as the layered organic semiconductors, rubrene and TIPS-pentacene. Research supported by NSF grants DMR-0800367 and EPS-0814194.

  9. Synthesis of nitrate sodalite: An in situ scanning calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingyuan; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2007-04-01

    The formation of nitrate sodalite, an important constituent of the resilient heels at DOE nuclear waste storage sites, was closely followed by oven synthesis, in situ calorimetry as a function of heating rate from 0.01 to 0.1 °C/min and X-ray diffraction. A transition sequence of amorphous-zeolite A-sodalite-cancrinite was confirmed. For in situ synthesis calorimetry, the heat flow peaks related to zeolite A formation are shifted to higher temperatures as heating rate increases. Although the end products are mostly nitrate sodalite, no calorimetric signals associated with zeolite A to sodalite conversion are detected. This suggests that the enthalpy of formation of zeolite A and sodalite are very similar and the zeolite A to sodalite conversion enthalpy is small. This conclusion is in accord with previous measurements by oxide melt solution calorimetry.

  10. Fast electron thermometry towards ultra-sensitive calorimetric detection

    E-print Network

    S. Gasparinetti; K. L. Viisanen; O. -P. Saira; T. Faivre; M. Arzeo; M. Meschke; J. P. Pekola

    2014-11-04

    We demonstrate radiofrequency thermometry on a micrometer-sized metallic island below 100 mK. Our device is based on a normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction coupled to a resonator with transmission readout. In the first generation of the device, we achieve 90 {\\mu}K/Hz^1/2 noise-equivalent temperature with 10 MHz bandwidth. We measure the thermal relaxation time of the electron gas in the island, which we find to be of the order of 100 {\\mu}s. Such a calorimetric detector, upon optimization, can be seamlessly integrated into superconducting circuits, with immediate applications in quantum-thermodynamics experiments down to single quanta of energy.

  11. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-01

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (?20 ?m) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time. PMID:26479269

  12. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C; Kuhs, Werner F

    2014-12-11

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials. PMID:25503235

  13. Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2014-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids, in which guest molecules or atoms are trapped inside cages formed within a crystalline host framework (clathrate) of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. They are naturally present in large quantities on the deep ocean floor and as permafrost, can form in and block gas pipelines, and are thought to occur widely on Earth and beyond. A natural point of reference for this large and ubiquitous family of inclusion compounds is the empty hydrate lattice, which is usually regarded as experimentally inaccessible because the guest species stabilize the host framework. However, it has been suggested that sufficiently small guests may be removed to leave behind metastable empty clathrates, and guest-free Si- and Ge-clathrates have indeed been obtained. Here we show that this strategy can also be applied to water-based clathrates: five days of continuous vacuum pumping on small particles of neon hydrate (of structure sII) removes all guests, allowing us to determine the crystal structure, thermal expansivity and limit of metastability of the empty hydrate. It is the seventeenth experimentally established crystalline ice phase, ice XVI according to the current ice nomenclature, has a density of 0.81 grams per cubic centimetre (making it the least dense of all known crystalline water phases) and is expected to be the stable low-temperature phase of water at negative pressures (that is, under tension). We find that the empty hydrate structure exhibits negative thermal expansion below about 55 kelvin, and that it is mechanically more stable and has at low temperatures larger lattice constants than the filled hydrate. These observations attest to the importance of kinetic effects and host-guest interactions in clathrate hydrates, with further characterization of the empty hydrate expected to improve our understanding of the structure, properties and behaviour of these unique materials.

  14. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. (a) Under the provisions...title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...

  15. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233...titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. (a) Under the provisions...title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...

  16. New classes of public key cryptosystem K(XVI)SE(1)PKC constructed based on Reed-Solomon code over extension field of

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    New classes of public key cryptosystem K(XVI)SE(1)PKC constructed based on Reed-Solomon code over extension field of m=8 and K(XVI)SE(2)PKC, based on binary cyclic code. Masao KASAHARA Abstract code over extension field of less than m=9, referred to as K(XVI)SE(1)PKC. We then present a new class

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. XVI Appendix XVI to Part...

  18. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James

    2006-01-12

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge, high activity insoluble salt, and very low activity soluble salts. The soluble salt represents 90% of the 35 million gallons of overall waste and is processed at the SRS Saltstone Facility, where it mixed with cement, blast furnace slag, and flyash, creating a grout-like mixture. The resulting grout is pumped into aboveground storage vaults, where it hydrates into concrete monoliths, called saltstone, thus immobilizing the low-level radioactive salt waste. As the saltstone hydrates, it generates heat that slowly diffuses out of the poured material. To ensure acceptable grout properties for disposal and immobilization of the salt waste, the grout temperature must not exceed 95 C during hydration. Adiabatic calorimetric measurements of the heat generated for a representative sample of saltstone were made to determine the time-dependent heat source term. These measurements subsequently were utilized as input to a numerical conjugate heat transfer model to determine the expected peak temperatures for the saltstone vaults.

  19. Energy calibration of Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Asaoka, Yoichi; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa

    2015-06-01

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States. CALET will measure the flux of cosmic ray electrons (including positrons) up to 20 TeV, gamma-rays up to 10 TeV and nuclei from Z = 1 up to 40 up to 1000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. The unique feature of CALET is its thick, fully active calorimeter that allows measurements well into the TeV energy region with excellent energy resolution (< 3 %), coupled with a fine imaging upper calorimeter to accurately identify the starting point of electromagnetic showers. For continuous high performance of the detector, it is required to calibrate each detector component on orbit. We use the measured response to minimum ionizing particles for the energy calibration, taking data in a dedicated trigger mode and selecting useful events in off-line analysis. In this paper, we present on-orbit and off-line data handling methods for the energy calibration developed through beam tests at CERN-SPS and Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  1. SPIE Proceedings, Laser-Tissue Interactions XVI, vol. 5695, BIOS 2005 Cellular tolerance to pulsed heating

    E-print Network

    Palanker, Daniel

    SPIE Proceedings, Laser-Tissue Interactions XVI, vol. 5695, BIOS 2005 1 Cellular tolerance University, Stanford, CA, USA 94305 ABSTRACT Many laser therapies involve significant heating of tissue of 0.3 ms to 5 seconds. Thin layer of cells cultured in a Petri dish was exposed to a pulsed CO2 laser

  2. Volume XVI, No. 3 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 3 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency May/June 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: The Environment #12;2 Public Works Digest · May/June 2004 Public Works Digest is an unofficial publication of the U.S. Army Installa- tion Management Agency

  3. Volume XVI, No. 2 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 2 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency March/April 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Housing #12;Public Works Digest is an unofficial publication of the U.S. Army Installa- tion Management Agency, under AR 360-1, The Army Public Affairs Pro

  4. Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency November/December 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Annual Report Summaries #12;3 Letter from Almquist 5 Joint Basing in DoD and the Army by Michael Ostrom 6-7 Installation Support Center of Expertise

  5. A Temporal Map in Geostationary Orbit: The Cover Etching on the EchoStar XVI Artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  6. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of the current instrument to direct further work in this field. It has been found that for sources with powers above approximately 2 muW the instrument is able to determine the source power in agreement to within less than 7% of what is expected based upon the current source strength standard. For lower power sources, the agreement is still within the uncertainty of the power measurement, but the calorimeter noise dominates. Thus, to provide absolute calibration of lower power sources additional measures must be taken. The conclusion of this thesis describes these measures and how they will improve the factors that limit the current instrument. The results of the work presented in this thesis establish the methodology of active radiometric calorimetey for the absolute calibration of radioactive sources. The method is an improvement over previous techniques in that there is no reliance upon the thermal properties of the materials used or the heat flow pathways on the source measurements. The initial work presented here will help to shape future refinements of this technique to allow lower power sources to be calibrated with high precision and high accuracy.

  7. Neutron detection by measuring capture gammas in a calorimetric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Guntram; Herbach, Claus-Michael; Kong, Yong; Lentering, Ralf; Plettner, Cristina; Roemer, Katja; Scherwinski, Falko; Stein, Juergen; Schotanus, Paul; Wilpert, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The neutron capture detector (NCD) is introduced as a novel detection scheme for thermal and epithermal neutrons that could provide large-area neutron counters by using common detector materials and proven technologies. The NCD is based on the fact that neutron captures are usually followed by prompt gamma cascades, where the sum energy of the gammas equals to the total excitation energy of typically 6-9 MeV. This large sum energy is measured in a calorimetric approach and taken as the signature of a neutron capture event. An NCD consists of a neutron converter, comprising of constituents with large elemental neutron capture cross-section like cadmium or gadolinium, which is embedded in common scintillator material. The scintillator must be large and dense enough to absorb with reasonable probability a portion of the sum energy that exceeds the energy of gammas emitted by common (natural, medical, industrial) radiation sources. An energy window, advantageously complemented with a multiplicity filter, then discriminates neutron capture signals against background. The paper presents experimental results obtained at the cold-neutron beam of the BER II research reactor, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, and at other neutron sources with a prototype NCD, consisting of four BGO crystals with embedded cadmium sheets, and with a benchmark configuration consisting of two separate NaI(Tl) detectors. The detector responses are in excellent agreement with predictions of a simulation model developed for optimizing NCD configurations. NCDs could be deployed as neutron detectors in radiation portal monitors (RPMs). Advanced modular scintillation detector systems could even combine neutron and gamma sensitivity with excellent background suppression at minimum overall expense.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of chlorite and berthierine derived from calorimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Philippe; Gailhanou, Hélène; Rogez, Jacques; Mikaelian, Georges; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Warmont, Fabienne; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Vieillard, Philippe; Fialips, Claire I.; Giffaut, Eric; Gaucher, Eric C.; Claret, F.

    2014-09-01

    In the context of the deep waste disposal, we have investigated the respective stabilities of two iron-bearing clay minerals: berthierine ISGS from Illinois [USA; (Al0.975FeIII0.182FeII1.422Mg0.157Li0.035Mn0.002)(Si1.332Al0.668)O5(OH)4] and chlorite CCa-2 from Flagstaff Hill, California [USA; (Si2.633Al1.367)(Al1.116FeIII0.215Mg2.952FeII1.712Mn0.012Ca0.011)O10(OH)8]. For berthierine, the complete thermodynamic dataset was determined at 1 bar and from 2 to 310 K, using calorimetric methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were obtained by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K, and the heat capacities were measured by heat-pulse calorimetry. For chlorite, the standard enthalpy of formation is measured by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K. This is completing the entropy and heat capacity obtained previously by Gailhanou et al. (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:4738-4749, 2009) between 2 and 520 K, by using low-temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. For both minerals, the standard entropies and the Gibbs free energies of formation at 298.15 K were then calculated. An assessment of the measured properties could be carried out with respect to literature data. Eventually, the thermodynamic dataset allowed realizing theoretical calculations concerning the berthierine to chlorite transition. The latter showed that, from a thermodynamic viewpoint, the main factor controlling this transition is probably the composition of the berthierine and chlorite minerals and the nature of the secondary minerals rather than temperature.

  9. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Docket No. SSA-2012-0006] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction and Alcoholism (DAA); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...

  10. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...would receive. For title II benefits, it includes your monthly benefit and your past-due benefits after any reductions or deductions...this chapter. For title XVI benefits, it includes your monthly benefit and your past-due...

  11. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754-1793), king of France.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M; Chiang, Charleston W K; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754-1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  12. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), king of France

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M.; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754–1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fe XVI radiative rates (Diaz+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n<=5 states arising from the configuration 1s22sk2pm3lpnl'q, where k+m+p+q=9, l<=3 and p+q<=2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines. (2 data files).

  14. The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis of the Molecular of hydrogen-bondformation between guanine (G) and cytusine (C) in o-dichloro- benzene and in chloroformat 25°C forming hydrogen bonds. Consequently, hydrogen-bond formation in our system is primarily between the bases

  15. Heat capacty, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Haas, J.L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Through the evaluation of experimental calorimetric data and estimates of the molar isobaric heat capacities, relative enthalpies and entropies of constituent oxides, a procedure for predicting the thermodynamic properties of silicates is developed. Estimates of the accuracy and precision of the technique and examples of its application are also presented. -J.A.Z.

  16. A method for determining crystallization kinetic parameters from one nonisothermal calorimetric experiment

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Brian S.

    A method for determining crystallization kinetic parameters from one nonisothermal calorimetric rate in an isothermal process can be translated into the nonisothermal transformation in an isokinetic crystallization is dominant in the bulk a-Se and LS2 samples, whereas surface crystallization is dominant

  17. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Klots, T. D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built. Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl-substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  18. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Klots, T.D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl- substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental- frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  19. THEORETICAL WAVELENGTHS OF Fe XVI L-SHELL TRANSITIONS AND COMPARISON WITH LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF CAPELLA

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Diaz, F.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2012-02-01

    We have used the relativistic multi-reference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to calculate the energy levels of Fe XVI, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole state in the L shell. Comparison of the resulting L-shell transition wavelengths with those from recent laboratory measurements shows remarkable agreement, i.e., agreement within the experimental uncertainties. Our calculation allows us to predict the wavelength of the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not yet been directly observed in the laboratory, to be 15.266 A. This wavelength is within 0.0042 A of the strong Fe XVII line commonly labeled 3D. Relying on the high accuracy of our calculations, we have reassigned two previously identified lines and predict a different location than previously thought for the strongest Fe XVI magnetic quadrupole transition. Inspection of the spectra of Capella recorded with the transmission grating spectrometers on the Chandra X-ray Observatory yields features corresponding to the predicted location of the innershell excited Fe XVI lines. These features have not been identified before. Our analysis shows that these features are most likely from Fe XVI.

  20. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, section 1121...IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act for or on account...remedial care provided by an institution to any individual as an...

  1. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, section 1121...IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act for or on account...remedial care provided by an institution to any individual as an...

  2. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social Security Act for aid or...approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, section 1121...IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act for or on account...remedial care provided by an institution to any individual as an...

  3. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.145 Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X..., enacted July 30, 1965, no payment may be made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of...

  4. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio; McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Cassisi, Santi; Cole, Andrew A.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Irwin, Mike; Martin, Nicolas F.; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio F.

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ? 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ?5 Gyr ago (z ? 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  5. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankowski, A. M.; Benhar, O.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Jen, C.-M.; Mariani, C.; Meloni, D.; Vagnoni, E.

    2015-10-01

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two ????? disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with an O (10 %) accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. On the other hand, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.

  6. Application of Electrical and Calorimetric Methods to the A.C. Loss Characterization of Cable Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Coletta, C.; Gherardi, L.; Gomory, F.; Cereda, E.; Ottoboni, V.; Daney, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Zannella, S.

    1998-09-13

    Due to the higher currents (and therefore higher losses) compared to individual wires and tapes, the ac loss characterization of HTS cable conductors carrying transport current can be performed using calorimetric as well as electrical methods. We discuss the main features of two calorimetric methods, one based on temperature profile determination, and one, more recently developed, based on nitrogen boil-off rate, and of the electrical method, substantially derived from that already established for tapes, based on voltage measurement by a Lock-In amplifier. Advantages and limits of each approach are analyzed and compared. Tests have been carried out with the three methods on samples 1 to 1.5 m long cut from a Bi-2223 cable conductor prototype fabricated by Pirelli in a longer length. Results obtained from measurements covering a wide range of currents are compared and thoroughly discussed.

  7. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Benhar, Omar; Coloma, Pilar; Huber, Patrick; Jen, Chun -Min; Mariani, Camillo; Meloni, Davide; Vagnoni, Erica

    2015-10-22

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two ?? ? ?? disappearance experiments operating in different energymore »regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with an O(10%) accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. Thus, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.« less

  8. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Benhar, Omar; Coloma, Pilar; Huber, Patrick; Jen, Chun -Min; Mariani, Camillo; Meloni, Davide; Vagnoni, Erica

    2015-10-22

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two ?? ? ?? disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with an O(10%) accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. Thus, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.

  9. Comparison of the calorimetric and kinematic methods of neutrino energy reconstruction in disappearance experiments

    E-print Network

    Artur M. Ankowski; Omar Benhar; Pilar Coloma; Patrick Huber; Chun-Min Jen; Camillo Mariani; Davide Meloni; Erica Vagnoni

    2015-10-22

    To be able to achieve their physics goals, future neutrino-oscillation experiments will need to reconstruct the neutrino energy with very high accuracy. In this work, we analyze how the energy reconstruction may be affected by realistic detection capabilities, such as energy resolutions, efficiencies, and thresholds. This allows us to estimate how well the detector performance needs to be determined a priori in order to avoid a sizable bias in the measurement of the relevant oscillation parameters. We compare the kinematic and calorimetric methods of energy reconstruction in the context of two muon-neutrino disappearance experiments operating in different energy regimes. For the calorimetric reconstruction method, we find that the detector performance has to be estimated with a ~10% accuracy to avoid a significant bias in the extracted oscillation parameters. On the other hand, in the case of kinematic energy reconstruction, we observe that the results exhibit less sensitivity to an overestimation of the detector capabilities.

  10. 78 FR 11939 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p.; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...We are giving notice of SSR 13-2p, in which we explain our policies for how we consider whether ``drug addiction and alcoholism'' (DAA) is material to our determination of disability in disability claims and continuing disability reviews. This SSR rescinds and replaces SSR 82-60, Titles II and XVI: Evaluation of Drug Addiction and Alcoholism. This SSR obsoletes EM...

  11. Paper to XVI IMEKO World Congress 2000, 25-28 Sept. 2000, Vienna REFRACTION INFLUENCE ANALYSIS AND

    E-print Network

    Paper to XVI IMEKO World Congress 2000, 25-28 Sept. 2000, Vienna REFRACTION INFLUENCE ANALYSIS of the earth to industrial parts. In this paper we focus on geodetic measurements for construction inhomogenities in the propagation medium will cause refraction effects as beam bending and time

  12. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability Benefits AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social...

  13. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... February 20, 2013. (78 FR 11939). On page 11940, in the first column, under the ``CITATIONS'' section... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

  14. Non-destructive testing of an original XVI century painting on wood by ESPI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), a non-contact and non-destructive optical techniques, was employed for assessing the conservation state of a XVI Century painting on wood (72x88x1,9 cm). By a long term analysis, the whole structure alterations, induced by the room temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Measurement of the whole painting structural bends was achieved. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which cannot be recognized by traditional art-restorer methods, were also revealed. This work was prevalently aimed at achieving a simple approach, in the laboratory practice, to get an intuitively user-friendly method for art conservators, not accustomed to high-tech or math based methods. The results demonstrate that ESPI can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  15. PREFACE: XVI International Youth Scientific School 'Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Tagirov, M. S.; Dooglav, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    In 1997, A S Borovik-Romanov, the Academician of RAS, and A V Aganov, the head of the Physics Department of Kazan State University, suggested that the 'School of Magnetic Resonance', well known in the Soviet Union, should recommence and be regularly held in Kazan. This school was created in 1968 by G V Scrotskii, the prominent scientist in the field of magnetic resonance and the editor of many famous books on magnetic resonance (authored by A Abragam, B. Bleaney, C. Slichter, and many others) translated and edited in the Soviet Union. In 1991 the last, the 12th School, was held under the supervision of G V Scrotskii. Since 1997, more than 600 young scientists, 'schoolboys', have taken part in the School meetings, made their oral reports and participated in heated discussions. Every year a competition among the young scientist takes place and the Program Committee members name the best reports, the authors of which are invited to prepare full-scale scientific papers. The XVI International Youth Scientific School 'Actual problems of the magnetic resonance and its application' in its themes is slightly different from previous ones. A new section has been opened this year: Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on optical research, many of the reports are devoted to the implementation of nanotechnology in optical studies. The XVI International Youth Scientific School has been supported by the Program of development of Kazan Federal University. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors (BRUKER Ltd, Moscow, the Russian Academy of Science, the Dynasty foundation of Dmitrii Zimin, Russia, Russian Foundation for Basic Research) and all the participants and contributors for making the International School meeting possible and interesting. A V Dooglav, M Kh Salakhov and M S Tagirov The Editors

  16. Calorimetric Thermoelectric Gas Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen, Methane and Mixed Gases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam-Hee; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturized calorimeter-type sensor device with a dual-catalyst structure was fabricated by integrating different catalysts on the hot (Pd/?-Al2O3) and cold (Pt/?-Al2O3) ends of the device. The device comprises a calorimeter with a thermoelectric gas sensor (calorimetric-TGS), combining catalytic combustion and thermoelectric technologies. Its response for a model fuel gas of hydrogen and methane was investigated with various combustor catalyst compositions. The calorimetric-TGS devices detected H2, CH4, and a mixture of the two with concentrations ranging between 200 and 2000 ppm at temperatures of 100–400 °C, in terms of the calorie content of the gases. It was necessary to reduce the much higher response voltage of the TGS to H2 compared to CH4. We enhanced the H2 combustion on the cold side so that the temperature differences and response voltages to H2 were reduced. The device response to H2 combustion was reduced by 50% by controlling the Pt concentration in the Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst on the cold side to 3 wt%. PMID:24818660

  17. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, P K; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M

    2010-07-01

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T(c) superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines. PMID:20687748

  18. Stabilization of Cu(I) for binding and calorimetric measurements in aqueous solution†

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Destinee K.; Stevenson, Michael J.; Almadidy, Zayed A.; Jenkins, Sharon E.; Wilcox, Dean. E.; Grossoehme, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Conditions have been developed for the comproportionation reaction of Cu2+ and copper metal to prepare aqueous solutions of Cu+ that are stabilized from disproportionation by MeCN and other Cu+-stabilizing ligands. These solutions were then used in ITC measurements to quantify the thermodynamics of formation of a set of Cu+ complexes (CuI(MeCN)3+, CuIMe6Trien+, CuI(BCA)23?, CuI(BCS)23?), which have stabilities ranging over 15 orders of magnitude, for their use in binding and calorimetric measurements of Cu+ interaction with proteins and other biological macromolecules. These complexes were then used to determine the stability and thermodynamics of formation of a 1 : 1 complex of Cu+ with the biologically important tri-peptide glutathione, GSH. These results identify Me6Trien as an attractive Cu+-stabilizing ligand for calorimetric experiments, and suggest that caution should be used with MeCN to stabilize Cu+ due to its potential for participating in unquantifiable ternary interactions. PMID:26327397

  19. Calorimetric measurement of absorption loss in orientation-patterned GaP and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyanova, Yelena; Moulton, Peter F.; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2015-03-01

    Materials grown by vapor phase techniques such as chemical vapor deposition or hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) often exhibit very low losses which are difficult to quantify by simple transmission measurements. The measurement of extremely low absorption coefficients can be carried out by laser calorimetric or thermal rise techniques, which determine the absorption coefficients by measuring the temperature increase caused by the absorbed laser radiation. We report here on results of measuring absorption coefficients of bulk HVPE-grown orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) and GaP (OP-GaP) crystals using one of the methods of laser calorimetry, called transient calorimetry. In our setup, the sample under test is attached to a high-conductivity copper holder and placed in a vacuum chamber. A 2-micron cw laser beam is transmitted through the sample and the temperature rise in the sample is measured and, through the calorimeter calibration process, related to the power absorbed in the sample. The absorbed power, Pa, is a function of the total attenuation coefficient ?tot , the length of the sample, and the laser power Po, defined as Pa = Po exp (-?tot l), where total attenuation ?tot is the sum of absorption and scattering: ?tot = ?abs + ?scat. Since scattered light does not cause heating, the calorimetric technique is only applicable to determining ?abs. By this technique we have measured 2-micron absorption coefficients in OP-GaAs and OP-GaP as low as 0.007 cm-1.

  20. Reaction of hydroxy and carbonyl compounds with sulfur tetrafluoride. XVI. Reactions of vicinal dihydric alcohols with sulfur tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Burmakov, A.I.; Hassanein, S.M.; Kunshenko, B.V.; Alekseeva, L.A.; Yagupol'skii, L.M.

    1986-11-20

    During the action of sulfur tetrafluoride on ethanediol, d,l-1,2-propanediol, d,l-3,3,3-trifluoro-1,2-propanediol regioselective substitution of one of the hydroxyl groups by a fluorine atom occurs, depending on the electronic nature of the groups present in the molecule. The second hydroxy group in converted into a fluorosulfite group.

  1. A calorimetric analysis of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell and the production of H2O2 at the cathode

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    with decreasing cell potential. This effect was obtained independently of membrane thickness and current density and measure the thermal signature of the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell. This paper reports31.08.2009 1 A calorimetric analysis of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell and the production of H2O2

  2. Specific volume study of a bulk metallic glass far below its calorimetrically determined glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckabauer, M.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.; Sprengel, W.

    2014-05-01

    High-precision LASER dilatometry with a unique measurement setup was applied to the bulk metallic glass alloy Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10 (Vit105) for specific volume studies. Employing small temperature steps of ?T =5 and 10 K and long measurement times effective heating rates of the order of 10-2 K/min were realized and changes of the specific volume were measured with a resolution of ?V /V=10-6 down to 573 K. The temperature regime of these experiments is far below a calorimetrically determined glass transition of Tgcalor=659 K (5 K/min). The experimental results strongly support theoretical predictions for the existence of an ideal glass transition that was observed in this study at Tg=628 K for this bulk metallic glass model alloy.

  3. Idebenone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: calorimetric studies on surfactant and drug loading effects.

