Sample records for compounds xvi calorimetric

  1. Multiple phase transitions of leonite-type compounds: optical, calorimetric, and X-ray data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hertweck; T. Armbruster; E. Libowitzky

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Low-temperature phase transitions of leonite-type compounds, K2Me2+(SO4)2???4H2O (Me?=?Mg, Mn, Fe), are investigated by temperature dependent measurements of single-crystal X-ray reflection intensities\\u000a and lattice parameters. The transition temperatures and the progress of the transitions are determined by birefringence data\\u000a and differential scanning calorimetry. The cause for the phase transitions of leonite-type compounds is a dynamic disorder\\u000a of sulphate groups at

  2. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    SciTech Connect

    Ktari, L. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelhedi, M. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouhlel, N. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: meddammak@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2009-08-05

    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  3. Regulation XVI: GENERAL UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Regulation XVI: GENERAL UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION 1. Unless stated otherwise, these and the following Regulations apply to students in all Faculties, including the International Faculty: General Regulations for First Degrees; General Regulations for Higher Degrees

  4. Calorimetric electron telescope mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Torii

    2011-01-01

    We are developing the CALorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, mission for the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility, JEM-EF, of the International Space Station, ISS. Major scientific objective is a search for nearby cosmic ray sources and dark matter by carrying out a precise measurement of the electrons in 1GeV–20TeV and the gamma-rays in 20MeV-several TeV. CALET has, moreover, a capability to measure

  5. Calorimetric properties of magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Genova, Danilo; Giordano, Daniele; Romano, Claudia; Alletti, Marina; Scaillet, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic and volcanic processes are strongly controlled by the physical and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts. Recently it has been recognized that the way in which the magma crosses the so-called "glass transition" boundary can determine whether a quite degassing, through preferential pathways, or a catastrophic eruption will take place. On the other hand, the thermodynamic properties inform us regarding the internal energy of melts and crystals and how internal energy and other closely related thermodynamic functions change with temperature, so affecting processes as partial melting, solidification, the advective transport of heat, and volatile exsolution and degassing. The effect of volatiles on these properties is well recognized, but not satisfactorily investigated so far. In this study, calorimetric measurements were conducted on four series of variously hydrated multicomponent melts, obtained by remelting and homogeneization of natural magmas in order to investigate the effect of water on the glass transition interval (Tg) and heat capacity (Cp). The hydrous samples were synthesized in a piston cylinder and measured by the employement of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Pantelleritic, latitic, HK basaltic and trachybasaltic compositions have been analysed over a range of water contents up to 5.3 wt%.For each investigated melt composition the cooling rate dependence of Tg has been characterized at four different temperatures corresponding to the onset, the inflection point, the peak and the stable liquid regions of the heat capacity curves. Tg of all compositions are strongly reduced by increasing water content. Base composition also has an effect, with the lowest Tg occurring in pantelleritic suite. For all sample a clear dependence on cooling/heating rate has been recorded. Peak and onset glass transition temperatures show constant viscosity values at differing water contents. Moreover the activation energies yielded by calorimetric and viscosimetry are, within experimental error, identical. This confirm that the calculation of viscosity through the employment of a simple shift factor, as already proposed by previous authors, can be used, for the investigated samples. So far it concern the effect of water on the heat capacities, we show that water has important effect and that complex patterns are observed for different compositional suites.

  6. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  7. Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it?

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    XVI-1 Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it? All students matriculating in or after the fall of 1999 are expected to develop and submit portfolios as a requirement for graduation. In academic year 2005-2006, 1104 students of the graduating class submitted portfolios. When is it administered

  8. Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it?

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    XVI-1 Chapter XVI: PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT Who takes it? All students matriculating in or after the fall of 1999 are expected to develop and submit portfolios as a requirement for graduation. In May of 2005, 1099 students of the graduating class submitted completed portfolios. When is it administered

  9. Calorimetric studies of tunneling phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Inaba

    1994-01-01

    Calorimetric investigations have been performed for the molecules and ions that show tunneling in solids and adsorbed monolayers. A combination of heat capacity measurement and neutron scattering experiment yields valuable information about the energy scheme and the kinetic behavior such as spin conversion. Finding of a phase transition of those solids also gives us helpful information to understand the whole

  10. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20–26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long–standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster–session, topics ranging from theoretical chemistry and molecular physics via fundamental problems in quantum theory to thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, soliton theory and finally cosmology, were examined and lively discussed. Nearly all the talks can also be viewed on the conference website. The majority of participants contributed to these Proceedings but some were unable to do so as their results were either previously submitted or published elsewhere. We refer to: · Quesne C 2013, J. Math. Phys. 54, 102102. · Spera M 2013, (Nankai Series in Pure, Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics): 11 Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics: pp. 593–598 Proceedings of the XXIX International Colloquium on Group–Theoretical Methods in Physics Tianjin, China, 20 – 26 August 2012 (World Scientific, Singapore) · Snobl L and Winternitz P 2014, Classification and Identification of Lie Algebras, CRM Monograph Series 33 (Montreal) ISBN–10: 0–8218–4355–9, ISBN–13: 978–0–8218–4355–0 (http://www.ams.org/bookstore?fn=20&arg1=crmmseries&ikey=CRMM-33). Our personal thanks to Daniel and family! Endless support from the Schenk Family who, among other things, sponsored (yet again) the entire conference dinner (including wines and banquet hall) meant that some costs could be alleviated. We could therefore assist various colleagues from economically–weak countries, despite the lack of external funding. A financial deficit meant we would have had to forego the Conference Proceedings, published in previous years by IOP. After long deliberations, and with donations from Gerhard Berssenbrügge, Dr. Dr. Stephan Hauk and Dr. Volker Weisswange, this could be facilitated. We are very grateful to these private donors for their generous and wholehearted support. The staff of Collegium Mehrerau is also to be thanked for their hospitality. Finally, our sincere thanks to Yvette not only for her preparatory work and support during the conference, but also for her persistent interest and help in producing the Proceedings within a reasonable time. Dieter Schuc

  11. Calorimetric Analysis of Commercial and Dental Waxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Powers; R. G. Craig; F. A. Peyton

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetric analysis was used to determine heats of transition and fusion of waxes between 0 and 100 C. In general, hydrocarbon waxes had higher total heats of transition than did ester waxes. Calorimetric measurements on binary mixtures showed that carnauba and beeswax interacted with paraffin, the former having the greater effect.

  12. Investigation of ZrMn 2+ x -H 2 by means of calorimetric method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu. Anikina; V. N. Verbetsky

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with the ZrMn2+x (x=0, 0.7) Laves phase compounds at pressure up to 50atm and temperature range from 75 to 305°C were studied by means of calorimetric and P–C-isotherm methods. On the base of obtained results it can be assumed that in the ZrMn2+x-H2 system one or two hydride phases exist according to experimental temperature.

  13. Ultra-Responsive Thermal Sensors for the Detection of Explosives Using Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec)

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.; Datskou, I.; Marlar, T.A.; Rajic, S.

    1999-04-05

    We have developed a novel chemical detection technique based on infrared micro-calorimetric spectroscopy that can be used to identify the presence of trace amounts of very low vapor pressure target compounds. Unlike numerous recently developed low-cost sensor approaches, the selectivity is derived from the unique differential temperature spectrum and does not require the questionable reliability of highly selective coatings to achieve the required specificity. This is accomplished by obtaining the infrared micro-calorimetric absorption spectrum of a small number of molecules absorbed on the surface of a thermal detector after illumination through a scanning monochromator. We have obtained infrared micro-calorimetric spectra for explosives such as TNT over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 Mu-m. Thus both sophisticated and relatively crude explosive compounds and components are detectable with these ultra-sensitive thermal-mechanical micro-structures. In addition to the above mentioned spectroscopy technique and associated data, the development of these advanced thermal detectors is also presented in detail.

  14. Adiabatic calorimetric decomposition studies of 50 wt.% hydroxylamine\\/water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizbeth O Cisneros; William J Rogers; M. Sam Mannan

    2001-01-01

    Calorimetric data can provide a basis for determining potential hazards in reactions, storage, and transportation of process chemicals. This work provides calorimetric data for the thermal decomposition behavior in air of 50wt.% hydroxylamine\\/water (HA), both with and without added stabilizers, which was measured in closed cells with an automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). Among the data provided are onset

  15. Nanowell-patterned TiO{sub 2} microcantilevers for calorimetric chemical sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongkyu, E-mail: dongkyu@ualberta.ca; Chae, Inseok; Thundat, Thomas [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Kim, Seonghwan [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Jeon, Sangmin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-07

    A sensitive calorimetric sensor using a TiO{sub 2} microcantilever with nanowells patterned on one of its sides is described. This single material cantilever is sensitive to temperature change without relying on the metal deposition-based bimetallic effect. The thermomechanical sensitivity originates from the structure dependent variations in both the elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient due to the presence of ordered nanowells. These cantilever beams offer an alternate and efficient chemical sensing route for vapor phase analytes using photothermal spectroscopy. Selective and sensitive detection of organophosphorus compounds, as well as their photocatalytic decomposition under ultraviolet light exposure are demonstrated.

  16. A calorimetric method to determine water activity.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg(-1) to 3 mol kg(-1) and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl(2), NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4)) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities. PMID:22129000

  17. Adaptive measurement control for calorimetric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    The performance of a calorimeter is usually evaluated by constructing a Shewhart control chart of its measurement errors for a collection of reference standards. However, Shewhart control charts were developed in a manufacturing setting where observations occur in batches. Additionally, the Shewhart control chart expects the variance of the charted variable to be known or at least well estimated from previous experimentation. For calorimetric assay, observations are collected singly in a time sequence with a (possibly) changing mean, and extensive experimentation to calculate the variance of the measurement errors is seldom feasible. These facts pose problems in constructing a control chart. In this paper, the authors propose using the mean squared successive difference to estimate the variance of measurement errors based solely on prior observations. This procedure reduces or eliminates estimation bias due to a changing mean. However, the use of this estimator requires an adjustment to the definition of the alarm and warning limits for the Shewhart control chart. The authors propose adjusted limits based on an approximate Student`s t-distribution for the measurement errors and discuss the limitations of this approximation. Suggestions for the practical implementation of this method are provided also.

  18. 76 FR 45309 - Social Security Ruling 11-1p; Titles II and XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for Disability...procedures for handling your request to file a disability claim when you have a pending...XVI: Procedures for Handling Requests To File Subsequent Applications for...

  19. Calorimetric Thermometry of Meteoritic Troilite: Early Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Gooding, J. L.

    1993-07-01

    Troilite (FeS) exhibits two solid-state phase transformations, which, according to conventional thermodynamic literature [1,2], occur at 411 +- 3 K (alpha/beta) and 598 +- 3 K (beta/gamma). In principal, the thermal history of a particular troilite sample might be expected to impart structural or strain characteristics that could be measured upon experimental inducement of the phase transformations. To investigate that possibility, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the temperatures and enthalpy changes for phase transitions of various troilite samples subjected to controlled heating [3]. Post-heating residues were prepared as polished grain mounts and petrologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Troilite grains separated from the Mundrabilla (octahedrite), PAT91501 (L7 chondrite), and EET83213 (L3 chondrite) meteorites were compared with terrestrial troilite from an ultramafic complex in Del Norte Co., California. Both the alpha/beta and beta/gamma transitions were easily measured by DSC applied to samples on the order of 5 milligrams. Extrapolated-onset temperatures (the DSC approximation of equilibrium transition temperatures) for the alpha/beta transition display a systematic progression as follows: Mundrabilla, PAT91501, EET83213, Del Norte (Fig. 1). At least for Mundrabilla, PAT91501, and Del Norte, there also exists an apparent correlation of transition enthalpy with onset temperature (Fig. 1). (Enthalpy measurements for EET83213 troilite were systematically low, by dilution effects from admixed Ni-Fe metal, and require correction before such comparison.) Although Mundrabilla troilite contains on the order of 1 wt% Cr, and some grains of PAT91501 troilite contain on the order of 1 wt% Ni, it is doubtful that compositional differences can fully account for the measured differences in thermodynamic properties. Instead, it is likely that first-order differences are the consequence of different thermal histories. Multiple samples of Del Norte troilite were used to determine the influence of laboratory-scale thermal histories on DSC signatures by heating and cooling each sample under different programmed conditions. In reconnaissance experiments, maximum temperature achieved during heat treatment appears to be more influential than does either the time maintained at temperature or the heating/cooling rate. The experimentally measured alpha/beta onset temperature shows a systematic decline with maximum temperature achieved during prior heating, suggesting that high onset temperatures are indicative of low maximum temperatures in the natural histories of the troilite samples. That trend is at least qualitatively consistent with the petrologic rankings of the meteorites in which troilite from the relatively unmetamorphosed L3 chondrite shows a higher onset temperature than does troilite from either the highly metamorphosed L7 chondrite or the octahedrite. Additional work should define the limits of a quantitative calibration that might ultimately permit derivation of meteorite thermal histories by calorimetric thermometry of troilite. Samples were kindly provided by E. R. D. Scott (Mundrabilla), C. B. Moore (Del Norte), and the Meteorite Working Group (PAT91501; EET83213 powder from E. Jarosewich). References: [1] Chase M. W. Jr. et al. (1985) JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd ed., 1194. [2] Robie R. A. et al. (1979) Geol. Surv. Bull. 1452, 125. [3] Allton J. H. and Gooding J. L. (1993) LPS XXIV, 21-22. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the thermodynamics of troilite alpha/beta phase transformations measured by DSC during first-heat cycles.

  20. Strascino's compliant. Syphilis and the XVI Century Sienese theatre.

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, F.

    1999-01-01

    Niccolo Campani, known with the nickname "Strascino" (as shabby, beggarly), is among the most important poets in the XVI Century in Italian theatre. Famous for his sharp-witted humor and the perfect Tuscan rhyming, the Sienese poet left a work whose subject is syphilis, cooght by Campany from 1503 to 1511. In Strascino's Compliant, the poet describes in rhyme the course and recovery of the illness, giving a very personal testimony of being ill with the "la malaise francaise" and a broad overview of the sixteenth Century in Italy PMID:12728208

  1. Calorimetric investigation of the hydrogen interaction with Ti 0.9Zr 0.1Mn 1.1V 0.1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu Anikina; V. N Verbetsky

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.1V0.1 compound was studied by means of calorimetric and P–C isotherm methods. The obtained results allow to propose the existence of two hydride phases in the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.1V0.1–H2 system in the temperature range 72–116°C.

  2. ELECTROCHEMICAL CALORIMETRIC STUDIES OF THE COLD FUSION EFFECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Miles; D. E. Stilwell

    Several types of calorimetric cell designs were used in attempts to measure excess enthalpy during the electrolysis of LiOD\\/D2O using palladium cathodes. Control experiments were run by using light water in place of D2O or by using platinum cathodes in place of palladium. Initial experiments using thin palladium cathodes of an unknown purity gave no significant differences between the Pd\\/D2O

  3. CalorimetricEnzymicMeasurement of UricAcidin Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadja N. Rehak; Gail Janes

    Uric acid in serum was determined calorimetrically with a batch type microcalorimeter, by measuring the heat evolved during a coupled uricase\\/catalase enzymic re.- action in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane HCI buffer (pH 9.0 at 30 #{176}C). Heat evolutionandconcentrationare linearly related throughthe physiologicalrangeof serum uric acid concentrationsand the method is free of interferences of the sort encountered with spectrophotometric methods. Precisionandaccuracy are good(CV, 2%)

  4. Calorimetric studies of isothermal curing of phase separating epoxy networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jenninger; J. E. K. Schawe; I. Alig

    2000-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the curing process of multi-component thermosets differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) measurements were performed during isothermal curing of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) with amounts of 10 or 20wt.% of linear polymer and of the corresponding pure networks at temperatures between 333 and 393K. The network component consists of diglycidylether of

  5. Calorimetric enzymic measurement of uric acid in serum.

    PubMed

    Rehak, N N; Janes, G; Young, D S

    1977-02-01

    Uric acid in serum was determined calorimetrically with a batch type microcalorimeter, by measuring the heat evolved during a coupled uricase/catalase enzymic reaction in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane HCl buffer (pH 9.0 at 30 degrees C). Heat evolution and concentration are linearly related through the physiological range of serum uric acid concentrations and the method is free of interferences of the sort encountered with spectrophotometric methods. Precision and accuracy are good (CV, 2%) and the results correlate well with those obtained by a mechanized colorimetric uricase/peroxidase system. PMID:832382

  6. A paper-based calorimetric microfluidics platform for bio-chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Davaji, Benyamin; Lee, Chung Hoon

    2014-09-15

    In this report, a paper-based micro-calorimetric biochemical detection method is presented. Calorimetric detection of biochemical reactions is demonstrated as an extension of current colorimetric and electrochemical detection mechanisms of paper-based biochemical analytical systems. Reaction and/or binding temperature of glucose/glucose oxidase, DNA/hydrogen peroxide, and biotin/streptavidin, are measured by the paper-based micro-calorimeter. Commercially available glucose calibration samples of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.3% wt/vol concentration are used for comparing the device performance with a commercially available glucose meter (electrochemical detection). The calorimetric glucose detection demonstrates a measurement error less than 2%. The calorimetric detection results of DNA concentrations from 0.9 to 7.3 mg/mL and temperature changes in biotin and streptavidin reaction are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the calorimetric detection method with paper based microfluidic devices. PMID:24713542

  7. Adiabatic calorimetric decomposition studies of 50 wt.% hydroxylamine/water.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, L O; Rogers, W J; Mannan, M S

    2001-03-19

    Calorimetric data can provide a basis for determining potential hazards in reactions, storage, and transportation of process chemicals. This work provides calorimetric data for the thermal decomposition behavior in air of 50wt.% hydroxylamine/water (HA), both with and without added stabilizers, which was measured in closed cells with an automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC). Among the data provided are onset temperatures, reaction order, activation energies, pressures of noncondensable products, thermal stability at 100 degrees C, and the effect of HA storage time. Discussed also are the catalytic effects of carbon steel, stainless steel, stainless steel with silica coating, inconel, titanium, and titanium with silica coating on the reaction self-heat rates and onset temperatures. In borosilicate glass cells, HA was relatively stable at temperatures up to 133 degrees C, where the HA decomposition self-heat rate reached 0.05 degrees C/min. The added stabilizers appeared to reduce HA decomposition rates in glass cells and at ambient temperatures. The tested metals and metal surfaces coated with silica acted as catalysts to lower the onset temperatures and increase the self-heat rates. PMID:11165058

  8. Novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy for mine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Datskou, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The authors have developed a novel micro-calorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used in mine detection applications. In this technique target molecules are allowed to adsorb on the surface of sub-femtojoule sensitive micromechanical thermal detectors. The adsorption of molecules on the thermal detector surface causes a differential surface stress resulting in an initial trigger. By exposing each element in an array of thermal detectors to different photon wavelengths, an extremely sensitive and unique photothermal signature response can be obtained. The authors present their results on target chemicals adsorbed on the detector surface at sub-monolayer coverage levels. They will present infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 microns the photothermal spectra of DIMP and TNT exhibit a number of peaks and are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption spectra found in the literature. Chemical detectors based on micro-calorimetric spectroscopy can be used to sensitively sense small number of molecules adsorbed on a thermal detector surface. The photothermal signature resulting from photon irradiation can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  9. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  10. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  11. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  12. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  13. 45 CFR 233.145 - Expiration of medical assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...assistance programs under titles I, IV-A, X, XIV and XVI of the Social Security Act...made to any State under title I, IV-A, X, XIV or XVI of the Social...

  14. A THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE COMPOUNDS OF URANIUM WITH SILICON, GERMANIUM, TIN, AND LEAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Alcock; P. Gieveson

    1962-01-01

    The free energies of formation of the solid compounds of uranium with ; silicon, germanium, tin, and lead were determined by a combination of Knudsen ; vapor-pressure, solid\\/liquid equilibria, and calorimetric measuremerts. Heats ; and entropies of formation of the compounds were found from the elements. A ; comparison was made of their relative stabilities. Results confirming previous ; data

  15. Dirac R-matrix calculations of photoionization cross-sections of Fe XVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, S.; Bilal, M.; Nazir, R. T.; Bari, M. A.; Hannan, A.; Nasim, M. H.

    2015-06-01

    We present photoionization cross-sections of the ground state (S1/2) and the first four excited states (2P1/2, 3/2, 2D3/2, 5/2) of the Fe XVI ion using the fully relativistic R-matrix code DARC. The target wavefunctions are constructed with the fully relativistic GRASP1 code. In our calculations, we have included core excitations up to n = 3, 4, which give rise to 89 fine-structure target levels of Fe XVII. In particular, the total photoionization cross-sections, which include important resonance structures for the four excited states of Fe XVI, are reported here for the first time. Our target state energies and the binding energy of the ground state of Fe XVI are found to be in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical results.

  16. Temperature-dependent infrared and calorimetric studies on arsenicals adsorption from solution to hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sabur, Md Abdus; Goldberg, Sabine; Gale, Adrian; Kabengi, Nadine; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

    2015-03-10

    To address the lack of systematic and surface sensitive studies on the adsorption energetics of arsenic compounds on metal (oxyhydr)oxides, we conducted temperature-dependent ATR-FTIR studies for the adsorption of arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid on hematite nanoparticles at pH 7. Spectra were collected as a function of concentration and temperature in the range 5-50 °C (278-323 K). Adsorption isotherms were constructed from spectral features assigned to surface arsenic. Values of K(eq), adsorption enthalpy, and entropy were extracted from fitting the Langmuir model to the data and from custom-built triple-layer surface complexation models derived from our understanding of the adsorption mechanism of each arsenical. These spectroscopic and modeling results were complemented with flow-through calorimetric measurements of molar heats of adsorption. Endothermic adsorption processes were predicted from the application of mathematical models with a net positive change in adsorption entropy. However, experimentally measured heats of adsorption were exothermic for all three arsenicals studied herein, with arsenate releasing 1.6-1.9 times more heat than methylated arsenicals. These results highlight the role of hydration thermodynamics on the adsorption of arsenicals, and are consistent with the spectral interpretation of type of surface complexes each arsenical form in that arsenate is mostly dominated by bidentate, MMA by a mixture of mono- and bidentate, and DMA by mostly outer sphere. PMID:25695733

  17. Fast electron thermometry towards ultra-sensitive calorimetric detection

    E-print Network

    S. Gasparinetti; K. L. Viisanen; O. -P. Saira; T. Faivre; M. Arzeo; M. Meschke; J. P. Pekola

    2014-11-04

    We demonstrate radiofrequency thermometry on a micrometer-sized metallic island below 100 mK. Our device is based on a normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction coupled to a resonator with transmission readout. In the first generation of the device, we achieve 90 {\\mu}K/Hz^1/2 noise-equivalent temperature with 10 MHz bandwidth. We measure the thermal relaxation time of the electron gas in the island, which we find to be of the order of 100 {\\mu}s. Such a calorimetric detector, upon optimization, can be seamlessly integrated into superconducting circuits, with immediate applications in quantum-thermodynamics experiments down to single quanta of energy.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROGEN INTERACTION WITHTi 0.9 Zr 0.1 Mn 1.3 V 0.5 BY CALORIMETRIC METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Y. U. ANIKINA; V. N. VERBETSKY

    The interaction of hydrogen with nonstoichiometric Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5 Laves phase compound at pressure up to 60 atm and in temperature range from 150 to 190°C has been studied by means of calorimetric\\u000a and P-X isotherm methods. The obtained results allow us to propose the existence of one hydride phase,?- hydride, in the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5 - H2 system in the temperature range 150-170°C.

  19. Calorimetric Investigation of the Hydrogen Interaction with Ti 0.9 Zr 0.1 Mn 1.3 V 0.5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu. Anikina; V. N. Verbetsky

    The interaction of hydrogen with nonstoichiometric Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5 Laves phase compound at pressure up to 60 atm and temperature range from 336 to 413 K has been studied by means of calorimetric\\u000a and P-X isotherm methods. The obtained results allow to propose the existence of two hydride phases in the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.3V0.5-H2 system under this conditions.

  20. SPIE Proceedings, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI, vol. 6138 (2006) Noninvasive Dosimetry and Monitoring of TTT

    E-print Network

    Palanker, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    SPIE Proceedings, Ophthalmic Technologies XVI, vol. 6138 (2006) 1 Noninvasive Dosimetry and the lack of immediately observable outcome of the therapy, a real-time dosimetry is highly desirable. We-time monitoring and dosimetry of TTT. A 795nm laser was applied in rabbit eyes for 60 seconds using a 0.86mm

  1. Nutritional and psycho-physiological assessment of members of the XVI Antarctica expedition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NARINDER K. SATIJA; ANAJANA G. VIJ; K. SRIDHARAN

    2000-01-01

    The present studies are aimed to evaluate the effects of physiological stress and metabolic requirements necessary to maintain homeostasis and physical and mental functions during stay at Antarctica in expedition members. Nutritional and psycho-physiological assement of the members of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica was carried alongwith supplementation of vitamins, viz., vitamins, viz., vitamin C and vitamin E

  2. Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Volume XVI, No. 6 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency November/December 2004 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Annual Report Summaries #12;3 Letter from the Editor Installation Management

  3. American Press Coverage of the Execution of Louis XVI: A Lesson Strategy for Gauging Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankiewicz, Donald

    1985-01-01

    In this unit of study high school students read and discuss U.S. newspaper articles reporting the trial and execution of the French king Louis XVI. Students look for key words and phrases that might indicate a subtle favorable or unfavorable opinion. (RM)

  4. Energy calibration of Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Asaoka, Yoichi; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa

    2015-06-01

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States. CALET will measure the flux of cosmic ray electrons (including positrons) up to 20 TeV, gamma-rays up to 10 TeV and nuclei from Z = 1 up to 40 up to 1000 TeV during a two-year mission on the International Space Station (ISS), extendable to five years. The unique feature of CALET is its thick, fully active calorimeter that allows measurements well into the TeV energy region with excellent energy resolution (< 3 %), coupled with a fine imaging upper calorimeter to accurately identify the starting point of electromagnetic showers. For continuous high performance of the detector, it is required to calibrate each detector component on orbit. We use the measured response to minimum ionizing particles for the energy calibration, taking data in a dedicated trigger mode and selecting useful events in off-line analysis. In this paper, we present on-orbit and off-line data handling methods for the energy calibration developed through beam tests at CERN-SPS and Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James

    2006-01-12

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge, high activity insoluble salt, and very low activity soluble salts. The soluble salt represents 90% of the 35 million gallons of overall waste and is processed at the SRS Saltstone Facility, where it mixed with cement, blast furnace slag, and flyash, creating a grout-like mixture. The resulting grout is pumped into aboveground storage vaults, where it hydrates into concrete monoliths, called saltstone, thus immobilizing the low-level radioactive salt waste. As the saltstone hydrates, it generates heat that slowly diffuses out of the poured material. To ensure acceptable grout properties for disposal and immobilization of the salt waste, the grout temperature must not exceed 95 C during hydration. Adiabatic calorimetric measurements of the heat generated for a representative sample of saltstone were made to determine the time-dependent heat source term. These measurements subsequently were utilized as input to a numerical conjugate heat transfer model to determine the expected peak temperatures for the saltstone vaults.

  6. In-situ calorimetric studies of SWCNT growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg; Tokune, Toshio; Mora, Elena; Chen, Gugang; Harutyunyan, Avetik

    2008-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were grown inside of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) apparatus with an attached mass spectrometer (MS), using different hydrocarbons (CH4 and C2H4) and alumina supported (Fe, Fe/Mo, and Ni) catalysts. This set-up allowed to in situ follow the evolution of calorimetric, thermogravimetric and MS data during the synthesis. A Raman spectrometer (with laser excitations wavelengths 532 and 785 nm) was used for verification of the growth of SWCNTs. DSC studies at temperatures ˜650-900 C of the interaction between the hydrocarbons and the preliminary reduced alumina supported catalysts showed a release (C2H4) or absorption (CH4) of heat depending on the type of hydrocarbon used. The effect of this energy on the growth of SWCNTs was studied. We found that the incubation time for nanotube nucleation depends on the hydrocarbon type and flow rate, as well as on the synthesis temperature. The origin of the initial endothermic peak observed during nanotube growth with both hydrocarbon sources will be discussed. Furthermore, the kinetics and thermodynamic of hydrocarbon decomposition, carbon atoms diffusion and solid carbon structure formation dependence on the catalyst and synthesis parameters will also be presented.

  7. Calorimetric measurements of energetics of defect interactions in fluorite oxides.

    PubMed

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Simoncic, Petra; Yokokawa, Harumi; Chen, Weiqun; Lee, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Direct measurement by oxide melt solution calorimetry of energetics of mixing in rare earth and yttrium doped zirconia, hafnia, and ceria systems provides support for spectroscopic and computational studies of the location and clustering of vacancies in these systems. Strongly negative heats of mixing are seen when the vacancy is transferred from being nearest neighbor to Y or RE in the sesquioxide to being nearest neighbor to Zr or Hf in the cubic solid solution. In the absence of such redistribution, small positive enthalpies of mixing are seen in CeO2-YO1.5 and CeO2-REO.15 systems. Strongly positive enthalpies of mixing are seen in CeO2-ZrO2, which has a large difference in cation sizes and no vacancy formation. The system Ce0.8Y0.2O1.9-Zr0.8Y0.2O1.9 shows small positive heats of formation with less destabilization in the Ce-rich region, suggestive of "scavenging" of oxygen vacancies by Zr. The calorimetric data obtained in these studies offer direct comparison with the results of computations on defect clusters and their binding energies. PMID:17326568

  8. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title...930 Section 408.930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  9. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title...930 Section 408.930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  10. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.930 Are...

  11. 20 CFR 408.930 - Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to adjustment to recover title VIII overpayments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Are title II and title XVI benefits subject to...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.930 Are...

  12. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Docket No. SSA-2012-0006] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction and Alcoholism (DAA); Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...