    PubMed

    Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Accolla, Maria Lorena; Puglisi, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Montenegro, Lucia

    2014-08-25

    In this study we prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, using cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and three different non-ionic emulsifiers of the polyoxyethylene ethers family (ceteth-20, isoceteth-20, oleth-20). These SLN were loaded with different amount of idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant drug useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and skin oxidative damages. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate the effects of the different emulsifiers and the different amounts of drug loaded on the thermotropic behavior of SLN and to investigate how the drug was arranged into these nanoparticles. The IDE seemed to be located into different regions of the SLN depending on its concentration and on the surfactant used. The results of this study suggest that the calorimetric studies performed on SLN could provide valuable information to optimize SLN design and drug release from these carriers. PMID:24845103

  4. A differential scanning calorimetric study of Newcastle disease virus: identification of proteins involved in thermal transitions.

    PubMed

    Shnyrov, V L; Zhadan, G G; Cobaleda, C; Sagrera, A; Muñoz-Barroso, I; Villar, E

    1997-05-01

    The irreversible thermal denaturation of Newcastle disease virus was investigated using different techniques including high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gel analysis intrinsic fluorescence, and neuraminidase activity assays. Application of a successive annealing procedure to the scanning calorimetric endotherm of Newcastle disease virus furnished four elementary thermal transitions below the overall endotherm; these were further identified as coming from the denaturation of each viral protein. The shape of these transitions, as well as their scanrate dependence, was explained by assuming that thermal denaturation takes place according to the kinetic scheme N-->(k)D, where k is a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, as given by the Arrhenius equation; N is the native state; and D is the denatured state. On the basis of this model, activation energy values were calculated. The data obtained with the other methods used in this work support the proposed two-state kinetic model. PMID:9143357

  5. Calorimetric quantification of linked equilibria in cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent mixtures for membrane-protein reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Reconstitution from detergent micelles into lipid bilayer membranes is a prerequisite for many in vitro studies on purified membrane proteins. Complexation by cyclodextrins offers an efficient and tightly controllable way of removing detergents for membrane-protein reconstitution, since cyclodextrins sequester detergents at defined stoichiometries and with tuneable affinities. To fully exploit the potential advantages of cyclodextrin for membrane-protein reconstitution, we establish a quantitative model for predicting the supramolecular transition from mixed micelles to vesicles during cyclodextrin-mediated detergent extraction. The model is based on a set of linked equilibria among all pseudophases present in the course of the reconstitution process. Various isothermal titration-calorimetric protocols are used for quantifying a detergent's self-association as well as its colloidal and stoichiometric interactions with lipid and cyclodextrin, respectively. The detergent's critical micellar concentration, the phase boundaries in the lipid/detergent phase diagram, and the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent complex thus obtained provide all thermodynamic parameters necessary for a quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during cyclodextrin-driven reconstitution. This is exemplified and validated by stepwise complexation of the detergent lauryldimethylamine N-oxide in mixtures with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon titration with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin, both in the presence and in the absence of the membrane protein Mistic. The calorimetric approach presented herein quantitatively predicts the onset and completion of the reconstitution process, thus obviating cumbersome trial-and-error efforts and facilitating the rational optimisation of reconstitution protocols, and can be adapted to different cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent combinations. PMID:25583305

  6. Calorimetric approach for 3D dosimetry of high intensity therapeutic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, E.; Fiorillo, A. S.; Vena, R.; Berdondini, A.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Bilokon, H.; Barca, G.; Castrovillari, F.; Siaka, Y. F. T.

    2009-12-01

    The technique of High Dose Rate Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (HDR-IORT) consists in the delivery of irradiation immediately after the removal of a cancerous mass, where the same incision is used to focalize the radiation to the tumour bed. Given its particular characteristics, IORT requires dose measurements that are different from those requested in external radiotherapy treatments. The main reason lies in the fact that in this case a single high dose must be delivered to a target volume whose extension and depth will be determined directly during the operation. Because of this peculiar characteristics, until now there is not a dosimetric system able to detect the electron beam giving at once a realtime response and an extensive spatial measure of the absorbed dose. Within the framework of a research project of the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), we proposed a new system to overcome the problems, Dosiort. The final set-up is a solid phantom having a density approximately 1 g/cm3 with sensitive layers of scintillating fibres at fixed positions in a calorimetric configuration for the containment of electrons of energy 4-12 MeV. The prototype will be able to define the physical and geometrical characteristics of the electron beam (energy, isotropy, homogeneity, etc) and to measure the parameters needed to select the energy, the intensity and the Monitor Units (MU) for the exposition: percentage Depth Dose; beam profiles; isodose curves; values of dose per MU. In this work we present the results obtained by using two orthogonal layers of the calorimetric phantom Dosiort, in particular we report the measurement of the dynamic range of the read-out system and the first qualitative study of the results which can be extracted from the measurements taken in a test beam.

  7. XVI European Charcot Foundation Lecture: Nutrition and environment, can MS be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Kelly Claire; Munger, Kassandra L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a relatively common debilitating neurologic disease that affects people in early adulthood. While the characteristic pathology of MS has been well described, the etiology of the disease is not well understood, despite decades of research and the identification of strong genetic and environmental candidates for susceptibility. A question central to all diseases, but posed specifically for MS at the XVI European Charcot Foundation Lecture, was ‘Can MS be prevented?’ To address this question, we have evaluated the available data regarding nutritional and environmental factors that may be related to MS susceptibility and suggest the extent to which a potential intervention may reduce disease burden. It is our opinion that intervention, particularly supplementation with vitamin D, could have a dramatic impact on disease prevalence. Understanding that any intervention or behavioral modification will surely act in the context of genetic susceptibility and unidentified stochastic events, it is likely that not all MS is ‘preventable’. Epidemiologic observation has provided key insights into environmental and nutritional factors that may alter one’s susceptibility to MS, however, there are still many questions in unraveling the etiology of this complex disease. PMID:21975017

  8. Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies of steady-state natural convection from miniaturized horizontal single plate-fin systems and plate-fin arrays

    E-print Network

    Harahap, Filino

    Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies have been conducted to investigate the effect that reduction of the base-plate dimensions has on the steady-state performance of the rate of natural convection heat ...

  9. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G. P.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2011-05-01

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 69 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3p4, 3s23p3d, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p, 3s23p4d, and 3s23p4f configurations of Cu XVI. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the computer code CIV3 of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the energy values of those from the National Institute for Standards and Technology. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetime for the high spin level 3s3p3(5S2) is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value of Trabert et al (1988 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5 2173). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available. ).

  10. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 {+-} 1.1 and -16.8 {+-} 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  11. Thermal explosion analysis of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide by non-isothermal and isothermal calorimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Hao; Wu, Sheng-Hung; Shu, Chi-Min

    2009-11-15

    In the past, process incidents attributed to organic peroxides (OPs) that involved near misses, over-pressures, runaway reactions, and thermal explosions occurred because of poor training, human error, incorrect kinetic assumptions, insufficient change management, and inadequate chemical knowledge in the manufacturing process. Calorimetric applications were employed broadly to test organic peroxides on a small-scale because of their thermal hazards, such as exothermic behavior and self-accelerating decomposition in the laboratory. In essence, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) is highly reactive and exothermically unstable. In recent years, it has undergone many thermal explosions and runaway reaction incidents in the manufacturing process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), and thermal activity monitor (TAM) were employed to analyze thermokinetic parameters and safety index. The intent of the analyses was to facilitate the use of various auto-alarm equipments to detect over-pressure, over-temperature, and hazardous materials leaks for a wide spectrum of operations. Results indicated that MEKPO decomposition is detected at low temperatures (30-40 degrees C), and the rate of decomposition was shown to exponentially increase with temperature and pressure. Determining time to maximum rate (TMR), self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT), maximum temperature (T(max)), exothermic onset temperature (T(0)), and heat of decomposition (DeltaH(d)) was essential for identifying early-stage runaway reactions effectively for industries. PMID:19619941

  12. Inverse Temperature Dependence in Static Quenching versus Calorimetric Exploration: Binding Interaction of Chloramphenicol to ?-Lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Narayani; Mondal, Ramakanta; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-07-28

    The binding interaction between the whey protein bovine ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) with the well-known antibiotic chloramphenicol (Clp) is explored by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of ?LG. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectral data reveal that quenching of ?LG fluorescence proceeds through ground state complex formation, i.e., static quenching mechanism. However, the drug-protein binding constant is found to vary proportionately with temperature. This anomalous result is explained on the basis of the Arrhenius theory which states that the rate constant varies proportionally with temperature. Thermodynamic parameters like ?H, ?S, ?G, and the stoichiometry for the binding interaction have been estimated by isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) study. Thermodynamic data show that the binding phenomenon is mainly an entropy driven process suggesting the major role of hydrophobic interaction forces in the Clp-?LG binding. Constant pressure heat capacity change (?Cp) has been calculated from enthalpy of binding at different temperatures which reveals that hydrophobic interaction is the major operating force. The inverse temperature dependence in static quenching is however resolved from ITC data which show that the binding constant regularly decreases with increase in temperature. The modification of native protein conformation due to binding of drug has been monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The probable binding location of Clp inside ?LG is explored from AutoDock based blind docking simulation. PMID:26145148

  13. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  14. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-08-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  15. DNA energy landscapes via calorimetric detection of microstate ensembles of metastable macrostates and triplet repeat diseases

    PubMed Central

    Völker, Jens; Klump, Horst H.; Breslauer, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Biopolymers exhibit rough energy landscapes, thereby allowing biological processes to access a broad range of kinetic and thermodynamic states. In contrast to proteins, the energy landscapes of nucleic acids have been the subject of relatively few experimental investigations. In this study, we use calorimetric and spectroscopic observables to detect, resolve, and selectively enrich energetically discrete ensembles of microstates within metastable DNA structures. Our results are consistent with metastable, “native” DNA states being composed of an ensemble of discrete and kinetically stable microstates of differential stabilities, rather than exclusively being a single, discrete thermodynamic species. This conceptual construct is important for understanding the linkage between biopolymer conformational/configurational space and biological function, such as in protein folding, allosteric control of enzyme activity, RNA and DNA folding and function, DNA structure and biological regulation, etc. For the specific DNA sequences and structures studied here, the demonstration of discrete, kinetically stable microstates potentially has biological consequences for understanding the development and onset of DNA expansion and triplet repeat diseases. PMID:19015511

  16. Minor groove binding of the food colorant carmoisine to DNA: spectroscopic and calorimetric characterization studies.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of the food additive carmoisine with herring testes DNA was studied by multifaceted biophysical techniques. Carmoisine exhibited hypochromic effects in absorbance, whereas in fluorescence the intensity enhanced upon complexation with DNA. Energy transfer from the DNA base pairs to carmoisine molecules occurred upon complexation. A groove binding model of interaction was envisaged for carmoisine-DNA complexation from 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst displacement studies. The binding of carmoisine stabilized the DNA structure against thermal denaturation. The binding induced moderate conformational perturbations in the B-form structure of DNA. The binding affinity (10(4) M(-1)) values, calculated from absorbance and fluorescence data, and calorimetry titrations were in close agreement with each other. The binding was characterized to be exothermic and favored by small negative enthalpic and large positive entropic contributions. Salt-dependent calorimetric studies revealed that the binding reaction was dominated by nonpolyelectrolytic forces. The negative heat capacity value suggested the role of hydrophobic effect in the interaction. PMID:24328331

  17. Idebenone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles interact with biomembrane models: calorimetric evidence.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Lucia; Ottimo, Sara; Puglisi, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia

    2012-09-01

    The knowledge of the interactions between solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and cell membranes is important to develop effective carrier systems for drug delivery applications. Loading idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant drug useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, into SLN improves IDE antioxidant activity in in vitro biological studies, but the mechanism by which IDE permeation through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs are still unclear. Therefore, in this research, unloaded and IDE loaded SLN interaction with biomembrane models, consisting of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles (MLV), were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the experiments performed, unloaded and IDE loaded SLN where incubated with the biomembrane models and their interactions were evaluated through the variations in their calorimetric curves. The results of our DSC studies indicated that the SLN under investigation were able to go inside the phospholipid bilayers with a likely localization in the outer bilayers of the MLV from where they moved toward the inner layers by increasing the contact time between SLN and MLV. Furthermore, IDE loaded SLN were able to release IDE into the biomembrane model, thus facilitating IDE penetration into the bilayers while free IDE showed only a low ability to interact with this model of biomembranes. Our results suggest that these SLN could be regarded as a promising drug delivery system to improve IDE bioavailability and antioxidant activity. PMID:22894135

  18. Algorithms for Identification of Nearly-Coincident Events in Calorimetric Sensors

    E-print Network

    Alpert, B; Bennett, D; Faverzani, M; Fowler, J; Giachero, A; Hays-Wehle, J; Maino, M; Nucciotti, A; Puiu, A; Swetz, D; Ullom, J

    2015-01-01

    For experiments with high arrival rates, reliable identification of nearly-coincident events can be crucial. For calorimetric measurements to directly measure the neutrino mass such as HOLMES, unidentified pulse pile-ups are expected to be a leading source of experimental error. Although Wiener filtering can be used to recognize pile-up, it suffers errors due to pulse-shape variation from detector nonlinearity, readout dependence on sub-sample arrival times, and stability issues from the ill-posed deconvolution problem of recovering Dirac delta-functions from smooth data. Due to these factors, we have developed a processing method that exploits singular value decomposition to (1) separate single-pulse records from piled-up records in training data and (2) construct a model of single-pulse records that accounts for varying pulse shape with amplitude, arrival time, and baseline level, suitable for detecting nearly-coincident events. We show that the resulting processing advances can reduce the required performa...

  19. Calorimetric evidence for allosteric subunit interactions associated with inhibitor binding to band 3 transporter.

    PubMed

    Van Dort, H M; Low, P S; Cordes, K A; Schopfer, L M; Salhany, J M

    1994-01-01

    A calorimetric endotherm occurring at 68 degrees C (the C-transition) has been assigned previously to the integral domain of band 3 and was shown to be shifted to 78 degrees C after covalent binding of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS). In this study, we correlate the fractional appearance of the shifted C-transition with the fraction of DIDS bound to the band 3 monomer population. Our results show a distinctly nonlinear correlation plot with the appearance of the shifted C-transition lagging behind DIDS labeling of the band 3 monomer population. The lag suggests that both monomers of a band 3 dimer must be labeled by DIDS in order for the shifted C-transition to appear at 78 degrees C, implying that the thermal unfolding of the integral domain of band 3 is modulated by allosteric interactions between subunits. This is the first in situ structural evidence supporting ligand-mediated subunit interactions within a "carrier"-type transporter protein oligomer. PMID:8276856

  20. Characterization of Mucor pusillus rennin expressed in Pichia pastoris: enzymic, spectroscopic and calorimetric studies.

    PubMed

    Beldarraín, A; Acosta, N; Montesinos, R; Mata, M; Cremata, J

    2000-04-01

    The aspartic proteinase gene of Mucor pusillus rennin expressed in Pichia pastoris was characterized in terms of structural and conformational stability induced by temperature. This enzyme is 12% glycosylated, with a similar specific activity to the native fungal enzyme. The secondary structure determined by CD is mainly due to beta-sheet structures with an important contribution of aromatic components. The calorimetric studies were carried out in the temperature range in which the enzyme is most stable. The enzyme undergoes an irreversible, highly scan-rate-dependent thermal denaturation under all the experimental conditions investigated. Between pH 3.0 and 7.0, only one endotherm characterized the thermal denaturation of enzyme. At pH 5.0, the most stable condition found, the denaturation can be fitted to the two-state irreversible model. Thus the kinetic constant and activation parameters of the denaturation process could be obtained. Upon reaching pH 7.5, the denaturation is characterized by two endotherms. This evidence indicates the complex tridimensional structure of this enzyme. Finally, taking into account the conservative tertiary structure of the aspartic proteinase family we comment on our results with reference to the crystallographic structure of M. pusillus pepsin [Newman, Watson, Roychowdhury, Badasso, Cleasby, Wood, Tickle and Blundell (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 221, 1295-1309]. PMID:10744950

  1. A calorimetric study of the hydrolysis and peroxide complex formation of the uranyl(VI) ion.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2014-02-14

    The enthalpies of reaction for the formation of uranyl(vi) hydroxide {[(UO2)2(OH)2](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)4](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)5](+), [(UO2)3(OH)6](aq), [(UO2)3(OH)7](-), [(UO2)3(OH)8](2-), [(UO2)(OH)3](-), [(UO2)(OH)4](2-)} and peroxide complexes {[UO2(O2)(OH)](-) and [(UO2)2(O2)2(OH)](-)} have been determined from calorimetric titrations at 25 °C in a 0.100 M tetramethyl ammonium nitrate ionic medium. The hydroxide data have been used to test the consistency of the extensive thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (I. Grenthe, J. Fuger, R. J. M. Konings, R. J. Lemire, A. B. Mueller, C. Nguyen-Trung and H. Wanner, Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992 and R. Guillaumont, T. Fanghänel, J. Fuger, I. Grenthe, V. Neck, D. J. Palmer and M. R. Rand, Update on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003). A brief discussion is given about a possible structural relationship between the trinuclear complexes [(UO2)3(OH)n](6-n), n = 4-8. PMID:24301256

  2. Optical and Calorimetric Studies of Cholesterol-Rich Filamentous, Helical Ribbon and Crystal Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnikova, Y. A.; Elsenbeck, M.; Zastavker, Y. V.; Kashuri, K; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2009-04-19

    Formation of biological self-assemblies at all scales is a focus of studies in fields ranging from biology to physics to biomimetics. Understanding the physico-chemical properties of these self-assemblies may lead to the design of bio-inspired structures and technological applications. Here we examine self-assembled filamentous, helical ribbon, and crystal microstructures formed in chemically defined lipid concentrate (CDLC), a model system for cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile. CDLC consists of cholesterol, bilayer-forming amphiphiles, micelle-forming amphiphiles, and water. Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy indicate the presence of three microstructure types in all samples studied, and allow for an investigation of the structures' unique geometries. Additionally, confocal microscopy is used for qualitative assessment of surface and internal composition. To complement optical observations, calorimetric (differential-scanning and modulation) experiments, provide the basis for an in-depth understanding of collective and individual thermal behavior. Observed ''transition'' features indicate clustering and ''straightening'' of helical ribbons into short, increasingly thickening, filaments that dissolve with increasing temperature. These results suggest that all microstructures formed in CDLC may coexist in a metastable chemical equilibrium. Further investigation of the CDLC thermal profile should uncover the process of cholesterol crystallization as well as the unique design and function of microstructures formed in this system.

  3. Status and performance of the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Asano, K.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Cassese, A.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hasebe, N.; Hareyama, M.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Motz, H. M.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2014-11-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. These measurements are essential to search for dark matter signatures, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument will be launched to the ISS within 2014 Japanese Fiscal Year (by the end of March 2015) and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). In this paper, we will review the status and main science goals of the mission and describe the instrument configuration and performance.

  4. Calorimetric measurement of electron energy deposition in extended media. Theory vs experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new calorimetric technique has been developed for measuring electron energy deposition profiles in one dimension. The experimental procedures and theoretical analyses required in the application of the new method are reviewed. Extensive results are presented for electron energy deposition profiles in semi-infinite homogeneous and multilayer configurations. These data cover a range of elements from beryllium through uranium at source energies from 0.3 to 1.0 MeV (selected data at 0.5 and 0.1 MeV) and at incident angles from 0/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/. In every case, the experimental profiles are compared with the predictions of a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code. Overall agreement between theory and experiment is very good. However, there appears to be a tendency for the theoretical profiles to be higher near the peaks and lower near the tails, especially in high-Z materials. There is also a discrepancy between theory and experiment in low-Z materials near high-Z/low-Z interfaces.

  5. A Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the faint M31 satellites And XV and And XVI

    E-print Network

    Letarte, B; Collins, M; Ibata, R A; Irwin, M J; Ferguson, A M N; Lewis, G F; Martin, N; McConnachie, A; Tanvir, N

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey of the recently discovered M31 satellites And XV and And XVI, lying at projected distances from the centre of M31 of 93 and 130 kpc respectively. These satellites lie to the South of M31, in regions of the stellar halo which wide field imaging has revealed as relative voids (compared to the ~degree-scale coherent stream-like structures). Using the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope, we have defined probable members of these satellites, for which we derive radial velocities as precise as ~6 km/s down to i~21.5. While the distance to And XVI remains the same as previously reported (525pm50 kpc), we have demonstrated that the brightest three stars previously used to define the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in And XV are in fact Galactic, and And XV is actually likely to be much more distant at 770pm70 kpc (compared to the previous 630 kpc), increasing the luminosity from MV~-9.4 to MV~-9.8. The And XV velocity dispersion i...

  6. Absorption of organic compounds and organometallics on ceramic substrates for wear reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, P.J.; Agarwala, V.S.

    1996-12-31

    The concept of employing thermally stable compounds (that is, metal oxides) as high temperature vapor phase ceramic lubricants was investigated. A major part of this study was devoted to the development of various calorimetric and tribological techniques that could be used to determine interfacial reactions between thermally stable compounds and ceramic substrates such as zirconia and alumina. This interaction is pivotal in understanding the mechanism of high temperature lubricity. The approach consisted of selecting low sublimation temperature materials and measuring their thermodynamic interactions as vapors with the ceramic substrates. The materials studied included two easily sublimable organic compounds (that is, naphthalene and salicylic acid) and several organometallics (for example, copper phthalocyanine). Thermodynamic data such as heat of adsorption, packing density, and reversibility of the adsorption were obtained on some of these compounds and were related to wear characteristics. All of these compounds provided effective lubrication at room temperature. Copper phthalocyanine was an effective lubricant at temperatures up to 400 C.

  7. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  8. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  9. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act. 233.145 Section 233.145 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. The Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: "US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the "Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate."…

  12. Ocean Optics XVI Conference, Santa Fe, New Mexico, November 18-22, 2002 BIO-OPTICAL EVIDENCE OF LAND-SEA INTERACTIONS

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Ocean Optics XVI Conference, Santa Fe, New Mexico, November 18-22, 2002 BIO-OPTICAL EVIDENCE Rico. However, the complexity of the bay's optical properties and certain limitations of the technology, allowing a better understanding of such bio-optical variability. A new sampling design with twenty

  13. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the monthly title II benefits payable for that month...the case of title XVI benefits, an amount no greater than the lesser of the benefit payable for that month...including such monthly benefit but excluding payments...also made from title II benefits and excluding...

  14. A high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor employing ion conduction in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, A.; Lekholm, V.; Thornell, G.; Klintberg, L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the use of the temperature-dependent ion conductivity of 8 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) in a miniature high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor. The sensor consists of 4 layers of high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) YSZ8 tape with a 400 ?m wide, 100 ?m deep, and 12 500 ?m long internal flow channel. Across the center of the channel, four platinum conductors, each 80 ?m wide with a spacing of 160 ?m, were printed. The two center conductors were used as heaters, and the outer, up- and downstream conductors were used to probe the resistance through the zirconia substrate around the heaters. The thermal profile surrounding the two heaters could be made symmetrical by powering them independently, and hence, the temperature sensing elements could be balanced at zero flow. With nitrogen flowing through the channel, forced convection shifted the thermal profile downstream, and the resistance of the temperature sensing elements diverged. The sensor was characterized at nitrogen flows from 0 to 40 sccm, and resistances at zero-flow from 10 to 50 M?. A peak sensitivity of 3.1 M?/sccm was obtained. Moreover, the sensor response was found to be linear over the whole flow range, with R2 of around 0.999, and easy to tune with the individual temperature control of the heaters. The ability of the sensor to operate in high temperatures makes it promising for use in different harsh environments, e.g., for close integration with microthrusters.

  15. Analbite - Sanidine Thermodynamic Mixing Properties: Highly Precise HF Solution Calorimetric Data Across A Twenty-Member Crystalline Solution Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Enthalpies of K-Na mixing for the analbite - sanidine feldspar series were investigated by Hovis (1988, J. Petrology) in the early 80's. That work was based on data at a limited number of compositions, owing to the large sample sizes required for HF solution calorimetric measurements at the time. Thermodynamic mixing properties for mineral series, especially those exhibiting compositionally asymmetric mixing quantities, are best defined when samples at a large number of compositions are utilized. Enabled by the small sample sizes now possible for HF solution calorimetric dissolutions (Hovis et al., 1998, Amer. Mineral.), we revisit feldspar thermodynamic properties, having synthesized an analbite - sanidine series consisting of samples at 20 compositions. Solution calorimetric experiments on these samples at 50 °C in 20.1 wt% HF under isoperibolic conditions have resulted in highly precise calorimetric data (standard deviation per sample averaging 0.06 % of the heat of solution). Although enthalpies of K-Na mixing based on the new data display some degree of compositional asymmetry, with a maximum value of 4.8 kJ/mol at a mole fraction potassium of 0.47, the distribution of enthalpy-of-mixing values remains nearly symmetric with respect to K content. This contrasts significantly with data for Al-Si ordered low albite - microcline crystalline solutions, reinvestigated via synthesis of a 21-member series, which show significantly higher mixing magnitudes and considerably greater asymmetry with respect to composition. The maximization of enthalpies of K-Na mixing at sodic compositions correlates well with the sodic critical compositions for both solvi. The lower mixing magnitudes for analbite - sanidine are consistent with the comparatively lower critical temperature of the analbite - sanidine solvus (e.g., Smith & Parsons, 1974, Mineral. Mag.) relative to that for low albite - microcline (Bachinski & Müller, 1971, J. Petrology). Entropies of K-Na mixing for analbite - sanidine have been calculated by combining present enthalpy data with Gibbs free energies of mixing derived from the earlier phase equilibrium study of Hovis et al. (1991, Amer. Mineral.). These may be compared with directly measured entropy data for analbite - sanidine based on the heat capacity measurements of Haselton et al. (1983, Amer. Mineral.). Thanks to the National Science Foundation for funding this research.

  16. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  17. Nickel Compounds

    Cancer.gov

    Nickel is a silvery-white metallic element found in the earth’s crust. It can be combined with other elements to form nickel compounds. Because of its unique properties, nickel has many industrial uses. Most nickel is used in metal alloys because it imparts useful properties, such as corrosion resistance, heat resistance, hardness, and strength.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  19. Investigation of a zirconia co-fired ceramic calorimetric microsensor for high-temperature flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Klintberg, Lena; Thornell, Greger

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a flow sensor for high-temperature, or otherwise aggressive, environments, like, e.g. the propulsion system of a small spacecraft. The sensor was fabricated using 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) tape and screen printed platinum paste. A calorimetric flow sensor design was used, with five 80 µm wide conductors, separated by 160 µm, in a 0.4 mm wide, 0.1 mm deep and 12.5 mm long flow channel. The central conductor was used as a heater for the sensor, and the two adjacent conductors were used to resistively measure the heat transferred from the heater by forced convection. The two outermost conductors were used to study the influence of an auxiliary heat source on the sensor. The resistances of the sensor conductors were measured using four-point connections, as the gas flow rate was slowly increased from 0 to 40 sccm, with different power supplied through the central heater, as well as with an upstream or downstream heater powered. In this study, the thermal and electrical integrability of microcomponents on the YSZ8 substrate was of particular interest and, hence, the influence of thermal and ionic conduction in the substrate was studied in detail. The effect of the ion conductivity of YSZ8 was studied by measuring the resistance of a platinum conductor and the resistance between two adjacent conductors on YSZ8, in a furnace at temperatures from 20 to 930 °C and by measuring the resistance with increasing current through a conductor. With this design, the influence of ion conductivity through the substrate became apparent above 700 °C. The sensitivity of the sensor was up to 1 m? sccm-1 in a range of 0-10 sccm. The results show that the signal from the sensor is influenced by the integrated auxiliary heating conductors and that these auxiliary heaters provide a way to balance disturbing heat sources, e.g. thrusters or other electronics, in conjunction with the flow sensor.

  20. Calorimetric AC loss measurement of MgB2 superconducting tape in an alternating transport current and direct magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2012-11-01

    Applications of MgB2 superconductors in electrical engineering have been widely reported, and various studies have been made to define their alternating current (AC) losses. However, studies on the transport losses with an applied transverse DC magnetic field have not been conducted, even though this is one of the favored conditions in applications of practical MgB2 tapes. Methods and techniques used to characterize and measure these losses have so far been grouped into ‘electrical’ and ‘calorimetric’ approaches with external conditions set to resemble the application conditions. In this paper, we present a new approach to mounting the sample and employ the calorimetric method to accurately determine the losses in the concurrent application of AC transport current and DC magnetic fields that are likely to be experienced in practical devices such as generators and motors. This technique provides great simplification compared to the pickup coil and lock-in amplifier methods and is applied to a long length (˜10 cm) superconducting tape. The AC loss data at 20 and 30 K will be presented in an applied transport current of 50 Hz under external DC magnetic fields. The results are found to be higher than the theoretical predictions because of the metallic fraction of the tape that contributes quite significantly to the total losses. The data, however, will allow minimization of losses in practical MgB2 coils and will be used in the verification of numerical coil models.

  1. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for High Precision Measurements of Calorimetric Re-187 and Ho-163 Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Porst, J.-P.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Schafer, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of calorimetric spectra following atomic weak decays, beta (b) and electron capture (EC), of nuclides having a very low Q-value, can provide an impressively high sensitivity to a non-vanishing neutrino mass. The achievable sensitivity in this kind of experiments is directly connected to the performance of the used detectors. In particular an energy resolution of a few eV and a pulse formation time well below 1 microsecond are required. Low temperature Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters (MMCs) for soft X-rays have already shown an energy resolution of 2.0 eV FWHM and a pulse rise-time of about 90 ns for fully micro-fabricated detectors. We present the use of MMCs for high precision measurements of calorimetric spectra following the beta-decay of Re-187 and the EC of Ho-163. We show results obtained with detectors optimized for Re-187 and for Ho-163 experiments respectively. While the detectors equipped with superconducting Re absorbers have not yet reached the aimed performance, a first detector prototype with a Au absorber having implanted Ho-163 ions already shows excellent results. An energy resolution of 12 eV FWHM and a rise time of 90 ns were measured.

  2. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  3. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  4. Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson, Ming Zhang, Zishu Zhang, and Leslie H. Allen*

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson is used to observe the glass transition in thin (1­400 nm) spin-cast films of polystyrene, poly (2-vinyl pyridine) and poly (methyl methacrylate) on a platinum surface. A pronounced glass transition is observed

  5. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  7. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  8. HIGH-ACCURACY MR-MP PERTURBATION THEORY ENERGY AND RADIATIVE RATES CALCULATIONS FOR CORE-EXCITED TRANSITIONS IN Fe XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n {<=} 5 states arising from the configuration 1s {sup 2}2s{sup k} 2p{sup m} 3l {sup p} nl' {sup q}, where k + m + p + q = 9, l {<=} 3 and p + q {<=} 2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines.

  9. High-accuracy MR-MP Perturbation Theory Energy and Radiative Rates Calculations for Core-excited Transitions in Fe XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n <= 5 states arising from the configuration 1s 22sk 2pm 3l p nl' q , where k + m + p + q = 9, l <= 3 and p + q <= 2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  11. Energetics of hydrogen bonding in proteins: a model compound study.

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, S. M.; Murphy, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the energetics of amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds in proteins have been explored from the effect of hydroxyl groups on the structure and dissolution energetics of a series of crystalline cyclic dipeptides. The calorimetrically determined energetics are interpreted in light of the crystal structures of the studied compounds. Our results indicate that the amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds both provide considerable enthalpic stability, but that the amide-amide hydrogen bond is about twice that of the amide-hydroxyl. Additionally, the interaction of the hydroxyl group with water is seen most readily in its contributions to entropy and heat capacity changes. Surprisingly, the hydroxyl group shows weakly hydrophobic behavior in terms of these contributions. These results can be used to understand the effects of mutations on the stability of globular proteins. PMID:8819156

  12. Temperature-dependent infrared and calorimetric studies on arsenicals adsorption from solution to hematite nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To address the lack of systematic and surface sensitive studies on the adsorption energetics of arsenic compounds on metal (oxyhydr)oxides, we conducted temperature-dependent ATR-FTIR studies for the adsorption of arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid on hematite nanoparticles a...

  13. Calorimetric measurements of the ''equivalent series resistance'' of low-loss, high repetition rate pulse discharge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    McDuff, G.G.; Rust, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    In high repetition rate pulsed circuits, component losses are a major design consideration. Accurate means of calculating the dissipation loss is essential for determining efficiency and in designing cooling systems for removal of associated heat. In high voltage systems, dielectric loss can be a major contributor to power dissipation. Total energy dissipation in a capacitor is the sum of dielectric, tab, corona, lead connections, and skin effect losses. Dielectric loss is also dependent on temperature, voltage, and frequency which adds to the complexity of determining an accurate value. The total loss component can be described by the ''equivalent series resistance'' or ESR. In this paper we will review the most common electrical methods used to measure the ESR and particulars that must be considered with these techniques. Finally we will describe calorimetric methods of ESR determination that are accurate regardless of frequency and voltage and the ESR values of a variety of commercially available pulsed discharge capacitors.

  14. Calorimetric analysis of the two way memory effect in a NiTi alloy -- Experiments and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.P. da

    1999-04-23

    In addition to the well known one-way memory effect in heating, some shape memory alloys may also exhibit a shape recovery upon cooling, i.e. they show the two-way memory effect (TWME). This is not an inherent property of such alloys, and to obtain it, the alloy must be trained. Besides the two-way memory effect, the training processes can also cause changes such as a shift of the transformation temperatures. In this work a calorimetric investigation of a one-way and two-way NiTi memory alloy is presented. The heat flow was measured by use of a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The differences in the temperatures and enthalpy of transformations between one-way and two-way memory samples are presented, compared and discussed. A mathematical prediction of the heat and temperatures of transformation is presented.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  16. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  17. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  18. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  19. Raman spectra of gases. XVI - Torsional transitions in ethanol and ethanethiol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durig, J. R.; Bucy, W. E.; Wurrey, C. J.; Carreira, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Raman spectra of gaseous ethanol and ethanethiol have been investigated. Thiol torsional fundamentals for the gauche conformer of EtSH and EtSD have been observed and the asymmetric potential function for this vibration has been calculated. Methyl torsional transitions and overtones have also been observed for both of these molecules. Barriers to internal rotation for the methyl top are calculated to be 3.77 and 3.84 kcal/mol for the EtSH and EtSD compounds, respectively. Hydroxyl torsional fundamentals were observed at 207 and 170 per cm in the EtOH and EtOD spectra, respectively. Overtones of the methyl torsion in both molecules yield a barrier to internal rotation of 3.62 kcal/mol for the gauche conformer.

  20. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brochu, F M; Burnet, N G; Jena, R; Plaistow, R; Parker, M A; Thomas, S J

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk. PMID:25415354

  1. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, F. M.; Burnet, N. G.; Jena, R.; Plaistow, R.; Parker, M. A.; Thomas, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk.

  2. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Validation by Calorimetric Detection of Energetic Materials Using Thermal Bimorph Microcantilever Array: A Case Study on Sensing Vapors of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Won; Fragala, Joe; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Bi-layer (Au-Si?N?) microcantilevers fabricated in an array were used to detect vapors of energetic materials such as explosives under ambient conditions. The changes in the bending response of each thermal bimorph (i.e., microcantilever) with changes in actuation currents were experimentally monitored by measuring the angle of the reflected ray from a laser source used to illuminate the gold nanocoating on the surface of silicon nitride microcantilevers in the absence and presence of a designated combustible species. Experiments were performed to determine the signature response of this nano-calorimeter platform for each explosive material considered for this study. Numerical modeling was performed to predict the bending response of the microcantilevers for various explosive materials, species concentrations, and actuation currents. The experimental validation of the numerical predictions demonstrated that in the presence of different explosive or combustible materials, the microcantilevers exhibited unique trends in their bending responses with increasing values of the actuation current. PMID:26334276

  3. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Validation by Calorimetric Detection of Energetic Materials Using Thermal Bimorph Microcantilever Array: A Case Study on Sensing Vapors of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Won; Fragala, Joe; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Bi-layer (Au-Si3N4) microcantilevers fabricated in an array were used to detect vapors of energetic materials such as explosives under ambient conditions. The changes in the bending response of each thermal bimorph (i.e., microcantilever) with changes in actuation currents were experimentally monitored by measuring the angle of the reflected ray from a laser source used to illuminate the gold nanocoating on the surface of silicon nitride microcantilevers in the absence and presence of a designated combustible species. Experiments were performed to determine the signature response of this nano-calorimeter platform for each explosive material considered for this study. Numerical modeling was performed to predict the bending response of the microcantilevers for various explosive materials, species concentrations, and actuation currents. The experimental validation of the numerical predictions demonstrated that in the presence of different explosive or combustible materials, the microcantilevers exhibited unique trends in their bending responses with increasing values of the actuation current. PMID:26334276

  4. Refractive-index-based calorimetric studies of RNAse T1 unfolding in small volumes using microinterferometric backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlne, Michael P.; Hubbard, Darren S.; Makhatadze, George I.; Bornhop, Darryl J.

    1997-05-01

    Micro-interferometry, a novel technique developed by the authors, employs a linearly polarized laser, a fused silica capillary tube housing for the sample and a charged coupled device as a detector. A back scattered interference pattern, observed as a high contrast fringes, is produced when the laser is directed onto the capillary containing the sample. The positional change of the fringe pattern is a function of the refractive index of the media in the capillary. In the present work, the RNA enzyme RNase T1 is heated in the sample cell over a temperature range of 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C. Over this temperature range the molecule unfolds form the quaternary to the tertiary structure. This structure change is manifested as a refractive index change and is observed by monitoring the fringe position while ramping the cell temperature in a controlled fashion. From the refractive index response over the temperature range, the Gibbs free energy associated with unfolding is calculated. The authors show milli-degree temperature stability with a 0.1 micro-liter probe volume, thus demonstrating the application of this device in micro- calorimetric investigations.

  5. pH-tuneable binding of 2?-phospho-ADP-ribose to ketopantoate reductase: a structural and calorimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Ciulli, Alessio; Lobley, Carina M. C.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Smith, Alison G.; Blundell, Tom L.; Abell, Chris

    2007-02-01

    A combined crystallographic, calorimetric and mutagenic study has been used to show how changes in pH give rise to two distinct binding modes of 2?-phospho-ADP-ribose to ketopantoate reductase. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli ketopantoate reductase in complex with 2?-monophosphoadenosine 5?-diphosphoribose, a fragment of NADP{sup +} that lacks the nicotinamide ring, is reported. The ligand is bound at the enzyme active site in the opposite orientation to that observed for NADP{sup +}, with the adenine ring occupying the lipophilic nicotinamide pocket. Isothermal titration calorimetry with R31A and N98A mutants of the enzyme is used to show that the unusual ‘reversed binding mode’ observed in the crystal is triggered by changes in the protonation of binding groups at low pH. This research has important implications for fragment-based approaches to drug design, namely that the crystallization conditions and the chemical modification of ligands can have unexpected effects on the binding modes.

  6. Photophysical and calorimetric investigation on the structural reorganization of poly(A) by phenothiazinium dyes azure A and azure B.

    PubMed

    Paul, Puja; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-08-01

    Poly(A) has significant relevance to mRNA stability, protein synthesis and cancer biology. The ability of two phenothiazinium dyes azure A (AA) and azure B (AB) to bind single-stranded poly(A) was studied by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. Strong binding of the dyes and the higher affinity of AA over AB were ascertained from absorbance and fluorescence experiments. Significant perturbation of the circular dichroism spectrum of poly(A) in the presence of these molecules with formation of induced CD bands in the 300-700 nm region was observed. Strong emission polarization of the bound dyes and strong energy transfer from the adenine base pairs of poly(A) suggested intercalative binding to poly(A). Intercalative binding was confirmed from fluorescence quenching experiments and was predominantly entropy driven as evidenced from isothermal titration calorimetry data. The negative values of heat capacity indicated involvement of hydrophobic forces and enthalpy-entropy compensation suggested noncovalent interactions in the complexation for both the dyes. Poly(A) formed a self-assembled structure on the binding of both the dyes that was more favored under higher salt conditions. New insights in terms of spectroscopic and thermodynamic aspects into the self-structure formation of poly(A) by two new phenothiazinium dyes that may lead to structural and functional damage of mRNA are revealed from these studies. PMID:24953877

  7. Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors for X-Ray Spectroscopy on Trapped Highly-Charged Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors (CLTDs) has been proposed at the Heavy-Ion TRAP facility HITRAP which is currently being installed at the Helmholtz Research Center for Heavy Ion Research GSI. This cold ion trap setup will allow the investigation of X-rays from ions practically at rest, for which the excellent energy resolution of CLTDs can be used to its full advantage. However, the relatively low intensities at HITRAP demand larger solid angles and an optimized cryogenic setup. The influence of external magnetic fields has to be taken into account. CLTDs will also be a substantial part of the instrumental equipment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Heavy Ion Research (FAIR), for which a wide variety of high-precision X-ray spectroscopy experiments has been proposed. This contribution will give an overview on the chances and challenges for the application of CLTDs at HITRAP as well as perspectives for future experiments at the FAIR facility.

  8. Thermodynamics of H in disordered Pd-Ag alloys from calorimetric and equilibrium pressure-composition-temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Ted B; Wang, Da; Luo, S

    2007-09-13

    In this research, the thermodynamics of H2 solution and hydride formation in a series of disordered Pd-Ag alloys has been determined using both reaction calorimetry and equilibrium PH2-composition-T data. Trends of DeltaHH and DeltaSH with both H and Ag concentration have been determined. For the Pd0.76Ag0.24 alloy, which does not form a hydride phase, DeltaHH and DeltaSH both exhibit minima with H/(Pd0.76Ag0.24) followed by a linear increase of the former. A linear increase of DeltaHH is found for all of the alloys in the high H content region beyond the two-phase region or, if, there is no two-phase region, in the high H content region. DeltaHH degrees at infinite dilution of H decreases with atom fraction Ag, XAg, up to about 0.40 and then increases. Enthalpies for hydride formation/decomposition, 1/2H2(g) + dilute <--> hydride, have been determined calorimetrically for alloys which form two phases (303 K). The enthalpies for hydride formation become more exothermic with XAg while the corresponding entropy magnitudes are nearly constant, 46 +/- 2 J/K mol H. PMID:17711332

  9. Ferroelectric properties of the [N(CH3)4]2CoCl2Br2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Rhaiem, Abdallah; Jomni, Fathi; Karoui, Karim; Guidara, Kamel

    2013-03-01

    Synthesis, X-ray powder and Raman description are reported for [N(CH3)4]2CoCl2Br2 compound. The calorimetric study shows three endothermic peaks at 289 K, 323 K and 408 K. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma with a = 12.384 Å, b = 9.058 Å and c = 15.647 Å. The dielectric spectra were measured in the frequency range 10-1-106 Hz and temperature interval from 200 to 305 K. The dielectric permittivity shows that this compound exhibits a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 290 K. The frequency dependent permittivity is interpreted in the non-Debye model. The temperature dependence of the low frequency limit of the bulk AC conductivity ?dc is well described by the Arrhenius equation: ?dc = ?0 exp(-Ea/kT).

  10. Comparative dose evaluations between XVI and OBI cone beam CT systems using Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Yu Yan; Xiao Ying

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of energy (kVp) and filters (no filter, half Bowtie, and full Bowtie) on the dose response curves of the Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in CBCT dose fields. To measure surface and internal doses received during x-ray volume imager (XVI) (Version R4.5) and on board imager (OBI) (Version 1.5) CBCT imaging protocols using these two types of dosimeters. Methods: Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLD dose response curves were generated at different kV imaging settings used by XVI (software version R4.5) and OBI (software version 1.5) CBCT systems. The settings for the XVI system were: 100 kVp/F0 (no filter), 120 kVp/F0, and 120 kVp/F1 (Bowtie filter), and for the OBI system were: 100 kVp/full fan, 125 kVp/full fan, and 125 kVp/half fan. XRQA2 film was calibrated in air to air kerma levels between 0 and 11 cGy and scanned using reflection scanning mode with the Epson Expression 10000 XL flat-bed document scanner. NanoDot OSLDs were calibrated on phantom to surface dose levels between 0 and 14 cGy and read using the inLight{sup TM} MicroStar reader. Both dosimeters were used to measure in field surface and internal doses in a male Alderson Rando Phantom. Results: Dose response curves of XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs at different XVI and OBI CBCT settings were reported. For XVI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in head region during fast head and neck scan and 4.99 cGy in the chest region during symmetry scan. On the other hand, the internal dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 3.17 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. The average (internal and external) dose ranged between 0.05 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 2.41 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. For OBI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.19 cGy in head region during head scan and 4.55 cGy in the pelvis region during spot light scan. However, the internal dose ranged between 0.47 cGy in the head region during head scan and 5.55 cGy in the pelvis region during spot light scan. The average (internal and external) dose ranged between 0.45 cGy in the head region during head scan and 3.59 cGy in the pelvis region during spot light scan. Both Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs gave close estimation of dose (within uncertainties) in many cases. Though, discrepancies of up to 20%-30% were observed in some cases. Conclusions: Dose response curves of Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs indicated that the dose responses of these two dosimeters were different even at the same photon energy when different filters were used. Uncertainty levels of both dosimetry systems were below 6% at doses above 1 cGy. Both dosimetry systems gave almost similar estimation of doses (within uncertainties) in many cases, with exceptions of some cases when the discrepancy was around 20%-30%. New versions of the CBCT systems (investigated in this study) resulted in lower imaging doses compared with doses reported on earlier versions in previous studies.

  11. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41? and 46?. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work. PMID:24505077

  12. Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2005-01-01

    The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

  13. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  14. CHAPTER XVI DESCRIPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    met Jones." I may say "I met a man, but it was not Jones"; in that case, though I lie, I do monsters. Thus it is only what we may call the concept that enters into the proposition. In the case at this point, is a very important one. Misled by grammar, the great major- ity of those logicians who have

  15. Energy technology XVI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the Sixteenth Energy Technology Conference. The broad topics covered in this volume are: cogeneration, utility management/marketing, energy management, and the environment.

  16. Micromechanical calorimetric sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

  17. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Moorman, J.O.

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus is described for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe). 18 figs.

  18. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Moorman, Jack O. (Boone, IA)

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe).

  19. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  20. Production of epoxy compounds from olefinic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbein, A.P.; Kwon, J.T.

    1985-01-29

    Chlorine and tertiary alkanol dissolved in an inert organic solvent are reacted with aqueous alkali to produce tertiary alkyl hypochlorite which is recovered in the organic solvent and reacted with water and olefinically unsaturated compound to produce chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol. Chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent are contacted with aqueous alkali to produce the epoxy compound, and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent is recycled to hypochlorite production. The process may be integrated with the electrolytic production of chlorine, with an appropriate treatment of the recycle aqueous stream when required.

  1. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  2. Sistemas de Informacin Geogrfica (SIG) y su aplicacin en Historia y Arqueologa Subacutica, siglos XVI-XVIII. Este curso pretende ofrecer al alumno una perspectiva sobre las nuevas tecnologas aplicadas a la Historia moderna y la

    E-print Network

    , siglos XVI-XVIII. Este curso pretende ofrecer al alumno una perspectiva sobre las nuevas tecnologías histórico y conceptual de los SIG Históricos (HGIS) y manejo de herramientas. En este curso se profundizará-temporal, network analysis, Cartografía) Título del curso Resumen del contenido y objeto del curso Áreas de interés

  3. Calorimetric Study of Phase Stability and Phase Transformation in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Subramanian, Raju; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rengachari, Mythili; Saibaba, Saroja

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive calorimetric study of high-temperature phase equilibria and phase transformation characteristics in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) alloys has been undertaken, as a function of heating and cooling rates. It is found that the following sequence of phase transformation takes place upon slow heating in annealed U-2 wt pct Zr alloy: ? + ?' + ?-UZr2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? + ? 1 ? ?. For alloys of 5 and 10 wt pct Zr, the additional presence of a miscibility gap ( ? 1 U-rich bcc + ? 2 Zr-rich bcc) in the high-temperature ?(bcc) phase region resulted in the following transformation sequence: ? + ?' + ?-UZr2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? + ? 2 ? ? 1 + ? 2 ? ?. Further, it has been demonstrated that depending on the nature of starting microstructure, namely whether it is ? eq + ?-UZr2, or a mix of ?' + ? eq + ?-UZr2 phases, the relative extents of two possible co-occurring modes of the first on-heating phase transformation step differ. In case of starting microstructure having mixture of three phases ?' + ? eq + ?-UZr2, it is found that ?'-martensite relaxation via ?' + ? eq + ?-UZr2 ? ? eq + ?-UZr2 constitutes the first on-heating thermal response. The ?'-martensitic relaxation is very closely followed by the dissolution of ?-UZr2. The co-occurrence of these two events gives rise to a composite thermal arrest in a normal dynamic calorimetry profile. However, if the starting microstructure is the one having the equilibrium mix of ? eq and ?-UZr2, then only the peritectoidal dissolution of ?-UZr2 is found in the calorimetry profile. Unless, a very slow cooling rate of the order of 0.1 K min-1 is adopted from high-temperature ?(bcc) phase, it is not possible to obtain 100 pct of ? eq phase along with equilibrium amount of ?-UZr2. At normal and high cooling rates, it is possible to suppress the diffusional decomposition of ? to varying extents. The direct ? ? ?'-martensite transformation has been observed at sufficiently higher cooling rates. It has been also noticed that even after ? ? ?'-martensite transformation the precipitation of ?-UZr2 phase is possible at lower temperature during non-isothermal cooling. Further, the critical cooling rate required for ? ? ?' displacive transformation is found to decrease with increasing Zr content. For U-2, 5, and 10 wt pct Zr alloys, it is found to be of the order of, 60, 20, 10 K min-1, respectively. The cooling rate from high-temperature ?(bcc) is found have a strong influence on microstructure evolution as well. The kinetic aspects of ? ? ? diffusional transformation that occurs on heating have been modeled in terms of Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism, and it is found that the transformation is effectively controlled by the diffusion of Zr in ?'-orthorhombic phase. Continuous heating and cooling transformation diagrams have also been obtained for U-2 wt pct Zr alloy.

  4. Determination of the Temperature Change by Means of an Outcoming Signal of Electric Resistance in an Isoperibolic Calorimetric Cell. Obtainment of Heat Solution

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo-Gutierréz, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    An isoperibolic calorimetric cell is built with glass surrounded by plastic insulation. The cell has a lid on which a thermistor thermometer, an electric resistance to provide the cell with definite quantities of electric work and a container for a glass ampoule, are placed. For measuring the thermal changes, an NTC thermistor, which provides an electric resistance signal that varies with temperature, is used. Calibration curves of the thermistor and of the stabilization of the system signal in thermal equilibrium are shown, which enable the observation of a good insulation. The calorific capacity of the system with water, with a value of 206.7 ±0.7 J °C-1 is determined; the solution enthalpy for propanol-water and KCl-water systems is obtained, which shows the behavior of the cell before exothermic and endothermic effects, respectively.