  13. Calorimetric study of plastically crystalline o- and m-carboranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamuro, Osamu; Hayashi, Masayuki; Matsuo, Takasuke; Lunkenheimer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    The heat capacities of o- and m-carboranes were measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 5-310 K. m-carborane underwent two phase transitions at 170 K and 284 K with transition entropies of 12.70 and 15.52 J K-1 mol-1. The total transition entropy agreed well with the theoretical value, indicating that m-carborane is ordered at 0 K. o-carborane also exhibited two phase transitions at 160 K and 275 K with transition entropies of 3.72 and 13.72 J K-1 mol-1, and additionally a glass transition at 120 K. This glass transition does occur not in the supercooled intermediate-temperature phase but in the low-temperature phase of o-carborane. The high- and intermediate-temperature phases of o-carborane could not be quenched at the maximum cooling rate (10 K min-1) of this experiment. The total transition entropy of o-carborane was smaller than that of m-carborane by 10.8 J K-1 mol-1, suggesting that o-carborane has residual orientational disorder at 0 K. The enthalpy relaxation was examined by the temperature jump method around the glass transition of o-carborane. The results were reproduced well by the KWW function. The calorimetric relaxation time and nonexponential parameter agreed with dielectric ones at the glass transition temperature. This indicates that the glass transition of o-carborane is due to the freezing of molecular reorientation.

  14. On board LIBS analysis of marine sediments collected during the XVI Italian campaign in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Barbini; F Colao; V Lazic; R Fantoni; A Palucci; M Angelone

    2002-01-01

    The Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique was applied on board the R\\/V Italica during the XVI Antarctic campaign (2000–2001) to carry out elemental chemical analysis of marine sediments collected using different sampling systems. To this end, a compact system has been built, which was suitable to operate also in the presence of mechanical vibrations, induced by the ship motion. Qualitative and

  15. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), king of France

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M.; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754–1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fe XVI radiative rates (Diaz+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n<=5 states arising from the configuration 1s22sk2pm3lpnl'q, where k+m+p+q=9, l<=3 and p+q<=2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines. (2 data files).

  17. Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754-1793), king of France.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Datta, Debayan; Marigorta, Urko M; Chiang, Charleston W K; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; González, Irene; Montfort, Magda; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Civit, Sergi; Luiselli, Donata; Charlier, Philippe; Pettener, Davide; Ramírez, Oscar; Navarro, Arcadi; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754-1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king. PMID:24763138

  18. An Improved Formulation for Calorimetric Emittance Testing of Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonny R. Kauder

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft often rely heavily on passive thermal control to maintain operating temperature. An important parameter in the spacecraft heat balance equation is the emittance of thermal control coatings as a function of coating temperature. One method for determining the emittance of spacecraft thermal control from elevated temperature to cryogenic temperatures relies on a calorimetric technique. The fundamental equation governing this

  19. Emittance characterization of thermal control paints, coatings and surfaces using a calorimetric technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Jaworske

    1994-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces are used in every spacecraft thermal management system to dissipate heat through radiant heat transfer. This paper describes the thermal performance of several thermal control paints, coatings, and surfaces, as characterized by a calorimetric vacuum emissometer. The emissometer is designed to measure the functional emittance of a surface based on heat transfer from an underlying substrate to

  20. Micro-calorimetric sensor for vapor phase explosive detection with optimized heat profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Greve; J. K. Olsen; N. Privorotskaya; L. Senesac; T. Thundat; W. P. King; A. Boisen

    2010-01-01

    A heater design, used in a micro-calorimetric sensor, has been optimized for temperature uniformity in order to increase the sensitivity and reliability of detection of trace amounts of explosives. In this abstract the design, fabrication and characterization is described. The performance of the novel heater design is characterized by measuring the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) values and by mapping

  1. Noise analysis for calorimetric low-temperature detectors for heavy ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A Andrianov; A. Bleile; P. Egelhof; S. Kraft; A. Kiseleva; O. Kiselev; H. J Meier; J. P Meier

    2004-01-01

    The energy resolution of calorimetric low-temperature detectors for heavy ions has been analyzed. It is shown that the contribution of base line noise is small. The energy resolution is determined by intrinsic fluctuations of the detector signal. An incomplete energy thermalization during the stopping process of the heavy ion, the dependence of signal shape on impact position and fluctuations of

  2. Calorimetric detection of the conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Calorimetric detection of the conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air terahertz (THz) emission from a femtosecond laser filament in air is measured with a bolometric detector and a set of filters, confirming that the main part of the emission lies between 0.5 and 3 THz

  3. Realization of the triple points of gallium, water and mercury by an adiabatic calorimetric method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sakurai

    1996-01-01

    The triple points of water, mercury and gallium are realized, mainly for the calibration of capsule-type thermometers, by a calorimetric method using platinum cells for water and mercury, and a small glass cell for gallium. Their molar impurities are estimated from the relation between the melting temperatures and the inverses of the fraction of melt. Almost all the samples show

  4. A Calorimetric Study of Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions in Restrictive Geometries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germano Silvio Iannacchione

    1993-01-01

    A considerable amount of experimental and theoretical efforts have been applied to the study of confined liquid crystals. This has been motivated by the obvious interest for industrial applications and by the fundamental scientific questions that these systems address. This work details a calorimetric study of three phase transitions for liquid crystals confined within submicron size cylindrical cavities and random

  5. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO2 laser beam welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Fuerschbach

    1990-01-01

    The previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals'

  6. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuerschbach

    1990-01-01

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals'

  7. The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    The Hydrogen Bonding of Cytosinewith Guanine:Calorimetric and`H-NMR Analysis of the Molecular of hydrogen-bondformation between guanine (G) and cytusine (C) in o-dichloro- benzene and in chloroformat 25°C forming hydrogen bonds. Consequently, hydrogen-bond formation in our system is primarily between the bases

  8. THEORETICAL WAVELENGTHS OF Fe XVI L-SHELL TRANSITIONS AND COMPARISON WITH LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF CAPELLA

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Diaz, F.; Ishikawa, Y. [Department of Chemistry and the Chemical Physics Program, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used the relativistic multi-reference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to calculate the energy levels of Fe XVI, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole state in the L shell. Comparison of the resulting L-shell transition wavelengths with those from recent laboratory measurements shows remarkable agreement, i.e., agreement within the experimental uncertainties. Our calculation allows us to predict the wavelength of the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not yet been directly observed in the laboratory, to be 15.266 A. This wavelength is within 0.0042 A of the strong Fe XVII line commonly labeled 3D. Relying on the high accuracy of our calculations, we have reassigned two previously identified lines and predict a different location than previously thought for the strongest Fe XVI magnetic quadrupole transition. Inspection of the spectra of Capella recorded with the transmission grating spectrometers on the Chandra X-ray Observatory yields features corresponding to the predicted location of the innershell excited Fe XVI lines. These features have not been identified before. Our analysis shows that these features are most likely from Fe XVI.

  9. CALORIMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEN INTERACTION WITH ZrMn 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Y. U. ANIKINA; E. V. GERASIMOVA; V. N. VERBETSKY

    The interaction of hydrogen with ZrMn2 Laves phase compound at pressure up to 60 atm and temperature range from 100 to 305 °C has been investigated using reaction\\u000a calorimetry. The obtained results allow us to propose the existence of two hydride phase in the ZrMn2-H2 system.

  10. Calorimetric thermal voltage converter as a wideband calculable standard of AC-DC difference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr S. Filipski; Richard F. Clark; David C. Paulusse

    1999-01-01

    A calorimetric thermal voltage converter is used at the National Research Council of Canada as a high-frequency reference standard of the Ac-DC transfer difference. This paper describes its redesigned realization with an optimized frequency characteristic. Results presented in the paper show that it can be used as a standard of AC-DC difference in the 1 Hz to 100 MHz frequency

  11. Advances in high power calorimetric matched loads for short pulses and CW gyrotrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bin; A. Bruschi; S. Cirant; V. Erckmann; F. Gandini; G. Granucci; F. Hollmann; H. P. Laqua; V. Mellera; V. Muzzini; A. Nardone; F. Noke; B. Piosczyk; F. Purps; T. Rzesnicki; M. Schmid; C. Sozzi; W. Spies; N. Spinicchia; M. Stoner

    2007-01-01

    The development of high power gyrotrons for plasma physics research needs properly matched calorimetric loads able to absorb and measure the power, which nowadays is foreseen to be as high as 2MW during CW operations. To this end IFP\\/CNR has developed a family of matched loads useful in the mm-wave frequency band for applications ranging from a few ms to

  12. Calorimetric thermal-vacuum performance characterization of the BAe 80 K space cryocooler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Y. Kotsubo; D. L. Johnson; R. G. Ross Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization program is underway at JPL to generate test data on long-life, miniature Stirling-cycle cryocoolers for space application. The key focus of this paper is on the thermal performance of the British Aerospace (BAe) 80 K split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler as measured in a unique calorimetric thermal-vacuum test chamber that accurately simulates the heat-transfer interfaces of space. Two separate cooling

  13. Calorimetric and volumetric data of salting of albumin from human serum using NaCl solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zielenkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volume and enthalpy changes for mixing NaCl (aq.) with albumin from human serum (aq.) are experimentally determined\\u000a (25°C). Calorimetric experiments were carried out in an LKB 10700-2 calorimeter, whereas volumetric measurements were realized\\u000a using an Anton Paar 60\\/602 densimeter. The density measurements were made after 1 and 24 h of the dissolution in the buffer\\u000a (pH 4.2). The

  14. Calorimetric study of hydrogen interaction with LaNi 3.92Al 0.98

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V Ivanova; R. A Sirotina; V. N Verbetsky

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with LaNi3.92Al0.98 has been investigated by means of the calorimetric method. P–X and ?H–X isotherms at pressures up to 60 atm in the temperature range 319–605 K have been determined. The existence of two hydride phases and the decrease of ?H value with increasing temperature has been established.

  15. Calorimetric study of water two-dimensionally condensed on the homogeneous surface of a solid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahiko Nagao; Ryotaro Kumashiro; Takeshi Matsuda; Yasushige Kuroda

    1995-01-01

    The state of water adsorbed on ZnO, Cr2O3 and SrF2, on which two-dimensional condensation of water occurs, has been studied by a direct calorimetric method. It was found that the differential heat of adsorption exhibits a maximum in the coverage region where a steep increase in the adsorbed amount is observed in the corresponding adsorption isotherm. This suggests the two-dimensional

  16. Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their effects on soil biodegradation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dziejowski; I. Bia?obrzewski

    2011-01-01

    Calorimetric studies of solid wastes, sewage sludge, wastewaters and their environmental effects focus on three main research\\u000a areas. The first research area involves determination of selected thermal and physical parameters characterizing the above\\u000a substances, such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and others. The second area covers processes of total or gradual destruction\\u000a of the examined substances at a fixed composition

  17. Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

  18. THE JOURNAL OF THE CAMBRIDGE COMPUTER LAB RING Issue XVI --September 2007 --20 www.camring.ucam.org

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    to emanate from the bar, alarms were ringing and the fire brigade was called.The London Ringlet Bar carriedRingThe THE JOURNAL OF THE CAMBRIDGE COMPUTER LAB RING Issue XVI -- September 2007 -- £20 www.camring.ucam.org Richard Muirhead 5 Founder ofTideway Systems Igor Drokov 7 Founder of Cronto Ring news 2 Ring events

  19. Calorimetric determinations and theoretical calculations of polymorphs of thalidomide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Ochoa, F.; Pérez, G. Espinosa; Mijangos-Santiago, F.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of the thermograms of thalidomide obtained for the two reported polymorphs ? and ? by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows some inconsistencies that are discussed in the present work. The conception of a new polymorph form, named ? ?, allowed us to explain the observed thermal behavior more satisfactorily. This new polymorph shows enantiotropy with both ? and ? polymorphs, reflected in the unique endotherm obtained in the DSC-thermograms, when a heating rate of 10 °C/min is applied. Several additional experiments, such as re-melting of both polymorph forms, showed that there is indeed a new polymorph with an endotherm located between the endotherms of ? and ?. IR, Raman, and powder X-ray permit us to characterize the isolated compound, resulting from the re-melting of both polymorph forms. Mechanical calculations were performed to elucidate the conformations of each polymorph, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed to determine the energy of the more stable conformers and the spatial cell energy for both polymorphs ? and ?. These results suggested a possible conformation for the newly discovered polymorph ? ?.

  20. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII overpayment...931 Section 408.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  1. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII overpayment...931 Section 408.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  2. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII overpayment...931 Section 408.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  3. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.931 How...

  4. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a...ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments and Overpayments Adjustment of Title II Benefits § 408.931 How...

  5. Non-destructive testing of an original XVI century painting on wood by ESPI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), a non-contact and non-destructive optical techniques, was employed for assessing the conservation state of a XVI Century painting on wood (72x88x1,9 cm). By a long term analysis, the whole structure alterations, induced by the room temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Measurement of the whole painting structural bends was achieved. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which cannot be recognized by traditional art-restorer methods, were also revealed. This work was prevalently aimed at achieving a simple approach, in the laboratory practice, to get an intuitively user-friendly method for art conservators, not accustomed to high-tech or math based methods. The results demonstrate that ESPI can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  6. Calorimetric Measurement of the Heat of Adsorption of Benzene on Pt(111) Hyeran Ihm, Henry M. Ajo, J. M. Gottfried, P. Bera, and Charles T. Campbell*

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Charles T.

    adsorption isotherms is also impossible. Thus, a direct method like SCAC is required for the measurementCalorimetric Measurement of the Heat of Adsorption of Benzene on Pt(111) Hyeran Ihm, Henry M. Ajo of adsorption of benzene on clean Pt(111) at 300 K is measured calorimetrically and found to decrease

  7. Reaction of hydroxy and carbonyl compounds with sulfur tetrafluoride. XVI. Reactions of vicinal dihydric alcohols with sulfur tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Burmakov, A.I.; Hassanein, S.M.; Kunshenko, B.V.; Alekseeva, L.A.; Yagupol'skii, L.M.

    1986-11-20

    During the action of sulfur tetrafluoride on ethanediol, d,l-1,2-propanediol, d,l-3,3,3-trifluoro-1,2-propanediol regioselective substitution of one of the hydroxyl groups by a fluorine atom occurs, depending on the electronic nature of the groups present in the molecule. The second hydroxy group in converted into a fluorosulfite group.

  8. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, P K; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M

    2010-07-01

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T(c) superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines. PMID:20687748

  9. Calorimetric thermoelectric gas sensor for the detection of hydrogen, methane and mixed gases.

    PubMed

    Park, Nam-Hee; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturized calorimeter-type sensor device with a dual-catalyst structure was fabricated by integrating different catalysts on the hot (Pd/?-Al2O3) and cold (Pt/?-Al2O3) ends of the device. The device comprises a calorimeter with a thermoelectric gas sensor (calorimetric-TGS), combining catalytic combustion and thermoelectric technologies. Its response for a model fuel gas of hydrogen and methane was investigated with various combustor catalyst compositions. The calorimetric-TGS devices detected H2, CH4, and a mixture of the two with concentrations ranging between 200 and 2000 ppm at temperatures of 100-400 °C, in terms of the calorie content of the gases. It was necessary to reduce the much higher response voltage of the TGS to H2 compared to CH4. We enhanced the H2 combustion on the cold side so that the temperature differences and response voltages to H2 were reduced. The device response to H2 combustion was reduced by 50% by controlling the Pt concentration in the Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst on the cold side to 3 wt%. PMID:24818660

  10. Differential scanning calorimetric investigation of pea chloroplast thylakoids and thylakoid fractions.

    PubMed

    Nolan, W G; Hopkins, H P; Kalini, S A

    1992-08-15

    High sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to study the thermal denaturation of components of pea chloroplast thylakoid membranes. In contrast to previous reports utilizing spinach thylakoids, several transitions are reversible, and deconvolution of the calorimetric curves indicates nine transitions in both first and second heating scans, but overlapping transitions obscure at least three transitions in the first heating scans of control thylakoids. Glutaraldehyde fixation increases the denaturation temperature of several transitions which is consistent with a reported increase in thermal stability of thylakoid function due to fixation. Acidic pH treatment has little effect on the DSC curves, although it has been reported to have a significant effect on membrane structure. Separation of grana from stroma thylakoids indicates that components responsible for transitions centered at approximately 56, 73, 77, and 91 degrees C are predominantly or exclusively associated with grana thylakoids, whereas components responsible for transitions centered at approximately 63 and 81 degrees C are predominantly associated with stroma thylakoids. A broad transition centered at 66 degrees C is associated with grana thylakoids, whereas a sharp transition at the same temperature is due to a component associated with stroma thylakoids. Evidence obtained by washing treatments suggests the latter transition originates from the denaturation of the thylakoid ATPase (CF1). Analysis of the calorimetric enthalpy values indicates most components of the grana thylakoids denature irreversibly at high temperature, whereas components associated with the stroma thylakoids have a considerable degree of thermal reversibility. PMID:1386214

  11. Calorimetric measurement of absorption loss in orientation-patterned GaP and GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyanova, Yelena; Moulton, Peter F.; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2015-03-01

    Materials grown by vapor phase techniques such as chemical vapor deposition or hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) often exhibit very low losses which are difficult to quantify by simple transmission measurements. The measurement of extremely low absorption coefficients can be carried out by laser calorimetric or thermal rise techniques, which determine the absorption coefficients by measuring the temperature increase caused by the absorbed laser radiation. We report here on results of measuring absorption coefficients of bulk HVPE-grown orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) and GaP (OP-GaP) crystals using one of the methods of laser calorimetry, called transient calorimetry. In our setup, the sample under test is attached to a high-conductivity copper holder and placed in a vacuum chamber. A 2-micron cw laser beam is transmitted through the sample and the temperature rise in the sample is measured and, through the calorimeter calibration process, related to the power absorbed in the sample. The absorbed power, Pa, is a function of the total attenuation coefficient ?tot , the length of the sample, and the laser power Po, defined as Pa = Po exp (-?tot l), where total attenuation ?tot is the sum of absorption and scattering: ?tot = ?abs + ?scat. Since scattered light does not cause heating, the calorimetric technique is only applicable to determining ?abs. By this technique we have measured 2-micron absorption coefficients in OP-GaAs and OP-GaP as low as 0.007 cm-1.

  12. Chip-calorimetric monitoring of biofilm eradication with antibiotics provides mechanistic information.

    PubMed

    Mariana, Frida; Buchholz, Friederike; Lerchner, Johannes; Neu, Thomas R; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Increased antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria dwelling in biofilm structures has motivated the development of various monitoring tools specifically designed for biofilm investigations. In this study, the potential of the recently emerging chip calorimetry for this purpose was analysed. The activity of biofilms of Pseudomonas putida PaW340 was monitored chip-calorimetrically and compared with counts of colony forming units (CFU), bioluminescence-based ATP measurements, and quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The biofilms were treated with antibiotics differing in their mechanisms of action (bactericidal kanamycin vs. bacteriostatic tetracycline) and referenced to untreated biofilms. For untreated biofilms, all methods gave comparable results. Calorimetric killing curves, however, reflecting metabolic responses to biofilm eradication non-invasively in real time, differed from those obtained with the established methods. For instance, heat signals increased right after addition of the antibiotics. This transient increase of activity was not detected by the other methods, since only calorimetry delivers specific information about the catabolic part of the metabolism. In case of the bactericidal antibiotic, CFU misleadingly indicated successful biofilm eradication, whereas calorimetry revealed enduring activity. Our results show that calorimetry holds promise to provide valuable mechanistic information, thereby complementing other methods of biofilm analysis. PMID:23453494

  13. arXiv:hep-ex/0211071v325Feb2003 A Calorimetric Search on Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    arXiv:hep-ex/0211071v325Feb2003 A Calorimetric Search on Double Beta Decay of 130 Te C. Arnaboldi of experiments on double beta decay of 130Te carried out with an array of twenty cryogenic detectors. The set and on the neutrinoless double beta decay of 128Te to the ground state of 128Xe are also reported and discussed

  14. ESTIMATION OF BARE-SOIL EVAPORATION USING A CALORIMETRIC APPROACH WITH HEAT FLUX MEASURED AT MULTIPLE DEPTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assumption in calorimetric methods for soil heat flux is that sensible heat terms can be balanced (i.e., if the heat flux is known at one depth, the heat flux at another depth may be determined by monitoring the change in heat storage). Latent heat from water evaporation is assigned to the energy...

  15. Calorimetric study of the isotropic to nematic phase transition in an aligned liquid crystal nano?colloidal gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Crucenau; D. Liang; R. L. Leheny; G. S. Iannacchione

    2008-01-01

    A high?resolution calorimetric study of the specific heat (Cp) has been carried out for the isotropic to nematic phase transition in an aligned liquid crystal (octylcyanobiphenyl ? 8CB) and aerosil nano?colloid gel. A stable alignment was achieved by repeated thermal cycling of the samples in the presence of a strong uniform magnetic field, which introduces anisotropy to the quenched random

  16. Calorimetrically-derived parameters for protein interactions with urea and guanidine-HCl are not consistent with denaturant m values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. DeKoster; Andrew D. Robertson

    1997-01-01

    A recent study used calorimetric data and a stoichiometric binding model to derive binding constants, enthalpies, and stoichiometries describing the interaction between proteins and the chemical denaturants, urea and guanidine-HCl (Makhatadze and Privalov, J. Mol. Biol., 226 (1992) 491). In the present study, these parameters have been used to calculate the excess free energy, ?Gex, associated with interactions between chemical

  17. Premelting at fusion of titanite CaTiSiO5: a calorimetric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerád, I.; Mikšíková, E.; Kosa, L.; Adamkovi?ová, K.

    2013-07-01

    An extensive anomalously rapid increase of relative enthalpy H( T) - H(298 K) of crystalline CaTiSiO5 was observed by means of high-temperature drop calorimetry when melting point is approached. X-ray diffraction analysis of the quenched products after drop in calorimeter shows that this effect is related to premelting. The determined excess enthalpy of crystals near the melting point reaches up to 115 kJ mol-1, that is about 82 % of the total enthalpy of melting, indicating that the premelting effect reflects configurational changes in the bulk of the crystals rather than a surface melting or any other type of partial melting. The obtained results support the presumption that calorimetrically measured premelting effect in titanite reflects the energy-consuming temperature-induced disordering of the framework elements, Si and Ti, which are strongly bonded to oxygen.

  18. Heat conduction limits on calorimetric effects at Mercury due to solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.

    1987-12-01

    Heat produced at the surface of Mercury by the highly time-variable precipitation of charged particles need not be radiated away immediately but can also be conducted into the interior of the planet. For a given precipitated energy flux density, the rise of surface temperature can be computed taking both heat conduction and radiation into account. When the energy input varies on time scales shorter than a characteristic period, estimated to be one (terrestrial) day for conditions typical of Mercury's dark side, heat conduction dominates over radiation and the predicted surface temperature rise becomes negligibly small. Possible observable calorimetric effects are therefore confined to long time scales, and their magnitude is constrained by the average rate of energy input from the solar wind together with limits on the observable area of precipitation.

  19. Transport and calorimetric studies on CeNi2Al3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y, Sankararao; Shanmukharao Samatham, S.; D, Venkateshwarlu; Gangrade, Mohan; Ganesan, V.

    2014-09-01

    Transport and calorimetric properties of Kondo lattice system CeNi2Al3 are reported. CeNi2Al3 shows good agreement with Grand Kadowaki-Woods relation with degeneracy of the quasi-particle N=6. The nonmagnetic nature of CeNi2Al3 is evident from resistivity measurement even though magnetic elements Ce and Ni are present. Three signatures, deviation from the normal metallic behaviour in resistivity above 140 K, relatively low charge carrier concentration (1021 cm?3) and energy gap Eg~11.6 meV obtained from two band model shed light on the most basic notions related to the semimetal nature of CeNi2Al3.

  20. Rapid discrimination of DNA strands using an opto-calorimetric microcantilever sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongkyu; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Seonghwan; Thundat, Thomas

    2014-12-21

    A rapid technique for quantitative detection and discrimination of DNA strands without using immobilized probe molecules is demonstrated using an opto-calorimetric, self-powered sensor based on a Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 (PZT) microcantilever. Microcalorimetric infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides excellent chemical selectivity based on the unique molecular vibrational characteristics of each nucleotide in the mid IR region. The piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of the PZT microcantilever were exploited in the quantitative detection and discrimination of adsorbed DNA strands with their spectral characteristics. We report the unique spectral characteristics of different DNA nucleotides that are monitored by wavelength-dependent temperature variations for different relative molar ratio of each nucleotide. This approach offers a fast, label-free technique which is highly sensitive and selective for the detection of single nucleotide differences in DNA strands and has the potential to be used as a rapid prescreening biosensor for various biomolecules. PMID:25300415

  1. A calorimetric study on interactions of colchicine with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Xu, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Min; Sun, De-Zhi; Li, Lin-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Interaction of colchicine (COL) with human serum albumin (HSA) in buffer solutions (pH 7.2) has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra. Heats of the interactions have been determined at 298.15 K. Based on the calorimetric data and reasonable suppositions for the bio-macromolecule - ligand binding process, the equilibrium constants, standard changes of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the processes are obtained. The results show that there are two classes of ligand binding sites. The first-class binding is mainly driven by entropy, while the second-class binding is synergistically driven by entropy and enthalpy. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra show that COL can change the secondary structure of HSA molecule.

  2. Total hemispherical emittance measured at high temperatures by the calorimetric method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, Frank; Mirtich, Michael J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stidham, Curtis; Kussmaul, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A calorimetric vacuum emissometer (CVE) capable of measuring total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at elevated temperatures was designed, built, and tested. Several materials with a wide range of emittances were measured in the CVE between 773 to 923 K. These results were compared to values calculated from spectral emittance curves measured in a room temperature Hohlraum reflectometer and in an open-air elevated temperature emissometer. The results differed by as much as 0.2 for some materials but were in closer agreement for the more highly-emitting, diffuse-reflecting samples. The differences were attributed to temperature, atmospheric, and directional effects, and errors in the Hohlraum and emissometer measurements (plus or minus 5 percent). The probable error of the CVE measurements was typically less than 1 percent.

  3. Idebenone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: calorimetric studies on surfactant and drug loading effects.

    PubMed

    Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Accolla, Maria Lorena; Puglisi, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Montenegro, Lucia

    2014-08-25

    In this study we prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, using cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and three different non-ionic emulsifiers of the polyoxyethylene ethers family (ceteth-20, isoceteth-20, oleth-20). These SLN were loaded with different amount of idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant drug useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and skin oxidative damages. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate the effects of the different emulsifiers and the different amounts of drug loaded on the thermotropic behavior of SLN and to investigate how the drug was arranged into these nanoparticles. The IDE seemed to be located into different regions of the SLN depending on its concentration and on the surfactant used. The results of this study suggest that the calorimetric studies performed on SLN could provide valuable information to optimize SLN design and drug release from these carriers. PMID:24845103

  4. Calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of solid proteins immersed in low water organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, V A; Zinatullin, A N; Solomonov, B N; Faizullin, D A; Fedotov, V D

    2001-06-11

    Calorimetric heat effects and structural rearrangements assessed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) amide I spectra were followed by immersing dry human serum albumin and bovine pancreatic alpha-chymotrypsin in low water organic solvents and in pure water at 298 K. Enthalpy changes upon immersion of the proteins in different media are in a good linear correlation with the corresponding IR absorbance changes. Based on calorimetric and FTIR data the solvents were divided into two groups. The first group includes carbon tetrachloride, benzene, nitromethane, acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane, n-butanol, n-propanol and pyridine where no significant heat evolution and structural changes were found during protein immersion. Due to kinetic reasons no significant protein-solvent interactions are expected in such systems. The second group of solvents includes dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, and water. Immersion of proteins in these media results in protein swelling and involves significant exothermic heat evolution and structural changes in the protein. Dividing of different media in the two groups is in a qualitative correlation with the solvent hydrophilicity defined as partial excess molar Gibbs free energy of water at infinite dilution in a given solvent. The first group includes the solvents with hydrophilicity exceeding 2.7 kJ/mol. More hydrophilic second group solvents have this energy values less than 2.3 kJ/mol. The hydrogen bond donating ability of the solvents also assists in protein swelling. Hydrogen bonding between protein and solvent is assumed to be a main factor controlling the swelling of dry solid proteins in the studied solvents. PMID:11410292

  5. Calorimetric quantification of linked equilibria in cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent mixtures for membrane-protein reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Reconstitution from detergent micelles into lipid bilayer membranes is a prerequisite for many in vitro studies on purified membrane proteins. Complexation by cyclodextrins offers an efficient and tightly controllable way of removing detergents for membrane-protein reconstitution, since cyclodextrins sequester detergents at defined stoichiometries and with tuneable affinities. To fully exploit the potential advantages of cyclodextrin for membrane-protein reconstitution, we establish a quantitative model for predicting the supramolecular transition from mixed micelles to vesicles during cyclodextrin-mediated detergent extraction. The model is based on a set of linked equilibria among all pseudophases present in the course of the reconstitution process. Various isothermal titration-calorimetric protocols are used for quantifying a detergent's self-association as well as its colloidal and stoichiometric interactions with lipid and cyclodextrin, respectively. The detergent's critical micellar concentration, the phase boundaries in the lipid/detergent phase diagram, and the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent complex thus obtained provide all thermodynamic parameters necessary for a quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during cyclodextrin-driven reconstitution. This is exemplified and validated by stepwise complexation of the detergent lauryldimethylamine N-oxide in mixtures with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine upon titration with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin, both in the presence and in the absence of the membrane protein Mistic. The calorimetric approach presented herein quantitatively predicts the onset and completion of the reconstitution process, thus obviating cumbersome trial-and-error efforts and facilitating the rational optimisation of reconstitution protocols, and can be adapted to different cyclodextrin/lipid/detergent combinations. PMID:25583305

  6. SEM Observations and Differential Scanning Calorimetric Studies of New and Sterilized Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia B. Alexandrou; Konstantinos Chrissafis; Leonidas P. Vasiliadis; Eleni Pavlidou; E. K. Polychroniadis

    2006-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies were utilized to investigate surface and microstructure of two brands of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments, in the as-received condition and after subjection to 1, 6, and 11 sterilization cycles. A total of 66 ProFile (n = 33) and Flexmaster (n = 33) files were examined. SEM observations indicated the

  7. Calorimetric, X-Ray Diffraction, and Spectroscopic Studies of the Thermotropic Phase Behavior and Organization of Tetramyristoyl Cardiolipin Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruthven N. A. H. Lewis; Dagmar Zweytick; Georg Pabst; Karl Lohner; Ronald N. McElhaney

    2007-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and organization of aqueous dispersions of the quadruple-chained, anionic phospholipid tetramyristoyl diphosphatidylglycerol or tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TMCL) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, 31P NMR, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. At physiological pH and ionic strength, our calorimetric studies indicate that fully equilibrated aqueous dispersions of TMCL exhibit two thermotropic phase transitions upon heating. The

  8. Calorimetric study of the oxygen bond energy in a binary V?Ti catalyst and individual vanadium and titanium oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Bondareva; T. V. Andrushkevich; Yu. D. Pankratiev

    1997-01-01

    Bond energy of oxygen in a binary V?Ti catalyst and individual V and Ti oxides has been studied by the calorimetric method.\\u000a The samples studied were shown to be significantly different in bond energy, homogeneity of surface oxygen and mobility of\\u000a the bulk one. Vanadium and titanium oxides appeared to interact in the binary system to form an active surface

  9. Thin-film calorimetric H 2O 2 gas sensor for the validation of germicidal effectivity in aseptic filling processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kirchner; B. Li; H. Spelthahn; H. Henkel; A. Schneider; P. Friedrich; J. Kolstad; M. Keusgen; M. J. Schöning

    2009-01-01

    A novel thin-film gas sensor was realized to detect the H2O2 concentration up to 10 vol.-% during microbial reduction of carton packages by hydrogen peroxide vapor in aseptic filling processes. The calorimetric sensing device contains two meander-shaped platinum layers as temperature sensing elements, both have been passivated with perfluoralkoxy and one additionally covered with catalytically active manganese oxide particles. First

  10. Flow Calorimetric Comparison of the AcidBase Bonding in the Outer Surface and Subsurface Regions of Coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH L. JONES

    1992-01-01

    A flow calorimetric method was developed for comparing the strength and\\/or extent of acid-base bonding in the outer surface and subsurface regions of fine coal particles. This method was applied to an ultrafine sample of a low-sulfur, low-ash bituminous coal. Information about the acid-base bonding in the outer surface region of the fine particles was deduced from heats of interaction

  11. Soluble expression and sodium channel activity of lt16a, a novel framework XVI conotoxin from the M-superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Maojun; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yun; Liu, Junliang; Sun, Dandan; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Yuchao; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2015-05-01

    A peptide toxin, lt16a, from the venom of the worm-hunting Conus litteratus, shares the typical signal peptide sequences of M-superfamily conotoxins, which usually contain six cysteine residues that are arranged in a CC-C-C-CC pattern. Interestingly, lt16a comprises 21 amino acid residues in its mature region and has a cysteine framework XVI, which is arranged in a C-C-CC pattern. The coding region of lt16a was cloned into the pTRX vector and the fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. After cleaving the fusion protein and purifying the protein lt16a using chromatography, the mass of lt16a was found by mass spectrometry to be consistent with the expected mass of 2357.7 Da. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments demonstrated that lt16a could inhibit both the TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium currents in adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of lt16a on TTX-resistant sodium currents was stronger than on TTX-sensitive sodium currents. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a framework XVI conotoxin that can inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel currents in mammalian sensory neurons. This report helps facilitates an understanding of the sequence diversity of conotoxins. PMID:25600641

  12. Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

  13. Effect of Temperature on Xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414: A Calorimetric, Catalytic, and Conformational Study

    PubMed Central

    López, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The secondary structure of xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei is lost in an apparent irreversible cooperative process as temperature is increased with a midpoint transition of 58.8 ± 0.1°C. The shift of the spectral centre of mass above 50°C is also apparently cooperative with midpoint transition of 56.3 ± 0.2°C, but the existence of two isofluorescent points in the fluorescence emission spectra suggests a non-two-state process. Further corroboration comes from differential scanning calorimetry experiments. At protein concentrations ?0.56?mg·mL?1 the calorimetric transition is reversible and the data were fitted to a non-two-state model and deconvoluted into six transitions, whereas at concentrations greater than 0.56?mg·mL?1 the calorimetric transition is irreversible with an exothermic contribution to the thermogram. The apparent Tm increased linearly with the scan rate according to first order inactivation kinetics. The effect of additives on the calorimetric transition of xylanase is dependent on their nature. The addition of sorbitol transforms reversible transitions into irreversible transitions while stabilizing the protein as the apparent Tm increases linearly with sorbitol concentration. d-Glucono-1,5-lactone, a noncompetitive inhibitor in xylanase kinetics, and soluble xylan change irreversible processes into reversible processes at high protein concentration. PMID:25276420

  14. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  15. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  16. Vanadium compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Cortizo; Viviana C. Salice; Susana B. Etcheverry

    1994-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds upon alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and\\u000a vanadyl inhibited both the soluble and particulate ALP activity from UMR.106 cells and from bovine intestinal ALP. We have\\u000a also shown the inhibition of ALP activity in the soluble fraction of osteoblasts by peroxo and hydroperoxo vanadium compounds.\\u000a ALP activity in the particulate fraction

  17. The Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: "US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A major debate is currently underway in the USA about whether there is, in fact, a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce shortage in the country or not. This is the subject of the "Bayer Facts of Science Education XVI: US STEM Workforce Shortage--Myth or Reality? Fortune 1000 Talent Recruiters on the Debate."…

  18. Minor groove binding of the food colorant carmoisine to DNA: spectroscopic and calorimetric characterization studies.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of the food additive carmoisine with herring testes DNA was studied by multifaceted biophysical techniques. Carmoisine exhibited hypochromic effects in absorbance, whereas in fluorescence the intensity enhanced upon complexation with DNA. Energy transfer from the DNA base pairs to carmoisine molecules occurred upon complexation. A groove binding model of interaction was envisaged for carmoisine-DNA complexation from 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst displacement studies. The binding of carmoisine stabilized the DNA structure against thermal denaturation. The binding induced moderate conformational perturbations in the B-form structure of DNA. The binding affinity (10(4) M(-1)) values, calculated from absorbance and fluorescence data, and calorimetry titrations were in close agreement with each other. The binding was characterized to be exothermic and favored by small negative enthalpic and large positive entropic contributions. Salt-dependent calorimetric studies revealed that the binding reaction was dominated by nonpolyelectrolytic forces. The negative heat capacity value suggested the role of hydrophobic effect in the interaction. PMID:24328331

  19. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  20. Interaction of adriamycin with a regulatory element of hmgb1: spectroscopic and calorimetric approach.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Neelam; Narayan Singh, Himanshu; Agarwal, Shweta; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Rajeswari, Moganty R

    2015-08-01

    HMGB1 is a non-histone nuclear protein which plays important role in transcription, variable, diverse and joining (VDJ) recombination, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair, etc. and its over expression is directly correlated with various human malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Because of the clear association between HMGB1 and cancer, we studied the binding of adriamycin (ADM), a well-known anticancer drug with the promoter region (-165 to -183) of hmgb1 by using a variety of spectroscopic, calorimetric techniques, and in-silico molecular modeling. Changes in UV and CD spectral characteristics (intensity and wavelength) of ADM and DNA associated with an induced peak (300 nm) in CD spectrum of DNA and a high binding constant of 2.0 × 10(5) M(-1) suggest a strong and stable complex formation between DNA and ADM. Scatchard analysis of spectroscopic data indicate that ADM binds to DNA in a non-cooperative nature. Further the quenching of fluorescence emission of ADM and isothermal titration calorimetry of ADM in presence of DNA points out to the intercalative mode of ADM binding to DNA which is enthalpically driven with additional small entropic contribution. Results from molecular modeling, Isothermal titration calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that ADM has no marked preference between AT vs. GC base pair in binding to DNA. Therefore, hmgb1 can be considered as a novel potential chemotherapeutic target in treating cancers associated with HMGB1 upregulation. PMID:25311659

  1. Electron energy and charge albedos - calorimetric measurement vs Monte Carlo theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Miller, G.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    A new calorimetric method has been employed to obtain saturated electron energy albedos for Be, C, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, U, and UO/sub 2/ over the range of incident energies from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. The technique was so designed to permit the simultaneous measurement of saturated charge albedos. In the cases of C, Al, Ta, and U the measurements were extended down to about 0.025 MeV. The angle of incidence was varied from 0/sup 0/ (normal) to 75/sup 0/ in steps of 15/sup 0/, with selected measurements at 82.5/sup 0/ in Be and C. In each case, state-of-the-art predictions were obtained from a Monte Carlo model. The generally good agreement between theory and experiment over this extensive parameter space represents a strong validation of both the theoretical model and the new experimental method. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies at low incident energies, especially in high-atomic-number materials, and at all energies in the case of the U energy albedos are not completely understood.

  2. A ternary feldspar-mixing model based on calorimetric data: development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar; Kroll, Herbert

    2010-09-01

    A mixing model for high structural state ternary feldspars in the NaAlSi3O8-KAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8 system is presented based exclusively on calorimetric and volumetric measurements. Comparisons with existing mixing models, which are based on phase-equilibrium experiments, reveal distinct differences. The incorporation of K into Ca-rich plagioclase and of Ca into K-rich alkali feldspar is more strongly limited by our calorimetry-based model, whereas the stability field of Na-rich feldspars is broadened. Natural feldspar assemblages from well-studied magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks (i.e. a teschenite sill in Scotland, the Klokken syenogabbro in Greenland, and a granulite-facies metapelite in Sri Lanka) were used to test the mixing models. It was found that the new model largely eliminates discrepancies between observed and predicted feldspar compositions that were present in earlier attempts. The reasons for the problems associated with phase-equilibrium based mixing models are discussed.

  3. Optical and Calorimetric Studies of Cholesterol-Rich Filamentous, Helical Ribbon and Crystal Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnikova, Y. A.; Elsenbeck, M.; Zastavker, Y. V. [Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA (United States); Kashuri, K; Iannacchione, G. S. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2009-04-19

    Formation of biological self-assemblies at all scales is a focus of studies in fields ranging from biology to physics to biomimetics. Understanding the physico-chemical properties of these self-assemblies may lead to the design of bio-inspired structures and technological applications. Here we examine self-assembled filamentous, helical ribbon, and crystal microstructures formed in chemically defined lipid concentrate (CDLC), a model system for cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile. CDLC consists of cholesterol, bilayer-forming amphiphiles, micelle-forming amphiphiles, and water. Phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy indicate the presence of three microstructure types in all samples studied, and allow for an investigation of the structures' unique geometries. Additionally, confocal microscopy is used for qualitative assessment of surface and internal composition. To complement optical observations, calorimetric (differential-scanning and modulation) experiments, provide the basis for an in-depth understanding of collective and individual thermal behavior. Observed ''transition'' features indicate clustering and ''straightening'' of helical ribbons into short, increasingly thickening, filaments that dissolve with increasing temperature. These results suggest that all microstructures formed in CDLC may coexist in a metastable chemical equilibrium. Further investigation of the CDLC thermal profile should uncover the process of cholesterol crystallization as well as the unique design and function of microstructures formed in this system.

  4. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  5. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  6. Nickel Compounds

    Cancer.gov

    Nickel is a silvery-white metallic element found in the earth’s crust. It can be combined with other elements to form nickel compounds. Because of its unique properties, nickel has many industrial uses. Most nickel is used in metal alloys because it imparts useful properties, such as corrosion resistance, heat resistance, hardness, and strength.

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis of yellow pigments in altarpieces by Valencian artists of the XV and XVI centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. L.; Roldán, C.; Ardid, M.; Navarro, E.

    1999-02-01

    XRF analysis has allowed a quick and precise detection and identification of the inorganic elements that compose the yellow pigments in altarpieces of the XV and XVI centuries painted by the Valencian artists Miguel Alcañiz, Vicente Macip, Juan de Juanes, Hernando Yáñez de la Almedina and Hernando Llanos. The analyses have been carried out with an XRF portable system that consists of a tube of X-rays and detectors of Si(Li) and cadmium zinc telluride. This system has enabled a non-aggressive and non-destructive analysis of many pieces at the Museo de Bellas Artes of Valencia (Spain). Among the yellow pigments we have identified a pigment composed by lead and tin oxides named lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), frequently used in European paintings from the XIV century until the first half of the XVIII century. This fact demonstrates the influence of elements and pictorial techniques from Europe to the region of Valencia.

  8. An IR and Calorimetric Investigation of the Structural, Crystal-Chemical and Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogrossular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Dachs, E.

    2012-04-01

    The garnet class of phases is extremely broad in terms of composition and structural properties. Garnet is found in nature and various synthetic garnet phases have a number of important technical applications. There exist the rock-forming silicate garnets that are so widespread geologically. An additional class is given by the so-called "hydrogarnets" in which the tetrahedral site (Wyckoff position 24d) is empty. At relatively low temperatures there is complete solid solution between Ca3Al2Si3O12 and Ca3Al2H12O12, for example. The substitution mechanism can be written as O4H4 \\lrarr SiO4. The latter, pure OH-containing end-member, which has not been found in nature, is termed katoite/hydrogrossular. Its structure has been investigated by various workers by X-ray and neutron diffraction and by proton NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopic methods. At ambient conditions the structure has the "standard" garnet cubic symmetry of Ia-3d. At high pressures, and possibly at low temperatures, a different structure may occur. We measured the low temperature IR spectra and heat capacity of katoite in order to understand its structural, crystal-chemical and thermophysical properties. A sample of Ca3Al2H12O12 was synthesized hydrothermally in Au capsules at 250 °C and 3 kb water pressure. X-ray powder measurements show that about 98-99% katoite was obtained. Powder IR spectra were recorded between 298 K and 10 K. The measured spectra are considerably different in the high wavenumber region, where O-H stretching modes occur, between 298 K and 10 K. At room temperature the IR-active O-H band located around 3662 cm-1 is broad and it narrows and shifts to higher wavenumbers and also develops structure below about 80 K. Concomitantly, additional weak intensity O-H bands located around 3600 cm-1 begin to appear and they become sharper and increase in intensity with further decreases in temperature down to 10 K. The spectra indicate that the vibrational behavior of individual OH groups and their collective interactions measurably affect the lattice dynamic (i.e. thermodynamic) behavior. The low temperature heat capacity behavior was investigated with a commercially designed relaxation calorimeter between 5 and 300 K on a mg-sized sample. The heat capacity data are well behaved at T < 300 K and show a monotonic decrease in magnitude with decreasing temperature. A standard third-law entropy value of So = 421.7 ± 1.6 J/mol·K was calculated. Using this new calorimetric-based So value and published standard enthalpy of formation data for katoite, a calorimetric-based Gibbs free energy of formation at 298 K can be obtained as ?G°f = -5021.2 kJ/mol. The Cp data show no evidence for any phase transition as possibly expected by the change in OH-mode behavior with decreasing temperature. We have no explanation for the appearance of the additional modes. It is worth noting that the katoite crystal structure in terms of lattice dynamic or thermodynamic behavior should be thought of having OH groups and not O4H4 clusters or polyhedral units as is often written in the literature. The single crystallographic OH group in katoite shows very weak, if any, hydrogen bonding and the H atoms have large amplitudes of vibration. The weak H bonding controls the nature of low energy OH-related vibrations and this leads to its large So value.

  9. A high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor employing ion conduction in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, A.; Lekholm, V.; Thornell, G.; Klintberg, L.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the use of the temperature-dependent ion conductivity of 8 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) in a miniature high-temperature calorimetric flow sensor. The sensor consists of 4 layers of high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) YSZ8 tape with a 400 ?m wide, 100 ?m deep, and 12 500 ?m long internal flow channel. Across the center of the channel, four platinum conductors, each 80 ?m wide with a spacing of 160 ?m, were printed. The two center conductors were used as heaters, and the outer, up- and downstream conductors were used to probe the resistance through the zirconia substrate around the heaters. The thermal profile surrounding the two heaters could be made symmetrical by powering them independently, and hence, the temperature sensing elements could be balanced at zero flow. With nitrogen flowing through the channel, forced convection shifted the thermal profile downstream, and the resistance of the temperature sensing elements diverged. The sensor was characterized at nitrogen flows from 0 to 40 sccm, and resistances at zero-flow from 10 to 50 M?. A peak sensitivity of 3.1 M?/sccm was obtained. Moreover, the sensor response was found to be linear over the whole flow range, with R2 of around 0.999, and easy to tune with the individual temperature control of the heaters. The ability of the sensor to operate in high temperatures makes it promising for use in different harsh environments, e.g., for close integration with microthrusters.

  10. Calorimetric studies of the kinetic unfreezing of molecular motions in hydrated lysozyme, hemoglobin, and myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, G; Mayer, E; Johari, G P

    1994-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies of the glassy states of as-received and hydrated lysozyme, hemoglobin, and myoglobin powders, with water contents of < or = 0.25, < or = 0.30, and < or = 0.29 g/g of protein, show that their heat capacity slowly increases with increasing temperature, without showing an abrupt increase characteristic of glass-->liquid transition. Annealing (also referred to as physical aging) of the hydrated proteins causes their DSC scans to show an endothermic region, similar to an overshoot, immediately above the annealing temperature. This annealing effect appears at all temperatures between approximately 150 and 300 K. The area under these peaks increases with increasing annealing time at a fixed temperature. The effects are attributed to the presence of a large number of local structures in which macromolecular segments diffuse at different time scales over a broad range. The lowest time scale corresponds to the > N-H and -O-H group motions which become kinetically unfrozen at approximately 150-170 K on heating at a rate of 30 K min-1 and which have a relaxation time of 5-10 s in this temperature range. The annealing effects confirm that the individual glass transition of the relaxing local regions is spread over a temperature range up to the denaturation temperature region of the proteins. The interpretation is supported by simulation of DSC scans in which the distribution of relaxation times is assumed to be exceptionally broad and in which annealing done at several temperatures over a wide range produces endothermic effects (or regions of DSC scans) qualitatively similar to those observed for the hydrated proteins. PMID:8130342

  11. Nonisothermal calorimetric study of the precipitation processes in a Cu–1Co–0.5Ti alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Donoso; A. Zúñiga; M. J. Diánez; J. M. Criado

    2010-01-01

    The precipitation processes in a Cu–1.0 at.%Co–0.5 at.%Ti (Cu–1.5 at.%Co2Ti) alloy were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and microhardeness\\u000a measurements. The analysis of the calorimetric curves from room temperature to 900 K shows the presence of two exothermic\\u000a reactions attributed to the formation of CoTi and Co2Ti particles in the copper matrix. On the basis of enthalpy calculations, it

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  14. Aroma Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed G. Dastager

    The increasing demand for natural products in the food industry has encouraged remarkable efforts towards the development\\u000a of biotechnological processes for the production of aroma compounds. This chapter deals with major achievements reported in\\u000a this field, with a special emphasis on the potential lying in plant cell, microbial cultures and enzyme technology for the\\u000a production of a wide range of

  15. Mammalian Exocrine Secretions XVI. Constituents of Secretion of Supplementary Sacculi of Dwarf Hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Burger; D. Smit; H. S. C. Spies; C. Schmidt; U. Schmidt; A. Y. Telitsina

    2001-01-01

    As a first step in a study of the role of the secretion of the supplementary sacculi (buccal secretion) of the dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, almost complete chemical characterization of the secretion was achieved. The 35 compounds identified include carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, a large number of carboxylic acids (representing the bulk of the organic volatile fraction of the

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  19. Energetics of hydrogen bonding in proteins: a model compound study.

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, S. M.; Murphy, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the energetics of amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds in proteins have been explored from the effect of hydroxyl groups on the structure and dissolution energetics of a series of crystalline cyclic dipeptides. The calorimetrically determined energetics are interpreted in light of the crystal structures of the studied compounds. Our results indicate that the amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds both provide considerable enthalpic stability, but that the amide-amide hydrogen bond is about twice that of the amide-hydroxyl. Additionally, the interaction of the hydroxyl group with water is seen most readily in its contributions to entropy and heat capacity changes. Surprisingly, the hydroxyl group shows weakly hydrophobic behavior in terms of these contributions. These results can be used to understand the effects of mutations on the stability of globular proteins. PMID:8819156

  20. Calorimetric AC loss measurement of MgB2 superconducting tape in an alternating transport current and direct magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2012-11-01

    Applications of MgB2 superconductors in electrical engineering have been widely reported, and various studies have been made to define their alternating current (AC) losses. However, studies on the transport losses with an applied transverse DC magnetic field have not been conducted, even though this is one of the favored conditions in applications of practical MgB2 tapes. Methods and techniques used to characterize and measure these losses have so far been grouped into ‘electrical’ and ‘calorimetric’ approaches with external conditions set to resemble the application conditions. In this paper, we present a new approach to mounting the sample and employ the calorimetric method to accurately determine the losses in the concurrent application of AC transport current and DC magnetic fields that are likely to be experienced in practical devices such as generators and motors. This technique provides great simplification compared to the pickup coil and lock-in amplifier methods and is applied to a long length (˜10 cm) superconducting tape. The AC loss data at 20 and 30 K will be presented in an applied transport current of 50 Hz under external DC magnetic fields. The results are found to be higher than the theoretical predictions because of the metallic fraction of the tape that contributes quite significantly to the total losses. The data, however, will allow minimization of losses in practical MgB2 coils and will be used in the verification of numerical coil models.

  1. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for High Precision Measurements of Calorimetric Re-187 and Ho-163 Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Porst, J.-P.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Schafer, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of calorimetric spectra following atomic weak decays, beta (b) and electron capture (EC), of nuclides having a very low Q-value, can provide an impressively high sensitivity to a non-vanishing neutrino mass. The achievable sensitivity in this kind of experiments is directly connected to the performance of the used detectors. In particular an energy resolution of a few eV and a pulse formation time well below 1 microsecond are required. Low temperature Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters (MMCs) for soft X-rays have already shown an energy resolution of 2.0 eV FWHM and a pulse rise-time of about 90 ns for fully micro-fabricated detectors. We present the use of MMCs for high precision measurements of calorimetric spectra following the beta-decay of Re-187 and the EC of Ho-163. We show results obtained with detectors optimized for Re-187 and for Ho-163 experiments respectively. While the detectors equipped with superconducting Re absorbers have not yet reached the aimed performance, a first detector prototype with a Au absorber having implanted Ho-163 ions already shows excellent results. An energy resolution of 12 eV FWHM and a rise time of 90 ns were measured.

  2. Quantitative schlieren diagnostics for the determination of ambient species density, gas temperature and calorimetric power of cold atmospheric plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Bleker, A.; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2015-05-01

    A measurement and evaluation technique for performing quantitative Schlieren diagnostics on an argon-operated cold atmospheric plasma jet is presented. Combined with computational fluid dynamics simulations, the method not only yields the temporally averaged ambient air density and temperature in the effluent of the fully turbulent jet, but also allows for an estimation of the calorimetric power deposited by the plasma. The change of the refractive index due to mixing of argon and air is in the same range as caused by the temperature increase of less than 35 K in the effluent of the plasma jet. The Schlieren contrast therefore needs to be corrected for the contribution from ambient air diffusion. The Schlieren system can be calibrated accurately using the signal obtained from the argon flow when the plasma is turned off. The temperature measured in this way is compared to the value obtained using a fibre-optics temperature probe and shows excellent agreement. By fitting a heat source in a fluid dynamics simulation to match the measured temperature field, the calorimetric power deposited by the plasma jet can be estimated as 1.1 W.

  3. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for High Precision Measurements of Calorimetric 187Re and 163Ho Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Porst, J.-P.; Kempf, S.; Pies, C.; Schäfer, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.

    2012-06-01

    The measurement of calorimetric spectra following atomic weak decays, beta ( ?) and electron capture (EC), of nuclides having a very low Q-value, can provide an impressively high sensitivity to a non-vanishing neutrino mass. The achievable sensitivity in this kind of experiments is directly connected to the performance of the used detectors. In particular an energy resolution of a few eV and a pulse formation time well below 1 ?s are required. Low temperature Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters (MMCs) for soft X-rays have already shown an energy resolution of 2.0 eV FWHM and a pulse rise-time of about 90 ns for fully micro-fabricated detectors. We present the use of MMCs for high precision measurements of calorimetric spectra following the ?-decay of 187Re and the EC of 163Ho. We show results obtained with detectors optimized for 187Re and for 163Ho experiments respectively. While the detectors equipped with superconducting Re absorbers have not yet reached the aimed performance, a first detector prototype with a Au absorber having implanted 163Ho ions already shows excellent results. An energy resolution of 12 eV FWHM and a rise time of 90 ns were measured.

  4. Investigation of a zirconia co-fired ceramic calorimetric microsensor for high-temperature flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Klintberg, Lena; Thornell, Greger

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a flow sensor for high-temperature, or otherwise aggressive, environments, like, e.g. the propulsion system of a small spacecraft. The sensor was fabricated using 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) tape and screen printed platinum paste. A calorimetric flow sensor design was used, with five 80 µm wide conductors, separated by 160 µm, in a 0.4 mm wide, 0.1 mm deep and 12.5 mm long flow channel. The central conductor was used as a heater for the sensor, and the two adjacent conductors were used to resistively measure the heat transferred from the heater by forced convection. The two outermost conductors were used to study the influence of an auxiliary heat source on the sensor. The resistances of the sensor conductors were measured using four-point connections, as the gas flow rate was slowly increased from 0 to 40 sccm, with different power supplied through the central heater, as well as with an upstream or downstream heater powered. In this study, the thermal and electrical integrability of microcomponents on the YSZ8 substrate was of particular interest and, hence, the influence of thermal and ionic conduction in the substrate was studied in detail. The effect of the ion conductivity of YSZ8 was studied by measuring the resistance of a platinum conductor and the resistance between two adjacent conductors on YSZ8, in a furnace at temperatures from 20 to 930 °C and by measuring the resistance with increasing current through a conductor. With this design, the influence of ion conductivity through the substrate became apparent above 700 °C. The sensitivity of the sensor was up to 1 m? sccm?1 in a range of 0–10 sccm. The results show that the signal from the sensor is influenced by the integrated auxiliary heating conductors and that these auxiliary heaters provide a way to balance disturbing heat sources, e.g. thrusters or other electronics, in conjunction with the flow sensor.

  5. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  7. Bulk Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumale, M.; Barbier, T.; Bréard, Y.; Raveau, B.; Kinemuchi, Y.; Funahashi, R.; Guilmeau, E.

    2014-06-01

    The thermoelectric properties of Nb-substituted TiS2 compounds have been investigated in the temperature range of 300 K to 700 K. Polycrystalline samples in the series Ti1- x Nb x S2 with x varying from 0 to 0.05 were prepared using solid-liquid-vapor reaction and spark plasma sintering. Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction data are consistent with the existence of full solid solution for x ? 0.05. Transport measurements reveal that niobium can be considered as an electron donor when substituted at Ti sites. Consequently, the electrical resistivity and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient decrease as the Nb content increases, due to an increase in the carrier concentration. Moreover, due to mass fluctuation, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced, leading to a slight increase of ZT values as compared with TiS2.

  8. Calorimetric Study of Adsorption of Alkanes in High-Silica Zeolites Scott Savitz, Flor Siperstein, Raymond J. Gorte, and Alan L. Myers

    E-print Network

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    and adsorption isotherms were measured for combinations of three alkanes (methane, ethane, propane) on a series Section Isosteric heats of adsorption and adsorption isotherms were measured for aCalorimetric Study of Adsorption of Alkanes in High-Silica Zeolites Scott Savitz, Flor Siperstein

  9. Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson, Ming Zhang, Zishu Zhang, and Leslie H. Allen*

    E-print Network

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Glass Transition in Ultrathin Polymer Films: Calorimetric Study Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Eric A. Olson is used to observe the glass transition in thin (1­400 nm) spin-cast films of polystyrene, poly (2-vinyl numbers: 64.70.Pf, 36.20.­r, 68.60.Dv The glass transition in thin polymer films attracts tre- mendous

  10. Synthesis of functionalized tetrazenes as energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Heppekausen, Johannes; Klapötke, Thomas M; Sproll, Stefan M

    2009-03-20

    1,4-Bis[1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]-1,4-dimethyl-2-tetrazene (12a), 1,4-bis[1-isopropoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]-1,4-dimethyl-2-tetrazene (12b), and 1,4-bis[1-carboxymethyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]-1,4-dimethyl-2-tetrazene (13) have been synthesized as new nitrogen-rich compounds. The tetrazenes were obtained by oxidation of the corresponding tetrazolylhydrazines using bromine. Moreover, a new method to prepare tetrazolylhydrazines in high yield using 5-bromotetrazoles has been developed. 12a, 12b, and 13 were characterized using vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman), mass spectrometry, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of 12a, 12b, and 13 were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the energetic properties of 12a, 12b, and 13 have been investigated using DSC and bomb calorimetric measurements. The sensitivity data toward impact and friction has been determined using BAM methods. PMID:19222166

  11. Measurement And Modeling Of Fe VIII To Fe XVI M-shell Emission In The Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Lepson, J. K.; Hurwitz, M.