  5. Calorimetric Studies of the Energetics of Order-Disorder in the System Mg(1-x)Fe(x)Ca(CO(3))(2)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.; Dooley, D.; Navrotsky, A.; Reeder, R.

    1999-02-10

    Calorimetric studies by Chai and Navrotsky (1996) on dolomite-ankerite energetic have been extended by including two additional types of samples: a very disordered stoichiometric MgCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} prepared from low temperature aqueous solution and three largely ordered natural samples of intermediate iron content. Combining these data with previous work, three distinct trends of energetic can be seen: those for samples with nearly complete order, nearly complete disorder, and intermediate order. From these trends, the enthalpy of complete disordering is estimated to be 33 {+-} 6 kJ/mol for MgCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and 18 {+-} 5 kJ/mol for FeCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.

  6. Calorimetric determination of the magnetic phase diagram of underdoped ortho II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Marcenat, C.; Demuer, A.; Beauvois, K.; Michon, B.; Grockowiak, A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W.; Bonn, D. A.; Klein, T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of a charge order in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy raised the question of the interplay between superconductivity and this competing phase. Understanding the normal state of high-temperature superconductors is now an essential step towards the description of the pairing mechanism in those materials and determining the upper critical field is therefore of fundamental importance. We present here a calorimetric determination of the field–temperature phase diagram in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals. We show that the specific heat saturates in high magnetic fields. This saturation is consistent with a normal state without any significant superconducting contribution and a total Sommerfeld coefficient ?N?6.5±1.5?mJ?mol?1?K?2 putting strong constraints on the theoretical models for the Fermi surface reconstruction. PMID:26294047

  7. Search for low-mass weakly interacting massive particles using voltage-assisted calorimetric ionization detection in the SuperCDMS experiment.

    PubMed

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nadeau, P; Nelson, R H; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-31

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170??eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6??GeV/c2. PMID:24580434

  8. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c^2.

  9. Development of a new type of high pressure calorimetric cell, mechanically agitated and equipped with a dynamic pressure control system: Application to the characterization of gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Plantier, F. Missima, D.; Torré, J.-P.; Marlin, L.

    2013-12-15

    A novel prototype of calorimetric cell has been developed allowing experiments under pressure with an in situ agitation system and a dynamic control of the pressure inside the cell. The use of such a system opens a wide range of potential practical applications for determining properties of complex fluids in both pressurized and agitated conditions. The technical details of this prototype and its calibration procedure are described, and an application devoted to the determination of phase equilibrium and phase change enthalpy of gas hydrates is presented. Our results, obtained with a good precision and reproducibility, were found in fairly good agreement with those found in literature, illustrate the various interests to use this novel apparatus.

  10. Development of a new type of high pressure calorimetric cell, mechanically agitated and equipped with a dynamic pressure control system: application to the characterization of gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Plantier, F; Marlin, L; Missima, D; Torré, J-P

    2013-12-01

    A novel prototype of calorimetric cell has been developed allowing experiments under pressure with an in situ agitation system and a dynamic control of the pressure inside the cell. The use of such a system opens a wide range of potential practical applications for determining properties of complex fluids in both pressurized and agitated conditions. The technical details of this prototype and its calibration procedure are described, and an application devoted to the determination of phase equilibrium and phase change enthalpy of gas hydrates is presented. Our results, obtained with a good precision and reproducibility, were found in fairly good agreement with those found in literature, illustrate the various interests to use this novel apparatus. PMID:24387468

  11. Thermodynamic properties of illite, smectite and beidellite by calorimetric methods: Enthalpies of formation, heat capacities, entropies and Gibbs free energies of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailhanou, H.; Blanc, P.; Rogez, J.; Mikaelian, G.; Kawaji, H.; Olives, J.; Amouric, M.; Denoyel, R.; Bourrelly, S.; Montouillout, V.; Vieillard, P.; Fialips, C. I.; Michau, N.; Gaucher, E. C.

    2012-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of three aluminous 2:1 clay minerals were acquired at 1.013 bars and at temperatures between 5 and 500 K using various calorimetric methods. Calorimetric measurements were performed on hydrated and dehydrated <2 ?m clay fractions of smectite MX-80 (Wyoming), illite IMt-2 (Silver Hill) and beidellite SBId-1 (Black Jack Mine). After purification, the mineralogical analyses gave the following structural formulae: Na0.409K0.024Ca0.009 (Si3.738Al0.262) (Al1.598Mg0.214Fe 0.173 3 + Fe 0.035 2 +)O10(OH)2,K0.762Na0.044 (Si3.387Al0.613) (Al1.427Mg0.241Fe 0.292 3 + Fe 0.084 2 +)O10(OH)2 and Ca0.185K0.104 (Si3.574Al0.426) (Al1.812Mg0.09Fe 0.112 3 +)O10(OH)2 for smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and beidellite SBId-1, respectively. Heat capacities were measured by low temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, from 5 to 500 K. Standard enthalpies of formation were obtained from solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K. The standard Gibbs free energies of formation of the clay minerals were also calculated, together with the equilibrium constants at 25 °C, for anhydrous and hydrated minerals. A comparison between these experimental data and estimated values obtained from prediction models available in the literature, enabled the calculation method that appears to be the most relevant to be selected, at least for aluminous 2:1 clay minerals.

  12. Identification of polyphenolic compounds in the flesh of Argan (Morocco) fruits.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ricarte, Irvila; Erben, Gerhard; Klika, Karel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2015-07-15

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI) along with fragmentation patterns generated by nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI-MS-MS) and NMR techniques were utilized for the identification of phenolic compounds in Argan fruits. A total of 15.4 g/kg was determined represented by catechins (39%), flavonoids (28%), procyanidins (26%), free phenolic acids (6%) and phenolic acid glycosides (1%). Twenty-one phenolic compounds were identified for the first time in Argan fruits namely III. epicatechin-(4??8)-catechin dimer (procyanidin B1), IV. p-coumaric acid glycoside, VI. epicatechin-(4??8)-epicatechin dimer (procyanidin B2), VIII. caffeic acid glycoside, XIX. epicatechin-(4??8)-epicatechin-(4??8)-epicatechin trimer (procyanidin C1), X. p-hydroxybenzaldehyde XI. ferulic acid glycoside, XII. vanillic acid, XIII. sinapic acid glycoside, XVI. p-coumaric acid, XVII. ferulic acid, XVIII. sinapic acid, XIX. rutin pentoside, XX. quercetin glycopentoside, XXI. 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-imino-di-benzoic acid, XXV. quercetin-3-O-rhamnogalactoside, XXVII. quercetin glycohydroxybenzoate, XXVIII. quercetin glycocaffeate, XXIX. quercetin glycosinapate, XXX. quercetin glycoferulate and XXXI. quercetin glycocoumarate. PMID:25722154

  13. Thermodynamic properties for polycyclic systems by non-calorimetric methods. Progress report, August 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Klots, T.D.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed vibrational spectroscopic study of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene has been completed. These compounds form part of the base of five-membered ring systems on which the rest of the research program will be built Several methyl-substituted derivatives were also studied. The results will be used to confirm the model for alkyl- substitution in the ring systems. Gas-phase spectra and fundamental- frequency assignments were completed for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrofuran. Those compounds initiate work on ring-puckering within the research program. A paper describing the need for third virial estimation, when using the virial equation of state to derive thermodynamic properties at pressures greater than 1 bar was completed.

  14. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  15. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  16. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  17. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  18. Synthesis and phase transitions of oxide-ion conducting compound La2Mo2O9 doped with alkaline metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, D. S.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2011-03-01

    The specific features of synthesis, polymorthism, and electric conductivity of oxide-ion conducting compounds La2 - x Me x Mo2O9 - y , where Me = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, have been studied. Ceramic samples were obtained by solid-state synthesis in the temperature range of 960-1100°C. The regions where solid solutions exist have been found to depend on the temperature of the sample firing. According to the calorimetric and electrophysical data, the phase transition from the monoclinic phase (?) to the cubic phase (?) in samples doped with potassium and rubidium disappears at x = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In these cases the only transition from the cubic ? ms phase to the high-temperature cubic ? phase is observed near 450°C. Doping with sodium and cesium does not suppress the ? ? ? phase transition.

  19. Effects of methoxy and formyl substituents on the energetics and reactivity of ?-naphthalenes: a calorimetric and computational study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana L R; Freitas, Vera L S; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C

    2014-07-01

    A combined experimental and computational study was developed to evaluate and understand the energetics and reactivity of formyl and methoxy ?-naphthalene derivatives. Static bomb combustion calorimetry and the Calvet microcalorimetry were the experimental techniques used to determine the standard (p(o)=0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the liquid phase, ?fHm(o)(l), and of vaporization, ?l(g)Hm(o), at T=298.15K, respectively, of the two liquid naphthalene derivatives. Those experimental values were used to derive the values of the experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, ?fHm(o)(g), of 1-methoxynaphthalene, (-3.0 ± 3.1)kJmol(-1), and of 1-formylnaphthalene, (36.3 ± 4.1)kJ mol(-1). High-level quantum chemical calculations at the composite G3(MP2)//B3LYP level were performed to estimate the values of the ?fHm(o)(g) of the two compounds studied resulting in values in very good agreement with experimental ones. Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were also performed to determine more about the structure and reactivity of this class of compounds. PMID:24444416

  20. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  1. Compound Droplets on Fibers.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Floriane; Ben Said, Marouen; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-07-21

    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius. PMID:26090699

  2. Compound droplets on fibers

    E-print Network

    Weyer, Floriane; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius.

  3. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  4. A XANES study of the structural role of lead in glazes from decorated tiles, XVI to XVIII century manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2006-05-01

    Aged lead-rich, tin-opacified glazes from polychrome tiles manufactured in the 16th 18th century were studied to ascertain the structural role of lead. Glaze fragments with white, blue, yellow, brown and green colouring were analysed using non-destructive X-ray techniques, both laboratorial X-ray diffraction to identify crystalline components and synchrotron-based. Elemental analyses by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence were performed at the former LURE photon microprobe (line D15A at DCI, in Orsay). The instrumental set-up of beamline BM29 at the ESRF, in Grenoble, was applied to collect X-ray absorption spectra at the Pb L3-edge. Natural minerals and synthetics with known crystal structure were used as model oxy-compounds to configure different formal valences and coordinations of lead ions by oxygen anions, and to interpret the effects upon details of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra. Experimental evidence supports the general conclusion that lead is hosted by the glassy matrix, irrespective of the glaze colour. Furthermore, it was concluded that lead ions assume coordinations higher than usual for silica glasses, acting as network modifiers in the silica-lime-alkali glasses of ancient tile glazes.

  5. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XVI: fouling-release properties of amphiphilic polysiloxane coatings.

    PubMed

    Stafslien, Shane J; Christianson, David; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chernykh, Andrey; Chisholm, Bret J

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods were used to prepare and characterize the fouling-release (FR) properties of an array of amphiphilic polysiloxane-based coatings possessing systematic variations in composition. The coatings were derived from a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane, a silanol-terminated polytrifluorpropylmethylsiloxane (CF3-PDMS), 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]-trimethoxysilane (TMS-PEG), methyltriacetoxysilane and hexamethyldisilazane-treated fumed silica. The variables investigated were the concentration of TMS-PEG and the concentration of CF3-PDMS. In general, it was found that the TMS-PEG and the CF3-PDMS had a synergist effect on FR properties with these properties being enhanced by combining both compounds into the coating formulations. In addition, reattached adult barnacles removed from coatings possessing both TMS-PEG and relatively high levels of CF3-PDMS displayed atypical base-plate morphologies. The majority of the barnacles removed from these coatings exhibited a cupped or domed base-plate as compared to the flat base-plate observed for the control coating that did not contain TMS-PEG or CF3-PDMS. Coating surface analysis using water contact angle measurements indicated that the presence of CF3-PDMS facilitated migration of TMS-PEG to the coating/air interface during the film formation/curing process. In general, coatings containing both TMS-PEG and relatively high levels of CF3-PDMS possessed excellent FR properties. PMID:25647177

  6. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S.; Kiselyova, N. N.

    2009-06-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  7. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  8. The Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage— Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer Corporation

    2014-10-01

    A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage—Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate. An ongoing public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine US STEM education, diversity and workforce issues. The 16th in the series, the newest survey asks talent recruiters at some of the country's largest employers—those included in the Fortune 1000—to weigh in on current and future demand for new hires with 2- and 4-year STEM degrees. As professionals responsible for scouting, recruiting and hiring talent at Fortune 1000 companies, both STEM and non-STEM alike, these individuals are on the frontlines, tasked with assessing and filling their companies' workforce needs. The survey asks the recruiters whether new hires with 2- and 4-year STEM degrees are as, more or less in demand than their peers without STEM degrees? Are more new STEM jobs being created at their companies than non-STEM jobs? Can they find adequate numbers of qualified candidates in a timely manner and how fierce is the competition for STEM degree holders? To answer these and other questions, the survey polled 150 talent recruiters at Fortune 1000 companies, both STEM and non-STEM alike. The survey also asks the recruiters about diversion in STEM, workforce diversity in the pipeline, the role of community colleges in developing the STEM pipeline and the desired skills and competencies of new hires.

  9. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  10. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 39 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 1998 Minor revisions January 1999 Reference dose revised June 2005 U.S . Environmental Protec

  11. Selenium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  12. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  13. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  14. SAMPLING FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The methods of sampling ambient air for organic compounds for subsequent analysis are discussed. The following methods of sample collection are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each is given: concentration of component of interest on to solid sorbents, into liqui...

  15. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / 04 / 052 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BORON AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 42 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed

  16. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 002 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ZINC AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 66 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2005 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C . DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordanc

  17. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Namavari, Mohammad; Phelps, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  18. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  19. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  20. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  1. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Beryllium and compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  2. Crystal growth, complex phase diagram and high pressure studies of layer compound PdBi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kui; Zhu, Xiyu; Lv, Bing; Xue, Yuyi; Chu, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Among the different Pd-Bi Alloys, ?-PdBi2, which is crystallized in a layered tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure, has been identified as a superconductor with transition temperature at ~ 5.4K. Band structure calculation indicates that the interlayer Bi-Bi bonds are weak but not negligible, which implies the 3D bonding character of this compound. In order to enhance or weaken the interlayer bonding and ultimately increase the Tc in this system, high pressure measurement, isovalent chemical substitution of Bi with Sb, and chemical intercalation using transition metal Cu and alkali metal Na, are applied to the system. Meanwhile, aliovalent chemical substitution on the Bi site by Pb is also carried out. The magnetic, electrical, and calorimetric properties of these compounds are determined at ambient pressure and compared. The detailed high pressure results and the complete phase diagram of chemical substitution and intercalation will be presented and discussed. Work in Houston is supported in part by US AFOSR, the State of Texas, T. L. L. Temple Foundation and John and Rebecca Moores Endowment.

  3. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigations of some thermodynamic properties of EuCl 3 and EuCl 2 dissolved in alkali chloride melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. A.; Rycerz, L.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2005-09-01

    The electroreduction of EuCl 3 in alkali chloride melts (NaCl-KCl, KCl, CsCl) was studied in the temperature range 973-1123 K by different electrochemical methods. It was determined that electrochemical reduction of Eu(III) in alkali chloride molten salts occurs via two successive reversible stages involving transfer of one and two electrons. The formal standard potentials of EEu(II)/Eu?, EEu(III)/Eu? and formal redox potentials of EEu(III)/Eu(II)? were determined from open-circuit potentiometry and linear sweep voltammetry data. The thermodynamics of formation dilute solutions of europium di-and tri-chloride in alkali chloride melts was determined. The relative partial molar enthalpies of mixing EuCl 2 with alkali chloride melts when dilute solutions are formed have been measured previously by direct calorimetry in a Calvet type calorimeter using of ampoule break-off technique. It was shown that the values determined from electrochemical measurements are in a good agreement with those data obtained by calorimetric method.

  4. Refinement of non-calorimetric determination of the change in heat capacity, ?Cp, of protein unfolding and validation across a wide temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepika Talla; Stites, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    The change in heat capacity, ?Cp, upon protein unfolding has been usually determined by calorimetry. A non-calorimetric method which employs the Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship to determine ?Cp has seen some use. Generally, the free energy change upon unfolding of the protein is determined at a variety of temperatures and the temperature at which ?G is zero, Tm, and change in enthalpy at Tm are determined by thermal denaturation and ?Cp is then calculated using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. We show here that an abbreviated method with stability determinations at just two temperatures gives values of ?Cp consistent with values from free energy change upon unfolding determination at a much wider range of temperatures. Further, even the free energy change upon unfolding from a single solvent denaturation at the proper temperature, when coupled with the melting temperature, Tm, and the van’t Hoff enthalpy, ?HvH, from a thermal denaturation, gives a reasonable estimate of ?Cp, albeit with greater uncertainty than solvent denaturations at two temperatures. We also find that non-linear regression of the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation as a function of stability and temperature while simultaneously fitting ?Cp, Tm, and ?HvH gives values for the last two parameters that are in excellent agreement with experimental values. PMID:18384147

  5. Compound Chondrules fused Cold

    E-print Network

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ~ 1100K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025K. In that temperatur...

  6. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ? 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  7. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  8. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Hyland, James T.

    2013-06-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are revolutionizing ultra-sensitive photodetection applications, providing single photon sensitivity, high quantum efficiency and low dark noise at or near room temperature. When aggregated into arrays, these devices have demonstrated the ability to operate as photon number resolving detectors with wide dynamic range, or as single-photon imaging detectors. SPAD array performance has reached a point where replacing vacuum tube based MCP and PMT photodetectors for most applications is inevitable. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays offer the unique proposition to tailor performance to match application specific wavelength, speed and radiation hardness requirements. We present a theoretical framework describing performance limits to compound semiconductor SPAD arrays and our latest experimental results detailing the performance of GaAs SPAD arrays. These devices achieve nanosecond rise and fall times, excellent photon number resolving capability, and low dark count rates. Single photon number resolving is demonstrated with 4% single photon detection efficiency at room temperature with dark count rates below 7 Mcps/mm2. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays have the opportunity to provide orders of magnitude improvement in dark count rate and radiation hardness over silicon SPAD arrays, as well as the ability to detect wavelengths where silicon is blind.

  9. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Tânia K.; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P.; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P. D.; Fiore, Marli F.; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. PMID:25871291

  10. Synthesis, crystal growth and physicochemical studies on a novel organic inter-molecular compound; 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and salicylamide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjeet; Rai, R. N.; Rai, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    The phase diagram of salicylamide (SAM) and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNBA) system was determined by the thaw-melt method. Results show the formation of an inter-molecular compound and two eutectics. The values of heat of mixing, entropy of fusion, roughness parameter, interfacial energy, and the excess thermodynamic functions were calculated from the enthalpy of fusion data determined by the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method. The spectroscopic investigations (IR and NMR) suggest the presence of hydrogen bonding between the components of the compound. A single crystal of the inter-molecular compound was grown using slow cooling technique from the mixed solvent of ethanol and triple distilled water in 2:1 volume ratio. The single crystal analysis and the atomic packing pattern of the grown crystal confirm the monoclinic crystal structure with P21/c space group. The solubility of the inter-molecular compound was determined in the mixed solvent at different temperatures. Using solubility and entropy of fusion data, the entropy of dissolution and heat of mixing were calculated. The optical transmittance spectra of the crystal of the inter-molecular compound show 75% transmittance and the band gap of the crystal was found to be 3.00 eV. The refractive index of the crystal was computed to be 2.50 at the cut off wavelength.

  11. Bilingual reading of compound words.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate when the translated compounds (the combination of the translation equivalents of the constituents) in Korean (the nontarget language) were real words than when they were nonwords. In Experiment 2, when the frequency of the second constituents of compound words in English (the target language) was manipulated, the effect of lexical status of the translated compounds was greater on the compounds with high-frequency second constituents than on those with low-frequency second constituents in the target language. Together, these results provided evidence for morphological decomposition and cross-language activation in bilingual reading of compound words. PMID:20623255

  12. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report consists of six sections: heterobimetallic dihydrides, early-late transition metal heterobimetallic compounds, amphiphilic carbene complexes and hydroxycarbene complexes, diiron compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands, diphosphine chelates with natural bite angles near 120 degrees, and synthesis and reactions of M=M compounds. (WET)

  13. CHARACTERISTICS Nitrated compounds constitute a

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    CHARACTERISTICS Nitrated compounds constitute a class of chemical substances that can be explosive. The appearance of nitrated compounds may vary from a fine moist crystalline solid to clear viscous liquids. A few nitrated compounds can become shock sensitive or can react with certain metals to form extremely unstable

  14. High temperature high pressure thermodynamic measurements for coal model compounds. Semiannual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.; Chen, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. A M.S. graduate student Mr. Ahmad Al-Ghamdi has been recruited to work on this project. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project has been upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have begun. The vapor and liquid compositions will be measured using the Perkin-Elmer Auto-system gas chromatograph. A capillary column made by Supelco has been purchased for the analysis. For enthalpy and heat capacity measurements, SETARAM C-80 calorimeter has been purchased and installed. The instrument can be used for calorimetric property measurements at temperatures up to 300{degree}C and pressures up to 1500 psi. Enthalpy measurements for the system benzene-ethylbenzene have begun. Simultaneously, we have undertaken the design of a calorimetric cell that will allow enthalpy measurements at pressures up to 10000 psi. In this report the VLE apparatus and the preliminary work completed for the VLE measurements for the benzene-ethylbenzene system are described. A description of the calorimeter and the measured enthalpy data for the benzene-ethylbenzene system will be included in the next report. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The thermodynamics of protein-protein recognition as characterized by a combination of volumetric and calorimetric techniques: the binding of turkey ovomucoid third domain to alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Filfil, Rana; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2003-02-28

    We have used ultrasonic velocimetry, high-precision densimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, in conjunction with isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetry, to characterize the binding of turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) to alpha-chymotrypsin. We report the changes in volume and adiabatic compressibility that accompany the association of these proteins at 25 degrees C and pH 4.5. In addition, we report the changes in free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity upon the binding of OMTKY3 to alpha-chymotrypsin over a temperature range of 20-40 degrees C. Our volume and compressibility data, in conjunction with X-ray crytsallographic data on the OMTKY3-alpha-chymotrypsin complex, suggest that 454(+/-22) water molecules are released to the bulk state upon the binding of OMTKY3 to alpha-chymotrypsin. Furthermore, these volumetric data suggest that the intrinsic compressibility of the two proteins decreases by 7%. At each temperature studied, OMTKY3 association with alpha-chymotrypsin is entropy driven with a large, unfavorable enthalpy contribution. The observed entropy of the binding reflects interplay between two very large favorable and unfavorable terms. The favorable term reflects an increase in the hydrational entropy resulting from release to the bulk of 454 water molecules. The unfavorable term is related to a decrease in the configurational entropy and, consequently, a decrease in the conformational dynamics of the two proteins. In general, we discuss the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic properties, in particular, identifying and quantifying the role of hydration in determining the thermodynamics of protein recognition as reflected in volumetric and calorimetric parameters. PMID:12589768

  16. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  17. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, Stephen B. (Portola Valley, CA); Koo, Myoung-Seo (San Francisco, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  18. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  19. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  20. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transitions observed in [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gzaiel, M.; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Bulou, A.; Hlel, F.; Gargouri, M.

    2015-06-01

    Phase transitions of the centrosymmetric compound, [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. Two reversible order-disorder and displacive phase transitions are observed at T1 = 327 K and T2 = 347 K with 3 K and 4 K hysteresis respectively, indicating a first order character. The evolution of Raman line shifts, "?", and the half-width, "??", versus temperature show some singularities associated with the transitions, suggesting that they are governed by the reorientational and the displacement of the organic part. Besides the results of the dielectric permittivity study confirms the conclusion drawn from the calorimetric and Raman measurements that the phase transition located in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric proprieties is characterized by change of dynamical state of cation.

  1. Transport in Nonstoichiometric Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovich, G.; Stubican, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    This conference entitled ''Transport in Nonstoichiometric Compounds'' was held in August 1980 in Mogilany, Poland. The conference includes papers on: concentration distribution for diffusion in a temperature gradient; transport in anion deficient fluorite oxides; oxygen self-diffusion in Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/ solid solution; experimental study of MoO/sub 3/ electrical conductivity changes under low oxygen pressures; thermogravimetric and electrical conductivity studies of Mg-doped LaCrO/sub 3/ and La-doped SrTiO/sub 3/; the role of dopant ionic radius in O/sup 2/- conducting solid electrolytes; the use and misuse of chemical diffusion theory; electrical properties of a Fe/sub 2/(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ catalyst; the structure and stoichiometry in lithium inserted metal oxides; the behaviour of protons in oxides, and radiation enhanced diffusion in nuclear carbides.