    2007-05-01

    The solar EUV emission near 200 Å is presently being studied with high resolution with the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS), which focuses on the emission between 90 and 270 Å, and with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode, which focuses on the region 180 to 204 Å and 250 to 290 Å. The Solar EUV Experiment on the TIMED spacecraft also observes this spectral band but with greatly reduced resolution. The spectrum in this region is dominated by emission from moderate charge states of iron. The interpretation of the data relies on accurate and complete plasma emission models, notably CHIANTI. We have performed a series of laboratory measurements of the 3-3 emission from M-shell iron ions. The measurements cover the range 170 - 250 Å and are made at an electron density of about 1011 cm-3. Emission from Fe VIII through Fe XVI has been identified. Excellent agreement with CHIANTI predictions is found. A few weak transitions are noted in the laboratory data that are predicted by CHIANTI to be vanishingly small and should not have been observed. These are tentatively attributed to transitions in Fe XV. A comparison with observations from CHIPS is also presented. This work was supported in part by NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program. Work at UC-LLNL was performed under the auspices of the DOE by under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  13. Mammalian exocrine secretions XVI. Constitutents of secretion of supplementary sacculi of dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Smit, D; Spies, H S; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, U; Telitsina, A Y

    2001-06-01

    As a first step in a study of the role of the secretion of the supplementary sacculi (buccal secretion) of the dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, almost complete chemical characterization of the secretion was achieved. The 35 compounds identified include carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, a large number of carboxylic acids (representing the bulk of the organic volatile fraction of the secretion), phenol, 2-piperidone, indole, two long-chain hydroxyesters, cholestrol, desmosterol, and lanosterol. The position of the double bonds in gamma-icosadienyl-gamma-butyrolactone and gamma-henicosadienyl-gamma-butyrolactone could not be determined, and these two compounds remained only partially characterized. Large variations were found in the relative concentrations in which the short-chain carboxylic acids are present in the secretions of individual animals, and although this aspect was not investigated in sufficient detail in the present investigation, the difference in the carboxylic acid profiles of the secretions of individual animals could play a role in individual recognition in this animal. PMID:11504028

  14. Importance of 241 Am Determination in the Characterization of PuO2 Standards for Calorimetric Assay.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) standards are often used both as heat standards and isotopic standards for calorimetric assay. Calorimetric assay is the combination of the power in watts measured in a calorimeter with the effective specific power (P{sub eff}) in watts/g Pu, determined either by nondestructive gamma-ray assay or by destructive mass spectrometry, to yield the total elemental plutonium mass in the sample. To use a PuO{sub 2} sample as a heat standard for calorimetry, one must determine both the plutonium mass and P{sub eff} with very small uncertainties and then calculate the sample watts from the known plutonium mass, specific powers, and isotopic composition. Well-characterized PuO{sub 2} standards have plutonium mass values determined by analytical chemistry with a precision and accuracy on the order of 0.1%-0.2% relative to the total mass of the sample. Mass spectrometry, typically used to determine the isotopic fractions of plutonium standards, is very accurate and precise for the major isotopes but is somewhat less precise for low-abundance isotopes. The characterization of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in the standard is also of great importance because {sup 241}Am can contribute significantly to P{sub eff} and to the heat output of the standard. The determination of the {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio in a plutonium-bearing sample is a process that is less standardized than mass spectrometry. There are no certified reference materials (CRMs) traceable to the national measurement system for {sup 241}Am in plutonium, and routine analytical {sup 241}Am/Pu ratio measurements often exhibit uncertainties of several percent relative to the total plutonium or greater.

  15. Raman spectra of gases. XVI - Torsional transitions in ethanol and ethanethiol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durig, J. R.; Bucy, W. E.; Wurrey, C. J.; Carreira, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Raman spectra of gaseous ethanol and ethanethiol have been investigated. Thiol torsional fundamentals for the gauche conformer of EtSH and EtSD have been observed and the asymmetric potential function for this vibration has been calculated. Methyl torsional transitions and overtones have also been observed for both of these molecules. Barriers to internal rotation for the methyl top are calculated to be 3.77 and 3.84 kcal/mol for the EtSH and EtSD compounds, respectively. Hydroxyl torsional fundamentals were observed at 207 and 170 per cm in the EtOH and EtOD spectra, respectively. Overtones of the methyl torsion in both molecules yield a barrier to internal rotation of 3.62 kcal/mol for the gauche conformer.

  16. Calorimetric and computational study of thiacyclohexane 1-oxide and thiacyclohexane 1,1-dioxide (thiane sulfoxide and thiane sulfone). Enthalpies of formation and the energy of the S=O bond.

    PubMed

    Roux, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Jiménez, Pilar; Dávalos, Juan Zenón; Notario, Rafael; Guzmán-Mejía, Ramón; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2003-03-01

    A rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter specifically designed for the study of sulfur-containing compounds [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 1999, 31, 635] has been used for the determination of the enthalpy of formation of thiane sulfone, 4, Delta(f)H(o) m(g) = -394.8 +/- 1.5 kJ x mol(-1). This value stands in stark contrast with the enthalpy of formation reported for thiane itself, Delta(f)H(o) m(g) = -63.5 +/- 1.0 kJ x mol(-1), and gives evidence of the increased electronegativity of the sulfur atom in the sulfonyl group, which leads to significantly stronger C-SO2 bonds. Given the known enthalpy of formation of atomic oxygen in the gas phase, Delta(f)H(o) m(O,g) = +249.18 kJ x mol(-1), and the reported bond dissociation energy for the S=O bond in alkyl sulfones, BDE(S=O) = +470.0 kJ x mol(-1), it was possible to estimate the enthalpy of formation of thiane sulfoxide, 5, a hygroscopic compound not easy to use in experimental calorimetric measurements, Delta(f)H(o) m(5) = -174.0 kJ x mol(-1). The experimental enthalpy of formation of both 4 and 5 were closely reproduced by theoretical calculations at the G2(MP2)+ level, Delta(f)H(o) m(4) = -395.0 kJ x mol(-1) and Delta(f)H(o) m(5) = -178.0 kJ x mol(-1). Finally, calculated G2(MP2)+ values for the bond dissociation energy of the S=O bond in cyclic sulfoxide 5 and sulfone 4 are +363.7 and +466.2 kJ x mol(-1), respectively. PMID:12608789

  17. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, F. M.; Burnet, N. G.; Jena, R.; Plaistow, R.; Parker, M. A.; Thomas, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk.

  18. Measurement of the Fe VIII-Fe XVI 3-3 Emission in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Comparison with CHIANTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Lepson, J. K.

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory measurements of the n = 3 to n = 3 emission from M-shell iron ions are presented and compared to synthetic spectra from the CHIANTI spectral model. The measurements cover the range 170-290 Å and are made at an electron density of about 1011 cm-3. Emission from Fe VIII through Fe XVI has been identified. Excellent agreement with CHIANTI predictions is found for most lines. Twenty weaker features are noted in the laboratory data that are either absent in CHIANTI or have recently been added and correspond to lines that have not been verified by experimental measurements. A few of these lines may have already been observed (but not yet identified) in the Sun. The features are attributed to emission from various charge states of iron, notably Fe IX and Fe XIII, and two features have been identified as transitions in Fe VIII, i.e., the 3p 63d 2 D 5/2-3p 53d 2 2 P 3/2 and the 3p 63d 2 D 3/2-3p 53d 2 2 P 1/2 transitions at 225.25 ± 0.12 and 226.35 ± 0.10 Å, respectively. Seven lines in Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 200 and 205 Å are noted for which the wavelengths in the CHIANTI database disagree with those in the current database of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Our measurements of five of these lines appear to agree with the assignments used in CHIANTI.

  19. Spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric studies on the unfolding of Trichosanthes dioica seed lectin. Similar modes of thermal and chemical denaturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kavitha; Musti J. Swamy

    2009-01-01

    Physico-chemical and unfolding studies have been carried out on Trichosanthes dioica seed lectin (TDSL). The lectin exhibited maximum activity between pH 7.0 and 10.0, which decreased steeply at lower pH. The\\u000a hemagglutination activity of TDSL was unaffected in the temperature range 4–50°C, but decreased rapidly at higher temperatures.\\u000a Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicate that thermal unfolding of TDSL is an irreversible

  20. A Calorimetric Study of Almandine: Are the Thermodynamic Properties of the End-Member Aluminosilicate Garnets Finally Known Quantitatively?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachs, E.; Geiger, C. A.; Benisek, A.

    2012-12-01

    The aluminosilicate garnets (E3Al2Si3O12 with E = Fe2+, Mn2+, Ca, Mg) form an important rock-forming mineral group. Much study has been directed toward determining their thermodynamic properties. The iron end-member almandine (Fe3Al2Si3O12) is a key phase in many petrologic investigations. As part of an ongoing calorimetric and thermodynamic study of the aluminosilicate garnets, the heat capacity of three synthetic well-characterized polycrystalline almandine garnets and one natural almandine-rich single crystal was measured. The various garnets were characterized by optical microscopy, electron-microprobe analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Heat capacity measurements were performed in the temperature range 3 to 300 K using relaxation calorimetry and between 282 and 764 K using DSC methods. From the former, So values between 336.7 ± 0.8 and 337.8 ± 0.8 J/molK are calculated for the different samples. The smaller value is considered the best So for end-member stoichiometric almandine, because it derives from the "best" Fe3+-free synthetic sample. The Cp behavior for almandine at T > 298 K is given by the polynomial (in J/molK): Cp = 649.06(±4) - 3837.57(±122)T-0.5 - 1.44682(±0.06)107T-2 + 1.94834(±0.09)109T-3, which is calculated using DSC data together with one published heat-content datum determined by transposed-drop calorimetry along with a new determination that gives H1181K - H302K = 415.0 ± 3.2 kJ/mole. Almandine shows a ?-type heat-capacity anomaly at low temperatures resulting from a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition at about 9 K. The lattice heat capacity was calculated using the single-parameter phonon dispersion model of Komada and Westrum (1997), which allows the non-lattice heat capacity (Cex) behavior to be modelled. An analysis shows the presence of an electronic heat-capacity contribution (Cel - Schottky anomaly) around 17 K that is superimposed on a larger magnetic heat-capacity effect (Cmag). The calculated lattice entropy at 298.15 K is Svib = 303.3 J/molK and it contributes about 90% to the total standard entropy at 298 K. The non-lattice entropy is Sex = 33.4 J/molK and consists of Smag = 32.1 J/molK and Sel = 1.3 J/molK contributions. Using the So = 336.7 J/molK value and the Cp polynomial for almandine, we derived its enthalpy of formation, ?Hof, from an analysis of experimental phase equilibrium results on the reactions almandine + 3rutile = 3ilmenite + sillimanite + 2quartz and 2ilmenite = 2iron + 2rutile + O2. ?Hof = -5269.63 kJ/mol was obtained. So for grossular, pyrope, spessartine, and almandine, as well as their Cp behavior to high temperatures, have all been measured calorimetrically. Uncertainties in older calorimetric studies appear to have been resolved. The standard thermodynamic properties Vo and So are now well determined for all four garnets. In addition, ?Hof for all, except possibly spessartine, also appear to be well known.

  1. Population and habitat on the feudal domain iria at the beginning of the XVIth century Eugen Ghita Populaie i habitat pe domeniul cetii iria la nceputul secolului al XVI lea

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Population and habitat on the feudal domain iria at the beginning of the XVIth century Eugen Ghita Populaie i habitat pe domeniul cetii iria la începutul secolului al XVI ­lea 1 Populaie i habitat pe and habitat on the feudal domain iria at the beginning of the XVIth century" is based on a statistical

  2. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  3. Electrical properties and conduction mechanism of [C2H5NH3]2CuCl4 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, C. Ben; Karoui, K.; Jomni, F.; Guidara, K.; Rhaiem, A. Ben

    2015-02-01

    The [(C2H5)NH3]2CuCl4 compound was prepared and characterized by several technique: the X-ray powder diffraction confirms the purity of the synthetized compound, the differential scanning calorimetric show several phase transitions at 236 K, 330 K, 357 K and 371 K, the dialectical properties confirms the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 238 K, which is reported by V. Kapustianyk et al. (2007) [1]. The two semi-circles observed in the complex impedance identify the presence of the grain interior and grain boundary contributions to the electrical response in this material. The equivalent circuit is modeled by a combination series of two parallel RP-CPE circuits. The temperature dependence of the alternative current conductivity (?g) and direct current conductivity (?dc) confirm the observed transitions in the calorimetric study. The (AC) electrical conduction in [(C2H5)NH3]2CuCl4 was studied by two processes that can be attributed to a hopping transport mechanism: the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling (NSPT) model in phase III and the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model in phases I, II, IV, V and VI.

  4. A base-triggerable catanionic mixed lipid system: isothermal titration calorimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Tarafdar, Pradip K; Reddy, S Thirupathi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-11-01

    Lipid-based, base-triggerable systems will be useful for colon specific targeted delivery of drugs and pharmaceuticals. In light of this, a catanionic surfactant system, composed of O-lauroylethanolamine hydrochloride (OLEA·HCl) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), has been designed. The aggregates formed by near equimolar mixtures of OLEA·HCl-SDS have shown lability at basic pH, indicating that the system may be useful for developing colon specific drug delivery system(s). Turbidimetric and isothermal titration calorimetric studies revealed that OLEA·HCl forms a 1:1 (mol/mol) complex with SDS. The three-dimensional structure of the equimolar OLEA-SDS complex has been solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Analysis of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice revealed a hydrogen bonding belt in the headgroup region of the complex and dispersion interactions among the acyl chains as the main factors stabilizing the complex. These observations will be useful in understanding specific interactions between lipids in more complex systems, e.g., biomembranes. PMID:20936832

  5. Calorimetric and Light Scattering Investigations of the Transition from Spherical to Wormlike Micelles of C14TAB Triggered by Salicylate.

    PubMed

    Ito, Thiago Heiji; Rodrigues, Roberta Kamei; Loh, Watson; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2015-06-01

    Although wormlike micelles (WLM) were first described more than 30 years ago, many aspects of their formation process are still unclear. Herein, a systematic experimental investigation of the process for wormlike micelle (WLM) formation in mixtures of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) and salicylate (2-hydroxybenzoate) was carried out. This system was used as a model to investigate the conditions for the formation of the giant aggregate. For comparison, the other two isomers of salicylate (3- and 4-hydroxybenzoate) were also investigated, once in these cases wormlike micelles are not formed. The studies were based on calorimetric titration, static light scattering, and rheological measurements. Enthalpy changes upon titration of C14TAB into 2-hydroxybenzoate solutions revealed a highly cooperative and exothermic process that was associated with micelle growth. The size of the aggregates, obtained by static light scattering measurements, confirms the shape transition. In addition, the correlation of these two sets of results with measurements of micelle charge surface indicates that this transition occurs around the point of charge neutralization. PMID:25978073

  6. Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors for X-Ray Spectroscopy on Trapped Highly-Charged Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors (CLTDs) has been proposed at the Heavy-Ion TRAP facility HITRAP which is currently being installed at the Helmholtz Research Center for Heavy Ion Research GSI. This cold ion trap setup will allow the investigation of X-rays from ions practically at rest, for which the excellent energy resolution of CLTDs can be used to its full advantage. However, the relatively low intensities at HITRAP demand larger solid angles and an optimized cryogenic setup. The influence of external magnetic fields has to be taken into account. CLTDs will also be a substantial part of the instrumental equipment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Heavy Ion Research (FAIR), for which a wide variety of high-precision X-ray spectroscopy experiments has been proposed. This contribution will give an overview on the chances and challenges for the application of CLTDs at HITRAP as well as perspectives for future experiments at the FAIR facility.

  7. Backbone nuclear relaxation characteristics and calorimetric investigation of the human Grb7-SH2/erbB2 peptide complex

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Monika; Spuches, Anne M.; Guth, Ethan C.; Daugherty, Margaret A.; Wilcox, Dean E.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Grb7 is a member of the Grb7 family of proteins, which also includes Grb10 and Grb14. All three proteins have been found to be overexpressed in certain cancers and cancer cell lines. In particular, Grb7 (along with the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB2) is overexpressed in 20%–30% of breast cancers. Grb7 binds to erbB2 and may be involved in cell signaling pathways that promote the formation of metastases and inflammatory responses. In a prior study, we reported the solution structure of the Grb7-SH2/erbB2 peptide complex. In this study, T1, T2, and steady-state NOE measurements were performed on the Grb7-SH2 domain, and the backbone relaxation behavior of the domain is discussed with respect to the potential function of an insert region present in all three members of this protein family. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies were completed measuring the thermodynamic parameters of the binding of a 10-residue phosphorylated peptide representative of erbB2 to the SH2 domain. These measurements are compared to calorimetric studies performed on other SH2 domain/phosphorylated peptide complexes available in the literature. PMID:15930003

  8. Complexation of manganese(II) by cyclohexano-15-crown-5 in propylene carbonate: Calorimetric and X-ray crystallographic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yanpei; Burns, J.H.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-01-04

    Calorimetric titrimetry reveals that cyclohexano-15-crown-5 (C15C5) forms a 1:1 complex with Mn(II) ions (2.5 mM) in propylene carbonate (PC) solution to which was added levels of water up to 134 mM. The reaction proceeds with a strong driving force (log K = 4.7-5.0) and is enthalpically driven overall, but the magnitude of the enthalpy change decreases with increasing water concentration in the case of the Mn(II) nitrate salt. A minor anion effect occurs in which the trifluoromethansulfonate ion gives slightly more negative values of {Delta}H and T{Delta}S than the nitrate ion. Values of log K, however, do not change appreciably with increasing water concentration, nor are they dependent on the anion. The crystal structure of Mn(C15C5)(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} was determined, showing that the Mn(II) ion is coordinated by a pentagonal bipyramid of oxygen atoms provided by the equatorial crown {Angstrom}, b=14.145(1) {Angstrom}, c = 13,420(1) {Angstrom} {beta} = 100.31(2){degrees}, V = 5028 {Angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 8, t = 26 {degrees}C. For 2178 reflections with I > {sigma}(I), and 325 parameters, R(F) = 0.050 and R{sub w}(F) = 0.054.

  9. Examination of the calorimetric spectrum to determine the neutrino mass in low-energy electron capture decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. G. H.

    2015-03-01

    Background: The standard kinematic method for determining neutrino mass from the ? decay of tritium or other isotope is to measure the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. A similar distortion of the "visible energy" remaining after electron capture is caused by neutrino mass. There has been a resurgence of interest in using this method with 163Ho, driven by technological advances in microcalorimetry. Recent theoretical analyses offer reassurance that there are no significant theoretical uncertainties. Purpose: The theoretical analyses consider only single vacancy states in the daughter 163Dy atom. It is necessary to consider configurations with more than one vacancy that can be populated owing to the change in nuclear charge. Method: The shakeup and shake-off theory of Carlson and Nestor is used as a basis for estimating the population of double-vacancy states. Results: A spectrum of satellites associated with each primary vacancy created by electron capture is presented. Conclusions: The theory of the calorimetric spectrum is more complicated than has been described heretofore. There are numerous shakeup and shake-off satellites present across the spectrum, and some may be very near the endpoint. The spectrum shape is presently not understood well enough to permit a sensitive determination of the neutrino mass in this way.

  10. Thermodynamic model for calorimetric and phase coexistence properties of coal derived fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1991-10-01

    On September 1, 1989 work was initiated on a project to extend the available vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) model for coal fluids to allow satisfactory predictions of excess enthalpies of coal liquids at high pressures. The available vapor liquid equilibrium model was developed with support from previous grant from DOE-PETC (Grant no. DE-FG22-89PC90541). The current project also involves measurement of some model compound VLE data and chromatographic characterization of coal liquids for distribution of heteroatoms. A computational thermodynamic model for VLE, excess enthalpies and heat capacities of coal derived liquids has been developed. The model uses the modified UNIFAC correlation for the liquid phase. Some unavailable UNIFAC interactions parameters have been regressed from experimental VLE and excess enthalpy data. The computations are carried out using the method of continuous thermodynamics. Mode is used to derive interesting conclusions on the effect of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms on the thermodynamic properties of coal liquids. When compared with limited experimental data available for coal liquids the model shows good agreement. Some progress has been made on binary VLE measurements and size exclusion chromatography of coal liquids.

  11. Thermodynamic model for calorimetric and phase coexistence properties of coal derived fluids. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1991-10-01

    On September 1, 1989 work was initiated on a project to extend the available vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) model for coal fluids to allow satisfactory predictions of excess enthalpies of coal liquids at high pressures. The available vapor liquid equilibrium model was developed with support from previous grant from DOE-PETC (Grant no. DE-FG22-89PC90541). The current project also involves measurement of some model compound VLE data and chromatographic characterization of coal liquids for distribution of heteroatoms. A computational thermodynamic model for VLE, excess enthalpies and heat capacities of coal derived liquids has been developed. The model uses the modified UNIFAC correlation for the liquid phase. Some unavailable UNIFAC interactions parameters have been regressed from experimental VLE and excess enthalpy data. The computations are carried out using the method of continuous thermodynamics. Mode is used to derive interesting conclusions on the effect of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms on the thermodynamic properties of coal liquids. When compared with limited experimental data available for coal liquids the model shows good agreement. Some progress has been made on binary VLE measurements and size exclusion chromatography of coal liquids.

  12. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  13. Regulating compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    (1) The Pew Charitable Trusts identified 27 compounding incidents that resulted in 89 deaths since 2001. (2) Unlike drug manufacturers, compounding pharmacies are generally not required to report adverse events associated with their products to the FDA. (3) Federal law on drug compounding was updated in 2013 to create a new group of compounders called "outsourcing facilities." Over 50 facilities in 23 states are now registered with the FDA. PMID:26137607

  14. Container compounds - stable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.V.; Tatevskii, V.M.; Yarovoi, S.S.; Bolotin, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the question of the stability of container compounds. As stability criteria the authors use the lifetime of the container compound. Quantitative estimates were obtained by drawing on the theory of quasistationary (resonance) states. The energy levels and the lifetimes for these levels, which are the lifetimes for the container compounds, are calculated with subsequent consideration of the Schroedinger equation. Numerical characteristics are obtained for various container compounds.

  15. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41? and 46?. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work. PMID:24505077

  16. Localized Recrystallization in Cast Al-Si-Mg Alloy during Solution Heat Treatment: Dilatometric and Calorimetric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, S. K.; Warke, V.; Shankar, S.; Apelian, D.

    2011-10-01

    During heat treatment, the work piece experiences a range of heating rates depending upon the sizes and types of furnace. When the Al-Si-Mg cast alloy is heated to the solutionizing temperature, recrystallization takes place during the ramp-up stage. The effect of heating rate on recrystallization in the A356 (Al-Si-Mg) alloy was studied using dilatometric and calorimetric methods. Recrystallization in as-cast Al-Si alloys is a localized event and is confined to the elasto-plastic zone surrounding the eutectic Si phase; there is no evidence of recrystallization in the center of the primary Al dendritic region. The size of the elasto-plastic zone is of the same order of magnitude as the Si particles, and recrystallized grains are observed in the elasto-plastic region near the Si particles. The coefficient of thermal expansion of Al is an order of magnitude greater than Si, and thermal stresses are generated due to the thermal mismatch between the Al phase and Si particles providing the driving force for recrystallization. In contrast, recrystallization in Al wrought alloy (7075) occurs uniformly throughout the matrix, stored energy due to cold work being the driving force for recrystallization in wrought alloys. The activation energy for recrystallization in as-cast A356 alloy is 127 KJ/mole. At a slow heating rate of 4.3 K/min, creep occurs during the heating stage of solution heat treatment. However, creep does not occur in samples heated at higher heating rates, namely, 520, 130, and 17.3 K/min.

  17. N- Acetyl- l-prolyl- l-leucyl-glycinamide : X-ray structure, energy minimization and calorimetric determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliti, Raffaella; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; De Sena, Cira; Barone, Guido

    1998-02-01

    A solid-state study of N- acetyl- l-prolyl- l-leucyl-glycinamide hemihydrate (NAPLGA), C 15H 26N 4O 4·0.5H 2O has been performed using single crystal X-ray diffraction method and calorimetric determinations of the fusion thermodynamic parameters. Conformational energy map of Ac?Pro?Leu?Gly?NH 2 molecule has also been evaluated. In the crystal, the molecular backbone is folded back between Leu and Gly residues and the conformation is stabilized by a 1 ? 4 intramolecular H-bond. In this manner a ten-membered cyclic structure with ?-turn type II conformation is formed. Prolyl residue is in a slightly distorted Cs?C ?- exo form and Leu side-chain adopts the energetically favoured t( g+t) conformation. Crystal packing is characterized by four intermolecular hydrogen bonds which involve all the donor groups. The crystallization water placed on a binary axis acts as a bridge, through two H-bonds, between two-fold related peptide molecules. All the hydrogen bonds assemble in wide layers extending parallel to the ab plane of a C2 space group. Along the c direction, adjacent layers are separated by regions characterized by loose van der Waals interactions. Potential energy calculations have been carried out using procedures as in ECEPP (empirical conformational energy program for peptides) and AMBER programs and the most favoured conformations have been analysed in comparison with the one observed in the hydrated crystal. The observed conformation is very close to a relative minimum, whose energy is only 4 kJ mol -1 ( ECEPP procedure) higher than that of the calculated absolute minimum. Thermodynamic properties concerning the fusion, when compared with those of other correlated N-acetyl peptidoamides, suggest that the intramolecular hydrogen bond is probably maintained also in NAPLGA molten, partially limiting the conformational freedom of each peptide molecule.

  18. Slovenica XVI—XIX ??. ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? (??????????) ???????????? (? ????????????????? ?????????????)

    E-print Network

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    2001-01-01

    University possesses the necessary materials for research on the history of the Slovene language. SLOVENE: Znanstvena knjižnica Univerze v Tartuju, ki danes obsega ve? kot pet milijonov enot, je bila ustanovljena leta 1802. V njej je med drugim tudi ve? knjig...

  19. Exploring the comparative binding aspects of benzophenanthridine plant alkaloid chelerythrine with RNA triple and double helices: a spectroscopic and calorimetric approach.

    PubMed

    Haque, Lucy; Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Bhuiya, Sutanwi; Das, Suman

    2015-06-24

    A comparative study on the interaction of a benzophenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine (CHL) with RNA triplex poly(U).poly(A)*poly(U) (hereafter U.A*U, .(dot) and *(asterisk) represent Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairing respectively) and its parent duplex poly(A).poly(U) (A.U) was carried out by using a combination of various spectroscopic, viscometric and calorimetric techniques. The interaction was characterized by hypochromic and bathochromic effects in the absorption spectrum, the increase of thermal melting temperature, enhancement in solution viscosity, and perturbation in the circular dichroic spectrum. The binding constant calculated by using spectrophotometric data was in the order of 10(5) for both forms of RNA, but it was greater for triplex RNA (30.2 × 10(5) M(-1)) than duplex RNA (3.6 × 10(5) M(-1)). Isothermal titration calorimetric data are in good agreement with the spectrophotometric data. The data indicated stronger binding of CHL to the triplex structure of RNA compared to the native duplex structure. Thermal melting studies indicated greater stabilization of the Hoogsteen base paired third strand of the RNA triplex compared to its Watson-Crick strands. The mode of binding of CHL to both U.A*U and A.U was intercalation as revealed from fluorescence quenching, viscosity measurements and sensitization of the fluorescence experiment. Thermodynamic data obtained from isothermal calorimetric measurements revealed that association was favoured by both a negative enthalpy change and a positive entropy change. Taken together, our results suggest that chelerythrine binds and stabilizes the RNA triplex more strongly than its respective parent duplex. The results presented here may be useful for formulating effective antigene strategies involving benzophenanthridine alkaloids and the RNA triplex. PMID:26073991

  20. Formation and emission of volatile polonium compound by microbial activity and polonium methylation with methylcobalamin.

    PubMed

    Momoshima, N; Song, L X; Osaki, S; Maeda, Y

    2001-07-15

    We observed biologically mediated emission of Po from culture solution inoculated sea sediment extract and incubated under natural light/dark cycle condition or dark condition the emitted Po compound would be lipophilic because of effective collection in organic solvent. Sterilization of the culture medium with antibiotics or CuSO4 completely suppressed growth of microorganisms and resulted in no emission of Po, indicating biological activity of microorganisms is responsible for formation and emission of volatile Po compound. Po emission also occurred when seawater was used as a culture medium. Our finding indicates a possibility of biotic source for atmospheric Po in the environment, which has been believed to be originated from abiotic sources. We compared emission behavior of Po and S in the culture experiments, the elements belong to XVI group in the Periodical Table, and consider that their emission mechanisms involved would be different though the emission of both elements is supported by biological activity of microorganisms. One of the chemical forms of S emitted was confirmed to be dimethyl sulfide (DMS) but that of Po is not known. Methylation experiments of Po with methylcobalamin demonstrated a formation and emission of volatile Po compound. The methylation of Po with methylcobalamin might be related to the observed Po emission in the culture experiments. PMID:11478248

  1. Calorimetric investigation of the hydrogen interaction with Ti 0.9Zr 0.1Mn 1.2V 0.1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Yu. Anikina; Victor N. Verbetsky

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we compare such thermodynamic functions as partial molar enthalpies and partial molar entropies of the reaction of the hydrogen desorption from the Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.2V0.1-H and Ti0.9Zr0.1Mn1.5V0.8-H systems, which were calculated on the base of data obtained from the study of these systems by means of P–C measurements and the calorimetric method at pressure up to 50 atm and

  2. Drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble compounds using lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Ayano; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Miyamoto, Yuya; Inoue, Katsuaki; Kume, Satoshi; Lee, Young-Ho; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Shimamoto, Shigeru; Nishimura, Shigenori; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Goto, Yuji; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi; Inui, Takashi

    2012-04-10

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and a secretory lipid-transporter protein, which binds a wide variety of hydrophobic small molecules. Here we show the feasibility of a novel drug delivery system (DDS), utilizing L-PGDS, for poorly water-soluble compounds such as diazepam (DZP), a major benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, and 6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), an ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist and anticonvulsant. Calorimetric experiments revealed for both compounds that each L-PGDS held three molecules with high binding affinities. By mass spectrometry, the 1:3 complex of L-PGDS and NBQX was observed. L-PGDS of 500?M increased the solubility of DZP and NBQX 7- and 2-fold, respectively, compared to PBS alone. To validate the potential of L-PGDS as a drug delivery vehicle in vivo, we have proved the prospective effects of these compounds via two separate delivery strategies. First, the oral administration of a DZP/L-PGDS complex in mice revealed an increased duration of pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex. Second, the intravenous treatment of ischemic gerbils with NBQX/L-PGDS complex showed a protective effect on delayed neuronal cell death at the hippocampal CA1 region. We propose that our novel DDS could facilitate pharmaceutical development and clinical usage of various water-insoluble compounds. PMID:22226778

  3. Dynamic fuzzy c-means (dFCM) clustering and its application to calorimetric data reconstruction in high-energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhir, Radha Pyari; Muhuri, Sanjib; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2012-07-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, calorimetric data reconstruction requires a suitable clustering technique in order to obtain accurate information about the shower characteristics such as the position of the shower and energy deposition. Fuzzy clustering techniques have high potential in this regard, as they assign data points to more than one cluster, thereby acting as a tool to distinguish between overlapping clusters. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is one such clustering technique that can be applied to calorimetric data reconstruction. However, it has a drawback: it cannot easily identify and distinguish clusters that are not uniformly spread. A version of the FCM algorithm called dynamic fuzzy c-means (dFCM) allows clusters to be generated and eliminated as required, with the ability to resolve non-uniformly distributed clusters. Both the FCM and dFCM algorithms have been studied and successfully applied to simulated data of a sampling tungsten-silicon calorimeter. It is seen that the FCM technique works reasonably well, and at the same time, the use of the dFCM technique improves the performance.

  4. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  5. Calorimetric and acoustic emission study of martensitic transformation in single-crystalline Ni2MnGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, László Z.; Szabó, Sándor; Daróczi, Lajos; Beke, Dezs? L.

    2014-12-01

    The jerky character of austenite-martensite phase transformation in Ni2MnGa single crystals (with 10M martensite structure) has been investigated by thermal cycling using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and by detection of acoustic emissions (AEs) at low cooling and heating rates (0.1 K/min and below). It is illustrated that, besides the low cooling and heating rate, mass and surface roughness are also important parameters in optimizing the best signal/noise ratio in order to obtain individual peaks suitable for statistical analysis. Three types of samples, differing in the twin structure and twin boundary behavior, were investigated with and without surface roughening made by electro-erosion. The statistical analysis, carried out for both (thermal and acoustic) types of signals, provided power-law behavior. In calorimetric measurements the energy exponents, obtained in cooling, were the same within the experimental errors (? =1.7 ±0.2 ) for the three samples investigated. In acoustic emission experiments the energy and amplitude, ? , exponents were determined both for cooling and heating. The exponents for cooling and heating runs are slightly different. They are larger for heating for both ? and ? , in accordance with the asymmetric acoustic activity: we observed higher acoustic activity (higher number of hits) during cooling. The effect of the surface roughness is negligible in the exponents (but higher acoustic activity corresponds to higher roughness) and the following values were obtained: ? =1.5 ±0.1 and ? =2.1 ±0.1 for cooling as well as ? =1.8 ±0.1 and ? =2.6 ±0.1 for heating. Our results are in accordance with the results of Gallardo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 174102 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.174102] obtained in Cu based alloys: the exponents of the energy distributions, for both DSC and AE signals, were the same within the experimental errors. Furthermore, our exponents obtained from the AE measurements are close to the values obtained by Ludwig et al. (? =2.6 ±0.1 and ? =1.75 ±0.1 ) [App. Phys. Lett. 94 121901 (2009), 10.1063/1.3103289] and Niemann et al. (? =1.9 ±0.1 ) [Phys. Rev. B 86, 214101 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.214101] in Ni2MnGa alloys with similar 10M martensite structure.

  6. Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIBEL KARAKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in foods originate from one of the main classes of secondary metabolites in plants. They are essential for the growth and reproduction of plants, and are produced as a response for defending injured plants against pathogens. In recent years, there is a growing interest in phenolic compounds and their presumed role in the prevention of various degenerative diseases,

  7. Analyzing Cranberry Bioactive Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Côté; S. Caillet; G. Doyon; J.-F Sylvain; M. Lacroix

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) as a functional food because of the potential health benefits linked to phytochemical compounds present in the fruit—the anthocyanin pigments, responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives). Isolation of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids from a

  8. Identification of polyphenolic compounds in the flesh of Argan (Morocco) fruits.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ricarte, Irvila; Erben, Gerhard; Klika, Karel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2015-07-15

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI) along with fragmentation patterns generated by nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI-MS-MS) and NMR techniques were utilized for the identification of phenolic compounds in Argan fruits. A total of 15.4 g/kg was determined represented by catechins (39%), flavonoids (28%), procyanidins (26%), free phenolic acids (6%) and phenolic acid glycosides (1%). Twenty-one phenolic compounds were identified for the first time in Argan fruits namely III. epicatechin-(4??8)-catechin dimer (procyanidin B1), IV. p-coumaric acid glycoside, VI. epicatechin-(4??8)-epicatechin dimer (procyanidin B2), VIII. caffeic acid glycoside, XIX. epicatechin-(4??8)-epicatechin-(4??8)-epicatechin trimer (procyanidin C1), X. p-hydroxybenzaldehyde XI. ferulic acid glycoside, XII. vanillic acid, XIII. sinapic acid glycoside, XVI. p-coumaric acid, XVII. ferulic acid, XVIII. sinapic acid, XIX. rutin pentoside, XX. quercetin glycopentoside, XXI. 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-imino-di-benzoic acid, XXV. quercetin-3-O-rhamnogalactoside, XXVII. quercetin glycohydroxybenzoate, XXVIII. quercetin glycocaffeate, XXIX. quercetin glycosinapate, XXX. quercetin glycoferulate and XXXI. quercetin glycocoumarate. PMID:25722154

  9. Micromechanical calorimetric sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

  10. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Moorman, Jack O. (Boone, IA)

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe).

  11. Calorimetric system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Moorman, J.O.

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus is described for measuring heat capacity of a sample where a series of measurements are taken in succession comprises a sample holder in which a sample to be measured is disposed, a temperature sensor and sample heater for providing a heat pulse thermally connected to the sample, and an adiabatic heat shield in which the sample holder is positioned and including an electrical heater. An electrical power supply device provides an electrical power output to the sample heater to generate a heat pulse. The electrical power from a power source to the heat shield heater is adjusted by a control device, if necessary, from one measurement to the next in response to a sample temperature-versus-time change determined before and after a previous heat pulse to provide a subsequent sample temperature-versus-time change that is substantially linear before and after the subsequent heat pulse. A temperature sensor is used and operable over a range of temperatures ranging from approximately 3K to 350K depending upon the refrigerant used. The sample optionally can be subjected to dc magnetic fields such as from 0 to 12 Tesla (0 to 120 kOe). 18 figs.

  12. Organic Compounds Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bell, Harold M.

    2000-01-01

    The Colby College Department of Chemistry offers the Organic Compounds Database, which was compiled by Harold Bell of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Visitors can search by the compounds melting point, boiling point, index of refraction, molecular weight, formula, absorption wavelength, mass spectral peak, chemical type, and by partial name. Once entered, results are returned with basically the same type of information that can be searched, plus any other critical information. References are provided for the close to 2500 organic compounds included in the database; yet, because the site was last modified in 1995, varying the data may be required to fully authenticate its accuracy.

  13. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  14. MANUFACTURE OF LIMONOID COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention relates to methods for manufacturing limonoid compounds. The invention provides methods for isolating limonoid A-ring lactone acid salts, limonoid glycoside monocarboxylic acids, limonoid glycoside dicarboxylic acids, limonoid glycoside monocarboxylic acid salts, and limonoid ...

  15. Compound Independent Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of compound independent events by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

  16. Ringed-Carbon Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-02-12

    In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, learn about alkaloids and steroids, both examples of compounds with carbon rings. Short videos with interviews,animations, and photographs are featured.

  17. Spectroscopic and calorimetric studies of formation of the supramolecular complexes of PAMAM G5-NH2 and G5-OH dendrimers with 5-fluorouracil in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Adam; Olesinski, Tomasz; Zbicinska, Elzbieta; Urbaniak, Pawel; Palecz, Bartlomiej

    2015-07-25

    The results of spectroscopic measurements (increase in solubility, equilibrium dialysis, (1)H NMR titration) and calorimetric measurements (isothermal titration ITC) indicate exothermic (?H<0) and spontaneous (?G<0) combination of an antitumor drug, 5-fluorouracil, by both cationic PAMAM G5-NH2 dendrimer and its hydroxyl analog PAMAM G5-OH in aqueous solutions at room temperature. PAMAM G5-NH2 dendrimer combines about 70 molecules of the drug with equilibrium constant K?300, which is accompanied by an increase in the system order (?S<0). Hydroxyl dendrimer, PAMAM G5-OH, combines about 14 molecules of 5-fluorouracil with equilibrium constant K?100. This process is accompanied by an increase in the system disorder (?S>0). PMID:25997661

  18. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV /c2.

  19. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c^2.

  20. Calorimetric, FTIR and 1H NMR measurements in combination with DFT calculations for monitoring solid-state changes of dynamics of sibutramine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Pajzderska, Aleksandra; Chudoba, Dorota M; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; W?sicki, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Two forms of sibutramine hydrochloride, monohydrate and anhydrous, have been investigated by calorimetric methods, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements as well as by density functional theory (DFT) of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities, calculations of steric hindrances and Monte Carlo simulations. The results of FTIR spectra combined with DFT calculations permitted identification of the bands corresponding to the dynamics and vibrations of water molecules. NMR study and Monte Carlo simulations revealed the occurrence of reorientation jumps of the methyl groups in sibutramine cation and also revealed that the reorientation of isopropyl group is possible only in sibutramine monohydrate hydrochloride. The hydration of sibutramine hydrochloride causes a change in the conformation of sibutramine cation. PMID:22826266

  1. Spectral-based calorimetric calibration of a 3CCD color camera for fast and accurate characterization and calibration of LCD displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaee-Rad, Reza; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2011-03-01

    LCD displays exhibit significant amount of variability in their tone-responses, color responses and backlight-modulation responses. LCD display characterization and calibration using a spectrometer or a color meter, however, leads to two basic deficiencies: (a) It can only generate calibration data based on a single spot on the display (usually at panel center); and (b) It generally takes a significant amount of time to do the required measurement. As a result, a fast and efficient system for a full LCD display characterization and calibration is required. Herein, a system based on a 3CCD calorimetrically-calibrated camera is presented which can be used for full characterization and calibration of LCD displays. The camera can provide full tri-stimulus measurements in real time. To achieve high-degree of accuracy, colorimetric calibration of camera is carried out based on spectral method.

  2. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation screening compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES S. COCKELL; JOHN KNOWLAND

    1988-01-01

    Amongst the diversity of methods used by organisms to reduce damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the synthesis of UV-screening compounds is almost ubiquitous. UV-screening compounds provide a passive method for the reduction of UV-induced damage and they are widely distributed across the microbial, plant and animal kingdoms. They share some common chemical features. It is likely that on early

  4. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transitions observed in [(C?H?)?N]?Zn?Cl? compound.

    PubMed

    Ben Gzaiel, M; Oueslati, A; Chaabane, I; Bulou, A; Hlel, F; Gargouri, M

    2015-06-15

    Phase transitions of the centrosymmetric compound, [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. Two reversible order-disorder and displacive phase transitions are observed at T1=327K and T2=347K with 3K and 4K hysteresis respectively, indicating a first order character. The evolution of Raman line shifts, "?", and the half-width, "??", versus temperature show some singularities associated with the transitions, suggesting that they are governed by the reorientational and the displacement of the organic part. Besides the results of the dielectric permittivity study confirms the conclusion drawn from the calorimetric and Raman measurements that the phase transition located in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric proprieties is characterized by change of dynamical state of cation. PMID:25782180

  5. Nonpost mold cure compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akihiro

    1997-08-01

    The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.

  6. Compound droplets on fibers

    E-print Network

    Weyer, Floriane; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius.

  7. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  8. Compound Droplets on Fibers.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Floriane; Ben Said, Marouen; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-07-21

    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius. PMID:26090699

  9. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  10. Electrical properties, phase transitions and conduction mechanisms of the [(C2H5)NH3]2CdCl4 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, C. Ben; Karoui, K.; Saidi, S.; Guidara, K.; Rhaiem, A. Ben

    2014-10-01

    The [(C2H5)NH3]2CdCl4 hybrid material was prepared and its calorimetric study and electric properties were investigated at low temperature. The X-ray powder diffractogram has shown that the compound is crystallized in the orthorhombic system with Abma space group, and the refined unit cell parameters are a=7.546 Å, b=7.443 Å, and c=21.831 Å. The calorimetric study has revealed two endothermic peaks at 216 K and 357 K, which are confirmed by the variation of fp and ?dc as a function of temperature. The equivalent circuit based on the Z-View-software was proposed and the conduction mechanisms were determined. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) in phase I (low temperature (OLT)), non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model (NSPT) in phase II (room temperature (ORT)) and the overlapping large polaron tunneling model in phase III (high temperature (OHT)). The density of localized states NF(E) at the Fermi level and the binding energy Wm were calculated. The variation of the dielectric loss log(??) with log(?) was found to follow the empirical law, ??=B ?m(T).

  11. Perfluoroalkyl Nitroso Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Banus

    1953-01-01

    A PRELIMINARY study1 of the photochemical properties of the first fluorocarbon iodide, trifluoro-iodomethane, showed that a trifluoromethyl radical is produced the primary reactions of which parallel those of the hydrocarbon free radicals. A direct method thus became available for the preparation of perfluoroalkyl nitroso compounds, by irradiation of the iodide in the presence of nitric oxide and of mercury (to

  12. Optimisation of compound pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Majzoobi; A. Ghomi

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is optimization of the weight of compound cylinder for a specific pressure. The variables are shrinkage radius and shrinkage tolerance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: SEQ technique for optimization, the finite element code, ANSYS for numerical simulation are employed to predict the optimized conditions. The results are verified by testing a number of closed end cylinders with various

  13. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  14. Compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Owens; A. Peacock

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the potential benefits of using compound semiconductors for the detection of X- and ?-ray radiation. While Si and Ge have become detection standards for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by one or more of their physical limitations; namely the need for ancillary cooling systems or bulky

  15. Arsonium Compounds in Algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Benson

    1989-01-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous

  16. Biotransformation of halogenated compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hardman

    1991-01-01

    As a result of natural production and contamination of the environment by xenobiotic compounds, halogenated substances are widely distributed in the biosphere. Concern arises as a result of the toxic, carcinogenic, and potential teratogenic nature of these substances. The biotransformations of such halogenated substances are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the biocatalytic cleavage of the carbon-halogen bonds. The physiology, biochemistry,

  17. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Encino, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  18. Tagging Classical Sanskrit Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan S. Gillon

    2009-01-01

    The paper sets out a prima facie case for the claim that the classification of Sanskrit compounds in P??inian tradition can be retrieved from a very slight\\u000a augmentation of the usual enriched context free rules.

  19. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  20. Compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Peacock, A.

    2004-09-01

    We discuss the potential benefits of using compound semiconductors for the detection of X- and ?-ray radiation. While Si and Ge have become detection standards for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by one or more of their physical limitations; namely the need for ancillary cooling systems or bulky cryogenics, their modest stopping powers and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors encompass such a wide range of physical properties that it is technically feasible to engineer a material to any application. Wide band-gap compounds offer the ability to operate in a wide range of thermal and radiation environments, whilst still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at hard X-ray wavelengths. Narrow band-gap materials, on the other hand, offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolution of both Si and Ge, by as much as a factor of 3. Assuming that the total system noise can be reduced to a level commensurate with Fano noise, spectroscopic detectors could work in the XUV, effectively bridging the gap between the ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavebands. Thus, in principle, compound semiconductor detectors can provide continuous spectroscopic coverage from the far infrared through to ?-ray wavelengths. However, while they are routinely used at infrared and optical wavelengths, in other bands, their development has been plagued by material and fabrication problems. This is particularly true at hard X- and ?-ray wavelengths, where only a few compounds (e.g., GaAs, CdZnTe and HgI2) have evolved sufficiently to produce working detection systems. In this paper, we examine the current status of research in compound semiconductors and by a careful examination of material properties and future requirements, recommend a number of compounds for further development. In the longer term, when material problems are sufficiently under control, we believe the future lies in the development of heterostructures and inserted interface layers to overcome contacting problems and quantum heterostructures and superlattices to facilitate low-noise readout.

  1. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-01

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

  2. Hydrogen in compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

  3. Arsonium compounds in algae

    PubMed Central

    Benson, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous arsenical component of many marine food products. The oceanic diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, cultured in radioarsenate produced a compound whose chemical, chromatographic, and electrophoretic properties are described. It was found to be identical to the trimethylarsonium derivative synthesized from the major algal arsenical, 1-(5?-dimethylarsinoyl-5?-deoxyribosyl)glycerol-3-O -sulfate. PMID:16594059

  4. Arsonium compounds in algae.

    PubMed

    Benson, A A

    1989-08-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous arsenical component of many marine food products. The oceanic diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, cultured in radioarsenate produced a compound whose chemical, chromatographic, and electrophoretic properties are described. It was found to be identical to the trimethylarsonium derivative synthesized from the major algal arsenical, 1-(5'-dimethylarsinoyl-5'-deoxyribosyl)glycerol-3-O -sulfate. PMID:16594059

  5. Structures and standard molar enthalpies of formation of a series of Ln(III)-Cu(II) heteronuclear compounds with pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qi; Xie, Gang; Wei, Qing; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    Fifteen lanthanide-copper heteronuclear compounds, formulated as [CuLn2(pzdc)4(H2O)6]·xH2O (1-6(x=2), 8(x=3), 9-10(x=4); [CuLn2(pzdc)4(H2O)4]·xH2O (7, 12-13, 15(x=4), 14(x=5), 11(x=8) (Ln(III)=La(1); Ce(2); Pr(3); Nd(4); Sm(5); Eu(6); Gd(7); Tb(8); Dy(9); Ho(10); Er(11); Tm(12); Yb(13); Lu(14); Y(15); H2pzdc (C6H4N2O4)=pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized. All compounds were characterized by element analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that all compounds are isostructural and feature a 3D brick-like framework structure with {4.62}2{42.62.82}{63}2{65.8}2 topology. Using 1 mol cm-3 HCl(aq) as calorimetric solvent, with an isoperibol solution-reaction calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of all compounds were determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. In addition, solid state luminescence properties of compounds 5, 6, 8 and 9 were studied in the solid state.

  6. Synthesis, crystal growth and physicochemical studies on a novel organic inter-molecular compound; 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and salicylamide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjeet; Rai, R. N.; Rai, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    The phase diagram of salicylamide (SAM) and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNBA) system was determined by the thaw-melt method. Results show the formation of an inter-molecular compound and two eutectics. The values of heat of mixing, entropy of fusion, roughness parameter, interfacial energy, and the excess thermodynamic functions were calculated from the enthalpy of fusion data determined by the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) method. The spectroscopic investigations (IR and NMR) suggest the presence of hydrogen bonding between the components of the compound. A single crystal of the inter-molecular compound was grown using slow cooling technique from the mixed solvent of ethanol and triple distilled water in 2:1 volume ratio. The single crystal analysis and the atomic packing pattern of the grown crystal confirm the monoclinic crystal structure with P21/c space group. The solubility of the inter-molecular compound was determined in the mixed solvent at different temperatures. Using solubility and entropy of fusion data, the entropy of dissolution and heat of mixing were calculated. The optical transmittance spectra of the crystal of the inter-molecular compound show 75% transmittance and the band gap of the crystal was found to be 3.00 eV. The refractive index of the crystal was computed to be 2.50 at the cut off wavelength.

  7. Multicylinder compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes a compound, rotary-reciprocal engine. It comprises: a two-cycle reciprocator having cylinders, each cylinder having at least one piston arranged for reciprocation in the cylinder in a cycled operation with a timed air input to the cylinder and a timed exhaust from the cylinder; a compressed air intake and combustion gas exit in each cylinder of the reciprocator; fuel injection means for injecting fuel into the cylinders at appropriate times in the cycled operation; and, a rotocharger.

  8. Compound Interdependences in MOP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Carlsson; Robert Fuller

    1996-01-01

    We consider multiple objective programming (MOP) problems with compound interdependences, i.e. the case when the states of some chosen objective are attained through supportive or inhibitory feed-backs from several other objectives. MOP problems with independent objectives (i.e. when the cause-effect relations between the decision variables and the objectives are completely known) will be treated as special cases of the MOP

  9. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially ?-d-glucans. Among them, ?-1,3-glucan with side chain ?-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  10. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  11. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ? 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  12. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  13. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burn for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  14. Isothermal titration calorimetric study of the association of hen egg lysozyme and the anti-lysozyme antibody HyHEL-5.

    PubMed

    Hibbits, K A; Gill, D S; Willson, R C

    1994-03-29

    The thermodynamics of association of hen egg lysozyme and the antibody HyHEL-5 was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. The structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8-A resolution by Sheriff et al. [Sheriff, S., Silverton, E. W., Padlan, E. A., Cohen, G. H., Smith-Gill, S. J., Finzel, B. C., & Davies, D. R. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 8075-8079]. The calorimetric enthalpy of association is negative and declines linearly with temperature in the range 10-37 degrees C (delta Cp = -340 +/- 40 cal mol-1 K-1). Entropic contributions calculated using previously determined values of the affinity of association are negative (unfavorable) in this temperature range. This result is consistent with the loss of mobility upon association of the unusually mobile segments of HEL which form the HyHEL-5 epitope. As the affinity of association is approximately constant in this temperature range, an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect is implied. The hydrophobic and vibrational contributions to delta S and delta Cp are estimated using the method of Sturtevant [Sturtevant, J. M. (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 2236-2240]. The experimental value of delta Cp is in rather close agreement with the delta Cp estimated from the polar and nonpolar surface areas buried upon association. PMID:8142356

  15. Interaction of the 5-fluorouracil analog 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine with 'N' and 'B' isoforms of human serum albumin: a spectroscopic and calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Khan, Shawez; Badr, Gamal; Osama Mohamed, Amany; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2014-11-01

    Drugs and metabolites are transported in the blood by plasma proteins, such as human serum albumin (HSA). The uridine analog 2'dFUrd, which is a cytotoxic prodrug metabolite of capecitabine, has remarkable activity against solid tumors when administered orally. We report the results of an in vitro experimental study on the interactions of 2'-dFUrd with the N-isoform (at pH 7.4) and B-isoform (at pH 9.0) of HSA, investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular docking. The binding constant (Kb) was higher for the N-isoform than for the B-isoform. Thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy change (?H°), entropy change (?S°), and Gibbs free energy change (?G°), were also calculated for both isoform interactions using calorimetric techniques. The thermostabilities of HSA and the HSA-2'dFUrd complex were found to be higher for the N-isoform. The interaction of 2'dFUrd with HSA was also explored in molecular docking studies, which revealed that 2'dFUrd was bound to the Sudlow site I in subdomain IIA through multiple modes of interaction, such as hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. These results suggest that 2'dFUrd has higher binding affinity for the N-isoform of HSA. PMID:25141914

  16. Bilingual reading of compound words.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate when the translated compounds (the combination of the translation equivalents of the constituents) in Korean (the nontarget language) were real words than when they were nonwords. In Experiment 2, when the frequency of the second constituents of compound words in English (the target language) was manipulated, the effect of lexical status of the translated compounds was greater on the compounds with high-frequency second constituents than on those with low-frequency second constituents in the target language. Together, these results provided evidence for morphological decomposition and cross-language activation in bilingual reading of compound words. PMID:20623255

  17. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-print Network

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  18. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  19. Phenolic compounds in Catharanthus roseus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natali Rianika Mustafa; Robert Verpoorte

    2007-01-01

    Besides alkaloids Catharanthus roseus produces a wide spectrum of phenolic compounds, this includes C6C1 compounds such as 2,3-dihydoxybenzoic acid, as well as\\u000a phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The occurrence of these compounds in C. roseus is reviewed as well as their biosynthesis and the regulation of the pathways. Both types of compounds compete with the indole

  20. Carcinogenic effect of nickel compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitian Lu; Xianglin Shi; Max Costa; Chuanshu Huang

    2005-01-01

    Nickel is a widely distributed metal that is industrially applied in many forms. Accumulated epidemiological evidence confirms that exposures to nickel compounds are associated with increased nasal and lung cancer incidence, both in mostly occupational exposures. Although the molecular mechanisms by which nickel compounds cause cancer are still under intense investigation, the carcinogenic actions of nickel compounds are thought to

  1. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report consists of six sections: heterobimetallic dihydrides, early-late transition metal heterobimetallic compounds, amphiphilic carbene complexes and hydroxycarbene complexes, diiron compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands, diphosphine chelates with natural bite angles near 120 degrees, and synthesis and reactions of M=M compounds. (WET)

  2. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk of microbial contamination to patients. In the last 11 years, three separate meningitis outbreaks have been traced to purportedly 'sterile' steroid injections contaminated with fungus or bacteria, which were made by compounding pharmacies. The most recent 2012 outbreak has resulted in intense scrutiny of pharmacy compounding practices and increased recognition of the need to ensure that compounding is limited to appropriate circumstances. Patients and healthcare practitioners need to be aware that compounded drugs are not the same as generic drugs, which are approved by the FDA. The risk-benefit ratio of using traditionally compounded medicines is favorable for patients who require specialized medications that are not commercially available, as they would otherwise not have access to suitable treatment. However, if an FDA-approved drug is commercially available, the use of an unapproved compounded drug confers additional risk with no commensurate benefit. PMID:23526368

  3. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  4. Transition Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomskii, Daniel I.

    2014-10-01

    1. Localised and itinerant electrons in solids; 2. Isolated transition metal ions; 3. Transition metal ions in crystals; 4. Mott–Hubbard vc charge-transfer insulators; 5. Exchange interaction and magnetic structures; 6. Cooperative Jahn–Teller effect and orbital ordering; 7. Charge ordering in transition metal compounds; 8. Ferroelectrics, magnetoelectrics and multiferroics; 9. Doping of correlated systems and correlated metals; 10. Metal-insulator transitions; 11. Kondoeffect, mixed valence and heavy fermions; Appendix A. Some historical notes; Appendix B. A layman's guide to second quantization; Appendix C. Phase transitions and free energy expansion: Landau theory in a nutshell.

  5. Superconductivity in plutonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Although the family of plutonium-based superconductors is relatively small, consisting of four compounds all of which crystallize in the tetragonal HoCoGa5 structure, these materials serve as an important bridge between the known Ce- and U-based heavy fermion superconductors and the high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Further, the partial localization of 5f electrons that characterizes the novel electronic properties of elemental plutonium appears to be central to the relatively high superconducting transition temperatures that are observed in PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, PuCoIn5, and PuRhIn5.

  6. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transitions observed in [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gzaiel, M.; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Bulou, A.; Hlel, F.; Gargouri, M.

    2015-06-01

    Phase transitions of the centrosymmetric compound, [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. Two reversible order-disorder and displacive phase transitions are observed at T1 = 327 K and T2 = 347 K with 3 K and 4 K hysteresis respectively, indicating a first order character. The evolution of Raman line shifts, "?", and the half-width, "??", versus temperature show some singularities associated with the transitions, suggesting that they are governed by the reorientational and the displacement of the organic part. Besides the results of the dielectric permittivity study confirms the conclusion drawn from the calorimetric and Raman measurements that the phase transition located in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric proprieties is characterized by change of dynamical state of cation.

  7. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A turbo compound engine having a first exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine and a second exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust port of the first exhaust turbine is described comprising: a first generator drivable by the first exhaust turbine; a second generator drivable by the second exhaust turbine; a motor operatively coupled to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine; speed detecting means for detecting the speed of rotation of the internal combustion engine; and control means for controlling the frequency of electric power, which is the sum of electric power outputs from the first and second generators and supplied to the motor, based on a signal from the speed detecting means, in order to control operation of the motor.

  8. Common Compound Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frederick A. Senese

    This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

  9. Dioxin and Related Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1994-01-01

    This substantial new site, provided by the Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Environmental Assessment, addresses the mechanism of Dioxin contamination and describes NCEA's Dioxin Reassessment efforts. The site provides full descriptions and molecular graphics of "Dioxins and related compounds" (Furans, PCB's), as well as EPA Summaries on Dioxin exposure, Dioxin risk, and dose response. The Dioxin Exposure Initiative seeks to quantitatively link dioxin sources to general population exposures using "source measurements, environmental media and national food surveys, and fate and transport modeling." Further links to EPA Regulations and EPA Analytical Methods round out the site. Note that many of the documents at the site are available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) or WordPerfect format.

  10. Effects of a nutrient-surfactant compound on solubilization rates of TCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.T.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    BioTreat{trademark}, a commercially available nutrient-surfactant compound, was investigated for its ability to solubilize TCE. Potential mechanisms for enhancing biodegradation rates by the use of nutrient-surfactant mixtures are: increased solubilization of TCE into the aqueous phase, and increased nutrients for the bacteria and greater numbers of colony forming units (CFUs). In aqueous systems, no measured solubilization of 0.1 and 1.0 ppm TCE from the headspace into the liquid phase was observed with BioTreat added at concentrations <0.5%. However, at BioTreat concentrations in excess of the CMC (>0.5%), increased solubilization of TCE was measured. A second question was the nutrient effect of BioTreat on the growth of the TCE-degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1{sub 301}. The added nutrients provided by BioTreat was evident and lead to increased cell numbers. The effect of BioTreat on the expression of ortho-monooxgenase, the enzyme necessary for TCE degradation by B. cepacia was also investigated. Enzyme expression as detected by a calorimetric assay was inhibited for BioTreat concentrations >0.05%. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. CHAPTER XVI TUNICATES AND LANCELETS

    E-print Network

    to the vertebrates and are included with them in the phYlum Chordata to which the higher animals, InclUding man, belong. In modern classifications they are given the rank vf a subphylum of the Chordata. They are

  12. Structures and standard molar enthalpies of formation of a series of Ln(III)–Cu(II) heteronuclear compounds with pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qi; Xie, Gang; Wei, Qing; Chen, Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen312@gmail.com; Gao, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    Fifteen lanthanide–copper heteronuclear compounds, formulated as [CuLn{sub 2}(pzdc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·xH{sub 2}O (1–6(x=2), 8(x=3), 9–10(x=4)); [CuLn{sub 2}(pzdc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·xH{sub 2}O (7, 12–13, 15(x=4), 14(x=5), 11(x=8)) (Ln(III)=La(1); Ce(2); Pr(3); Nd(4); Sm(5); Eu(6); Gd(7); Tb(8); Dy(9); Ho(10); Er(11); Tm(12); Yb(13); Lu(14); Y(15); H{sub 2}pzdc (C{sub 6}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}O{sub 4})=pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) have been hydrothermally synthesized. All compounds were characterized by element analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that all compounds are isostructural and feature a 3D brick-like framework structure with (4.6{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 2})(6{sup 3}){sup 2}(6{sup 5}.8){sub 2} topology. Using 1 mol cm{sup ?3} HCl(aq) as calorimetric solvent, with an isoperibol solution–reaction calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of all compounds were determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. In addition, solid state luminescence properties of compounds 5, 6, 8 and 9 were studied in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: According to Hess' rule, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of Ln–Cu heterometallic coordination compounds were determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. - Highlights: • Fifteen lanthanide–copper heteronuclear isostructural compounds. • Structurally characterization by IR, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation. • Isoperibol solution–reaction calorimetry.