  2. Microoptical telescope compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

  3. PREFACE: Sensors & their Applications XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, Panicos; O'Riordan, Alan

    2011-08-01

    This volume records the Proceedings of the sixteenth conference in the biennial Sensors and Their Applications series which took place at the Clarion Hotel, Cork, Ireland between 12-14 September 2011. The conference is organized by the Instrument Science and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics. On this occasion, the conference was hosted by Tyndall National Institute at University College Cork. This year the conference returns to Ireland, having last been held in Limerick in 2003. The conference proceedings record the continuing growth of the sensors community nationally and internationally. The conferences bring together contributions from scientists and engineers from academia, research institutes and industrial establishments, and therefore provide an excellent opportunity for these communities to present and discuss the latest results in the field of sensors, instrumentation and measurement. Amongst the more traditional themes, such as optical sensing, there is growth in new areas such as biomedical sensing and instrumentation, and nanosensing, which is reflected in this volume. Similarly the contribution of modelling and simulation techniques in sensor and instrumentation design and their applications is acknowledged by a session in this area. The sessions across the conference are supported by notable contributions from invited speakers. We would like to thank all of our colleagues in the sensor and instrumentation community who have supported this event by contributing manuscripts. Our thanks also go to Tyndall National Institute for hosting this conference and all the sponsors who, with their generous financial and in-kind contributions, enabled the better organization of this conference. We would also like to thank all the members of the Instrument Science and Technology Group for their support, and in particular for refereeing the submitted manuscripts. We are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland for her planning and management of this event. We hope that the conference authors, participants and a wider audience will find these proceedings to be of interest and to serve as a useful reference text. Panicos KyriacouConference ChairmanAlan O'RiordanConference Local Chairman

  4. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Rosenblum, Myron (Lexington, MA); Matchett, Stephen A. (Lisle, IL)

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  5. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.; Matchett, S.A.

    1992-06-23

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines. 2 figs.

  6. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  7. Non-exponential nature of calorimetric and other relaxations: Effects of 2 nm-size solutes, loss of translational diffusion, isomer specificity, and sample size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.; Khouri, J.

    2013-03-01

    Certain distributions of relaxation times can be described in terms of a non-exponential response parameter, ?, of value between 0 and 1. Both ? and the relaxation time, ?0, of a material depend upon the probe used for studying its dynamics and the value of ? is qualitatively related to the non-Arrhenius variation of viscosity and ?0. A solute adds to the diversity of an intermolecular environment and is therefore expected to reduce ?, i.e., to increase the distribution and to change ?0. We argue that the calorimetric value ?cal determined from the specific heat [Cp = T(dS/dT)p] data is a more appropriate measure of the distribution of relaxation times arising from configurational fluctuations than ? determined from other properties, and report a study of ?cal of two sets of binary mixtures, each containing a different molecule of ˜2 nm size. We find that ?cal changes monotonically with the composition, i.e., solute molecules modify the nano-scale composition and may increase or decrease ?0, but do not always decrease ?cal. (Plots of ?cal against the composition do not show a minimum.) We also analyze the data from the literature, and find that (i) ?cal of an orientationally disordered crystal is less than that of its liquid, (ii) ?cal varies with the isomer's nature, and chiral centers in a molecule decrease ?cal, and (iii) ?cal decreases when a sample's thickness is decreased to the nm-scale. After examining the difference between ?cal and ? determined from other properties we discuss the consequences of our findings for theories of non-exponential response, and suggest that studies of ?cal may be more revealing of structure-freezing than studies of the non-Arrhenius behavior. On the basis of previous reports that ? ? 1 for dielectric relaxation of liquids of centiPoise viscosity observed at GHz frequencies, we argue that its molecular mechanism is the same as that of the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Its spectrum becomes broader on cooling and its unimodal distribution reversibly changes to a bimodal distribution, each of ? < 1. Kinetic freezing of the slower modes of the bimodal distribution produces a glass. After this bifurcation, the faster, original relaxation persists as a weak JG relaxation at T ? Tg, and in the glassy state.

  8. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  9. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  10. Calorimetric determination of the enthalpies of formation of hydrotalcite-like solids and their use in the geochemical modeling of metals in natural waters

    E-print Network

    Allada, Rama kumar; Peltier, Edward; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Casey, William H.; Johnson, C. Annette; Berbeco, Hillary Thompson; Sparks, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in hydrotalcite-like compounds has grown due to their role in controlling the mobility of aqueous metals in the environment as well as their use as catalysts, catalyst precursors and specialty chemicals. Although these materials have been...

  11. Compound power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a compound motor for a vehicle. It comprises: an engine defining therein a chamber for the combustion of fuel, an intake passage leading to the combustion chamber and an exhaust passage leading from the combustion chamber; a drive shaft extending from the engine; means in the engine for rotating the drive shaft in response to the combustion of fuel in the chamber; a rotary compressor at the entry end of the intake passage; a turbine at the exit end of the exhaust passage, the turbine being drivable by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; means for selectively transferring rotational motion of the turbine to the compressor, the transferring means including a clutch for mechanically connecting or disconnecting the compressor from the turbine; a planetary gear set having a sun gear member, a ring gear member surrounding the sun gear member, a planet gear member rotatable about its own axis and meshed between the sun gear member and the ring gear member, and a planet carrier member upon which the planet gear member is mounted for revolution about the sun gear member; a gear train between one of the members of the planetary gear set and the turbine; another one of the members of the planetary gear set being driven by the shaft extending from the engine; and a final output shaft driven by a third member of the planetary gear set.

  12. Structures and standard molar enthalpies of formation of a series of Ln(III)–Cu(II) heteronuclear compounds with pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qi; Xie, Gang; Wei, Qing; Chen, Sanping Gao, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    Fifteen lanthanide–copper heteronuclear compounds, formulated as [CuLn{sub 2}(pzdc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·xH{sub 2}O (1–6(x=2), 8(x=3), 9–10(x=4)); [CuLn{sub 2}(pzdc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·xH{sub 2}O (7, 12–13, 15(x=4), 14(x=5), 11(x=8)) (Ln(III)=La(1); Ce(2); Pr(3); Nd(4); Sm(5); Eu(6); Gd(7); Tb(8); Dy(9); Ho(10); Er(11); Tm(12); Yb(13); Lu(14); Y(15); H{sub 2}pzdc (C{sub 6}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}O{sub 4})=pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized. All compounds were characterized by element analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that all compounds are isostructural and feature a 3D brick-like framework structure with (4.6{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 2})(6{sup 3}){sup 2}(6{sup 5}.8){sub 2} topology. Using 1 mol cm{sup ?3} HCl(aq) as calorimetric solvent, with an isoperibol solution–reaction calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of all compounds were determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. In addition, solid state luminescence properties of compounds 5, 6, 8 and 9 were studied in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: According to Hess' rule, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of Ln–Cu heterometallic coordination compounds were determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. - Highlights: • Fifteen lanthanide–copper heteronuclear isostructural compounds. • Structurally characterization by IR, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation. • Isoperibol solution–reaction calorimetry.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC FREONS AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of atmospheric Freons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and SF6 were measured at various locations in the U.S.A. Compounds such as CCl3F, CCl2F2, CH3-CCl3, and CCl4 were ubiquitious and generally measured at sub ppb levels. Tropospherically reactive compounds such as C2Cl...

  14. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  15. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Nicole B; Andersen, Olaf S

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  16. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  17. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Nicole B.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  18. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  19. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Oden, Patrick I. (Plano, TX); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  20. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  1. Please cite this article in press as: Raviv, M., et al., Development of alternate cut-flower rose greenhouse temperature set-points based on calorimetric plant tissue evaluation. Sci. Hortic. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2010.08.011

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: Raviv, M., et al., Development of alternate cut-flower rose.elsevier.com/locate/scihorti Development of alternate cut-flower rose greenhouse temperature set-points based on calorimetric plant tissue timing of harvest of greenhouse-grown crops. In general, winter greenhouse environments for most cut-flower

  2. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  3. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  4. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  6. Bond alternation in phosphonitrilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Kim F.; Risser, S. M.

    1990-11-01

    The molecular structures of linear phosphonitrilic compounds demonstrate a dependence on the number of repeat units and on ligand electronegativity. Recent structural measurements of short length phosphonitrilic molecules have indicated the presence of bond alternation, in contrast to previous X-ray studies of the polymer itself. Ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed on a series of short phosphonitrilic compounds H3P(NPH2)nNH, n=1-4, which show that bond alternation does exist for the small chain compounds. The behavior of the alternation as the number of repeat units is increased suggests that alternation continues into the infinite limit.

  7. Compound WordsCompound WordsCompound WordsCompound Words Crabapple TreeCrabapple TreeCrabapple TreeCrabapple Tree

    E-print Network

    Ashline, George

    J.C. 2004 Compound WordsCompound WordsCompound WordsCompound Words Crabapple TreeCrabapple Tree the mixture of two or more different things. Therefore, a compound word is the combination of two different words to form a new word. An example of such a word is "crabapple." Go to the crabapple tree. Observe

  8. Routes to Novel Azo compounds 

    E-print Network

    Iannarelli, Paul M.

    Routes to novel heterocyclic azo compounds and components of use as potential inkjet dyes were investigated. A new route to fluorenones from biphenyl acid chlorides using FVP (Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis) has been discovered. ...

  9. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  10. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  11. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your doctor or pharmacist about proper use and storage of the compounded product. If you receive a ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  14. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  15. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds in Uremia

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Luzia; Slodzinski, Rafael; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although “uremic fetor” has long been felt to be diagnostic of renal failure, the compounds exhaled in uremia remain largely unknown so far. The present work investigates whether breath analysis by ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of volatile organic compounds retained in uremia. Methods Breath analysis was performed in 28 adults with an eGFR ?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 26 adults with chronic renal failure corresponding to an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 28 adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after a hemodialysis session. Breath analysis was performed by ion mobility spectrometryafter gas-chromatographic preseparation. Identification of the compounds of interest was performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Breath analyses revealed significant differences in the spectra of patients with and without renal failure. Thirteen compounds were chosen for further evaluation. Some compounds including hydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonia accumulated with decreasing renal function and were eliminated by dialysis. The concentrations of these compounds allowed a significant differentiation between healthy, chronic renal failure with an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min, and ESRD (p<0.05 each). Other compounds including 4-heptanal, 4-heptanone, and 2-heptanone preferentially or exclusively occurred in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion Impairment of renal function induces a characteristic fingerprint of volatile compounds in the breath. The technique of ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of lipophilic uremic retention molecules. PMID:23049998

  17. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  18. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  19. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  20. Low-temperature heat capacity of diopside glass (CaMgSi2O6): A calorimetric test of the configurational-entropy theory applied to the viscosity of liquid silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Heat-capacity measurements have been made between 8 and 370 K on an annealed and a rapidly quenched diopside glass. Between 15 and 200 K, Cp does not depend significantly on the thermal history of the glass. Below 15 K Cp is larger for the quenched than for the annealed specimen. The opposite is true above 200 K as a result of what is interpreted as a secondary relaxation around room temperature. The magnitude of these effects, however, is small enough that the relative entropies S(298)-S(0) of the glasses differ by only 0.5 J/mol K, i.e., a figure within the combined experimental uncertainties. The insensitivity of relative entropies to thermal history supports the assumption that the configurational heat capacity of the liquid may be taken as the heat capacity difference between the liquid and the glass (??Cp). Furthermore, this insensitivity allows calculation of the residual entropies at 0 K of diopside glasses as a function of the fictive temperature from the entropy of fusion of diopside and the heat capacities of the crystalline, glassy and liquid phases. For a glass with a fictive temperature of 1005 K, for example, this calorimetric residual entropy is 24.3 ?? 3 J/mol K, in agreement with the prediction made by RICHET (1984) from an analysis of the viscosity data with the configurational-entropy theory of relaxation processes of Adam and Gibbs (1965). In turn, all the viscosity measurements for liquid diopside, which span the range 0.5-4?? 1013 poise, can be quantitatively reproduced through this theory with the calorimetrically determined entropies and ??Cp data. Finally, the unclear significance of "activation energies" for structural interpretations of viscosity data is emphasized, and the importance of ??Cp and glass-transition temperature systematics for determining the composition and temperature dependences of the viscosity is pointed out. ?? 1986.

  1. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  3. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogenation of alkynes by the heterobimetallic compound C{sub 5}H{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re({mu}-H)Pt(H)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} is being studied. The compound C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re{double bond}Re(CO){sub 2}C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} was synthesized; its chemistry is being studied. Compounds discovered in a reinvestigation of a spurious report of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Co{double bond}Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}), are being studied. The deuterioformylation of alkenes using wide bite angle phosphines will be studied.

  4. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed. PMID:22800370

  5. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Sandra E.; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr). PMID:23024385

  6. Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

    2009-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81%). The decrease in concentration of all the compounds was higher for a molar ratio of 1.0 (<27%) as compared with a molar ratio of 0.1 (<11%). The activation by ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of compounds (except naphthalene) as compared with unactivated or peroxide activated persulfate. 1,3,5-TMB was completed oxidized after 4 days using higher chelated ferrous concentration and after 12 days using lower chelated ferrous concentration for persulfate activation. In general, increase in chelated ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of the gasoline compounds. While oxidation of F1 fraction was similar for two ferrous activation conditions, the oxidation of F2 fraction was lower when ferrous activation at 600 mg/L was employed. Use of persulfate at high dosages by itself or in combination with higher doses of chelated ferrous or optimum doses of peroxide as an activator seems to be a viable option for remediation of gasoline compounds examined in this study. Persulfate appears to be particularly effective in the oxidation of BTEX compounds, but may require ferrous activation for a complete oxidation of TMBs and peroxide activation for oxidation of naphthalene.

  7. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

  8. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds ( CAS No . 1306 - 38 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER Th

  9. Optical detection of alkali compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenborg, R.C.; Baughcum, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop a laser-based optical diagnostic technique, which should be applicable to the direct monitoring of trace levels of alkali compounds within the stream of a coal gasifier. The diagnostic is based on the observation that atomic emission is detected from alkali metals upon ultraviolet photodissociation of the parent compound. From the intensity of the atomic emission, the known absorption cross section of the parent compound, and the laser fluence, the concentration of the alkali compounds can be determined over an extreme range of conditions and their chemistry can be elucidated. KCl vapor was irradiated with an ArF laser that was Raman-shifted in both H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/. The 766.5-nm atomic potassium emission (4/sup 2/P) was observed for all excitation wavelengths between 193 and 255 nm. The relative production efficiency drops dramatically for energies below the calculated threshold wavelength of 207 nm. An absolute detection sensitivity for KCl was determined at 0.2 ppB, which is better than required for anticipated fossil fuel monitoring applications. 5 figures.

  10. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Deuterated Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment (based on the potassium bromide pressed-pellet method) involving the infrared spectroscopy of deuterated compounds. Deuteration refers to deuterium-hydrogen exchange at active hydrogen sites in the molecule. (JN)

  12. Coherent compounding in doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Ingvild K; Voormolen, Marco M; Standal, Oyvind K-V; Rau, Jochen M; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2015-09-01

    Coherent compounding can provide high frame rates and wide regions of interest for imaging of blood flow. However, motion will cause out-of-phase summation, potentially causing image degradation. In this work the impact of blood motion on SNR and the accuracy of Doppler velocity estimates are investigated. A simplified model for the compounded Doppler signal is proposed. The model is used to show that coherent compounding acts as a low-pass filter on the coherent compounding Doppler signal, resulting in negatively biased velocity estimates. Simulations and flow phantom experiments are used to quantify the bias and Doppler SNR for different velocities and beam-to-flow (BTF) angles. It is shown that the bias in the mean velocity increases with increasing beam-to-flow angle and/or blood velocity, whereas the SNR decreases; losses up to 4 dB were observed in the investigated scenarios. Further, a 2-D motion correction scheme is proposed based on multi-angle vector Doppler velocity estimates. For a velocity of 1.1 v(Nyq) and a BTF angle of 75°, the bias was reduced from 30% to less than 4% in simulations. The motion correction scheme was also applied to flow phantom and in vivo recordings, in both cases resulting in a substantially reduced mean velocity bias and an SNR less dependent on blood velocity and direction. PMID:26415126

  13. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  14. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  15. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore »and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  16. [Perfluorinated compounds in potable water].

    PubMed

    Rostkowski, Pawe?; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    In a pilot study perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane suflonate (PFHS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) have been determined in the Japanese and Polish brands of bottled mineral water and in tap water. Bottled mineral water from both countries contained ultratrace amounts of some perfluorinated compounds, and higher degree of contamination showed tap water. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were much below threshold level for toxic effects, and Hazard Quotient (HQ) was much < 1. PMID:19143425

  17. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  18. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  19. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  2. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  5. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  6. Artificial compound eye zoom camera.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Wippermann, Frank; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate a highly compact image capturing system with variable field of view but without any mechanically moving parts. The camera combines an ultra-thin artificial apposition compound eye with one variable focal length liquid lens. The change of optical power of the liquid lens when applying a voltage results in a change of the magnification of the microlens array imaging system. However, its effect on focusing of the individual microlenses can be neglected due to their small focal length. PMID:19029582

  7. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  8. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  9. Hydrogen storage in molecular compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wendy L.; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2004-01-01

    At low temperature (T) and high pressure (P), gas molecules can be held in ice cages to form crystalline molecular compounds that may have application for energy storage. We synthesized a hydrogen clathrate hydrate, H2(H2O)2, that holds 50 g/liter hydrogen by volume or 5.3 wt %. The clathrate, synthesized at 200–300 MPa and 240–249 K, can be preserved to ambient P at 77 K. The stored hydrogen is released when the clathrate is warmed to 140 K at ambient P. Low T also stabilizes other molecular compounds containing large amounts of molecular hydrogen, although not to ambient P, e.g., the stability field for H2(H2O) filled ice (11.2 wt % molecular hydrogen) is extended from 2,300 MPa at 300 K to 600 MPa at 190 K, and that for (H2)4CH4 (33.4 wt % molecular hydrogen) is extended from 5,000 MPa at 300 K to 200 MPa at 77 K. These unique characteristics show the potential of developing low-T molecular crystalline compounds as a new means for hydrogen storage. PMID:14711993

  10. Neuroprotective compounds of Tilia amurensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bohyung; Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tilia amurensis (Tiliacese) has been used for anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory in Korea, China, and Japan. Objective: In this study, we isolated five compounds from T. amurensis and determined whether protected neuronal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: Compounds were isolated using chromatographic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 open column and high performance liquid chromatography analysis, and evaluated neuroprotective effect in HT22 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: ?-D-fructofuranosyl ?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), nudiposide (3), lyoniside (4), and scopoletin (5) were isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation from the ethyl acetate fraction of T. amurensis. Among them, (-)-epicatechin, nudiposide, lyoniside, and scopoletin had significant neuroprotective activities against glutamate-injured neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that compound two, three, four, and five have a pronounced protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells. PMID:26664019

  11. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, Michael J. (Philadelphia, PA); DiMagno, Stephen G. (Lincoln, NE)

    1998-01-01

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core.

  12. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.

  13. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  14. Polyfluorinated Compounds: Past, Present, and Future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest and concern about polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), erfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an increasing number of other related compounds is growing as more is learned about these ubiquitous anthropogenic substances. Many of these co...

  15. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee Soong; Lim, Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds) that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases. PMID:25421245

  16. Novel routes to Heterocyclic Azo compounds 

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Ranald John

    2011-11-23

    The potential use of electron-deficient heterocyclic azo compounds as inkjet dyes was explored. 2-Nitrosopyridine could be used to form a series of azo compounds via the Mills’ reaction with electron-rich aromatic amines. ...

  17. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  18. Distinction between Nominal Compounds and Nominal Phrases 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xiaoming

    2012-11-28

    Compounding in English is a rather complex word-formation process and it is intensively discussed in the linguistic literature. However, there remain several unsolved problems: the definition of ‘compound’, the classifications ...

  19. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  20. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  1. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  2. BTF Potts compound texture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, Michal; Rem?s, Václav; Havlí?ek, Vojt?ch

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for modeling mosaic-like textures using a multispectral parametric Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) compound Markov random field model (CMRF). The primary purpose of our synthetic texture approach is to reproduce, compress, and enlarge a given measured texture image so that ideally both natural and synthetic texture will be visually indiscernible, but the model can be easily applied for BFT material editing. The CMRF model consist of several sub-models each having different characteristics along with an underlying structure model which controls transitions between these sub models. The proposed model uses the Potts random field for distributing local texture models in the form of analytically solvable wide-sense BTF Markovian representation for single regions among the fields of a mosaic approximated by the Voronoi diagram. The control field of the BTF-CMRF is generated by the Potts random field model build on top of the adjacency graph of a measured mosaic. The compound random field synthesis combines the modified fast Swendsen- Wang Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the hierarchical Potts MRF part with the fast and analytical synthesis of single regional BTF MRFs. The local texture regions (not necessarily continuous) are represented by an analytical BTF model which consists of single factors modeled by the adaptive 3D causal auto-regressive (3DCAR) random field model which can be analytically estimated as well as synthesized. The visual quality of the resulting complex synthetic textures generally surpasses the outputs of the previously published simpler non-compound BTF-MRF models.

  3. Pharmaceutical Compounds Studied Using NEXAFS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Booth, A.; Braun, Simon; Lonsbourough, Tom; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Purton, John; Patel, Sunil

    2007-02-02

    Total Electron Yield (TEY) oxygen K-edge NEXAFS detects the presence of strongly adsorbed water molecules on poloxamer-coated pharmaceutical actives, which provides a useful spectroscopic indicator for bioavailability. The results are supported by complementary XPS measurements. Carbon K-edge spectra obtained in a high-pressure NEXAFS cell were used in situ to establish how a polymer coating spread on a drug surface by using humidity induced dispersion of the coating. Finally, we demonstrate how combined Carbon and Oxygen K-edge measurements can be used to characterize amorphous surface layers on micronised crystals of a drug compound.

  4. Some statistics on intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Steurer, Walter

    2015-02-01

    It is still largely unknown why intermetallic phases show such a large variety of crystal structures, with unit cell sizes varying between 1 and more than 20?000 atoms. The goal of our study was, therefore, to get a general overview of the symmetries, unit cell sizes, stoichiometries, most frequent structure types, and their stability fields based on the Mendeleev numbers as ordering parameters. A total of 20829 structures crystallizing in 2166 structure types have been studied for this purpose. Thereby, the focus was on a subset of 6441 binary intermetallic compounds, which crystallize in 943 structure types. PMID:25470110

  5. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  6. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  7. Elastomer Compound Developed for High Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D.; Feuer, H.; Flanagan, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Teets, A.; Touchet, P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently spending 300 million dollars per year replacing rubber track pads. An experimental rubber compound has been developed which exhibits 2 to 3 times greater service life than standard production pad compounds. To improve the service life of the tank track pads various aspects of rubber chemistry were explored including polymer, curing and reinforcing systems. Compounds that exhibited superior physical properties based on laboratory data were then fabricated into tank pads and field tested. This paper will discuss the compounding studies, laboratory data and field testing that led to the high wear elastomer compound.

  8. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  9. Compound prism design principles, I

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Prisms have been needlessly neglected as components used in modern optical design. In optical throughput, stray light, flexibility, and in their ability to be used in direct-view geometry, they excel over gratings. Here we show that even their well-known weak dispersion relative to gratings has been overrated by designing doublet and double Amici direct-vision compound prisms that have 14° and 23° of dispersion across the visible spectrum, equivalent to 800 and 1300 lines/mm gratings. By taking advantage of the multiple degrees of freedom available in a compound prism design, we also show prisms whose angular dispersion shows improved linearity in wavelength. In order to achieve these designs, we exploit the well-behaved nature of prism design space to write customized algorithms that optimize directly in the nonlinear design space. Using these algorithms, we showcase a number of prism designs that illustrate a performance and flexibility that goes beyond what has often been considered possible with prisms. PMID:22423145

  10. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: HD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  11. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  12. INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

  13. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow. PMID:26064479

  14. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow. PMID:26064479

  15. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  16. Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Heider, J; Fuchs, G

    1997-02-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of low-molecular-mass natural compounds (amino acids, quinones, flavonoids, etc.) and biopolymers (lignin, melanin). They are almost exclusively degraded by microorganisms. Aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterised by the extensive use of molecular oxygen. Monoxygenases and dioxygenases are essential for the hydroxylation and cleavage of aromatic ring structures. Accordingly, the characteristic central intermediates of the aerobic pathways (e.g. catechol) are readily attacked oxidatively. Anaerobic aromatic catabolism requires, of necessity, a quite different strategy. The basic features of this metabolism have emerged from studies on bacteria that degrade soluble aromatic substrates to CO2 in the complete absence of molecular oxygen. Essential to anaerobic aromatic metabolism is the replacement of all the oxygen-dependent steps by an alternative set of novel reactions and the formation of different central intermediates (e.g. benzoyl-CoA) for breaking the aromaticity and cleaving the ring; notably, in anaerobic pathways, the aromatic ring is reduced rather than oxidised. The two-electron reduction of benzoyl-CoA to a cyclic diene requires the cleavage of two molecules of ATP to ADP and P1 and is catalysed by benzoyl-CoA reductase. After nitrogenase, this is the second enzyme known which overcomes the high activation energy required for reduction of a chemically stable bond by coupling electron transfer to the hydrolysis of ATP. The alicyclic product cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA is oxidised to acetyl-CoA via a modified beta-oxidation pathway; the ring structure is opened hydrolytically. Some phenolic compounds are anaerobically transformed to resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) or phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene). These intermediates are also first reduced and then as alicyclic products oxidised to acetyl-CoA. This review gives an outline of the anaerobic pathways which allow bacteria to utilize aromatics even in the absence of oxygen. We focus on previously unknown reactions and on the enzymes characteristic for such novel metabolism. PMID:9057820

  17. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

  18. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  19. Discretely tunable optofluidic compound microlenses.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; He, Zi; Zheng, Chunhong; Chen, Tao; Men, Yongfan; Huang, Yanyi

    2011-09-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate high zoom-ratio optofluidic compound microlenses using poly(dimethylsiloxane) with multi-layer architecture. The layered structure of deformable lenses, biconvex and plano-concave, are self-aligned as a group. The refractive index contrast of each lens, which is controlled by filling the chambers with a specific medium, is the key factor for determining the device's numerical aperture. The chip has multiple independent pneumatic valves that can be digitally switched on and off, pushing the liquid into the lens chambers with great accuracy and consistency. This quickly and precisely tunes the focal length of the microlens device from centimetres to sub-millimetre. The system has great potential for applications in portable microscopic imaging, bio-sensing, and laser beam configuration. PMID:21799999

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  2. 27 CFR 27.44 - Other compounds and preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other compounds and preparations. 27.44 Section 27...and Beer Liqueurs, Cordials, and Other Compounds and Preparations § 27.44 Other compounds and preparations. Compounds...