  13. TSTA compound cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Patrick, R.E.; Call, W.R.

    1980-08-18

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is intended to demonstrate realistic fuel supply and cleanup scenarios for future fusion reactors. The vacuum pumps must be capable of handling large quantities of reactor exhaust gases consisting largely of mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Cryocondensing pumps will not pump helium at 4.2 K; while cryosorption pumps using molecular sieves or charcoal have good helium pumping speed, the adsorbent clogs with condensed hydrogen while pumping mixtures of both. A solution to this problem is a compound design whereby the first stage condenses the hydrogen and the second, or sorption, stage pumps the helium. The TSTA pump designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses argon gas to cryotrap the helium in the helium-hydrogen mixture. The argon is sprayed directly onto the 4.2 K surface at a rate proportional to the helium flow rate, permitting continuous pumping of the helium-hydrogen mixtures in a single-stage pump. However, the possibility of differential desorption as a first stage in the TSTA gas separation cycle required the inclusion of a first-stage hydrogen isotope condenser. The design, performance, and operating characteristics are discussed.

  14. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  15. ATMOSPHERIC FREONS AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of atmospheric Freons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and SF6 were measured at various locations in the U.S.A. Compounds such as CCl3F, CCl2F2, CH3-CCl3, and CCl4 were ubiquitious and generally measured at sub ppb levels. Tropospherically reactive compounds such as C2Cl...

  16. Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

  17. Video: Focusing a Compound Microscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to focus a compound microscope. The brief clip, available for viewing on YouTube, would be most useful for students with a basic understanding of the parts of a compound microscope and how to use it. Running time for the video is 0:55.

  18. Butyltin Compounds in Human Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper B. Nielsen; Jakob Strand

    2002-01-01

    Intake of marine food is the main source of butyltin exposure in humans. Health effects following exposure to butyltin compounds are usually in the immune system, but endocrine effects of butyltin from a variety of marine species have been documented. The information on human exposure to butyltin compounds and hepatic deposition is limited. The present study include 18 consecutively sampled

  19. Macrocyclic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Quraishi; J. A. Rawat; M. A. Ajmal

    1998-01-01

    The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature,

  20. Anaerobic Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORG FUCHS

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic compounds that can serve as substrates for bacterial growth. So far, four types of aromatic metabolism are known. (1) The aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterized by the extensive use of molecular oxygen as co- substrate for oxygenases that introduce hydroxyl groups and cleave the aromatic ring. (2) In the presence

  1. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  2. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  3. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  4. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  7. Compound Independent and Dependent Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Compare the theoretical and experimental probability of a compound independent event by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

  8. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  9. The Magic of Compound Interest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Gordon

    2006-10-19

    The most powerful force in the universe is compound interest - Albert Einstein - Compound interest is the underlying concept that allows your money to grow on its own and that\\'s what leads to a lucrative future. It\\'s the interest you earn off of your original investment plus the interest you\\'ve already accrued. It\\'s interest on interest. And what it can do is amazing. Compound interest\\'s a cyclical monster that feeds itself and keeps growing at an exponential rate. And the best part about compound interest is that young people have the advantage. Young, first-time investors have an upper hand on older, wiser, Wall Street investors and stock market gurus because young people have ...

  10. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P

    2006-04-28

    This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye. PMID:16645090

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  12. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The five WebWare Molecules for December derive from the article Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications by Joseph E. Saavedra and Larry K. Keefer.

  13. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  14. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  15. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  16. [Study on compound levonorgestrel microspheres].

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Lu, B

    1993-12-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNG) and estradiol (E2) were mixed in the ratio of 5:2 by weight. Compound LNG gelatin-microspheres were prepared by phase-separation method, natural biodegradable gelatin being used as the core material. The experimental conditions were optimized, the mean diameter of the microspheres obtained being 10-40 microns, and the rate of encapsulation 65-75%. Storage observations and acceleration tests of the compound LNG gelatin-microsphere injection prepared showed that the microspheres have good stability. The thermal degradation activation energy of the injection was determined to be 134.4 kJ/mol, based on differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). T1/2 values for dissolution in vitro of LNG and E2 from the compound LNG gelatin-microsphere injection and from the unencapsulated injection showed significant difference (P < 0.01), indicating that the microspheres have good sustained release action. Effects of the pure LNG microsphere injection and compound LNG microsphere injection on the mouse ovary were compared histologically. The results showed that the compound LNG microsphere injection reduced some of the side effects such as ovary congestion. This points out that the compound dosage form can clinically alleviate the irregular bleeding caused by the administration of LNG alone. PMID:8150435

  17. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  18. Calorimetric study of cationic photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajlik, I.; Hedvig, P.; Ille, A.; Dobó, J.

    1996-03-01

    The photopolymerization of penta-erythritol tetra-glycidyl ether (initiator Degacure KI-85) was studied by a du Pont 910 type DSC. From our experimental results the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) During the cationic polymerization reaction the lifetime of the initiating centers are long compared to the lifetime of free radicals in case of radical polymerization. (2) The rate of deactivation of the initiating centers increases with increasing temperature.

  19. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  20. Phenolic compounds from Hypericum perforatum.

    PubMed

    Jürgenliemk, Guido; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2002-01-01

    During a re-investigation of phenolic compounds from the dried crude drug material of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) 22 phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC; 14 of them were quantified using the same system. Twelve phenolic compounds were isolated from the plant material and their structures identified mainly by spectroscopic methods, among them quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-galactoside as a new natural product. Cryptochlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3-O-[Z]-p-coumaroylquinic acid, isoorientin, cyanidin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside, and astilbin were obtained for the first time from this source; the earlier suspected neochlorogenic acid, 3-O-[E]-p-coumaroylquinic acid, mangiferin, miquelianin and guaijaverin were confirmed. PMID:11842341

  1. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogenation of alkynes by the heterobimetallic compound C{sub 5}H{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re({mu}-H)Pt(H)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} is being studied. The compound C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re{double bond}Re(CO){sub 2}C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} was synthesized; its chemistry is being studied. Compounds discovered in a reinvestigation of a spurious report of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Co{double bond}Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}), are being studied. The deuterioformylation of alkenes using wide bite angle phosphines will be studied.

  2. Calorimetric investigation of equilibrium and thermal relaxation properties of the switchable Prussian Blue analog Na0.32Co[Fe(CN)6]0.74 · 3.4H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J. A.; Boukheddaden, K.; Varret, F.; Tokoro, H.; Ohkoshi, S.

    2007-07-01

    Calorimetric measurements have been performed on the Prussian Blue analog Na0.32Co[Fe(CN)6]0.74·3.4H2O. The thermal relaxation of the metastable state obtained by thermal quenching of the high temperature phase gives rise to an exothermic peak (at the "thermal relaxation temperature", TTR) which appears at higher temperature and with a larger width as the temperature scan rate increases. Values for the enthalpy and entropy changes upon the charge transfer-induced spin transition (CTIST) have been subsequently determined. The equilibrium and thermal relaxation data have been quantitatively analyzed through a mean-field cooperative dynamic model that also provides a quantitative description of the trapping process. The changes in enthalpy and "apparent" entropy during the thermal relaxation process are investigated and the evaluation of the activation energy by the Kissinger's plot is also discussed.

  3. Basics of compounding with tars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

  4. Thermodynamic studies on the specificity of L-isoleucine-tRNA ligase of Escherichia coli MRE 600. Calorimetric investigations on binding of amino acids and isoleucinol to the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hinz, H J; Weber, K; Flossdorf, J; Kula, M R

    1976-12-11

    The association enthalpies, delta Ha, involved in the reactions between L-isoleucine:tRNA ligase (AMP-forming) from Escherichia coli MRE 600 (EC 6.1.1.5) and various amino acids have been determined calorimetrically in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5, in the presence of 1 mM dithioerythritol. The delta Ha values for binding of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-norvaline and L-2-amino-3S, 4-dimethyl pentanoic acid agree within the limits of experimental error in magnitude (3.7 +/- 0.9 kcal mol-1 or 15.5 +/- 3.8 kJ mol-1 at 25 degrees C) and variation with temperature (delta cp = -430 +/- 20 cal mol-1 K-1 or 1799 +/- 84 J mol-1 K-1). In view of the large differences in the equilibrium constants for the corresponding binding equilibria, the identical association enthalpies suggest that the enthalpic contribution to the Gibbs free energy of binding, delta Ga, cannot be responsible for the specificity of the interaction of the enzyme with the amino acids. It has rather to be inferred that the entropic term, delta Sa, is decisive in discriminating the correct amino acid. Analogous calorimetric binding studies on the reaction between L-isoleucinol and the enzyme suggest that the absence of the carboxyl group renders the association enthalpy more positive (by 4-5 kcal mol-1 or 16.7-20.9 kJ mol-1) with respect to that of the amino acids. The variation with temperature of the delta Ha values, however, practically parallels that of the amino acids. PMID:795668

  5. Low-temperature heat capacity of diopside glass (CaMgSi2O6): A calorimetric test of the configurational-entropy theory applied to the viscosity of liquid silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Heat-capacity measurements have been made between 8 and 370 K on an annealed and a rapidly quenched diopside glass. Between 15 and 200 K, Cp does not depend significantly on the thermal history of the glass. Below 15 K Cp is larger for the quenched than for the annealed specimen. The opposite is true above 200 K as a result of what is interpreted as a secondary relaxation around room temperature. The magnitude of these effects, however, is small enough that the relative entropies S(298)-S(0) of the glasses differ by only 0.5 J/mol K, i.e., a figure within the combined experimental uncertainties. The insensitivity of relative entropies to thermal history supports the assumption that the configurational heat capacity of the liquid may be taken as the heat capacity difference between the liquid and the glass (??Cp). Furthermore, this insensitivity allows calculation of the residual entropies at 0 K of diopside glasses as a function of the fictive temperature from the entropy of fusion of diopside and the heat capacities of the crystalline, glassy and liquid phases. For a glass with a fictive temperature of 1005 K, for example, this calorimetric residual entropy is 24.3 ?? 3 J/mol K, in agreement with the prediction made by RICHET (1984) from an analysis of the viscosity data with the configurational-entropy theory of relaxation processes of Adam and Gibbs (1965). In turn, all the viscosity measurements for liquid diopside, which span the range 0.5-4?? 1013 poise, can be quantitatively reproduced through this theory with the calorimetrically determined entropies and ??Cp data. Finally, the unclear significance of "activation energies" for structural interpretations of viscosity data is emphasized, and the importance of ??Cp and glass-transition temperature systematics for determining the composition and temperature dependences of the viscosity is pointed out. ?? 1986.

  6. Inorganic lead compounds in electroceramics and glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, N.; Bhalla, A.; Roy, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lead-based compounds are numerous. When the toxicological effects of lead compounds are studied, a distinction between organic and inorganic lead compounds appears because each group behaves differently in biological systems. Examination of inorganic lead compounds exposes additional differences in their stability, modes of human exposure and socioeconomic importance. Lead-based electroceramics and glasses include inorganic lead compounds that can be controlled in the future when restrictions on lead use are enacted. The compounds widely used in electronics pose minimal health risks because of their stability. The socioeconomic impact of restricting these compounds could be significant because of their widespread use and the difficulty of locating replacement materials.

  7. Compounds Generate Optical Second Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Newly synthesized organic salts found to generate relatively large second-harmonic signals when illuminated by fundamental signals in near-infrared spectrum. Made by crystallizing, with appropriate counterions, organic ions having large molecular hyperpolarizibilities. Large second-order nonlinear susceptibilities observed. These and other compounds having large nonlinear optical properties used in electro-optical modulators, switches, and signal-processing equipment.

  8. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLIVER BOTTAand; Jeffrey L. Bada

    2002-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursorsfound in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellarmedium and were later incorporated intoplanetesimals during the formation of thesolar system. There they either survivedintact or underwent further processing tosynthesize secondary products on themeteorite parent body.The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceouschondrites, two typesof stony meteorites, is their high carbon content(up to 3% of

  9. Adaptive control of compound manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pittman; R. Colbaugh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the motion control of a kinematically redundant manipulator. The controller is a direct adaptive control strategy that is stable and is applied through computer simulations with a nine degree-of-freedom compound manipulator consisting of a small, fast six DOF manipulator mounted on a large three DOF positioning device

  10. Microwave diagnosis of rubber compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stoyan I. Ganchev; Jay Bhattacharyya; Sasan Bakhtiari; Nasser Qaddoumi; Deborah Brandenburg; Reza Zoughi

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study investigating the dielectric properties of rubber compounds and their constituents in the frequency range of 5 to 24 GHz are presented. A completely filled short circuited waveguide technique was used to conduct these dielectric measurements. The influence of carbon black content in rubber was investigated for carefully prepared rubber samples. The results showed that for

  11. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  12. Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Edward A.

    Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises Robert T. Paine,1* Mia J. Tegner,2 and Edward A or age to first reproduction of the species of interest seem to be the important metrics for scaling/infrequent catastrophes, to be central to much traditional ecology; such directional or cyclical changes stimulated

  13. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  14. Time-Dependence of Molecular Mobility during Structural Relaxation and its Impact on Organic Amorphous Solids: An Investigation Based on a Calorimetric Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Mao; Sai Prasanth Chamarthy; Rodolfo Pinal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  To develop a calorimetry-based model for estimating the time-dependence of molecular mobility during the isothermal relaxation of amorphous organic compounds below their glass transition temperature (T\\u000a g).Methods  The time-dependent enthalpy relaxation times of amorphous sorbitol, indomethacin, trehalose and sucrose were estimated based on the nonlinear Adam?Gibbs equation. Fragility was determined from the scanning rate dependence of T\\u000a g. Time evolution of

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  16. Percutaneous absorption of uranium compounds.

    PubMed

    de Rey, B M; Lanfranchi, H E; Cabrini, R L

    1983-04-01

    Percutaneous absorption of soluble and insoluble uranium compounds has been induced in order to obtain information on penetration routes and the tissue injury produced by uranium salts. The high electron density of uranium provided a reliable way to visualize, by electron microscopy, the precise localization of the heavy compounds within the tissues. Few minutes after topical application of uranyl nitrate, dense deposits of uranium were observed at the epidermal barrier level. A few hours later, dense deposits were seen filling the intercellular spaces and were also scattered in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mortality and body weight measurements indicated the high toxicity of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate; uranyl acetate and ammonium diuranate were less toxic. As no penetration was achieved after uranium dioxide, no variations were detected on these parameters. PMID:6832127

  17. Phytotoxic compounds from Flourensia cernua.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rachel; Bye, Robert; Linares, Edelmira; Macías, Martha; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Pérez, Olga; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2003-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Flourensia cernua led to the isolation of three phytotoxic compounds, namely, dehydroflourensic acid (1), flourensadiol (2) and methyl orsellinate (3). Dehydroflourensic acid is a new natural product whose structure was established by spectral means. In addition, the known flavonoid ermanin and seven hitherto unknown gamma-lactones were obtained, these being tetracosan-4-olide, pentacosan-4-olide, hexacosan-4-olide, heptacosan-4-olide, octacosan-4-olide, nonacosan-4-olide, and triacontan-4-olide. Compounds 1-3 caused significant inhibition of radicle growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Echinochloa crus-galli, interacted with bovine-brain calmodulin and inhibited the activation of the calmodulin-dependent enzyme cAMP phosphodiesterase. PMID:12946427

  18. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Robert P.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes aremore »most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  19. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC6 and YbC6 in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  1. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Robert P. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Weller, Thomas E. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Howard, Christopher A. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  2. Deuterium permeation through EPDM rubber compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The permeation of deuterium through a specially formulated compound of ethylene propylene diene rubber was measured in the temperature range of 26/degree/C to 120/degree/C. The results were similar to permeation through two commercial compounds of this elastomer. Permeation was reduced after gamma irradiation (in the presence of hydrogen gas to simulate a tritium exposure). However the reduction was smaller than that experienced by the two commercial compounds. Radiation damage is apparently less severe in the special compound. It is possible that mechanical properties such as compression set may be influenced less by ionizing radiation in this compound as compared with the commercial compounds. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bioactive Compounds from Northern Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Hohtola; Giuseppina Rea; Bruno Berra

    \\u000a Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has\\u000a been claimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds\\u000a imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of

  4. Biological activity of vanadium compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Goc

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium compounds are characterised by a broad spectrum of action in vivo and in vitro. Their insulin-mimetic activity is manifested in their ability to normalize changes observed in both clinical and experimental\\u000a diabetes (i.e. hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, lowered cell sensitivity to insulin) through the regulation of carbohydrate\\u000a and lipid metabolism and the removal of secondary symptoms of this disease (as e.g.

  5. Synthesis of Fluorinated ZDDP Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kajal Parekh; Xin Chen; Pranesh B. Aswath

    2009-01-01

    Volatile degradation products of zinc dialkyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) composed of phosphorus and sulfur compounds reduce the\\u000a efficiency of catalytic converters resulting in harmful emissions. A unique way of reducing ZDDP level while maintaining good\\u000a antiwear performance has been achieved by reacting a novel additive FeF3 with ZDDP. The objective of this research is to examine the chemical interactions between

  6. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  7. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  8. Natural Compounds Modulating Mitochondrial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gibellini, Lara; Bianchini, Elena; De Biasi, Sara; Nasi, Milena; Cossarizza, Andrea; Pinti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles responsible for several crucial cell functions, including respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of apoptosis; they are also the main intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the last years, a particular interest has been devoted to studying the effects on mitochondria of natural compounds of vegetal origin, quercetin (Qu), resveratrol (RSV), and curcumin (Cur) being the most studied molecules. All these natural compounds modulate mitochondrial functions by inhibiting organelle enzymes or metabolic pathways (such as oxidative phosphorylation), by altering the production of mitochondrial ROS and by modulating the activity of transcription factors which regulate the expression of mitochondrial proteins. While Qu displays both pro- and antioxidant activities, RSV and Cur are strong antioxidant, as they efficiently scavenge mitochondrial ROS and upregulate antioxidant transcriptional programmes in cells. All the three compounds display a proapoptotic activity, mediated by the capability to directly cause the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria or indirectly by upregulating the expression of proapoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family and downregulating antiapoptotic proteins. Interestingly, these effects are particularly evident on proliferating cancer cells and can have important therapeutic implications.

  9. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    PubMed

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces various secondary metabolites. The most abundant, among these compounds, are the naphthoquinones. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is a characteristic field layer species in boreal forests. Bilberry and other northern Vaccinium species, berries and leaves, contain high amounts of phenolic compounds. Bilberries are known for its exceptionally high amounts ofanthocyanins with powerful antioxidant capacity. They have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, like having a protective role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many flavonoids also seem to have antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiallergenic properties. The effect of ingested cranberry (V. oxycoccus) juice has been shown to prevent urinary tract infections in women. PMID:21520706

  10. Antioxidant phenolic compounds from Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai Ming; Wang, Cheng Fang; Shen, Sheng Min; Wang, Gang Li; Liu, Peng; Liu, Zi Mu; Wang, Yong Yan; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2012-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the water extract of Pu-erh tea and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS as gallic acid (1), (+)-catechin (2), (?)-epicatechin (3), (?)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4), (?)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (5), (?)-epiafzelechin- 3-O-gallate (6), kaempferol (7), and quercetin (8). Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The relative order of DPPH scavenging capacity for these compounds was compound 8 > compound 7 > compound 1 > compound 6 > compound 4 ? compound 5 > compound 2 > VC (reference) > compound 3, and that of ABTS scavenging capacity was compound 1 > compound 2 > compound 7 ? compound 8 > compound 6 > compound 5 > compound 4 > VC (reference) > compound 3. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of Pu-erh tea. PMID:23187287

  11. The Chemistry of Highly Fluorinated Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules for January come from the paper Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry by Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski. This paper explores the use of highly fluorinated compounds as solvents, catalysts, and reagents.

  12. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  13. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary survey information on the organophosphorus pesticide industry wastewater streams and analytical methods to monitor levels of organic compounds present in these streams are presented. The identification and quantification of organophosphorus compounds was emphasized, b...

  14. Feedback Capacity of the Compound Channel

    E-print Network

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    In this work, we find the capacity of a compound finite-state channel (FSC) with time-invariant deterministic feedback. We consider the use of fixed length block codes over the compound channel. Our achievability result ...

  15. Classification of chemical compounds by protein-compound docking for use in designing a focused library.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mikami, Yoshiaki; Takedomi, Kei; Yamanouchi, Masaya; Shima, Hideaki; Nakamura, Haruki

    2006-01-26

    We developed a new method for the classification of chemical compounds and protein pockets and applied it to a random screening experiment for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the protein-compound interaction matrix, which was given by thorough docking calculations between a set of many protein pockets and chemical compounds. Each compound and protein pocket was depicted as a point in the PCA spaces of compounds and proteins, respectively. This method was applied to distinguish active compounds from negative compounds of MIF. A random screening experiment for MIF was performed, and our method revealed that the active compounds were localized in the PCA space of compounds, while the negative compounds showed a wide distribution. Furthermore, protein pockets, which bind similar compounds, were classified and were found to form a cluster in the PCA space. PMID:16420039

  16. Organic compounds in municipal landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Paxéus

    2000-01-01

    Leachates from three municipal landfills in the Göteborg area of western Sweden were characterised in terms of their content of individual organic compounds. Two of the investigated landfills were still in use during the time of this study. The third landfill was closed down in the mid-seventies. More than 200 individual organic compounds and classes of compounds were identified in

  17. Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavroula V. Leivadara; Anastasia D. Nikolaou; Themistokles D. Lekkas

    2008-01-01

    The presence of organic compounds in bottled waters available in the Greek market and their fate when the representative samples exposed at different conditions were the main purposes of this study. The determination of the organic compounds was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. Disinfection by-products compounds, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were detected at low concentrations

  18. Compound words and structure in the lexicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Fiorentino; David Poeppel

    2007-01-01

    The structure of lexical entries and the status of lexical decomposition remain controversial. In the psycholinguistic literature, one aspect of this debate concerns the psychological reality of the morphological complexity difference between compound words (teacup) and single words (crescent). The present study investigates morphological decomposition in compound words using visual lexical decision with simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG), comparing compounds, single words,

  19. Antidiabetic and toxic effects of vanadium compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok K. Srivastava

    2000-01-01

    Compounds of the trace element vanadium have been shown to mimic insulin in in vitro and in vivo systems. These compounds have been found to exert anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in a limited number of studies in human diabetic subjects. Thus, vanadium compounds have emerged as agents for

  20. Adsorptive Partitioning of an Organic Compound onto

    E-print Network

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Adsorptive Partitioning of an Organic Compound onto Polyelectrolyte-Immobilized Micelles on Porous of the environment by organic compounds is a ubiquitous and costly environmental concern requiring nearly $109 /yr manufacturingorbyleakagefromundergroundstoragetanks. Release in the subsurface can result in a "plume" of dissolved and pure phase organic compounds

  1. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  2. BTF Potts compound texture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, Michal; Rem?s, Václav; Havlí?ek, Vojt?ch

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for modeling mosaic-like textures using a multispectral parametric Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) compound Markov random field model (CMRF). The primary purpose of our synthetic texture approach is to reproduce, compress, and enlarge a given measured texture image so that ideally both natural and synthetic texture will be visually indiscernible, but the model can be easily applied for BFT material editing. The CMRF model consist of several sub-models each having different characteristics along with an underlying structure model which controls transitions between these sub models. The proposed model uses the Potts random field for distributing local texture models in the form of analytically solvable wide-sense BTF Markovian representation for single regions among the fields of a mosaic approximated by the Voronoi diagram. The control field of the BTF-CMRF is generated by the Potts random field model build on top of the adjacency graph of a measured mosaic. The compound random field synthesis combines the modified fast Swendsen- Wang Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the hierarchical Potts MRF part with the fast and analytical synthesis of single regional BTF MRFs. The local texture regions (not necessarily continuous) are represented by an analytical BTF model which consists of single factors modeled by the adaptive 3D causal auto-regressive (3DCAR) random field model which can be analytically estimated as well as synthesized. The visual quality of the resulting complex synthetic textures generally surpasses the outputs of the previously published simpler non-compound BTF-MRF models.

  3. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  4. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  5. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  6. [Anticancer activity of oxovanadium compounds].

    PubMed

    Abakumova, O Iu; Podobed, O V; Beliaeva, N F; Tochilkin, A I

    2013-01-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumor activity of the biligand vanadyl derivative of L-malic acid (bis(L-malato)oxovanadium(IV) (VO(mal)2) was investigated in comparison with inorganic vanadium(IV) compound--vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and also with oxovanadium monocomplex with L-malic acid (VO(mal)) and vanadyl biscomplex with acetylacetonate. In this purpose the effect of vanadyl compounds on growth of normal human skin fibroblasts and tumor cells of different lines: mouse fibrosarcoma (L929), rat pheochromocytome (PC12), human liver carcinoma (HepG2), virus transformated mouse fibroblast (NIN 3T3), virus transformated cells of human kidney (293) were investigated. The results showed that VO(mal)2 was not toxic for normal human skin fibroblasts but considerably inhibited growth of cancer cells in culture. Cytotoxic antitumor effect of vanadium complexes was found to be dependent on incubation time and concentration and on type of cells and nature of ligands of the central group of the complex (VO2+). These studies provide evidence that VO(mal)2 may be considered as a potential antitumor agent due to its low toxicity in non-tumor cells and significant anticancer activity. PMID:23987068

  7. Compound prism design principles, I

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Prisms have been needlessly neglected as components used in modern optical design. In optical throughput, stray light, flexibility, and in their ability to be used in direct-view geometry, they excel over gratings. Here we show that even their well-known weak dispersion relative to gratings has been overrated by designing doublet and double Amici direct-vision compound prisms that have 14° and 23° of dispersion across the visible spectrum, equivalent to 800 and 1300 lines/mm gratings. By taking advantage of the multiple degrees of freedom available in a compound prism design, we also show prisms whose angular dispersion shows improved linearity in wavelength. In order to achieve these designs, we exploit the well-behaved nature of prism design space to write customized algorithms that optimize directly in the nonlinear design space. Using these algorithms, we showcase a number of prism designs that illustrate a performance and flexibility that goes beyond what has often been considered possible with prisms. PMID:22423145

  8. Anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Georg

    2008-03-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic compounds that can serve as substrates for bacterial growth. So far, four types of aromatic metabolism are known. (1) The aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterized by the extensive use of molecular oxygen as cosubstrate for oxygenases that introduce hydroxyl groups and cleave the aromatic ring. (2) In the presence of oxygen, facultative aerobes use another so-called hybrid type of aerobic metabolism of benzoate, phenylacetate, and anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate). These pathways use coenzyme A thioesters of the substrates and do not require oxygen for ring cleavage; rather they use an oxygenase/reductase to dearomatize the ring. (3) In the absence of oxygen, facultative aerobes and phototrophs use a reductive aromatic metabolism. Reduction of the aromatic ring of benzoyl-coenzyme A is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase. This Birch-like reduction is driven by the hydrolysis of 2 ATP molecules. (4) A completely different, still little characterized benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase operates in strict anaerobes, which cannot afford the costly ATP-dependent ring reduction. PMID:18378589

  9. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  10. Phenolic compounds from Nymphaea odorata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhen; ElSohly, Hala N; Li, Xing-Cong; Khan, Shabana I; Broedel, Sheldon E; Raulli, Robert E; Cihlar, Ronald L; Burandt, Charles; Walker, Larry A

    2003-04-01

    Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of Nymphaea odorata resulted in the identification of two lignans, one new (1) and one known (2), together with six known flavonol glycosides (3-8). The structures of 1-8 were established by spectroscopic analysis as nymphaeoside A (1), icariside E(4) (2), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin, 3), quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (4), myricetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (myricitrin, 5), quercetin 3-O-(6' '-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (6), myricetin 3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside (7), and myricetin 3-O-(6' '-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (8). Compounds 3, 4, and 7 showed marginal inhibitory effect against fatty acid synthase with IC(50) values of 45, 50, and 25 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:12713413

  11. Dilithium hexaorganostannate(IV) compounds.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Ireen; Zeckert, Kornelia; Zahn, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Hypercoordination of main-group elements such as the heavier Group?14 elements (silicon, germanium, tin, and lead) usually requires strong electron-withdrawing ligands and/or donating groups. Herein, we present the synthesis and characterization of two hexaaryltin(IV) dianions in form of their dilithium salts [Li2(thf)2{Sn(2-py(Me))6}] (py(Me)=C5H3N-5-Me) (2) and [Li2{Sn(2-py(OtBu))6}] (py(OtBu)=C5H3N-6-OtBu) (3). Both complexes are stable in the solid state and solution under inert conditions. Theoretical investigations of compound 2 reveal a significant valence 5s-orbital contribution of the tin atom forming six strongly polarized tin-carbon bonds. PMID:25314245

  12. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  13. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  14. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  15. A calorimetric study of the interaction of synthetic phospholipid liposomes with lipid-soluble small molecules used as dental materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, S; Kadoma, Y; Masuhara, E

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of 22 lipid-soluble small molecules, widely used in dental materials and devices, with synthetic phospholipid liposomes, was investigated by the application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in order to clarify the mechanism of small molecules in biological systems. Dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) were used as lipids. The interaction of various monomers with liposomes has been reported by us in this journal. In this experiment, various compounds such as redox-initiator, photo-initiator or photo-sensitizer, inhibitor, root-canal disinfectant, cement-base materials (eugenol and 2-ethoxybenzoic acid) etc., were investigated. From changes in the phase transition temperature (T), enthalpy (delta H kcal mol-1) and H/HHW values of both DMPC and DPPC liposomes induced by these molecules, it was concluded that aromatic tertiary amine, benzoyl peroxide and hydroquinone monomethyl ether had a relatively large effect on liposomes, and that in phenol derivatives, m-cresol and p-chlorophenol had a large effect on liposomes compared to phenol. Eugenol used as dental cement also had a large effect on liposomes due to its high hydrophobicity. Changes in the transition properties of liposomes induced by small molecules (characterized by shift of T to a lower temperature, an increase or decrease in cooperativity (H/HHW), and a decrease in delta H of a endothermic peak) seemed to be related to biological activities. PMID:3558442

  16. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  18. Computed structures of polyimides model compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Phillips, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Using a semi-empirical approach, a computer study was made of 8 model compounds of polyimides. The compounds represent subunits from which NASA Langley Research Center has successfully synthesized polymers for aerospace high performance material application, including one of the most promising, LARC-TPI polymer. Three-dimensional graphic display as well as important molecular structure data pertaining to these 8 compounds are obtained.

  19. Calorimetric, spectroscopic and structural investigations of phase polymorphism in [Ru(NH3)6](BF4)3. Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do??ga, Diana; Mikuli, Edward; Inaba, Akira; Górska, Natalia; Ho?derna-Natkaniec, Krystyna; Nitek, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Four crystalline phases of the coordination compound [Ru(NH3)6](BF4)3 are identified by adiabatic calorimetry. Three phase transitions, one at TC3(IV?III)=30.7 K, the second at TC2(III?II)=91.7 K (both accompanied by comparable entropy changes 3.0 and 3.1 J K-1 mol-1, respectively) and the third at TC1(II?I)=241.6 K (accompanied by an entropy change of 8.1 J K-1 mol-1) were discovered. X-ray single crystal diffraction (at 293 K) demonstrates that phase I is a highly dynamic disordered cubic phase (Fm3¯m, No. 225) with two types of BF4- anions differing in a degree of disorder. In phase II (at 170 K) the structure remains cubic (Ia3¯, No. 206), with two different types of cations and four different types of anions. Splitting of certain IR bands connected with NH3 ligands at the observed phase transitions suggests a lowering of the symmetry of the [Ru(NH3)6]3+ complex cation. Both NH3 ligands and BF4- anions perform fast reorientations (?R?10-12 s), which are significantly slowed down below the phase transition at TC3. 1H NMR studies led to estimate the values of the activation energy of NH3 ligands reorientation in the phases II and I as equal to ˜8 kJ mol-1. In phase I the whole hexammineruthenium(III) cations reorientation as a tumbling process can be noticed. The activation energy value of this motion is ˜24 kJ mol-1. 19F NMR studies give the values of the activation energy of BF4- anions reorientation as ˜6 kJ mol-1. Above the phase transition temperature half of BF4- anions perform a tumbling motion with Ea?8 kJ mol-1.

  20. Bioactive Compounds from Vitex leptobotrys#

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wenhui; Liu, Kanglun; Guan, Yifu; Tan, Ghee Teng; Hung, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Soejarto, D. Doel; Pezzuto, John M.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Zhang, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    A new lignan, vitexkarinol (1), as well as a known lignan, neopaulownin (2), a known chalcone, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one (3), two known dehydroflavones, tsugafolin (4) and alpinetin (5), two known dipeptides, aurantiamide and aurantiamide acetate, a known sesquiterpene, vemopolyanthofuran, and five known carotenoid metabolites, vomifoliol, dihydrovomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, loliolide and isololiolide, were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Vitex leptobotrys through bioassay-guided fractionation. The chalcone (3) was found to inhibit HIV-1 replication by 77% at 15.9 µM, and the two dehydroflavones (4 and 5) showed weak anti-HIV activity with IC50 values of 118 and 130 µM, respectively, while being devoid of cytotoxicity at 150 µM. A chlorophyll-enriched fraction of V. leptobotrys, containing pheophorbide a, was found to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 by 80% at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. Compounds 1 and 3 were further selected to be evaluated against 21 viral targets available at NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). PMID:24404757

  1. Thigtness Compound Climatic Test - QC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelia Butnaru, Mariana

    2006-11-01

    This method determinate the suitabilty of materials components, finised products and others to stressful conditions like: cold, heat, UV and IR radiations others. Generally, the thigtness is testing in lab environmental conditions. But some materials, components or finised products are used transported or/and deposited in special climatic conditions. So when we test thighness we must mimic the environmental factors of aging. The samples are same elastomers of general use (used for gaskets). The rubber was studied using IR measurements. We studied the structural changes which appear due to the climatic factors on samples of N50 rubber. The elastomer was cooled and irradiated with UV radiation. Due to cooling a new spectral band at 1443 cm -1 appears, and also the intensity of spectral band from 1432 cm -1 decreases. The most important structural changes, due to the degradation action of the ultraviolet radiations, appear after 10 hours of the action of the aging factor. The rubber was also studied with photoacoustic technique. An important decrease of thermal diffusity with the number of climatic cycles (aging factor - cold) and the UV irradiations dose was observed for N50 type samples. We assume that a variety of structural changes have been produced. This kind of elastomer is not a resistent one to stressful conditions. The results proved that thigtness compound method QC, works, is a very imortant one and must be applied.

  2. Superconducting compounds and alloys research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1975-01-01

    Resistivity measurements as a function of temperature were performed on alloys of the binary material system In sub(1-x) Bi sub x for x varying between 0 and 1. It was found that for all single-phase alloys (the pure elements, alpha-In, and the three intermetallic compounds) at temperatures sufficiently above the Debye-temperature, the resistivity p can be expressed as p = a sub o T(n), where a sub o and n are composition-dependent constants. The same exponential relationship can also be applied for the sub-system In-In2Bi, when the two phases are in compositional equilibrium. Superconductivity measurements on single and two-phase alloys can be explained with respect to the phase diagram. There occur three superconducting phases (alpha-In, In2Bi, and In5Bi3) with different transition temperatures in the alloying system. The magnitude of the transition temperatures for the various intermetallic phases of In-Bi is such that the disappearance or occurrence of a phase in two component alloys can be demonstrated easily by means of superconductivity measurements.

  3. Developing Representations of Compound Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Ingmar; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged children and adults when learning to categorize compound, multi-dimensional stimuli. Stimuli were such that both similarity-based and rule-based representations would lead to correct classification. This allows testing whether children have a bias for formation of similarity-based representations. The results are at odds with this expectation. Children use both uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional classification, and the use of both strategies increases with age. Multi-dimensional classification is best characterized as resulting from an analytic strategy rather than from procedural processing of overall-similarity. The conclusion is that children are capable of using complex rule-based categorization strategies that involve the use of multiple features of the stimuli. The main developmental change concerns the efficiency and consistency of the explicit learning system. PMID:22457656

  4. Heterogeneous Integration of Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutanabbir, Oussama; Gösele, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    The ability to tailor compound semiconductors and to integrate them onto foreign substrates can lead to superior or novel functionalities with a potential impact on various areas in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, biosensing, and photovoltaics. This review provides a brief description of different approaches to achieve this heterogeneous integration, with an emphasis on the ion-cut process, also known commercially as the Smart-Cut™ process. This process combines semiconductor wafer bonding and undercutting using defect engineering by light ion implantation. Bulk-quality heterostructures frequently unattainable by direct epitaxial growth can be produced, provided that a list of technical criteria is fulfilled, thus offering an additional degree of freedom in the design and fabrication of heterogeneous and flexible devices. Ion cutting is a generic process that can be employed to split and transfer fine monocrystalline layers from various crystals. Materials and engineering issues as well as our current understanding of the underlying physics involved in its application to cleaving thin layers from freestanding GaN, InP, and GaAs wafers are presented.

  5. Perfluorinated Compounds: Emerging POPs with Potential Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, an...

  6. Screening Assay for Promigratory\\/Antimigratory Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will L. Rust; Janice L. Huff; George E. Plopper

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale screening strategies aimed at finding anticancer drugs traditionally focus on identifying cytotoxic compounds that attack actively dividing cells. Because progression to malignancy involves acquisition of an aggressively invasive phenotype in addition to hyperproliferation, simple and effective screening strategies for finding compounds that target the invasive aspects of cancer progression may prove valuable for identifying alternative and preventative cancer therapies.

  7. Determination of atmospheric fluxes of carbonyl compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sedello; K. Müller; G. Spindler; S. Haferkorn; H. Herrmann

    2003-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by vegetation can contribute significantly to the pool of reactive hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. These biogenic hydrocarbons play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation and have therefore been investigated for many years. Therefore the investigation of fluxes of carbonyl compounds has been attracting

  8. Compound Verbs in Persian: An Euphemistic Phraseology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    An analysis of the compound verb system of Persian marks constructions euphemistically by producing an indirect order effect and by alternating different compound and simple forms that bear the same denotation but are governed by a rigorous code of ethics. What really carries the semantic reference in these cases is the process of construing…

  9. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

  10. Crystal structure analysis of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. A., Jr.; Downey, J. W.; Dwight, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Study concerns crystal structures and lattice parameters for a number of new intermetallic compounds. Crystal structure data have been collected on equiatomic compounds, formed between an element of the Sc, Ti, V, or Cr group and an element of the Co or Ni group. The data, obtained by conventional methods, are presented in an easily usable tabular form.

  11. Interactions between ?-lactoglobulin and flavour compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Guichard; S Langourieux

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the interactions between a well characterised macromolecule, ?-lactoglobulin, and a wide range of flavour compounds, in different media. Flavour compounds interacting with the protein were screened using different methods, and thermodynamic constants were calculated. Within the same chemical class, the affinity constant increased with increasing chain length, suggesting hydrophobic interactions. The

  12. FREQUENCY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was initiated for the purpose of compiling a list of all organic compounds that have been found in water. This report contains the names of compounds found, their location or a reference to a published study, the type of water in which they are found, and the date of s...

  13. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  14. ON THE VOLATILITY OF SOME POLONIUM COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mabuchi

    1963-01-01

    The volatility of thirteen polonium compounds that are extractable with ; organic solvents was investigated. The reresult of heating tests showed that all ; compounds resulting from the interaction of polonium with chelating agents ; volatilize beiow 200 deg C\\/l atm. (auth);

  15. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  16. ESTIMATING EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this document is to present procedures for conducting site-specific exposure assessments to dioxin-like compounds. In addition, information is provided on the levels of these compounds found in various media, identification of the possible associated source...

  17. Boiling points of halogenated organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari L. Horvath

    2001-01-01

    The normal boiling points of a number of halogenated organic compounds have been compiled from experimental measurements over three decades. Some of these chemicals have not been reported in the literature. The substances listed are halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aliphatic ethers, halogenated ring (cyclic) hydrocarbons and other related compounds.

  18. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  19. Interpreting Nominal Compounds for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, L. S.; Croft, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of nominal compounds in the context of natural language processing for information retrieval. Knowledge-intensive algorithms that can successfully interpret compounds found in technical documents are described, and experiments are reported that indicate these algorithms may be unnecessary for improving retrieval…

  20. Seleno-compounds in garlic and onion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Arnault; Jacques Auger

    2006-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are widely known for their biological properties but are far from having revealed all of their secrets even if the compounds involved in the biological mechanisms, flavenols, sulphur and seleno compounds have been identified. The beneficial effect of garlic on health including protection against cardiovascular diseases and cancers results from all of these

  1. Care and Feeding of the Compound Microscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keirle, Matt

    This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators is intended to demonstrate appropriate use of a microscope. It covers the basic care and operation of a compound light microscope. The lesson includes information on how a compound microscope works, a diagram of its parts, tips for usage, a practice activity, and a checklist for putting the microscope away.

  2. Direct reaction effects on compound cross sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Moldauer

    1975-01-01

    Two effects of a direct reaction on compound processes are discussed: the enhancement of the average compound cross section that competes with the direct process and the cross correlations in the fluctuations of cross sections involving the directly coupled channels. For the case of two directly coupled channels it is shown that both effects are maximized at the causality limit

  3. Direct reaction effects on compound cross sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Moldauer

    1975-01-01

    Two effects of a direct reaction on compound processes are discussed: ; the enhancement of the average compound cross section that competes with the ; direct process and the cross correlations in the fluctuations of cross sections ; involving the directly coupled channels. For the case of two directly coupled ; channels it is shown that both effects are maximized

  4. On the Compound and Generalized Poisson Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cansado Maceda

    1948-01-01

    In this note we deduce several properties of the compound and generalized Poisson distributions; in particular their closure and divisibility properties. An infinite class of functions whose members are both compound and generalized Poisson distributions is exhibited, and several of the distributions of Neyman, Polya, etc. are identified. The present note stems from a paper by Feller [2].

  5. Nitroaromatic Compounds, from Synthesis to Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kou-San; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Nitroaromatic compounds are relatively rare in nature and have been introduced into the environment mainly by human activities. This important class of industrial chemicals is widely used in the synthesis of many diverse products, including dyes, polymers, pesticides, and explosives. Unfortunately, their extensive use has led to environmental contamination of soil and groundwater. The nitro group, which provides chemical and functional diversity in these molecules, also contributes to the recalcitrance of these compounds to biodegradation. The electron-withdrawing nature of the nitro group, in concert with the stability of the benzene ring, makes nitroaromatic compounds resistant to oxidative degradation. Recalcitrance is further compounded by their acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and easy reduction into carcinogenic aromatic amines. Nitroaromatic compounds are hazardous to human health and are registered on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutants for environmental remediation. Although the majority of these compounds are synthetic in nature, microorganisms in contaminated environments have rapidly adapted to their presence by evolving new biodegradation pathways that take advantage of them as sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. This review provides an overview of the synthesis of both man-made and biogenic nitroaromatic compounds, the bacteria that have been identified to grow on and completely mineralize nitroaromatic compounds, and the pathways that are present in these strains. The possible evolutionary origins of the newly evolved pathways are also discussed. PMID:20508249

  6. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively. PMID:12377243

  7. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuko Matsumura; Toru Ishikawa; Junichi Kitajima

    2002-01-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4?-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and l-fucitol, respectively.

  8. Multitarget compounding technique based on dimpled mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haili; Zuo, Baojun; Chen, Shouqian; Yu, Hong; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Hongming; Du, Jian; Fan, Zhigang; Pang, Hai

    2012-11-01

    The multitarget compounding technique is key in an infrared hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. In this study, the beam-broadening theory and carefully designed experiments are presented to analyze a multitarget compounding system based on a dimpled mirror. By paraxial approximation of geometrical optics, the expression of broadened beamwidth of a dimpled-mirror two-mirror three-reflection concentric system was obtained as the function of system parameters. A multitarget compounding setup was designed and experiments were performed. Excellent matching results were achieved between the beamwidth theory and the experiments. Experimental results demonstrated that the beam-broadening theory is creditable and suitable to design the multitarget compounding system. The theory and experiments are beneficial to the future development and implementation of multitarget compounding technique.

  9. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  10. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  11. Compound estimation procedures in reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Ron

    1990-01-01

    At NASA, components and subsystems of components in the Space Shuttle and Space Station generally go through a number of redesign stages. While data on failures for various design stages are sometimes available, the classical procedures for evaluating reliability only utilize the failure data on the present design stage of the component or subsystem. Often, few or no failures have been recorded on the present design stage. Previously, Bayesian estimators for the reliability of a single component, conditioned on the failure data for the present design, were developed. These new estimators permit NASA to evaluate the reliability, even when few or no failures have been recorded. Point estimates for the latter evaluation were not possible with the classical procedures. Since different design stages of a component (or subsystem) generally have a good deal in common, the development of new statistical procedures for evaluating the reliability, which consider the entire failure record for all design stages, has great intuitive appeal. A typical subsystem consists of a number of different components and each component has evolved through a number of redesign stages. The present investigations considered compound estimation procedures and related models. Such models permit the statistical consideration of all design stages of each component and thus incorporate all the available failure data to obtain estimates for the reliability of the present version of the component (or subsystem). A number of models were considered to estimate the reliability of a component conditioned on its total failure history from two design stages. It was determined that reliability estimators for the present design stage, conditioned on the complete failure history for two design stages have lower risk than the corresponding estimators conditioned only on the most recent design failure data. Several models were explored and preliminary models involving bivariate Poisson distribution and the Consael Process (a bivariate Poisson process) were developed. Possible short comings of the models are noted. An example is given to illustrate the procedures. These investigations are ongoing with the aim of developing estimators that extend to components (and subsystems) with three or more design stages.

  12. Using compound electrodes in electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Hua, P; Woo, E J; Webster, J G; Tompkins, W J

    1993-01-01

    In electrical impedance tomography, we inject currents and measure voltages to estimate an object's resistivity distribution. The electrode configuration affects measured voltage data because the electrode-skin contact impedance is high and varies with electrode location. We developed a compound electrode which is composed of two electrodes: a large outer electrode to inject current and a small inner electrode to sense voltage. We used these compound electrodes to measure voltages from a physical phantom. We showed that the measured voltages from the compound electrodes are smaller in amplitude than those from conventional electrodes. This demonstrates that the compound electrode can minimize contact impedance voltage drop from the measured data. We used a finite element model for the compound electrode and incorporated the model into the regularized Newton-Raphson reconstruction algorithm. We performed a sensitivity study and showed that the reconstructed resistivity distributions are less dependent on the unknown contact resistance values for a compound electrode than a conventional electrode and that the use of a compound electrode results in improved images for the reconstruction algorithm. PMID:8468073

  13. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  14. Marine anticorrosion paints based on thiouracil compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, A.B.; Nabey, A.E. [National Inst. of Oceanog. & Fisheries, Alexendria (Egypt)

    1996-10-01

    The inhibition of marine corrosion of steel by 6-amino-2-thiouracil (1) and its derivatives 6-benzylideneamino-2-thiouracil (2) and 6-p-chlorobenzylideneamino-2-thiouracil (3) has been tested on laboratory scale using electrochemical technique which was performed on mild steel in sea water medium and on field scale through the incorporation of the compounds individually in marine paints compositions. The paint containing the compounds were applied on unprimed steel and the coated panels were tested in Alexandria Eastern Harbour water (Egypt). The electrochemical measurements indicate that both compounds (1) & (3) act as cathodic-type inhibitors, but the data of compound (2) showed neither cathodic nor anodic inhibition. The paint composition based on the soluble resin material as a sole binder and containing compound (1) showed the best corrosion protection of its steel surface tell more than 2 months followed by the paint composition containing compound (3). On the other hand, oil is not recommended with paint composition containing these compounds.

  15. Environmental exposure to preformed nitroso compounds.

    PubMed

    Tricker, A R; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1989-01-01

    In the human environment, nitrosatable amine precursors to N-nitroso compounds and nitrosating species such as nitrite and oxides of nitrogen are abundant. As a result, the formation of N-nitroso compounds and human exposure to these compounds show a rather complex pattern. The largest known human exposures to exogenous N-nitrosamines occur in the work place. This is particularly evident in the rubber and tyre manufacturing industry and in metal cutting and grinding shops. Nearly all industries which are concerned with the production and/or use of amines have a related nitrosamine problem. Outside the industrial environment, commodities such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and household products, which are either prepared from amines or contain high concentrations of amino compounds, may be subject to contamination by low concentrations of N-nitroso compounds. This contamination may result from the use of contaminated starting materials, in particular amines, or from the formation of N-nitroso compounds during manufacturing processes. A similar problem exists with agricultural chemicals. As our knowledge of the occurrence and formation of N-nitroso compounds in the environment increases, preventive measures can be introduced, particularly in manufacturing industries, to reduce the levels of human exposure to nitrosamines in the work place and to protect the consumer from nitrosamine exposure from household commodities. PMID:2696580

  16. Pellioditis pellio: Substituted phenolic compounds as chemoattractants.

    PubMed

    Eveland, L K; Haseeb, M A

    1993-11-01

    Vanillin, vanillic acid, and other related compounds are chemoattractants either for nematodes or arthropods. We tested vanillin, vanillic acid, and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in an in vitro bioassay system for their ability to attractPellioditis pellio males and females. Females were not attracted to any of the three compounds tested. Males responded to vanillin and vanillic acid, but not to 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. Males responded to vanillin and vanillic acid when these compounds were present at 10(-5) M concentration. Vanillin at 10(-3) and 10(-7) M concentrations was not attractive. PMID:24248709

  17. Application of bicyclic and cage compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. D.; Archuleta, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a literature survey of the field of bicyclic and cage compounds were presented, with the objective of identifying those types of compounds with unusual physical and chemical stability, and determining what practical applications have been found for these compounds. Major applications have been as polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and pesticides. Lesser applications have included fuels, fuel additives, lubricants, lubricant additives, and perfumes. Several areas where further work might be useful were also outlined; these are primarily in the areas of polymers, polymer additives, medicinals, and synthetic lubricants.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by pitofenone: a spasmolytic compound.

    PubMed

    Punekar, N S; Kulkarni, A V

    1991-12-01

    Pitofenone, a spasmolytic compound, inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity from bovine erythrocytes and from electric eel. It is a potent inhibitor of this enzyme from the two sources, with Ki values of 36 and 45 microM, respectively. Of the five compounds structurally related to pitofenone, only those containing a piperidine moiety show acetylcholinesterase inhibition. All these inhibitions are reversible, linear, and noncompetitive in nature. A qualitative correlation between the anticholinesterase and the corresponding antimuscarinic activity for some of these compounds was apparent. Good separation of these two effects would be a desirable feature for newer muscarinic antagonists. PMID:1777122

  19. xvi Preface to the second edition Acknowledgments

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    , William Talbot, Wilhelm Vossenkuhl, Fritz Warfield and Paul Weirich. In addition, I have continued to benefit from regular exchanges of ideas or papers (usually both) with many philosophers, including William Alston, Laurence Bonjour, Panayot Butchvarov, Elizabeth Fricker, Alvin Goldman, John Greco, Gilbert

  20. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (? ? 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ?CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be ?? = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, ?bh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, ?ch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, ?m = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ?CDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ?CDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ?CDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ? ? ? 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

  1. MOLECULAR BASIS OF BIODEGRADATION OF CHLOROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons are widely used in industry and agriculture, and comprise the bulk of environmental pollutants. Although simple aromatic compounds are biodegradable by a variety of degradative pathways, their halogenated counterparts are more resistant to bacter...

  2. MOLECULAR BASIS OF BIODEGRADATION OF CHLOROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons are widely used in industry and agriculture and comprise the bulk of environmental pollutants. lthough simple aromatic compounds are biodegradable by a variety of degradative pathways, their halogenated counterparts are more resistant to bacteria...

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BORON AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  4. Stabilized lanthanum sulphur compounds. [thermoelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, G. H.; Elsner, N. B.; Shearer, C. H. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium, or strontium. This compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.

  5. ANALYSIS OF FISH HOMOGENATES FOR PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) which include PFOS and PFOA are widely distributed in wildlife. Whole fish homogenates were analyzed for PFCs from the upper Mississippi, the Missouri and the Ohio rivers. Methods development, validation data, and preliminary study results will b...

  6. NUCLEAR ORIENTATION EXPERIMENTS ON CERIUM INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-63 NUCLEAR ORIENTATION EXPERIMENTS ON CERIUM INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS A. BENOIT, J. FLOUQUET, M magnetic measurements, this last conclusion is dubious as the crystalline anisotropy of theI + 3/2 ~ cerium

  7. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  8. Perfluorinated Compounds In The Ohio River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in waterways include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs). Their distributions and persistence in the aquatic environment remain p...

  9. Febrifugine analogue compounds: synthesis and antimalarial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuren; Chandrashekar, Gudise; Meng, Li; Robinson, Katie; Chatterji, Dipsanker

    2012-01-15

    Febrifugine is an alkaloid isolated from Dichroa febrifuga Lour as the active component against Plasmodium falciparum, but exhibits toxic side effects. In this study novel febrifugine analogues were designed and efficiently synthesized. New compounds underwent efficacy and toxicity evaluation. Some compounds are much less toxic than the natural product febrifugine and existing antimalarial drugs and are expected to possess wide therapeutic windows. In Aotus monkeys infected with the chloroquine resistant FVO strain of P. falciparum, one interesting compound possesses a 50% curative dose of 2mg/kg/day and a 100% curative dose of 8 mg/kg/day. These compounds, as well as the underlying design rationale, may find usefulness in the discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs. PMID:22182577

  10. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  11. Cyclopropanation using flow-generated diazo compounds

    E-print Network

    Roda, Nuria M.; Tran, Duc N.; Battilocchio, Claudio; Labes, Ricardo; Ingham, Richard J.; Hawkins, Joel M.; Ley, Steven V.

    2015-01-17

    By contrast, unstabil- ised diazo compounds are underexplored. Interestingly, this highly energetic species often demonstrates a reversed reactiv- ity pattern due to their amphiphilic character (Scheme 2).7 Further to our initial investigations using the flow...

  12. BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF TRIALKYLTIN COMPOUNDS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triethyltin (TET) and trimethyltin (TMT) are neurotoxic organotin compounds which produce different patterns of toxicity in adult animals. Exposure to TET produces behavioral toxicity (decreased motor activity, grip strength, operant response rate and startle response amplitude) ...

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...

  14. Digital Construction Platform: A Compound Arm Approach

    E-print Network

    Spielberg, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel large-scale Digital Construction Platform (DCP) for on-site sensing, analysis, and fabrication. The DCP is an in-progress research project consisting of a compound robotic arm system comprised of a ...

  15. Compound Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments

    E-print Network

    Yang, Shengxiang

    applications of evolutionary algorithms. In this paper, a compound particle swarm optimization (CPSOCompound Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic Environments Lili Liu1 , Dingwei Wang1 been an increasing concern on investigating evolu- tionary algorithms (EAs) for dynamic optimization

  16. Suitability of refractory compounds for production purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Pancheshnaya; L. I. Struk; V. G. Prikhodchenko

    1967-01-01

    1.It has been confirmed in principle that certain refractory compounds of the transition metals may be employed as packing materials for, the amalgam decomposer.2.Titanium carbide proved to be the most promising of the refractory compounds investigated. The current density on an experimental titanium carbide packing, obtained under comparable conditions, was 4–6 times higher than that on a graphite packing. The

  17. Microorganic compounds in the Humber rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. House; D. Leach; J. L. A. Long; P. Cranwell; C. Smith; L. Bharwaj; A. Meharg; G. Ryland; D. O. Orr; J. Wright

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of a range of micro-organic compounds in the Humber rivers have been measured at weekly intervals over a period of 1 year. The compounds include the triazine herbicides (simazine, atrazine, propazine, desmetryn and prometryn), selected organophosphorus insecticides (fenitrothion, malathion and parathion), phenylurea (chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron) and phenoxyacid herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA, MCPB and mecoprop), phenol derivatives (phenol,

  18. New phenolic compounds from Liatris elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhizhen Zhang; Stacy Ownby; Ping Wang; Wei Yuan; Wanli Zhang; Shiyou Li

    2010-01-01

    Chemical investigation on the whole plants of Liatris elegans resulted in the isolation and identification of the new ferulic acid ester (1) and arylnaphthalene lignan (2), together with 13 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established as p-hydroxyphenylferulate (1) and 5,3?-dihydroxy-4,4?-dimethoxy-2,7?-cycloligna-7,7?-diene-9,9?-lactone (2) by extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses.

  19. Green Fluorescence of Guanidinium Compounds with Ninhydrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rex B. Conn; Richard B. Davis

    1959-01-01

    CURRENTLY available methods for the determination of creatine and other guanidinium compounds are based on non-specific chromogenic reactions. These include the Jaffe, the diacetyl alpha-naphthol, the Sakaguchi, and the sodium nitroprusside-potassium ferrocyanide reactions. Determination of the individual members of the guanidinium group requires chromatographic separation, chemical degradation, or specific enzymatic destruction of the compound. In a search for a more

  20. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  1. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  2. Two new compounds from Trigonostemon heterophyllus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Xing Li; Wen-Li Mei; Wen-Jian Zuo; You-Xing Zhao; Wen-Hua Dong; Hao-Fu Dai

    Phytochemical investigation on the stems of Trigonostemon heterophyllus led to the isolation of a new diterpene, trigonoheterene (1), and a new naphthoquinone, trigonoheterone (2), together with two known compounds, 3,4-seco-sonderianol, (3) and trigonochinene E, (4). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities and antibacterial activities.

  3. Green Tea Polyphenolic Compounds and Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Barbosa; Décio Sabbatini

    2007-01-01

    :  Polyphenols are a structurally diverse group of compounds that occur widely throughout the plant kingdom. Polyphenolic compounds\\u000a are ubiquitous in all plant organs and are, therefore, an integral part of the human diet. Recent interest in food phenolics\\u000a has increased greatly because of the antioxidant and free radical-scavenging abilities associated with some phenolics and\\u000a their potential effects on human health.