  3. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  4. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  5. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  6. A calorimetric and spectroscopic comparison of the effects of cholesterol and its sulfur-containing analogs thiocholesterol and cholesterol sulfate on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2016-02-01

    We performed differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the effects of cholesterol (Chol), thiocholesterol (tChol) and cholesterol sulfate (CholS) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. Our DSC results indicate that Chol and tChol incorporation produce small temperature increases in the main phase transition broad component while CholS markedly decreases it, but Chol decreases cooperativity and enthalpy more strongly than CholS and especially tChol. Hence, Chol and tChol thermally stabilize fluid DPPC bilayer sterol-rich domains while CholS markedly destabilizes them, and CholS and particularly tChol are less miscible in such domains. Our FTIR spectroscopic results indicate that Chol incorporation increases the rotational conformational order of fluid DPPC bilayers to a slightly and somewhat greater degree than tChol and CholS, respectively, consistent with our DSC findings. Also, Chol and CholS produce comparable degrees of H-bonding (hydration) of the DPPC ester carbonyls in fluid bilayers, whereas tChol increases H-bonding. At low temperatures, Chol is fully soluble in gel-state DPPC bilayers, whereas tChol and CholS are not. Thus tChol and CholS incorporation can produce considerably different effects on DPPC bilayers. In particular, the tChol thiol group markedly reduces its lateral miscibility and increases DPPC carbonyl H-bonding without significantly affecting the other characteristic effects of Chol itself, while the CholS sulfate group significantly reduces its ability to thermally stabilize and order fluid DPPC membranes. This latter result suggests that the molecular basis for the purported ability of CholS to "stabilize" various biological membranes should be re-examined. PMID:26585353

  7. Computed structures of polyimides model compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Phillips, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Using a semi-empirical approach, a computer study was made of 8 model compounds of polyimides. The compounds represent subunits from which NASA Langley Research Center has successfully synthesized polymers for aerospace high performance material application, including one of the most promising, LARC-TPI polymer. Three-dimensional graphic display as well as important molecular structure data pertaining to these 8 compounds are obtained.

  8. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  9. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs.

  10. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  11. Calorimetric, spectroscopic and structural investigations of phase polymorphism in [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Dolega, Diana; Mikuli, Edward; Inaba, Akira; Gorska, Natalia; Holderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna; Nitek, Wojciech

    2013-01-15

    Four crystalline phases of the coordination compound [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3} are identified by adiabatic calorimetry. Three phase transitions, one at T{sub C3}(IV{yields}III)=30.7 K, the second at T{sub C2}(III{yields}II)=91.7 K (both accompanied by comparable entropy changes 3.0 and 3.1 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively) and the third at T{sub C1}(II{yields}I)=241.6 K (accompanied by an entropy change of 8.1 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) were discovered. X-ray single crystal diffraction (at 293 K) demonstrates that phase I is a highly dynamic disordered cubic phase (Fm3{sup Macron }m, No. 225) with two types of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions differing in a degree of disorder. In phase II (at 170 K) the structure remains cubic (Ia3{sup Macron }, No. 206), with two different types of cations and four different types of anions. Splitting of certain IR bands connected with NH{sub 3} ligands at the observed phase transitions suggests a lowering of the symmetry of the [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} complex cation. Both NH{sub 3} ligands and BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions perform fast reorientations ({tau}{sub R} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -12} s), which are significantly slowed down below the phase transition at T{sub C3}. {sup 1}H NMR studies led to estimate the values of the activation energy of NH{sub 3} ligands reorientation in the phases II and I as equal to {approx}8 kJ mol{sup -1}. In phase I the whole hexammineruthenium(III) cations reorientation as a tumbling process can be noticed. The activation energy value of this motion is {approx}24 kJ mol{sup -1}. {sup 19}F NMR studies give the values of the activation energy of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions reorientation as {approx}6 kJ mol{sup -1}. Above the phase transition temperature half of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions perform a tumbling motion with E{sub a} Almost-Equal-To 8 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: A series of complementary methods, such as Adiabatic Calorimetry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier Transform-Far and Middle Spectroscopy, proton and fluorine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and structural methods reveal information about phase transitions in [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phase transitions are found in [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic parameters of the phase transitions are derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transitions are of order-disorder type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex belongs to Fm3{sup Macron }m at 293 K and its symmetry changes to Ia3{sup Macron} at 170 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3} is a highly dynamically disordered crystal.

  12. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  13. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F. (Livermore, CA); Schrader, Glenn L. (Ames, IA)

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  14. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Classification of chemical compounds into compound classes by using structure derived descriptors is a well-established method to aid the evaluation and abstraction of compound properties in chemical compound databases. MeSH and recently ChEBI are examples of chemical ontologies that provide a hierarchical classification of compounds into general compound classes of biological interest based on their structural as well as property or use features. In these ontologies, compounds have been assigned manually to their respective classes. However, with the ever increasing possibilities to extract new compounds from text documents using name-to-structure tools and considering the large number of compounds deposited in databases, automated and comprehensive chemical classification methods are needed to avoid the error prone and time consuming manual classification of compounds. Results In the present work we implement principles and methods to construct a chemical ontology of classes that shall support the automated, high-quality compound classification in chemical databases or text documents. While SMARTS expressions have already been used to define chemical structure class concepts, in the present work we have extended the expressive power of such class definitions by expanding their structure-based reasoning logic. Thus, to achieve the required precision and granularity of chemical class definitions, sets of SMARTS class definitions are connected by OR and NOT logical operators. In addition, AND logic has been implemented to allow the concomitant use of flexible atom lists and stereochemistry definitions. The resulting chemical ontology is a multi-hierarchical taxonomy of concept nodes connected by directed, transitive relationships. Conclusions A proposal for a rule based definition of chemical classes has been made that allows to define chemical compound classes more precisely than before. The proposed structure-based reasoning logic allows to translate chemistry expert knowledge into a computer interpretable form, preventing erroneous compound assignments and allowing automatic compound classification. The automated assignment of compounds in databases, compound structure files or text documents to their related ontology classes is possible through the integration with a chemical structure search engine. As an application example, the annotation of chemical structure files with a prototypic ontology is demonstrated. PMID:23273256

  15. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua

    2013-01-01

    In a previous disclosure, the use of 60- NiTiNOL, an ordered intermetallic compound composed of 60 weight percent nickel and 40 weight percent titanium, was investigated as a material for advanced aerospace bearings due to its unique combination of physical properties. Lessons learned during the development of applications for this material have led to the discovery that, with the addition of a ternary element, the resulting material can be thermally processed at a lower temperature to attain the same desirable hardness level as the original material. Processing at a lower temperature is beneficial, not only because it reduces processing costs from energy consumption, but because it also significantly reduces the possibility of quench cracking and thermal distortion, which have been problematic with the original material. A family of ternary substitutions has been identified, including Hf and Zr in various atomic percentages with varying concentrations of Ni and Ti. In the present innovation, a ternary intermetallic compound consisting of 57.6 weight percent Ni, 39.2 weight percent Ti, and 3.2 weight percent Hf (54Ni-45Ti-1Hf atomic percent) was prepared by casting. In this material, Hf substitutes for some of the Ti atoms in the material. In an alternate embodiment of the innovation, Zr, which is close in chemical behavior to Hf, is used as the substitutional element. With either substitution, the solvus temperature of the material is reduced, and lower temperatures can be used to obtain the necessary hardness values. The advantages of this innovation include the ability to solution-treat the material at a lower temperature and still achieve the required hardness for bearings (at least 50 Rockwell C) and superelastic behavior with recoverable strains greater than 2%. Most structural alloys will not return to their original shape after being deformed as little as 0.2% (a tenth of that possible with superelastic materials like 60 NiTiNOL). Because lower temperatures can be used in the heat treatment process, less energy will be consumed, and there will be less dimensional distortion and quench cracking. This results in fewer scrap parts, less material waste from large amounts of material removal, and fewer machining steps to rework parts that are out of specification. This material has a combination of properties that have been previously unobtainable. The material has a Young s modulus of approximately 95 GPa (about half that of conventional steels), moderate density (10 to 15% lower than conventional steels), excellent corrosion resistance, and high hardness (58 to 62 HRC). These properties make this material uniquely suited for advanced bearings.

  16. Electroreduction of Halogenated Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinini, Sandra; Vertova, Alberto

    The electroreductive cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond in halogenated organic compounds has been extensively studied for more than 70 years, since it is prodromal to a large variety of synthetic applications in organic electrochemistry. Over the years the research interest have progressively included the environmental applications, since several organic halocompounds are known to have (or have had) a serious environmental impact because of their (present or past) wide use as cleaning agents, herbicides, cryogenic fluids, reagents (e.g. allyl and vinyl monomers) for large production materials, etc. Recent studies have also demonstrated the wide spread out- and in-door-presence of volatile organic halides, although at low level, in connexion with residential and non-residential (e.g. stores, restaurants and transportation) activities. In this context, the detoxification of emissions to air, water and land by the selective removal of the halogen group represents a valid treatment route, which, although not leading to the complete mineralization of the pollutants, produces less harmful streams to be easily treated by electrochemical or conventional techniques. The electroreduction process is analysed and discussed in terms of electrode material, reaction medium, cell design and operation, and of substrate classification.

  17. Bioactive Compounds from Vitex leptobotrys#

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wenhui; Liu, Kanglun; Guan, Yifu; Tan, Ghee Teng; Hung, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Soejarto, D. Doel; Pezzuto, John M.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Zhang, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    A new lignan, vitexkarinol (1), as well as a known lignan, neopaulownin (2), a known chalcone, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one (3), two known dehydroflavones, tsugafolin (4) and alpinetin (5), two known dipeptides, aurantiamide and aurantiamide acetate, a known sesquiterpene, vemopolyanthofuran, and five known carotenoid metabolites, vomifoliol, dihydrovomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, loliolide and isololiolide, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Vitex leptobotrys through bioassay-guided fractionation. The chalcone (3) was found to inhibit HIV-1 replication by 77% at 15.9 µM, and the two dehydroflavones (4 and 5) showed weak anti-HIV activity with IC50 values of 118 and 130 µM, respectively, while being devoid of cytotoxicity at 150 µM. A chlorophyll-enriched fraction of V. leptobotrys, containing pheophorbide a, was found to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 by 80% at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. Compounds 1 and 3 were further selected to be evaluated against 21 viral targets available at NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). PMID:24404757

  18. Superconducting compounds and alloys research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1975-01-01

    Resistivity measurements as a function of temperature were performed on alloys of the binary material system In sub(1-x) Bi sub x for x varying between 0 and 1. It was found that for all single-phase alloys (the pure elements, alpha-In, and the three intermetallic compounds) at temperatures sufficiently above the Debye-temperature, the resistivity p can be expressed as p = a sub o T(n), where a sub o and n are composition-dependent constants. The same exponential relationship can also be applied for the sub-system In-In2Bi, when the two phases are in compositional equilibrium. Superconductivity measurements on single and two-phase alloys can be explained with respect to the phase diagram. There occur three superconducting phases (alpha-In, In2Bi, and In5Bi3) with different transition temperatures in the alloying system. The magnitude of the transition temperatures for the various intermetallic phases of In-Bi is such that the disappearance or occurrence of a phase in two component alloys can be demonstrated easily by means of superconductivity measurements.

  19. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    E-print Network

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  20. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  1. Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

    1973-01-01

    A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

  2. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexander

    2011-11-18

    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed. PMID:21809426

  3. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  4. A novel phenolic compound from Phyllanthus emblica.

    PubMed

    She, Gaimei; Cheng, Ruiyang; Sha, Lei; Xu, Yixia; Shi, Renbin; Zhang, Lanzhen; Guo, Yajian

    2013-04-01

    A new compound, mucic acid 3-O-gallate (1), was isolated from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L, together with 5 known compounds (2-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and by comparison with literature data. PMID:23738453

  5. Performance of BNL-TSTA compound cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H C; Worwetz, H A

    1980-01-01

    A compound cryopump using cryocondensation pumping for hydrogen isotopes and cryosorption pumping with coconut charcoal as adsorbent for helium was designed. This compound cryopump was subsequently built (by Janis Research, Stoneham, MA) and has been tested at Brookhaven, fulfilling the design requirements and are delivered to Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) Vacuum Facility at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for on-line operations.

  6. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  7. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  8. Crystal structure analysis of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. A., Jr.; Downey, J. W.; Dwight, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Study concerns crystal structures and lattice parameters for a number of new intermetallic compounds. Crystal structure data have been collected on equiatomic compounds, formed between an element of the Sc, Ti, V, or Cr group and an element of the Co or Ni group. The data, obtained by conventional methods, are presented in an easily usable tabular form.

  9. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Paula; D?Auria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

  10. Perfluorinated Compounds: Emerging POPs with Potential Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, an...

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  12. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  13. Determination of repellent efficacy of natural compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has performed repellent testing, initially for the U.S. military. In recent years, there has been a collaborative effort to evaluate a number of natural extracts and compounds for their repellent efficacy. Plant-produced compounds are u...

  14. Nitroaromatic Compounds, from Synthesis to Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kou-San; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Nitroaromatic compounds are relatively rare in nature and have been introduced into the environment mainly by human activities. This important class of industrial chemicals is widely used in the synthesis of many diverse products, including dyes, polymers, pesticides, and explosives. Unfortunately, their extensive use has led to environmental contamination of soil and groundwater. The nitro group, which provides chemical and functional diversity in these molecules, also contributes to the recalcitrance of these compounds to biodegradation. The electron-withdrawing nature of the nitro group, in concert with the stability of the benzene ring, makes nitroaromatic compounds resistant to oxidative degradation. Recalcitrance is further compounded by their acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and easy reduction into carcinogenic aromatic amines. Nitroaromatic compounds are hazardous to human health and are registered on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutants for environmental remediation. Although the majority of these compounds are synthetic in nature, microorganisms in contaminated environments have rapidly adapted to their presence by evolving new biodegradation pathways that take advantage of them as sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. This review provides an overview of the synthesis of both man-made and biogenic nitroaromatic compounds, the bacteria that have been identified to grow on and completely mineralize nitroaromatic compounds, and the pathways that are present in these strains. The possible evolutionary origins of the newly evolved pathways are also discussed. PMID:20508249

  15. Compound structure one-dimensional photonic crystal

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new compound structure one-dimensional photonic crystal, which include series connection, parallel connection and positive and negative feedback compound structure photonic crystal. We have studied their transmission characteristics and obtained some new results, which should be help to design new type optical devices, such as optical amplifier, photonic crystal laser and so on.

  16. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

  17. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  18. Relation priming in established compounds: facilitation?

    PubMed

    Spalding, Thomas L; Gagné, Christina L

    2011-11-01

    Gagné and Spalding (Brain and Language, 90, 478-486, 2004, Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 20-35, 2009) have shown that the difficulty of interpreting an established compound (e.g., snowball) can be influenced by recent exposure to a compound with the same modifier and that this influence depends on the relation linking the constituents of the compound. For example, snowball (a ball made of snow) was processed more quickly following snowfort (a fort made of snow; same relation) than following snowshovel (a shovel for snow; different relation). In three experiments, we investigated the basis of this relation-priming effect. The results indicated that the relation-priming effect in established compounds is due to slower processing in the different-relation condition rather than to faster processing in the same-relation condition. These results pose a challenge for most models of compound-word processing. PMID:21598087

  19. Depyrogenation options for the compounding cleanroom.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tom; Bell, Jeff; Dullinger, Roger; Allen, Vern; Anthenat, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies, especially those awarded 503B status under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that resulted from the Drug Quality and Security Act, must meet increasingly strict standards for the preparation of sterile formulations. Depyrogenating the containers and tools used in such compounding is essential to meeting those standards and ensuring patient safety. Although pyrogens are relatively thermally stable, treating aseptic-compounding glassware and implements in a dry-heat oven or tunnel is the most common method of depyrogenation. Depyrogenation tunnels are used at larger facilities in which automation and a higher throughput can justify the cost of that equipment, but a small batch oven is an inexpensive and appropriate solution to meeting sterilization and depyrogenation requirements in a smaller compounding pharmacy. In this article, we discuss the appropriate use of depyrogenation ovens and tunnels, compare those types of equipment, and describe the selection and use of a cleanroom oven in a compounding pharmacy. PMID:25906620

  20. Development of antivirulence compounds: a biochemical review.

    PubMed

    Zambelloni, Riccardo; Marquez, Rudi; Roe, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent requirement for new anti-infective compounds that can be used to prevent or treat bacterial pathogens. In particular, Gram-negative pathogens, which are most commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections, are of major concern. In this review, we cover recent developments in the screening and testing of new anti-infective compounds that interfere with aspects of bacterial pathogenicity. This so-called antivirulence approach is very different to traditional antibiotic development and testing. Moreover, antivirulence compounds vary considerably in their chemical structures, ranging from small compounds to large natural products. The challenge of understanding the precise mechanism of action of any such compound is also highlighted. PMID:25521644

  1. Odor-active compounds in cardboard.

    PubMed

    Czerny, Michael; Buettner, Andrea

    2009-11-11

    The odor-active compounds of cardboard were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis and HRGC-MS analysis. In total, 36 compounds were detected with medium to high intensities during HRGC-olfactometry. The highest odor intensities were evaluated for vanillin, (E)-non-2-enal, (R/S)-gamma-nonalactone, 2-methoxyphenol, (R/S)-delta-decalactone, p-anisaldehyde, 3-propylphenol, and a woody-smelling unknown compound. Most of the identified compounds were described as odor-active cardboard constituents for the first time. Sensory experiments demonstrated that extensive release of odor-active compounds occurred upon moistening of the cardboard. Accordingly, data indicated that the odorants are present in cardboard in relatively high amounts. In a further sensory study, a transfer of the released odor to food was demonstrated in a model experiment showing that cardboards with high odor potential can cause unwanted flavor changes in foods. PMID:19817420

  2. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  3. Anticancer Mechanism of Sulfur-Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    De Gianni, Elena; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables have traditionally represented a main source for the discovery of many biologically active substances with therapeutic values. Among the many bioactive compounds identified over the years, sulfur-containing compounds, which are present especially in the genera Allium and Brassica, have been showing a protective effect against different types of cancer. Many in vitro and in vivo studies reported that apoptosis is crucial for the anticancer effects of sulfur-containing compounds. Garlic and onion compounds and isothiocyanates contained in Brassica vegetables are able to modulate apoptosis by a wide range of mechanisms. This chapter will give an overview on the induction of apoptosis by sulfur-containing compounds in cancer cells and their different molecular mechanisms. Finally, the potential clinical implications of their proapoptotic effects will be discussed. PMID:26298460

  4. Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds.

    PubMed

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium belongs to the group of transition metals and is present in the air and soil contaminants in large urban agglomerations due to combustion of fossil fuels. It forms numerous inorganic compounds (vanadyl sulfate, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, vanadium pentoxide) as well as complexes with organic compounds (BMOV, BEOV, METVAN). Depending on the research model, vanadium compounds exhibit antitumor or carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds generate ROS as a result of Fenton's reaction or of the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. They inactivate the Cdc25B(2) phosphatase and lead to degradation of Cdc25C, which induces G(2)/M phase arrest. In cells, vanadium compounds activate numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, including PI3K-PKB/Akt-mTOR, NF-?B, MEK1/2-ERK, that cause cell survival or increased expression and release of VEGF. Vanadium compounds inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis and promote entry into the S phase of cells containing functional p53 protein. In addition, vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, have insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic properties. Vanadium compounds lower blood glucose levels in animals and in clinical trials. They also inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. By activating the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, vanadium compaunds increase the cellular uptake of glucose by the GLUT4 transporter. The PKB/Akt pathway is also used to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3. The impact of vanadium compounds on inflammatory reactions has not been fully studied. Vanadium pentoxide causes expression of COX-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a human lung fibroblast model. Other vanadium compounds activate NF-?B in macrophages by activating IKK?. PMID:22693688

  5. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  6. Two-dimensional spatial compounding with warping.

    PubMed

    Groves, Adrian R; Rohling, Robert N

    2004-07-01

    Spatial compounding aims to improve image quality through signal averaging, but speed-of-sound (SoS) and refraction errors can misalign the component frames and blur the compound image. A 2-D compounding system is demonstrated that uses a nonrigid registration (warping) to realign the frames before compounding. Block-based estimates of local misalignments are interpolated smoothly to compute the warp vectors. Simulations and a specialized phantom, both with a 9% SoS distortion, were created, and compound images with and without warping were compared to the conventional image. Image sharpness was compared by measuring the diameter of point targets and directional edge sharpness. The average registration accuracy was 0.06 to 0.07 mm (approximately one pixel). The diameter of point targets increased only 2% with warping vs. 32% without warping and directional edge sharpness dropped 3.7% vs. 20.0%. Furthermore, most of the speckle reduction due to compounding is retained when warping is used. The tests on simulated and phantom data demonstrate that the method is capable of making a small, but significant, improvement to image quality. The examinations in vitro and in vivo show the correct operation of the method with real tissue features. Further clinical studies should be performed to compare spatial compounding with and without warping to see which applications would benefit from the small improvement. PMID:15313325

  7. Distributed imaging using compound eye sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Peter K.; Ara, Farhana; Thomas, Paul J.; Hornsey, Richard I.

    2004-10-01

    The capture of a wide field of view (FOV) scene by dividing it into multiple sub-images is a technique with many precedents in the natural world, the most familiar being the compound eyes of insects and arthropods. Artificial structures of networked cameras and simple compound eyes have been constructed for applications in robotics and machine vision. Previous work in this laboratory has explored the construction and calibration of sensors which produce multiple small images (of ~150 pixels in diameter) for high-speed object tracking. In this paper design options are presented for electronic compound eyes consisting of 101 - 103 identical 'eyelets'. To implement a compound eye, multiple sub-images can be captured by distributing cameras and/or image collection optics. Figures of merit for comparisons will be developed to illustrate the impact of design choices on the field of view, resolution, information rate, image processing, calibration, environmental sensitivity and compatibility with integrated CMOS imagers. Whereas compound eyes in nature are outward-looking, the methodology and subsystems for an outward-looking compound-eye sensor are similar for in an inward-looking sensor, although inward-looking sensors have a common region viewable to all eyelets simultaneously. The paper addresses the design considerations for compound eyes in both outward-looking and inward-looking configurations.

  8. CHAPTER XVI LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND METAMORPHOSIS

    E-print Network

    size as the egg. The two polar bodies may still be attached to some of the embryos and a tuft of robust from the Greek "trochos," 8. wheel: and "phero," to bear. The formation of the trochophore results from

  9. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (? ? 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ?CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be ?? = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, ?bh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, ?ch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, ?m = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ?CDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ?CDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ?CDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ? ? ? 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

  10. xvi Preface to the second edition Acknowledgments

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    , William Talbot, Wilhelm Vossenkuhl, Fritz Warfield and Paul Weirich. In addition, I have continued to benefit from regular exchanges of ideas or papers (usually both) with many philosophers, including William Alston, Laurence Bonjour, Panayot Butchvarov, Elizabeth Fricker, Alvin Goldman, John Greco, Gilbert

  11. ROCLING XVI sbbjun@gmail.com

    E-print Network

    iji..jij CHEN CH isen CH #sen CH , jisen ( )ENCH #1..,..#1 sensenDP 279 #12; DP jiDP jq ip sensen sensen jqip jqip jqip,1 evaleval_length, eval_punc penalty ( )ENCH #,# sentencesentenceDP 2.5.3 DP DP DP DPDP Iterative

  12. Risk and liabilities of prescribing compounded medications.

    PubMed

    Randell, Michael D; Duffy, Phillip J

    2014-07-01

    Complications resulting from the use of compounded medications have become a troubling trend nationwide. There is a significant potential for patients to suffer serious harm from the use of substandard medications prepared by compounding pharmacies, and the reality of this problem has been demonstrated in several well-publicized incidences of serious medical complications, including patient deaths, that directly resulted from the use of medications prepared at compounding pharmacies. Unlike US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, compounded products are not required to meet evidentiary standards for establishing safety and efficacy. Moreover, these products are not held to Good Manufacturing Practices, which require regular inspections, quality control testing, and rejection of material not meeting specifications. Physicians, as well as other prescribers, need to be aware that when a patient suffers harm from using a compounded medication, those injured patients may bring negligence and malpractice claims, not only against the pharmacy and the pharmacist responsible for preparing the medication, but also against the prescribing physician and the physician’s practice. Consequently, the best way for physicians to manage professional risk and avoid both litigation and potential negative patient outcomes related to compounded pharmaceuticals is to not use these products if there is an FDA-approved product available. However, if the use of a compounded medication is medically necessary, then physicians should adhere to the FDA guidance concerning traditional compounding. Moreover, it would be prudent for any physician who intends to either resell or participate in the distribution of compounded products beyond the direct treatment of their patients to consider obtaining the appropriate insurance coverage for this activity. PMID:25276868

  13. A calorimetric and spectroscopic comparison of the effects of cholesterol and its immediate biosynthetic precursors 7-dehydrocholesterol and desmosterol on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2015-10-01

    We performed differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the effects of cholesterol (CHOL), 7-dehydrocholeterol (7DHC) and desmosterol (DES) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. 7DHC and DES are the immediate biosynthetic precursors of CHOL in the Kandutch-Russell and Bloch pathways and 7DHC and DES differ in structure from CHOL only by the presence of an additional double bond at C7 of ring B or C24 of the alkyl side chain, respectively. Our DSC results indicate that the incorporation of all three sterols produces comparable decreases in the temperature of the pretransition of DPPC, but CHOL decreases its cooperativity and enthalpy more strongly than 7DHC and especially DES. These findings indicate that all three sterols decrease the thermal stability of gel phase DPPC bilayers but that 7DHC and especially DES are less miscible in them. However, the incorporation of CHOL and DES produce comparable increases in the temperature of the broad component of the main phase transition of DPPC while 7DHC decreases it, but again CHOL produces greater decreases in its cooperativity and enthalpy then 7DHC and especially DES. These results indicate that CHOL and DES stabilize the sterol-rich domains of fluid DPPC bilayers, but that 7DHC and especially DES are less miscible in them. Our FTIR spectroscopic results indicate that CHOL increases the rotational conformational order of fluid DPPC bilayers to a somewhat and markedly greater degree than DES and 7DHC, respectively, consistent with our DSC findings. Our spectroscopic results also indicate that although all three sterols produce comparable degrees of H-bonding (hydration) of the DPPC ester carbonyl groups in fluid bilayers, CHOL is again found to be fully soluble in gel state DPPC bilayers at low temperatures, whereas 7DHC and especially DES are not. In general, we find that 7DHC and DES incorporation produce considerably different effects on DPPC bilayer membranes. In particular, the presence of an additional double bond at C7 or C24 produces a marked reduction in the ability of 7DHC to order fluid DPPC bilayers and in the miscibility of DES in such bilayers, respectively. These different effects may be the biophysical basis for the reduction of these double bonds in the last steps of CHOL biosynthesis, and for the deleterious biological effects of the accumulation of these sterols in vivo. PMID:26368000

  14. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:25449728

  15. Application of bicyclic and cage compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. D.; Archuleta, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a literature survey of the field of bicyclic and cage compounds were presented, with the objective of identifying those types of compounds with unusual physical and chemical stability, and determining what practical applications have been found for these compounds. Major applications have been as polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and pesticides. Lesser applications have included fuels, fuel additives, lubricants, lubricant additives, and perfumes. Several areas where further work might be useful were also outlined; these are primarily in the areas of polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and synthetic lubricants.

  16. A growing codependency: compounding pharmacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are in constant contact with potent compounds. When compounding with powders, there is a susceptibility to environmental conditions such that proper containment be in place to keep the employees safe, the medicine free from cross contamination or the introduction of outside contaminants, and the workplace free from floating active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adapting powder hoods as safety devices that work in direct relation to clearly defined standard operating procedures and good lab practices will facilitate a safer lab environment for employees and ensure good-quality prescriptions. This article discusses the safety concerns of compounding with powders and the safety measures to consider when purchasing powder hoods. PMID:24579299

  17. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A.

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  18. Genetic Sensor for Strong Methylating Compounds

    E-print Network

    Moser, Felix

    Methylating chemicals are common in industry and agriculture and are often toxic, partly due to their propensity to methylate DNA. The Escherichia coli Ada protein detects methylating compounds by sensing aberrant methyl ...

  19. Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

  20. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR VANADIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  1. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF SEVERAL TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydroxyl radical initiated gas phase oxidation of several toxic compounds in nitrous acid, oxides of nitrogen, in air mixtures were investigated. The chemical species studied were: formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, vinylidene chloride, trichloroethylene, allyl chloride, acetaldehy...

  2. BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF TRIALKYLTIN COMPOUNDS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triethyltin (TET) and trimethyltin (TMT) are neurotoxic organotin compounds which produce different patterns of toxicity in adult animals. Exposure to TET produces behavioral toxicity (decreased motor activity, grip strength, operant response rate and startle response amplitude) ...

  3. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  4. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Hofer, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Branagan, Daniel J. (Ames, IA)

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  5. New twisted intermetallic compound superconductor: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.; Brown, G. V.; Laurence, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Method for processing Nb3Sn and other intermetallic compound superconductors produces a twisted, stabilized wire or tube which can be used to wind electromagnetics, armatures, rotors, and field windings for motors and generators as well as other magnetic devices.

  6. Stable Lithium Argon compounds under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hermann, Andreas; Peng, Feng; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of chemical elements. Its effects include stimulating elements thought to be “inactive” to form unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties. Here, using an unbiased structure search method based on CALYPSO methodology and density functional total energy calculations, the phase stabilities and crystal structures of Li?Ar compounds are systematically investigated at high pressure up to 300?GPa. Two unexpected LimArn compounds (LiAr and Li3Ar) are predicted to be stable above 112?GPa and 119?GPa, respectively. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of LiAr and Li3Ar shows that Ar in these compounds attracts electrons and thus behaves as an oxidizing agent. This is markedly different from the hitherto established chemical reactivity of Ar. Moreover, we predict that the P4/mmm phase of Li3Ar has a superconducting transition temperature of 17.6?K at 120?GPa.

  7. Detection of odorous compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Van den Velde, S; van Steenberghe, D; Van Hee, P; Quirynen, M

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan play a major role in oral malodor. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that other compounds found in mouth air can also contribute to halitosis. Mouth air of 40 healthy volunteers and 40 persons with halitosis was analyzed and compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, two sulfur monitors, and organoleptically. Nearly 700 different compounds were detected. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, di- and trisulfide were increased in persons with breath odor. These compounds were all significantly correlated with the organoleptic score. We concluded that hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and, to a much lesser extent, dimethyl sulfide, di- and trisulfide can contribute to oral malodor. The role of other compounds, such as amines and organic acids, seems insignificant. PMID:19329466

  8. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...

  9. Digital Construction Platform: A Compound Arm Approach

    E-print Network

    Spielberg, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel large-scale Digital Construction Platform (DCP) for on-site sensing, analysis, and fabrication. The DCP is an in-progress research project consisting of a compound robotic arm system comprised of a ...

  10. Health Effects Assessment for Beryllium and Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  11. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Sheikh, J. A.

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic ...

  12. Prelexical Decomposition of Compound and Pseudocompound Words

    E-print Network

    Diener, Un So Park

    2007-12-12

    recognition, although such effects should disappear quickly, as the decomposition does not help in the identification of the whole word. Experiment 1 assessed priming effects of compound words and pseudocompound words on their constituents at SOAs of 150ms...

  13. Reorganizations of complex networks: Compounding and reducing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fengjing; Sui, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Real networks interact with each other by different kinds of topological connections, which are usually demonstrated by linking nodes of different networks. Simple connection, such as one-to-one corresponding, random connection and similar connection are adopted for studying the interacted networks. Practical interrelations established between the two networks are ignored. In this study, a generalized framework of multi-subnet composited complex network that allowed us to investigate interrelations among several subnets is developed. Based on that, reorganizations of networks: compounding (compound subnets into a "bigger" one) and reducing (obtain a "smaller" network from a "bigger" one) are proposed. As an empirical evidence, influence of compounding on traffic dynamics is discussed. And the properties of nodes linking two networks are also considered. Onset of compounding between two networks is revealed. Numerical simulations on artificial networks as well as real bus and tube networks of Qingdao in China agree well with our analysis, which show validity of our model.

  14. Identification of Aneuploidy-Selective Antiproliferation Compounds

    E-print Network

    Tang, Yun-Chi

    Aneuploidy, an incorrect chromosome number, is a hallmark of cancer. Compounds that cause lethality in aneuploid, but not euploid, cells could therefore provide new cancer therapies. We have identified the energy stress-inducing ...

  15. On Entropy of Quantum Compound Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Noboru

    2015-10-01

    We review some notions for general quantum entropies. The entropy of the compound systems is discussed and a numerical computation of the quantum dynamical systems is carried for the noisy optical channel.

  16. Oxygen compounds in the Irati Shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, J.C.; Schmal, M. ); Cardoso, J.N. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports the principal alkylphenols (4 wt %) and carboxylic acids (1.2 wt %) present in the Irati Shale oil S[tilde a]o Mateus do Sul, Paran acute (a) by means of a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and retention time-data of standard compounds. it appears that the phenols are essentially monocyclic in nature with methyl groups as the main substituents. Carboxylic acids are principally linear and predominantly of the range C[sub 14]--C[sub 20]. After catalytic hydrotreatment (400 [degrees]C, 125 atm) high hydrodeoxygenation levels were obtained (87 wt %) for phenols and carboxylic acids, although the relative distribution of the various compounds was not significantly changed. Oxygen is present in the carbonaceous residue as several functionalities xanthenes, phenols, aryl ethers, carbonyl compounds, and furanic structures. The remaining acidic compounds may cause instability of the treated shale oil.

  17. Perfluorinated Compounds In The Ohio River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in waterways include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs). Their distributions and persistence in the aquatic environment remain p...

  18. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  19. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  20. Particles and iodine compounds in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Jones, Anna E.; Brough, Neil; Weller, Rolf; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Schoenhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Fleming, Zoe L.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984, respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples and gas phase dimethyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009 and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and 2007. Previous model results and midlatitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur, and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles and the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all the measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation by eye after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e., they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to cloud condensation nuclei, rather than being simply collected by existing particles. If so, there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  1. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:25353061

  2. Potential use of vanadium compounds in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Barrio, D A; Etcheverry, S B

    2010-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element present in practically all cells in plants and animals. While the essentiality of vanadium for human beings remains to be well established, vanadium has become an increasingly important environmental metal. Vanadium compounds exert a variety of biological activities and responses. At pharmacological doses, vanadium compounds display relevant biological actions such as insulin and growth factor mimetic or enhancing effects, as well as osteogenic and cardioprotective activity. On the other hand, depending on the nature of compounds and their concentrations, toxicological actions and adverse side effects may also be shown. Nevertheless, the toxic effects may be useful to develop new antitumoral drugs. In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge and new advances on in vitro and in vivo effects of inorganic and organically-chelated vanadium compounds. The effects of vanadium derivatives on some cellular signaling pathways related to different diseases are compiled. In particular, the pathways relevant to the insulin mimetic, osteogenic, cadioprotective and antitumoral actions of vanadium compounds have been comprehensively reviewed. The knowledge of these intracellular signaling pathways may facilitate the rational design of new vanadium compounds with promising therapeutic applications as well as the understanding of secondary side effects derived from the use of vanadium as a therapeutic agent. PMID:20846114

  3. Excitonic effects in oxyhalide scintillating host compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2014-10-07

    Ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to study the electronic, optical, mechanical, and vibrational properties of scintillator host compounds YOX (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Semiempirical dispersion correction schemes are used to find the effect of van der Waals forces on these layered compounds and we found this effect to be negligible except for YOBr. Calculations of phonons and elastic constants showed that all the compounds studied here are both dynamically and mechanically stable. YOF and YOI are found to be indirect band gap insulators while YOCl and YOBr are direct band gap insulators. The band gap is found to decrease as we move from fluorine to iodine, while the calculated refractive index shows the opposite trend. As the band gap decreases on going down the periodic table from YOF to YOI, the luminescence increases. The excitonic binding energy calculated, within the effective mass approximation, is found to be more for YOF than the remaining compounds, suggesting that the excitonic effect to be more in YOF than the other compounds. The optical properties are calculated within the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) and compared with results obtained within the random phase approximation. The TDDFT calculations, using the newly developed bootstrap exchange-correlation kernel, showed significant excitonic effects in all the compounds studied here.

  4. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis analytical challenges and applications

    E-print Network

    of heterogeneous mixtures of the same compound. These mixtures could derive from multiple sources, each havingCompound-specific radiocarbon analysis ­ analytical challenges and applications Gesine Mollenhauer become available that allow measurement of isotopic compositions of individual organic compounds

  5. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. 721.5980 Section 721...721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical substance...generically as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. 721.5980 Section 721...721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical substance...generically as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. 721.5980 Section 721...721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical substance...generically as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. 721.5980 Section 721...721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical substance...generically as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10124 - Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic). 721.10124 Section...721.10124 Brominated polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as brominated polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject...

  10. 27 CFR 27.43 - Liqueurs, cordials, and similar compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Liqueurs, cordials, and similar compounds. 27.43 Section 27.43 Alcohol... Liqueurs, Cordials, and Other Compounds and Preparations § 27.43 Liqueurs, cordials, and similar compounds. A tax is imposed by 26...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-6 - Motor fuel antiknock compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Motor fuel antiknock compounds. 151.50-6 Section 151.50-6... § 151.50-6 Motor fuel antiknock compounds. When transporting motor fuel antiknock compounds containing tetraethyl lead and...

  12. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 ...Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. 721.5980 Section 721.5980... Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649)...

  14. Calorimetric measurement of energy of ultrasonic cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    The development of a calorimeter that measured the power within an ultrasonic cleaning tank is presented. The principle involved is explained. Several types of calorimeter that were tested are described. Measurement of the power in an ultrasonic cleaner permits: (1) comparing different ultrasonic cleaners; (2) monitoring the performance of a specific cleaner; (3) measuring the distribution of power in a cleaning tank, and (4) evaluating the effects of process variables on the power.

  15. Nanobridge SQUIDs as calorimetric inductive particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallop, John; Cox, David; Hao, Ling

    2015-08-01

    Superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) have made dramatic progress since their invention some 65 years ago (Andrews et al 1949 Phys. Rev. 76 154-155 Irwin and Hilton 2005 Topics Appl. Phys. 99 63-149) until now there are major imaging arrays of TESs with as many as 7588 separate sensors. These are extensively used by astronomers for some ground-breaking observations (Hattori et al 2013 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 732 299-302). The great success of TES systems has tended to overshadow other superconducting sensor developments. However there are other types (Sobolewski et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13 1151-7 Hadfield 2009 Nat. Photonics 3 696-705) which are discussed in papers within this special edition of the journal. Here we describe a quite different type of detector, also applicable to single photon detection but possessing possible advantages (higher sensitivity, higher operating temperature) over the conventional TES, at least for single detectors.

  16. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  17. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy of nanoparticles and intermetallic compounds

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Aberration-corrected electron microscopy of nanoparticles and intermetallic compounds M. Heggen for applications in energy-related catalysis, as well as novel intermetallic compounds, will be presented

  18. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  19. New bioactive compounds from Aloe hijazensis.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shaaban, Mohamed; Shaaban, Khaled A; Abu-Gabal, Nagat S; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The chemical constituents and biological activities of leaves and roots of Aloe hijazensis, collected in Saudi Arabia, are reported here for the first time. Twenty-two compounds were obtained, among them eight hydroxyquinones: aloe-emodin (1), emodin (2), chrysophanol (3), aloesaponarin II 3-methyl ether (4), ziganein (5), ziganein-5-methyl ether (6a), aloesaponarin I (7) and chrysophanein (8), the dihydro-isocoumarin feralolide (9), 4,7-dichloro-quinoline (10), the triterpene lupeol (11), the anthrone aloin (12), three aloenin derivatives, aloenin (13) ethylidene-aloenin (14), and aloenin B (15), four flavonoids, quercetin (16), kaempferol (17) cosmosiin (18) and isovitexin (19), and cinnamic acid (20) and two further analogues, caffeic acid (21) and ferulic acid (22). While 15 of the isolated compounds were found in the leaves, 12 were isolated from roots of the plant. Compounds 6a and 10 are reported as new natural constituents, while the compounds 4, 5, 8, and 18 are reported here for the first time from Aloe spp. The structures of the compounds were deduced by intensive studies of their UV, NMR, MS data and by comparison with related structures. The biological activity of plant extracts was studied against various microbial strains, and potent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities were found. [image omitted] [image omitted]. PMID:19521919

  20. Bioactive Compounds from the Fern Lepisorus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Hong; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Jermihov, Katherine C.; Marler, Laura E.; Qiu, Xi; Choi, Yongsoo; Cao, Hongmei; Yu, Rui; Sturdy, Megan; Huang, Rong; Liu, Ying; Wang, Li-Qin; Mesecar, Andrew D.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Pezzuto, John M.; Fong, Harry H. S.; Chen, Ye-Gao; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Lepisorus contortus (Christ) Ching led to the isolation of five new phenylethanoid glycosides (1–5), each containing a caffeoyl group, a new flavonoid glycoside (10), as well as 14 known compounds (6–9 and 11–15, syringic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, diplopterol, and ?-sitosterol). This is the first report of phenylethanoid glycosides from the family Polypodiaceae. Compounds 1–15 were evaluated for their cancer chemopreventive potential based on their ability to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced NF-?B activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, aromatase, quinone reductase 2 (QR-2), and COX-1/-2 activities. Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside (15) demonstrated inhibition against QR2 with an IC50 value of 6.7 µM, which confirmed kaempferol/quercetin glycosides as the active compounds to inhibit QR2. The compound also demonstrated NF-?B activity with an IC50 value of 33.6 µM. In addition, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 6 showed aromatase activity with IC50 values of 30.7, 32.3, 26.8, and 35.3 µM, respectively. PMID:21261296

  1. Macrocyclic trichothecenes as antifungal and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Maira Peres; Weich, Herbert; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by fungi and species of the plant genus Baccharis, family Asteraceae. They comprise a tricyclic core with an epoxide at C-12 and C-13 and can be grouped into non-macrocyclic and macrocyclic compounds. While many of these compounds are of concern in agriculture, the macrocyclic metabolites have been evaluated as antiviral, anti-cancer, antimalarial and antifungal compounds. Some known cytotoxic responses on eukaryotic cells include inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA syntheses, interference with mitochondrial function, effects on cell division and membranes. These targets however have been elucidated essentially employing non-macrocyclic trichothecenes and only one or two closely related macrocyclic compounds. For several macrocyclic trichothecenes high selectivity against fungal species and against cancer cell lines have been reported suggesting that the macrocycle and its stereochemistry are of crucial importance regarding biological activity and selectivity. This review is focused on compounds belonging to the macrocyclic type, where a cyclic diester or triester ring binds to the trichothecane moiety at C-4 and C- 15 leading to natural products belonging to the groups of satratoxins, verrucarins, roridins, myrotoxins and baccharinoids. Their biological activities, cytotoxic mechanisms and structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. From the reported data it becomes evident that even small changes in the molecules can lead to pronounced effects on biological activity or selectivity against cancer cells lines. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may help to design highly specific drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:26572613

  2. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Hyoung Yun; Roh, Hang Sik; Seok, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Ja Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2014-04-01

    The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24868867

  3. Bio-inspired hemispherical compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-03-01

    Compound eyes in arthropods demonstrate distinct imaging characteristics from human eyes, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. Artificial imaging systems with similar geometries and properties are of great interest for many applications. However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. We present our recent progress in combining optics, materials, mechanics and integration schemes to build fully functional artificial compound eye cameras. Nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees) with densely packed artificial ommatidia were realized. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, which were fabricated in the planar geometries and then integrated and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  4. Basics and prospective of magnetic Heusler compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Felser, Claudia Wollmann, Lukas; Chadov, Stanislav; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Heusler compounds are a remarkable class of materials with more than 1000 members and a wide range of extraordinary multi-functionalities including halfmetallic high-temperature ferri- and ferromagnets, multi-ferroics, shape memory alloys, and tunable topological insulators with a high potential for spintronics, energy technologies, and magneto-caloric applications. The tunability of this class of materials is exceptional and nearly every functionality can be designed. Co{sub 2}-Heusler compounds show high spin polarization in tunnel junction devices and spin-resolved photoemission. Manganese-rich Heusler compounds attract much interest in the context of spin transfer torque, spin Hall effect, and rare earth free hard magnets. Most Mn{sub 2}-Heusler compounds crystallize in the inverse structure and are characterized by antiparallel coupling of magnetic moments on Mn atoms; the ferrimagnetic order and the lack of inversion symmetry lead to the emergence of new properties that are absent in ferromagnetic centrosymmetric Heusler structures, such as non-collinear magnetism, topological Hall effect, and skyrmions. Tetragonal Heusler compounds with large magneto crystalline anisotropy can be easily designed by positioning the Fermi energy at the van Hove singularity in one of the spin channels. Here, we give a comprehensive overview and a prospective on the magnetic properties of Heusler materials.

  5. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  6. In vitro disposition profiling of heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Keemink, Janneke; Wuyts, Benjamin; Nicolaï, Johan; Jonghe, Steven De; Stella, Alessandro; Herdewijn, Piet; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Compound libraries that are screened for biological activity commonly contain heterocycles. Besides potency, drug-like properties need to be evaluated to ensure in vivo efficacy of test compounds. In this context, we determined hepatic and intestinal disposition profiles for 17 heterocyclic compounds. All studied compounds showed rapid uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes, whereas metabolism was poor and the rate-limiting step in hepatic elimination. In vitro assays demonstrated a relatively low solubility and high intestinal permeability. Based on these in vitro data, heterocycles were categorized in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) to predict disposition characteristics before clinical data are available. Our findings emphasized the importance to use hepatocytes in addition to microsomes to study metabolism, since the latter lack non-microsomal enzymes and cellular context. Moreover, intracellular exposure should be considered to gain insight in the relevant fraction of the compound available at the enzymatic site. Finally, the study reveals discrepancies associated with the classification of heterocycles in BCS versus BDDCS. These probably originate from the binary character of both systems. PMID:26043826

  7. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages. PMID:24998624

  8. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  9. Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

  10. The Negative Effects of Volatile Sulphur Compounds.

    PubMed

    Milella, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Oral malodor has been studied extensively in humans but not necessarily to the same degree in our veterinary patients where malodor constitutes a significant problem. Breath malodor may originate from the mouth, or from an extra oral source, originating from other organ systems such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, or even systemic disease. Oral malodor is a result of microbial metabolism of exogenous and endogenous proteinaceous substrates leading to the production of compounds such as indole, skatole, tyramine, cadaverine, puterescine, mercaptans, and sulphides. Volatile sulphur compounds have been shown to be the main cause of oral malodor. Although most clients perceive oral malodor to be primarily a cosmetic problem, there is an increasing volume of evidence in human dental literature demonstrating that volatile sulphur compounds produced by bacteria, even at low concentrations, are toxic to tissues and play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This article reviews the current available literature in human dentistry looking at these negative effects. No veterinary studies have been conducted looking at the negative effects of volatile sulphur compounds specifically, but as this article highlights, we should be aware of the potential negative effects of volatile sulphur compounds and consider this an area of future research. PMID:26415386

  11. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W.; Francesconi, K.

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  12. Basics and prospective of magnetic Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felser, Claudia; Wollmann, Lukas; Chadov, Stanislav; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Heusler compounds are a remarkable class of materials with more than 1000 members and a wide range of extraordinary multi-functionalities including halfmetallic high-temperature ferri- and ferromagnets, multi-ferroics, shape memory alloys, and tunable topological insulators with a high potential for spintronics, energy technologies, and magneto-caloric applications. The tunability of this class of materials is exceptional and nearly every functionality can be designed. Co2-Heusler compounds show high spin polarization in tunnel junction devices and spin-resolved photoemission. Manganese-rich Heusler compounds attract much interest in the context of spin transfer torque, spin Hall effect, and rare earth free hard magnets. Most Mn2-Heusler compounds crystallize in the inverse structure and are characterized by antiparallel coupling of magnetic moments on Mn atoms; the ferrimagnetic order and the lack of inversion symmetry lead to the emergence of new properties that are absent in ferromagnetic centrosymmetric Heusler structures, such as non-collinear magnetism, topological Hall effect, and skyrmions. Tetragonal Heusler compounds with large magneto crystalline anisotropy can be easily designed by positioning the Fermi energy at the van Hove singularity in one of the spin channels. Here, we give a comprehensive overview and a prospective on the magnetic properties of Heusler materials.

  13. Capacities of classical compound quantum wiretap and classical quantum compound wiretap channels

    E-print Network

    Minglai Cai; Ning Cai; Christian Deppe

    2012-02-03

    We determine the capacity of the classical compound quantum wiretapper channel with channel state information at the transmitter. Moreover we derive a lower bound on the capacity of this channel without channel state information and determine the capacity of the classical quantum compound wiretap channel with channel state information at the transmitter.

  14. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Energetic Compounds for Future Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenas, A.; Jacob, G.; Longevialle, Y.; Pérut, C.

    2004-10-01

    The need for new rocket propellants to improve or replace those in use today has led during the past ten years to studies of various, ancient or relatively new, energetic ingredients. The most often mentioned compounds for solid propellants are ADN (ammonium dinitramide), the nitramines RDX and HMX, HNIW (hexanitro hexaaza isowurtzitane), HNF (hydrazinum nitroformate), GAP (glycidyl azide polymer), and high nitrogen compounds. ADN, HNF, HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate) are mentioned as possible ingredients in liquid mono and bi propellants for the future. A review of the work being conducted in the development and testing of the candidate propellants as well as an analysis of the general constraints of the industrial use and handling of these propellants and of their basic ingredients allows for a first tentative selection of the most promising ingredients. The possible synthesis routes, main characteristics, production and cost perspectives of these compounds are summarized and discussed.

  16. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds. [Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogenation of alkynes by the heterobimetallic compound C{sub 5}H{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re({mu}-H)Pt(H)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} is being studied. The compound C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re{double_bond}Re(CO){sub 2}C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} was synthesized; its chemistry is being studied. Compounds discovered in a reinvestigation of a spurious report of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Co{double_bond}Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}), are being studied. The deuterioformylation of alkenes using wide bite angle phosphines will be studied.

  17. Diazo compounds in continuous-flow technology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Simon T R; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Diazo compounds are very versatile reagents in organic chemistry and meet the challenge of selective assembly of structurally complex molecules. Their leaving group is dinitrogen; therefore, they are very clean and atom-efficient reagents. However, diazo compounds are potentially explosive and extremely difficult to handle on an industrial scale. In this review, it is discussed how continuous flow technology can help to make these powerful reagents accessible on large scale. Microstructured devices can improve heat transfer greatly and help with the handling of dangerous reagents safely. The in?situ formation and subsequent consumption of diazo compounds are discussed along with advances in handling diazomethane and ethyl diazoacetate. The potential large-scale applications of a given methodology is emphasized. PMID:25488620

  18. Nitrogen-containing compounds from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Don, Ming-Jaw; Shen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Yun-Lian; Syu, Wan-Jr; Ding, Yi-Huei; Sun, Chang-Ming

    2005-07-01

    Five new N-containing compounds, neosalvianen (1), salvianen (2), salvianan (3), salviadione (4), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (5), were isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Their structures were mainly established by spectroscopic methods. Neosalvianen (1) and its analogues (6a, 6b) were synthesized for spectroscopic data comparison. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6a were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against selected cancer cell lines. Among these components, salvianen (2) exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity with a CD50 range of 30.4-39.5 microM against HeLa (cervical epitheloid carcinoma), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), and OVCAR-3 (ovarian adenocarcinoma) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicities of the tested compounds were not specific and showed similar activities to the selected cancer cell lines. PMID:16038550

  19. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  20. New antitumor compounds from Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Bi, Xiu-Li; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Kai-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-03-01

    A new lignan (7R,8S,8'R)-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxy-8,8'-lignan, and three new phenolics, carayensin-A, carayensin-B, and carayensin-C, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the shells of Carya cathayensis. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against several human tumor types including human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29), human lung cancer cell line (A549), and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The compounds 1, 5, 6, and 16 are considered to be potential as antitumor agents, which could significantly inhibit the cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22330636

  1. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  2. II-VI compounds - Polish perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ga?, Robert R.

    The purpose of this lecture is to review the main achievements of the investigations of II-VI compounds and point out Polish contributions to this part of solid state physics. Because the Polish physicists were particularly active in the area of narrow gap semiconductors as well as in the area of semimagnetic semiconductors producing several pioneering papers in this field, special attention will be paid to the narrow gap mercury-based semiconductor alloys and to the II-VI semimagnetic semiconductors, both narrow and wide gap. Some problems connected with material processing, the most influential experimental results as well as theoretical ideas will be presented. Because the history of II-VI compounds lasts for many decades (also in Poland), only selected achievements will be reviewed. The lecture will concentrate mostly on the properties of bulk crystals; low-dimensional structures and other current and hot problems of II-VI compounds will be only mentioned.

  3. Heme compounds in dinosaur trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, M H; Marshall, M; Carron, K; Bohle, D S; Busse, S C; Arnold, E V; Barnard, D; Horner, J R; Starkey, J R

    1997-06-10

    Six independent lines of evidence point to the existence of heme-containing compounds and/or hemoglobin breakdown products in extracts of trabecular tissues of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. These include signatures from nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance that indicate the presence of a paramagnetic compound consistent with heme. In addition, UV/visible spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography data are consistent with the Soret absorbance characteristic of this molecule. Resonance Raman profiles are also consistent with a modified heme structure. Finally, when dinosaurian tissues were extracted for protein fragments and were used to immunize rats, the resulting antisera reacted positively with purified avian and mammalian hemoglobins. The most parsimonious explanation of this evidence is the presence of blood-derived hemoglobin compounds preserved in the dinosaurian tissues. PMID:9177210

  4. Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in Particle Compounded Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueba, Shizuko; Matsukawa, Mami; TakahikoOtani, TakahikoOtani

    1999-05-01

    Attenuation and sound velocity in particle compounded agar weremeasured by an ultrasonic wave transmission technique at frequenciesranging from 1 MHz to 8 MHz. The observed values were discussed usingUrick's theory for viscous suspensions. The measured values ofattenuation and sound velocity were in good agreement with thecalculated values using Urick's theory up to a particle concentrationof 10%. This means that Urick's theory can be applied not only tosuspensions, but also to particle compounded gels. Furthermore, fromthe investigation of the experimental results obtained using thistheory, it was clarified that the attenuation depends on the particledensity. In particular, it should be noted that n depends on theparticle diameter (the attenuation ? can be expressed with theequation ?= ?0fn, where ?0 and n are constants and f isfrequency). All measured and calculated results suggested that theacoustic properties in these kinds of particle compounded gels could beestimated theoretically.

  5. Volatile compounds in shergottite and nakhlite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L.; Aggrey, Kwesi E.; Muenow, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Since discovery of apparent carbonate carbon in Nakhla, significant evidence has accumulated for occurrence of volatile compounds in shergotties and nakhlites. Results are presented from a study of volatile compounds in three shergottites, one nakhlite, and three eucrite control samples. Shergotties ALHA77005, EETA79001, and Shergotty, and the nakhlite Nakhla, all contain oxidized sulfur (sulfate) of preterrestrial origin; sulfur oxidation is most complete in EETA79001/Lith-C. Significant bulk carbonate was confirmed in Nakhla and trace carbonate was substantiated for EETA79001, all of which appears to be preterrestrial in origin. Chlorine covaries with oxidized sulfur, whereas carbonate and sulfate are inversely related. These volatile compounds were probably formed in a highly oxidizing, aqueous environment sometime in the late stage histories of the rocks that are now represented as meteorites. They are consistent with the hypothesis that shergottite and nakhlite meteorites originated on Mars and that Mars has supported aqueous geochemistry during its history.

  6. The essence of compounding: Composition control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Jos-MH

    2015-05-01

    Compounding is all about producing and controlling a required composition. This composition is a result of bringing individual ingredients together, using dosing units and/or making premixes and feeding all that to a compounding extruder. Short term fluctuations (seconds) can be back-mixed inside the extruder in the melt but long term fluctuations cannot. After discretization on pellet size, the pellet mass can be post-blended, often done unintentionally. The question is how to measure or judge composition: sample size and position come in as essential parameters of choice. The similar question holds for molded parts. Small parts are much more critical than large parts. Finally, for composition control especially of parts as small as a single pellet one needs to calculate backward and set up a smart feeder alarm protocol and eventually purposely include post-blending in the design of new compounding lines.

  7. Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  8. Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.

    2008-12-01

    Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is more significant for DDT than for lindane. It enhances the LRT potential for both compounds.

  9. Which Is The Best Sandwich Compound? Hexaphenylbenzene Substituted By Sandwich Compounds Bearing Sc, Cr, and Fe.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Estrella; Martínez, Ana; Rios, Citlalli; Salcedo, Roberto

    2015-11-25

    The electronic properties of nine different hexaarylbenzene molecules substituted by sandwich compounds have been studied by applying density functional theory. Different structures and the particular electron donor power of these systems have been considered in order to analyze their oxidant capacity, using bis(ciclopentadienyl) scandium, ferrocene, and bis(benzene)chromium as sandwich compounds. Both monometallic and bimetallic combinations are investigated. According to the ionization energies and electron affinities, compounds with Cr are nucleophiles and represent the best electron donors, whereas compounds with Sc are electrophiles and represent the best electron acceptors. The worse electron donor or acceptor is hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene. This is very significant, as it implies that the very well-known electronic properties of hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene can be improved by substituting with other metals, such as Sc and Cr. This suggests several possible applications for these compounds. PMID:26528582

  10. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  11. Volatile compound formation during argan kernel roasting.

    PubMed

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Giordano, Manuela; Guillaume, Dominique; Kartah, Badreddine; Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Denhez, Clément; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Virgin edible argan oil is prepared by cold-pressing argan kernels previously roasted at 110 degrees C for up to 25 minutes. The concentration of 40 volatile compounds in virgin edible argan oil was determined as a function of argan kernel roasting time. Most of the volatile compounds begin to be formed after 15 to 25 minutes of roasting. This suggests that a strictly controlled roasting time should allow the modulation of argan oil taste and thus satisfy different types of consumers. This could be of major importance considering the present booming use of edible argan oil. PMID:23472454

  12. Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Mutolo, Kristin L. (Hollywood, CA); Mayo, Elizabeth (Alhambra, CA); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    2011-07-05

    An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

  13. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  14. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  15. Two New Compounds from Hedyotis lindleyana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tuyen Pham Nguyen; Mai, Tram Phan Thi; Phi, Phung Nguyen Kim

    2015-07-01

    One new sodium salt of an iridoid acid, sodium 6-O-methyldeacetylasperulosidate (1) and one new heterocyclic compound, 1,3,6-trimethylpyrano[2,3- d]imidazole-2,5(1H,3H)-dione (2) were isolated from Hedyotis lindleyana Hook. (Rubiaceae), together with seven known compounds, oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), teneoside D (5), 6?-hydroxygeniposide (6), deacetylasperulosidic acid sodium salt (7), liquiritin (8), and 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (9). The structures were established by spectroscopic (1D, 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS analysis, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. PMID:26410995

  16. Detection of Metallic Compounds in Rocket Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Chris; Dunn, Dr. Robert

    1998-04-01

    Recent experiments using metal mixed in hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) fuel grains in small hybrid rocket indicates ion detectors may be effective in detection of metallic compounds in rocket plumes. We wanted to ascertain the extent to which the presence of metallic compounds in rocket plumes could be detected using ion probes and Gaussian rings. Charges that collide with or pass near the intruding probe are detected. Gaussian rings, short insulated cylindrical Gaussian surfaces, enclose the plume without intruding into the plume. Charges in the plume are detected by currents they induce in the cylinder.

  17. Compound Composite Odontoma and Its Management

    PubMed Central

    Abdul, Morawala; Pragati, Kapila; Yusuf, Chunawala

    2014-01-01

    Odontomas are odontogenic benign tumors composed of dental tissue. Majority of these lesions are asymptomatic and are often detected on routine radiographs. They can be thought of as “tooth hamartomas" with the lesion consisting of various tooth components. They are divided histologically into complex odontomas and compound odontomas. This paper describes the case of a compound odontoma in a 13-year-old girl diagnosed due to the retention of the primary right mandibular second molar. A surgical excision was performed without disturbing the unerupted premolar. The results achieved indicate that early diagnosis of odontomas enables adoption of less complex treatment, a better prognosis, and displacement or devitalisation of adjacent tooth. PMID:25587458

  18. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  19. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  20. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  1. Natural compounds for pest and weed control.

    PubMed

    Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

    2009-09-23

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering in valence fluctuation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jon M Lawrence

    2011-02-15

    The valence fluctuation compounds are rare earth intermetallics where hybridization of the nearly-localized 4f electrons with the conduction electrons leads to incorporation of the 4f's into the itinerant states. This hybridization slows down the conduction electrons and hence gives them a heavy effective mass, justifying application of the term 'heavy Fermion' (HF) to these materials. During the project period, we grew large single crystals of several such compounds and measured their properties using both standard thermodynamic probes and state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering. We obtained three main results. For the intermediate valence compounds CePd{sub 3} and YbAl{sub 3}, we showed that the scattering of neutrons by the fluctuations of the 4f magnetic moment does not have the momentum dependence expected for the itinerant heavy mass state; rather, the scattering is more typical of a localized spin fluctuation. We believe that incoherent scattering localizes the excitation. For the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sub 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which sits at a T = 0 critical point for transformation into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase, we showed that the scattering from the AF fluctuations does not exhibit any of the divergences that are expected at a phase transition. We speculate that alloy disorder profoundly suppresses the growth of the fluctuating AF regions, leading to short range clusters rather than regions of infinite size. Finally, we explored the applicability of key concepts used to describe the behavior of rare earth heavy Fermions to uranium based HF compounds where the 5f electrons are itinerant as opposed to localized. We found that scaling laws relating the spin fluctuation energy measured in neutron scattering to the low temperature specific heat and susceptibility are valid for the uranium compounds, once corrections are made for AF fluctuations; however, the degeneracy of the high temperature moment is smaller than expected for rare-earth-like Hund's rule behavior, essentially because the orbital moment is suppressed for itinerant 5f electrons. We also found that the standard local-moment-based theory of the temperature dependence of the specific heat, susceptibility and neutron scattering fails badly for URu{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and UCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}, even though the theory is phenomenally successful for the closely related rare earth compound YbFe{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}. Both these results highlight the distinction between the itineracy of the 5f's and the localization of the 4f's. It is our hope that these results are sufficiently significant as to stimulate deeper investigation of these compounds.

  3. Reading Compounds in Neglect Dyslexia: The Headedness Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenza, Carlo; Arcara, Giorgio; Facchini, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Ferraro, Marco; Passarini, Laura; Pilosio, Cristina; Vigato, Giovanna; Mondini, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Reading compound words was studied in neglect dyslexia in order to assess the influence of "headedness". The "head" of a compound is the component that determines the grammatical category, the syntactic (e.g., the gender) and the semantic properties of the compound as a whole. For example, in the word "blackberry" "berry" is the compound's head.…

  4. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kabalka, George W. (Knoxville, TN); Srivastava, Rajiv R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-03-14

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

  5. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2015-09-15

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  6. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-11-11

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  7. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-05-28

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  8. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-02

    The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

  9. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products

    PubMed Central

    Mikosz, Christina A.; Smith, Rachel M.; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Török, Thomas J.; Mascola, Laurene

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Ocala, FL, USA). Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex mold was identified in specimens from BBG-exposed case-patients and an unopened BBG vial. Bipolaris hawaiiensis mold was identified in specimens from triamcinolone-exposed case-patients. Exposure to either product was the only factor associated with case status. Of 40 case-patients for whom data were available, 39 (98%) lost vision. These concurrent outbreaks, associated with 1 compounding pharmacy, resulted in a product recall. Ensuring safety and integrity of compounded medications is critical for preventing further outbreaks associated with compounded products. PMID:24447640

  10. Compound Words and Structure in the Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2007-01-01

    The structure of lexical entries and the status of lexical decomposition remain controversial. In the psycholinguistic literature, one aspect of this debate concerns the psychological reality of the morphological complexity difference between compound words ("teacup") and single words ("crescent"). The present study investigates morphological…

  11. Practical Applications of the Compound Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Peter F.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of the application of compound pendulum theory to the practical measurement of the moments of inertia of human beings, farm tractors, and sailing boats are presented. Suggests developing laboratory experiments to measure moments of inertia of hockey sticks, golf clubs, and frisbees, among others. (Author/SK)

  12. Acidifying Nitrogen Compounds and Range Fertilization1

    E-print Network

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    Acidifying Nitrogen Compounds and Range Fertilization1 CLENTON E. OWENSBY AND JOHN L. LAUNCHBAUGH on plots fertil- ized with ammonium-containing com- pounds indicated possible detrimental effects on range are discussed. Fertilization offers range man- agers a tool to manipulate for- age production. Herbage yield

  13. Arrays of stacked metal coordination compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bulkowski, J.E.

    1986-10-21

    A process is disclosed for preparing novel arrays of metal coordination compounds characterized by arrangement of the metal ions, separated by a linking agent, in stacked order one above the other. The process permits great flexibility in the design of the array. For example, layers of different composition can be added to the array at will. 3 figs.

  14. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.D.

    1994-04-01

    Several 2-(2{prime}-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a {sup 60}C source have also been performed.

  15. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  16. METABOLISM OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS BY 'CAULOBACTER CRESCENTUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures of Caulobacter crescentus were found to grow on a variety of aromatic compounds. Degradation of benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate and phenol was found to occur via B-ketoadipate. Induction of the degradative enzymes such a benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, the ring cleavage enzyme, ca...

  17. HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-print Network

    McCluskey, Matthew

    HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS M.D. MCCLUSKEY* University) spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium in GaP, AlSb, ZnSe, and GaN has provided important information about the structures of dopant- hydrogen complexes and their interaction with the host lattice. In GaN:Mg, for example

  18. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  19. Antibacterial compounds from Salvia adenophora Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2015-02-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study. PMID:25435172

  20. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X?. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100?GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n ? 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications. PMID:25608669

  1. Guest Comment: Polyfluorinated Compounds Focus Issue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a great deal has been learned about the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a new class of environmental contaminants that includes the now well-known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and many other related compounds. These mater...

  2. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X-. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100 GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n >= 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications.

  3. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  4. Biologically active compounds of semi-metals.

    PubMed

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Semi-metals (boron, silicon, arsenic and selenium) form organo-metal compounds, some of which are found in nature and affect the physiology of living organisms. They include, e.g., the boron-containing antibiotics aplasmomycin, borophycin, boromycin, and tartrolon or the silicon compounds present in "silicate" bacteria, relatives of the genus Bacillus, which release silicon from aluminosilicates through the secretion of organic acids. Arsenic is incorporated into arsenosugars and arsenobetaines by marine algae and invertebrates, and fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds. Some prokaryotes can use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor while others can utilize arsenite as an electron donor to generate energy. Selenium is incorporated into selenocysteine that is found in some proteins. Biomethylation of selenide produces methylselenide and dimethylselenide. Selenium analogues of amino acids, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-infective drugs are often used as analogues of important pharmacological sulfur compounds. Other metalloids, i.e. the rare and toxic tellurium and the radioactive short-lived astatine, have no biological significance. PMID:17991498

  5. Stable Lithium Argon compounds under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hermann, Andreas; Peng, Feng; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of chemical elements. Its effects include stimulating elements thought to be “inactive” to form unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties. Here, using an unbiased structure search method based on CALYPSO methodology and density functional total energy calculations, the phase stabilities and crystal structures of Li?Ar compounds are systematically investigated at high pressure up to 300?GPa. Two unexpected LimArn compounds (LiAr and Li3Ar) are predicted to be stable above 112?GPa and 119?GPa, respectively. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of LiAr and Li3Ar shows that Ar in these compounds attracts electrons and thus behaves as an oxidizing agent. This is markedly different from the hitherto established chemical reactivity of Ar. Moreover, we predict that the P4/mmm phase of Li3Ar has a superconducting transition temperature of 17.6?K at 120?GPa. PMID:26582083

  6. Biological formation of volatile phosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Roels, J; Verstraete, W

    2001-09-01

    Phosphine and phosphides are reported to occur at numerous environmental sites such as fresh and marine sediments, landfills, faecal matter, biogas digesters and soils. The concentrations are several log units lower than the time-weighted average exposure standard, i.e. in the order of ng per m3 of gas or ng per kg material. Research about the biological formation of highly reduced gaseous phosphorus compounds dates back more than a hundred years. The early reports had to deal with a lot of scepticism. Thanks to new analytical tools (gas chromatography) it has become clear, during the last decade, that phosphine is a global constituent of the atmosphere. Pure strains of micro-organisms cultivated under highly anaerobic conditions were shown to produce phosphine. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that it is very improbable that the reduction of phosphate to phosphine is endergonic. Therefore the generation of phosphine cannot be compared with sulphidogenesis and methanogenesis. There seems to be a link between the existence of highly reactive gaseous phosphorus compounds and increased levels of metal corrosion. The reactive compounds could be formed by micro-organisms or they are liberated from phosphorus-containing impurities in the iron by the action of bacterial metabolites. The biochemical pathways responsible for the production of gaseous phosphorus compounds have not been characterised yet. PMID:11499578

  7. Research on high Tc superconducting compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Frederick W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Mossbauer research using the 21.54 kev resonance radiation of Eu-151 on the high temperature superconductors Bi(2)Ca(0.5)Eu(0.5)Sr(2)CU2O(x), and EuBa(2)CU(3)O(7-x) is performed. For the Bismuth compound the Mossbauer measurements gave a weak signal at room temperature but improved at lower temperatures. Experimental data indicated that europium is located at only one crystallographic site. Isomer shift measurements were .69 + 0.02 mm/s with respect to EuF(3). The linewidth at room temperature was found to be 2.54 mm/s. This value falls within the values observed by other researchers on Eu based 1,2,3 high-Tc compounds. Our results also show the Eu to be trivalent with no trace of divalent europium present. Superconducting europium based 1,2,3 compounds were prepared and measurements completed. Our results show the Eu to be trivalent with no trace of divalent europium present. These compounds had an average isomer shift of .73 mm/s +/- O.02 for all samples made. One of these was irradiated with 3.5 X 10(exp 16) neutrons and a comparison made of the Mossbauer parameters for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Experimental results showed no difference between linewidths but a measurable effect was seen for the isomer shift.

  8. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  9. Multifunctional compounds: smart molecules for multifactorial diseases.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Yogita; Silakari, Om

    2014-04-01

    Multifunctional compounds (MFCs) are designed broadly as hybrid or conjugated drugs or as chimeric drugs from two or more pharmacophores/drugs having specific pharmacological activities. These are capable of eliciting multiple pharmacological actions and have emerged as magic bullets in treatment of multifactorial diseases. Many research articles disclosing the development of such compounds for treatment of multifactorial diseases are published during last 7 years. Some successful MFC candidates for multifactorial CNS disorders include ziprasidone, duloxetine, ladostigil and M-30 whereas sunitinib, lapatinib and synthetic oleandane triterpinoids are the successful MFC candidates for various cancers. Many more compounds derived from berberine, tacrine, artemisnin, quinine, NSAIDs, pralidoxine, donepezil, rivastigmine, curcumin and various antioxidants are under investigations for exploration of their multifunctional potential. In general, MFCs possess the advantages of reduced molecularity, no drug-drug interactions and improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. A MFC derived from two or more different pharmacophores exerts its activities by interacting with respective receptors of its constituent pharmacophores. It may also exhibit additional binding interactions with the receptor sites that may be responsible for significantly improved or additional activities. The present review discusses various MFCs developed for specific class of disorders with an aim to provide an insight into the strategies in medicinal chemistry for development of such compounds. PMID:24565571

  10. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN PEANUT PLANT PARTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 60% of peanut plant biomass remains after peanut pods are harvested. This biomass includes leaves, roots and testa. Freeze dried peanut plant leaves and roots, as well as oven blanched skins were analyzed for total phenolic compound concentation by the Folin Ciocalteu method and reported...

  11. PubChem Substance and Compound databases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A.; Bolton, Evan E.; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  12. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  13. SOURCES OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a literature search into the occurrence of EPA's selected 129 priority pollutants in household wastewater. The study identifies consumer product categories and general types of products containing the toxic compounds used in and around the home...

  14. SORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamic and kinetic principles which govern the uptake of nonionic, hydrophobic organic chemicals by sediments in aqueous systems are summarized. Sorption onto organic-rich sediments can be modeled as a process where the hydrophobic compound partitions into the organic matt...

  15. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were to develop and test analytical methods that would allow the chemical form (i.e. valence state or compound) of arsenic in drinking waters to be determined, and to use the methods to analyze samples of drinking water from sources where adverse he...

  16. Stable Lithium Argon compounds under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hermann, Andreas; Peng, Feng; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of chemical elements. Its effects include stimulating elements thought to be "inactive" to form unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties. Here, using an unbiased structure search method based on CALYPSO methodology and density functional total energy calculations, the phase stabilities and crystal structures of Li-Ar compounds are systematically investigated at high pressure up to 300?GPa. Two unexpected LimArn compounds (LiAr and Li3Ar) are predicted to be stable above 112?GPa and 119?GPa, respectively. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of LiAr and Li3Ar shows that Ar in these compounds attracts electrons and thus behaves as an oxidizing agent. This is markedly different from the hitherto established chemical reactivity of Ar. Moreover, we predict that the P4/mmm phase of Li3Ar has a superconducting transition temperature of 17.6?K at 120?GPa. PMID:26582083

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF USDA'S DATABASES FOR BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for developing and maintaining composition databases for foods and supplements. Recent hypotheses concerning the possible roles of new bioactive dietary compounds in managing...

  18. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  19. Chemical defenses: from compounds to communities.

    PubMed

    Paul, Valerie J; Arthur, Karen E; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Sharp, Koty

    2007-12-01

    Marine natural products play critical roles in the chemical defense of many marine organisms and in some cases can influence the community structure of entire ecosystems. Although many marine natural products have been studied for biomedical activity, yielding important information about their biochemical effects and mechanisms of action, much less is known about ecological functions. The way in which marine consumers perceive chemical defenses can influence their health and survival and determine whether some natural products persist through a food chain. This article focuses on selected marine natural products, including okadaic acid, brevetoxins, lyngbyatoxin A, caulerpenyne, bryostatins, and isocyano terpenes, and examines their biosynthesis (sometimes by symbiotic microorganisms), mechanisms of action, and biological and ecological activity. We selected these compounds because their impacts on marine organisms and communities are some of the best-studied among marine natural products. We discuss the effects of these compounds on consumer behavior and physiology, with an emphasis on neuroecology. In addition to mediating a variety of trophic interactions, these compounds may be responsible for community-scale ecological impacts of chemically defended organisms, such as shifts in benthic and pelagic community composition. Our examples include harmful algal blooms; the invasion of the Mediterranean by Caulerpa taxifolia; overgrowth of coral reefs by chemically rich macroalgae and cyanobacteria; and invertebrate chemical defenses, including the role of microbial symbionts in compound production. PMID:18083964

  20. Synthetic Compounds in Mandarin Shuang Hong

    E-print Network

    - stressed (please see section 3 for details). (5) Syllabic foot formation in Chinese: In compounds and phrases, assign Nonhead Stress. A foot has at least two syllables, with stress on the first syllable. For free syllables and flat structures, build binary feet from left to right. (6) s s w w s w s w s w