  4. Photometabolism of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Rahalkar; S. R. Joshi; N. Shivaraman

    1993-01-01

    The phototrophic bacteriumRhodopseudomonas palustris has been reported to be versatile in photometabolism of aromatic compounds. However, the kinetics of degradation of aromatic compounds byR. palustris appears not to have been reported in the literature. In this laboratory a photosynthetic bacterium that was identified asRhodopseudomonas palustris(bp) was isolated from a sample collected from a canal where refinery wastewater was discharged. The

  5. Alkyllead compounds and their environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Abadin, Henry G; Pohl, Hana R

    2010-01-01

    Alkyllead compounds are man-made compounds in which a carbon atom of one or more organic molecules is bound to a lead atom. Tetraethyllead and tetramethyllead are the most common alkyllead compounds that were used primarily as gasoline additives for many years. Consequently, auto emissions have accounted for a major part of lead environmental pollution. Alkyllead compounds can readily enter living organisms as they are well absorbed via all major routes of entry. Because of their lipid solubility, the alkylleads can also readily cross the blood-brain barrier. The toxicokinetic information on organic lead can be used as biomarkers of exposure for monitoring exposed individuals. The organic alkyllead compounds are more toxic than the inorganic forms of lead. Neurotoxicity is the predominant effect of lead (both for organic and inorganic forms), although lead affects almost every organ of the body. The use of alkyllead compounds has declined over the last 20 years, due to the worldwide effort to eliminate the use of leaded gasoline. This achievement can be viewed as a great accomplishment of public health preventive measures. PMID:20877807

  6. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:25353061

  7. Potential use of vanadium compounds in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Barrio, D A; Etcheverry, S B

    2010-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element present in practically all cells in plants and animals. While the essentiality of vanadium for human beings remains to be well established, vanadium has become an increasingly important environmental metal. Vanadium compounds exert a variety of biological activities and responses. At pharmacological doses, vanadium compounds display relevant biological actions such as insulin and growth factor mimetic or enhancing effects, as well as osteogenic and cardioprotective activity. On the other hand, depending on the nature of compounds and their concentrations, toxicological actions and adverse side effects may also be shown. Nevertheless, the toxic effects may be useful to develop new antitumoral drugs. In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge and new advances on in vitro and in vivo effects of inorganic and organically-chelated vanadium compounds. The effects of vanadium derivatives on some cellular signaling pathways related to different diseases are compiled. In particular, the pathways relevant to the insulin mimetic, osteogenic, cadioprotective and antitumoral actions of vanadium compounds have been comprehensively reviewed. The knowledge of these intracellular signaling pathways may facilitate the rational design of new vanadium compounds with promising therapeutic applications as well as the understanding of secondary side effects derived from the use of vanadium as a therapeutic agent. PMID:20846114

  8. Toxicity of antimony and its compounds.

    PubMed

    Winship, K A

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and clinical experience with compounds containing antimony have shown that the trivalent compounds are generally more toxic than the pentavalent ones. APT can cause severe pain and tissue necrosis and is therefore not given by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. APT has the actions and uses of AST, but it is less soluble and more irritating than the sodium salt which is therefore more suitable for intravenous use. Trivalent antimony compounds are toxic when used topically. Adverse effects are similar for all trivalent compounds, and include nausea, vomiting, weakness and myalgia, abdominal colic, diarrhoea, and skin rashes, including pustular eruptions. Hypersensitivity reactions also occur. Respiratory symptoms include cough, dyspnoea, and chronic lung changes. Cardiotoxicity is the most important and may produce arrhythmias, myocardial depression and damage, Stokes-Adams attacks, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Hepatic damage and necrosis, as well as blood dyscrasias, may occur. Toxic effects on the kidney may follow chronic use. Continuous treatment with small doses of antimony may give rise to symptoms of subacute poisoning, similar to those of chronic arsenic poisoning, due to accumulation of antimony in the body, especially if trivalent compounds are used, because of their long biological half-lives. Reproductive disorders and chromosome damage have been reported; antimony compounds are, therefore, potentially toxic to reproduction and have mutagenic, and oncogenic potential. Antimony compounds should, therefore, not be used during pregnancy or in the presence of hepatic, renal, or heart disease. Pentavalent antimony preparations especially the organic compounds, together with non-metallic synthetic preparations, such as the diamidines, have now replaced APT for use in leishmaniasis. Because of the toxicity of antimony compounds, investigations have been undertaken to reduce their adverse effects by combining them with chelating agents. These preparations appear to have reduced the toxic effects of antimony without affecting the efficacy of the preparations. Liposome-encapsulated antimony products have, more recently, been shown to be much less toxic because of the reduced dose of the antimony compound required for effective therapy. The historical uses of antimony were based on the belief that the topical and systemic adverse effects, for example, skin eruptions and diarrhoea and vomiting, were signs that the condition being treated was responding by being brought to the surface to relieve congestion at the diseased area. There is no evidence in topical use, but there is evidence that such use can cause severe reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3307336

  9. Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

  10. The Chemistry of Nitroxyl-Releasing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    DuMond, Jenna F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nitroxyl (HNO) demonstrates a diverse and unique biological profile compared to nitric oxide, a redox-related compound. Although numerous studies support the use of HNO as a therapeutic agent, the inherent chemical reactivity of HNO requires the use of donor molecules. Two general chemical strategies currently exist for HNO generation from nitrogen-containing molecules: (i) the disproportionation of hydroxylamine derivatives containing good leaving groups attached to the nitrogen atom and (ii) the decomposition of nitroso compounds (X-N=O, where X represents a good leaving group). This review summarizes the synthesis and structure, the HNO-releasing mechanisms, kinetics and by-product formation, and alternative reactions of six major groups of HNO donors: Angeli's salt, Piloty's acid and its derivatives, cyanamide, diazenium diolate-derived compounds, acyl nitroso compounds, and acyloxy nitroso compounds. A large body of work exists defining these six groups of HNO donors and the overall chemistry of each donor requires consideration in light of its ability to produce HNO. The increasing interest in HNO biology and the potential of HNO-based therapeutics presents exciting opportunities to further develop HNO donors as both research tools and potential treatments. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1637–1648. PMID:21235345

  11. Nonaminoglycoside compounds induce readthrough of nonsense mutations

    PubMed Central

    Damoiseaux, Robert; Nahas, Shareef; Gao, Kun; Hu, Hailiang; Pollard, Julianne M.; Goldstine, Jimena; Jung, Michael E.; Henning, Susanne M.; Bertoni, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of genetic disorders are caused by nonsense mutations for which compound-induced readthrough of premature termination codons (PTCs) might be exploited as a potential treatment strategy. We have successfully developed a sensitive and quantitative high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, protein transcription/translation (PTT)–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for identifying novel PTC-readthrough compounds using ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) as a genetic disease model. This HTS PTT-ELISA assay is based on a coupled PTT that uses plasmid templates containing prototypic A-T mutated (ATM) mutations for HTS. The assay is luciferase independent. We screened ?34,000 compounds and identified 12 low-molecular-mass nonaminoglycosides with potential PTC-readthrough activity. From these, two leading compounds consistently induced functional ATM protein in ATM-deficient cells containing disease-causing nonsense mutations, as demonstrated by direct measurement of ATM protein, restored ATM kinase activity, and colony survival assays for cellular radiosensitivity. The two compounds also demonstrated readthrough activity in mdx mouse myotube cells carrying a nonsense mutation and induced significant amounts of dystrophin protein. PMID:19770270

  12. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  13. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry] [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology] [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  14. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages. PMID:24998624

  15. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Hyoung Yun; Roh, Hang Sik; Seok, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Ja Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2014-04-01

    The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24868867

  16. Odour-impact compounds of Gorgonzola cheese.

    PubMed

    Moio, L; Piombino, P; Addeo, F

    2000-05-01

    Volatile concentrates were obtained by vacuum distillation from both natural and creamy Gorgonzola cheese and isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. Both were analysed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC), HRGC-mass spectrometry and HRGC-olfactometry. A total of 63 components were identified in the neutral extract of the natural type (21 esters, 13 ketones, 14 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 1 sulphur compound, 7 aromatic compounds and 2 terpenes) and 52 in the creamy type (17 esters, 12 ketones, 10 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 1 sulphur compound, 5 aromatic compounds and 2 terpenes). Ketones, whose major components were 2-nonanone and 2-heptanone, were the predominant constituents of the neutral fraction. By olfactometric analysis of the neutral extracts, 23 odour-impact compounds were found in the natural and 21 in the creamy Gorgonzola cheese. 1-Octen-3-ol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, ethyl butanoate, 2-nonanol and 4-methylanisole were the key odorants of the natural cheese, whereas 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, ethyl butanoate, 3-methyl thiopropanal and an unidentified constituent with a fruity odour were characteristic of the creamy Gorgonzola cheese. On the basis of high odour unity values, 2-nonanone, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-heptanol, ethyl hexanoate, methylanisole and 2-heptanone were the most important odorants of natural and creamy Gorgonzola cheese aroma. PMID:10840681

  17. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyryanov, G. V.; Kopchuk, D. S.; Kovalev, I. S.; Nosova, E. V.; Rusinov, V. L.; Chupakhin, O. N.

    2014-09-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references.

  18. LC-MS metabolomics of polar compounds.

    PubMed

    Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Rupérez, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    The metabolome is the complete set of small molecules coming from protein activity (anabolism and catabolism) in living systems. They have a broad range of chemical structures and physicochemical properties and therefore different analytical methodologies are necessary. Highly polar metabolites, such as sugars and most amino acids are not retained by conventional reversed-phase LC columns. Without sufficient retention, coelution may result in identification problems while the detection of compounds by MS at low concentrations may also be problematic due to ion suppression. In order to retain compounds based on their hydrophilicity, polar stationary phases and hydrophilic-interaction LC provide a complementary tool to reversed-phase LC for untargeted comprehensive metabolite fingerprinting. However, robustness of the methods is still limiting their applications. This review focuses on sample pretreatment, stationary phases, analytical methods and applications for polar compound analysis in biological matrices. PMID:22651567

  19. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  20. The essence of compounding: Composition control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Jos-MH

    2015-05-01

    Compounding is all about producing and controlling a required composition. This composition is a result of bringing individual ingredients together, using dosing units and/or making premixes and feeding all that to a compounding extruder. Short term fluctuations (seconds) can be back-mixed inside the extruder in the melt but long term fluctuations cannot. After discretization on pellet size, the pellet mass can be post-blended, often done unintentionally. The question is how to measure or judge composition: sample size and position come in as essential parameters of choice. The similar question holds for molded parts. Small parts are much more critical than large parts. Finally, for composition control especially of parts as small as a single pellet one needs to calculate backward and set up a smart feeder alarm protocol and eventually purposely include post-blending in the design of new compounding lines.

  1. Volatile compounds in shergottite and nakhlite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L.; Aggrey, Kwesi E.; Muenow, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Since discovery of apparent carbonate carbon in Nakhla, significant evidence has accumulated for occurrence of volatile compounds in shergotties and nakhlites. Results are presented from a study of volatile compounds in three shergottites, one nakhlite, and three eucrite control samples. Shergotties ALHA77005, EETA79001, and Shergotty, and the nakhlite Nakhla, all contain oxidized sulfur (sulfate) of preterrestrial origin; sulfur oxidation is most complete in EETA79001/Lith-C. Significant bulk carbonate was confirmed in Nakhla and trace carbonate was substantiated for EETA79001, all of which appears to be preterrestrial in origin. Chlorine covaries with oxidized sulfur, whereas carbonate and sulfate are inversely related. These volatile compounds were probably formed in a highly oxidizing, aqueous environment sometime in the late stage histories of the rocks that are now represented as meteorites. They are consistent with the hypothesis that shergottite and nakhlite meteorites originated on Mars and that Mars has supported aqueous geochemistry during its history.

  2. Reverse saturable absorption in metal cluster compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tutt, L.W.; McCahon, S.W. (Hughes Research Laboratories, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, California 90265 (USA))

    1990-06-15

    We report a new family of organometallic compounds that exhibit optical limiting through reverse saturable absorption. The optical limiting properties of the metal cluster compounds HFeCo{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, (NEt{sub 4}){sup +}FeCo{sub 3}(CO){sup {minus}}{sub 12} , HFeCo{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, and HFeCo{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(P(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}){sub 2} were measured at 532 nm using 8-nsec pulses. Pulse narrowing from 8 to 4 nsec was observed. The data indicate that the optical-limiting properties are essentially independent of the type of counter ion substituted in the compound but dependent on the ligand-type substitution.

  3. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds. [Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogenation of alkynes by the heterobimetallic compound C{sub 5}H{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re({mu}-H)Pt(H)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} is being studied. The compound C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re{double_bond}Re(CO){sub 2}C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} was synthesized; its chemistry is being studied. Compounds discovered in a reinvestigation of a spurious report of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Co{double_bond}Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}), are being studied. The deuterioformylation of alkenes using wide bite angle phosphines will be studied.

  4. [The vanadium compounds: chemistry, synthesis, insulinomimetic properties].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E V; Buriakina, A V; Vorob'eva, N M; Baranova, N I

    2014-01-01

    The review considers the biological role of vanadium, its participation in various processes in humans and other mammals, and the anti-diabetic effect of its compounds. Vanadium salts have persistent hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects and reduce the probability of secondary complications in animals with experimental diabetes. The review contains a detailed description of all major synthesized vanadium complexes having antidiabetic activity. Currently, vanadium complexes with organic ligands are more effective and safer than the inorganic salts. Despite the proven efficacy of these compounds as the anti-diabetic agents in animal models, only one organic complex of vanadium is currently under the second phase of clinical trials. All of the considered data suggest that vanadium compound are a new promising class of drugs in modern pharmacotherapy of diabetes. PMID:25249525

  5. Analyzing method on biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. H.; Wang, M. X.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.

    2002-02-01

    In order to analyze biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, an automated gas chromatography is developed and employed at the laboratory of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) during January to July, 2000. A small refrigerator was used so as to remove water in the air sample from gas line, and get accurate concentrations of volatile organic compounds. At 5degreesC, good water removing efficiency can be obtained at controlled flow rate. Air samples were collected around the building of Mesa Lab. of NCAR and analyzed by this gas chromatography system. This paper reports this gas chromatography system and results of air samples. The experimental results show that this gas chromatography system has a good reproducibility and stability, and main interesting volatile organic compounds such as isoprene, monoterpenes have an evident diurnal variation.

  6. Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  7. On site testing of the compound spiral

    SciTech Connect

    MacNamara, L. [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Toney, T.A.; Moorhead, R.G.; Davies, P.; Miles, N.J.; Bethell, P.; Everitt, B.

    1996-12-31

    Research undertaken over the last few years has shown that a short turn spiral can effectively replace a conventional full length spiral. A recent development of this work has been the design of a Compound spiral, incorporating two short turn units on one central column. Conventional spirals have become almost universally applied to clean 14M x 100M size fine coal in the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. coal fields and widely used in UK coal preparation plants to process fine coal. Compound spiral were installed at Cyprus Amax`s Lady Dunn Plant in West Virginia for on site testing and, at the time of going to press, at a UK coal preparation plant operated by RJB Mining (UK) for comparison testing with a conventional duplex spiral. This paper describes the testing approach used by Cyprus Amax and Krebs Engineers to test a compound spiral at Cyprus Amax`s Lady Dunn Plant.

  8. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. PMID:21116410

  9. AC-conductivity and Raman spectra of polyiodide inclusion compounds (?-cyclodextrin)2·KI7·16H2O and (?-cyclodextrin)2·LiI7·14H2O during the dehydration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, John C.; Charalampopoulos, Vasileios G.; Xynogalas, Pantelis; Viras, Kyriakos

    2006-07-01

    The frequency and temperature dependence of ac-conductivity and phase shift of polycrystalline inclusion compounds (?-CD)2·KI7·16H2O and (?-CD)2·LiI7·14H2O (?-CD=?-cyclodextrin) has been investigated over the frequency and temperature ranges of 0 100 kHz and 240 420 K. A Raman spectroscopic study and calorimetric measurements are also accomplished. The Arrhenius exponential behaviour ?=?0exp(-E/2KT) of the ac-conductivity for T>275 K is caused by the contribution of the metal cations K+, Li+. This contribution is facilitated by the water-net via the Grotthuss mechanism. The ac conductivity starts deviating from the exponential behaviour with lower increasing rate, at 347 K for ?-K and at 353 K for ?-Li reaching a maximum value at 371.1 and 361.8 K, respectively, and then decreases rapidly due to the gradual removal of all the water molecules. The values 371.1 and 361.8 K are characterized as semiconductor to metal transition temperatures. The shift of the initial Raman peak at 179 cm-1 to the final value 165 cm-1 as the temperature increases reveals the lengthening of I2 units via a charge transfer interaction in I-7 units. A second topical maximum value of conductivity appears at 399.7 K for ?-K and 403 K for ?-Li, attributed to the sublimation of I2.

  10. Dietary derived compounds in cancer chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Rzeski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the application of natural or synthetic agents to suppress or reverse cancer development and progression. In this field especially diet derived compounds have recently attracted researchers’ attention as potential therapeutics generally exerting low toxicity compared with regular drugs. This review presents a survey of recent findings concerning the most promising dietary chemopreventive agents such as green tea polyphenols (i.e. catechins), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, glucosinolates/isothiocyanates, vitamins (i.e. vitamin D and folate) and minerals (i.e. calcium and selenium). Molecular targets involved in intrinsic pathways affected by these natural compounds are also shortly discussed. PMID:23788916

  11. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  12. Suppression of cancer invasiveness by dietary compounds.

    PubMed

    Sliva, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Tumor invasion and cancer metastasis are interrelated processes involving cell growth, cell adhesion, cell migration and proteolytic degradation of tissue barriers, which are mediated by aberrant intracellular signaling in cancer cells. Natural (green tea polyphenols, soy isoflavones) or dietary compounds (mushroom G. lucidum) markedly decreased AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling and suppressed invasiveness of cancer cells. This review will summarize alternative approaches for the inhibition of invasive behavior of cancer cells by dietary compounds, which can be considered in adjuvant or combination therapy for the prevention and treatment of cancer metastasis. PMID:18537723

  13. Inelastic neutron scattering in valence fluctuation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jon M Lawrence

    2011-02-15

    The valence fluctuation compounds are rare earth intermetallics where hybridization of the nearly-localized 4f electrons with the conduction electrons leads to incorporation of the 4f's into the itinerant states. This hybridization slows down the conduction electrons and hence gives them a heavy effective mass, justifying application of the term 'heavy Fermion' (HF) to these materials. During the project period, we grew large single crystals of several such compounds and measured their properties using both standard thermodynamic probes and state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering. We obtained three main results. For the intermediate valence compounds CePd{sub 3} and YbAl{sub 3}, we showed that the scattering of neutrons by the fluctuations of the 4f magnetic moment does not have the momentum dependence expected for the itinerant heavy mass state; rather, the scattering is more typical of a localized spin fluctuation. We believe that incoherent scattering localizes the excitation. For the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sub 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which sits at a T = 0 critical point for transformation into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase, we showed that the scattering from the AF fluctuations does not exhibit any of the divergences that are expected at a phase transition. We speculate that alloy disorder profoundly suppresses the growth of the fluctuating AF regions, leading to short range clusters rather than regions of infinite size. Finally, we explored the applicability of key concepts used to describe the behavior of rare earth heavy Fermions to uranium based HF compounds where the 5f electrons are itinerant as opposed to localized. We found that scaling laws relating the spin fluctuation energy measured in neutron scattering to the low temperature specific heat and susceptibility are valid for the uranium compounds, once corrections are made for AF fluctuations; however, the degeneracy of the high temperature moment is smaller than expected for rare-earth-like Hund's rule behavior, essentially because the orbital moment is suppressed for itinerant 5f electrons. We also found that the standard local-moment-based theory of the temperature dependence of the specific heat, susceptibility and neutron scattering fails badly for URu{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and UCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}, even though the theory is phenomenally successful for the closely related rare earth compound YbFe{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}. Both these results highlight the distinction between the itineracy of the 5f's and the localization of the 4f's. It is our hope that these results are sufficiently significant as to stimulate deeper investigation of these compounds.

  14. Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Modelling the emplacement of compound lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S.; Bruno, B. C.

    2000-12-01

    The physical variables controlling crust-dominated lava flow have been investigated using laboratory experiments in which molten polyglycol wax was extruded from a point source on to a horizontal plane under cold water. The wax initially spread axisymmetrically and a crust of solid wax grew. Eventually wax broke out from the flow's periphery, sending out a flow lobe which in turn cooled and produced another breakout. The process repeated itself many times, building a 'compound lava'. The time for the first breakout to form correlates well with the theoretically predicted time ( tc) required for cooling to form a crust thick enough for its strength to limit the flow's spreading rate. This time is proportional to the product of effusion rate ( Q) and initial magma viscosity ( ?) and inversely proportional to the square of the crust strength at the flow front. The number of flow units and the apparent fractal dimension of the flow perimeter increase with time normalised by tc. Our model illuminates the physical basis for the observation by Walker [G.P.L. Walker, Bull. Volcanol. 35 (1972) 579-590] that compound lava flows form by slow effusion of low viscosity magma, whereas faster effusion and higher viscosity favour lavas with fewer flow units. Because compound flows require t? tc, and given that tc? Q? and the relationship between volume and effusion rate is V= Qt, simple and compound lava flows are predicted to fall in separate fields on a graph of ? against V/ Q2, all else being equal. Compound flows plot at small values of ? and large values of V/ Q2, with the position of the simple/compound boundary defined by field data implying a crust strength of order 10 4 Pa for basaltic to intermediate lavas. Whether a flow remains as a simple flow or matures into a compound flow field depends on the combined effect of viscosity, eruption rate and eruption duration (and hence volume) and these parameters need to be taken in to account when using morphology to infer eruption conditions. In particular, compound flows form from terrestrial subaerial point source eruptions on horizontal ground when ?<0.002 V/ Q2.

  16. Basics of sterile compounding: bubble point testing.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies that compound sterile preparations must choose sterile filters that are approved for human use. They may rely on the filter manufacturer's Certificate of Quality to ensure the sterile filter is pyrogen free and has been tested for bacterial retention. The Certificate of Quality from the filter manufacturer also contains other useful information about the filter such as: flow rate and maximum pressure drop, thermal and hydraulic stress, and membrane results of the initial integrity test performed on the filter membrane with water, if a hydrophilic membrane. This article discusses the integrity test, which is often called the water bubble point test. PMID:24881342

  17. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  18. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  19. Radiosensitization by non-nitro compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wardman, P. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, England); Anderson, R.F.; Hodgkiss, R.J.; Parrick, J.; Smithen, C.E.; Wallace, R.G.; Watts, M.E.

    1982-03-01

    The effects of 23 non-vitro compounds on the radiosensitivity of hypoxic Chinese hamster V79-379A or E. coli AB 1157 cells in vitro are outlined. Imidazole derivatives substituted with several alternative electron-withdrawing groups are described; the dicyanovinyl function conferred considerable radiosensitizing activity. 2,4,5-Tribromoimidazole and 2,4-dinitrophenol may show unusual radiosensitizing activity because of interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Attempts to influence radiosensitivity by compounds potentially capable of depleting intracellular sulphydryls are also described.

  20. Design of inorganic compounds with tetrahedral anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazoryak, B. I.

    1996-04-01

    The review deals with aspects of the modelling of the compositions and properties of inorganic compounds with tetrahedral anions on the basis of crystal-chemical information. One of the possible algorithms employing crystal-chemical data for the modelling of the compositions, structures, and properties of new compounds is proposed on the basis of the structures of six structural types (glaserite, ?-K2SO4, bredigite, palmierite, NASICON, and whitlockite). The likely usefulness of such data for the solution of various problems in materials science is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 208 references.

  1. Thin film Heusler compounds manganese nickel gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    Multiferroic Heusler compounds Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) have a tetragonal unit cell that can variously be used for magneto-mechanically coupled shape memory ( x=1,2) and spin-mechanical applications (x=0). The first fabrication of fully epitaxial thin films of these and electronically related compounds by sputtering is discussed. Traditional and custom lab characterization of the magnetic and temperature driven multiferroic behavior is augmented by more detailed synchrotron-based high energy photoemission spectroscopic techniques to describe the atomic and electronic structure. Integration of the MnNi2Ga magnetic shape memory compound in microwave patch antennas and active free-standing structures represents a fraction of the available and promising applications for these compounds. Prototype magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated by Mn3Ga electrodes with perpendicular anisotropy for spin torque transfer memory structures. The main body of the work concentrates on the definition and exploration of the material series Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) and the relevant multiferroic phenomena exhibited as a function of preparation and external stimuli. Engineering results on each x=0,1,2 are presented with device prototypes where relevant. In the appendices the process of the materials design undertaken with the goal of developing new ternary intermetallics with enhanced properties is presented with a full exploration of the road from band structure calculations to device implementation. Cobalt based compounds in single crystal and nanoparticle form are fabricated with an eye to developing the production methods for new cobalt- and iron-based magnetic shape memory compounds for device applications in different forms. Mn2CoSn, a compound isolectronic and with similar atomic ordering to Mn2NiGa is experimentally determined to be a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet in contrast to the metallic ferrimagnetism in the parent compound. High energy photoemission spectroscopy is shown to be applicable to the analysis and observation of deeply buried metallic and semiconducting interface in an analysis of chalcopyrite solar cell heterolayers and model magnetic tunnel junctions with half-metalic Heusler electrodes.

  2. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  3. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  4. Bioactive Compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Isabel Aguilar; Guillermo Delgado; María De Lourdes Hernández; María Luisa Villarreal

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R\\/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R\\/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds

  5. Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit

    2005-01-01

    Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The

  6. Response of pigs to bitter-tasting compounds.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S L; Sanregret, J D

    1997-04-01

    Two-bottle preference tests were done to determine whether pigs detect bitter-tasting compounds. Four standard bitter compounds and nine bitter-tasting pharmaceutical compounds were tested. Pigs detect and avoid taste compounds that humans perceive as bitter-tasting. A dose-response to varying concentrations of bitter tastants can be measured. PMID:9146902

  7. Progress in the Halogenation of Organic Silicon Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Motsarev; K. A. Andrianov; V. I. Zetkin

    1971-01-01

    The Review deals mainly with the direct halogenation of organic silicon compounds by halogens and halogenated compounds as among the most important methods for the preparation of organosilicon compounds containing halogen in the organic radicals. With respect to preparative possibilities, experimental simplicity, and in individual cases the yields obtained, the direct chlorination and bromination of organic silicon compounds has no

  8. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-02

    The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

  9. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-11-11

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  10. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-05-28

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  11. Photoprotective compounds in cyanobacteria, phytoplankton and macroalgae — a database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gröniger; R. P Sinha; M Klisch; D.-P Häder

    2000-01-01

    A database on photoprotective compounds in cyanobacteria, phytoplankton and macroalgae has been developed. It contains information on photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin and other not yet identified compounds reported in aquatic organisms, their habitat, the collection site and date and the reference. Further information on the absorption maxima and extinction coefficients of different photoprotective compounds as

  12. Reading Compounds in Neglect Dyslexia: The Headedness Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenza, Carlo; Arcara, Giorgio; Facchini, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Ferraro, Marco; Passarini, Laura; Pilosio, Cristina; Vigato, Giovanna; Mondini, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Reading compound words was studied in neglect dyslexia in order to assess the influence of "headedness". The "head" of a compound is the component that determines the grammatical category, the syntactic (e.g., the gender) and the semantic properties of the compound as a whole. For example, in the word "blackberry" "berry" is the compound's head.…

  13. Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  14. [Synthesis of byrazoline fluorescent compounds and studies by infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xian, Yuan-fang; Li, Dong-feng; Li, Hai-dong; Yu, Bao-hui

    2005-03-01

    Benzothiazole compounds with byrazoline group or benximidazole group are new fluorescent compounds. The fluorescent compounds have been used in many fields, but their development has beeo slow. According to Schellhammer theory on the relation between chemical structure and fluorescent quality, the authors designed now fluorescent compounds with benximidazole group or the byrazoline group in the 1-benzothiazole and with biphenyl in the 3,5-benzothiazole, and their possess fluorescent nature. Two new benximidazole and benzothiazole fluorescent compounds were synthesized. All these compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The excitation wavelength of the two compounds is about 441-446 nm. The fluorescence spectra show that the compounds have good blue and green fluorescence. The characteristic peaks of t he absorption spectra of these compounds werefound by IR spectral analysis, which can be used to deduce the structures of chemical compounds. PMID:16013314

  15. Calcium oxalate crystallization kinetics from calorimetric measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Söhnel; M. Kroupa; G. Franková; V. Velich

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate precipitation effected by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium oxalate together in the stoichiometric ratio at 25 and 37°C, were studied using an isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. A method for inferring the crystal growth kinetic parameters from experimental progress curve giving the time development of the integral heat evolved during the precipitation

  16. Calorimetric Study of Thermal Denaturation of ?-Lactoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwan Hwa Park; Daryl B. Lund

    1984-01-01

    Effects of pH and milk constituents (milk ultrafiltrate and ~:-casein) on de- naturation of fl-lactoglobulin were investi- gated by a dynamic method based on dif- ferential scanning calorimetry. The appar- ent reaction order of \\/Ltactoglobulin de- naturation by the dynamic method was 2.0 over the pH range of 4.0 to 9.0, which is in fair agreement with results by other

  17. Calorimetric study of the mechanochemically activated sphalerite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongliang Xiao; Qiyuan Chen; Zhounan Yin; Pingmin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The thermal behavior of mechanochemically activated sphalerite during aging was investigated by calorimetry. The results indicate that mechanochemically activated sphalerite releases the stored energy which may origin from a series of complex transformations. The amount of energy released increases with the grinding time but remains almost constant after grinding for 1h. It is independent of the grinding atmosphere and is

  18. Calorimetric studies of high temperature oxide superconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasutoshi Saito; Tetsuro Nakamura; Tooru Atake

    1988-01-01

    The heat capacities of single phase samples of Ba2DyCu3O7 and Ba2ErCu3O7 which were prepared by the method of powder-calcination have been measured over the temperature range 13-300 K by using a laboratory-made adiabatic calorimeter. A typical second-order type of anomaly was observed due to the superconducting phase transition at 92.5 K in Ba2DyCu3O7 and at 91.2 K in Ba2ErCu3O7. From

  19. Volatile Sulphur Compounds in UHT Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Al-Attabi; B. R. DArcy; H. C. Deeth

    2008-01-01

    Several volatile sulphur compounds have been detected in raw and processed milk. These are hydrogen sulphide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl sulphoxide, and dimethyl sulphone. Many of these increase in milk during heat processing and are associated with the cooked flavor of heat-treated milks, particularly UHT and sterilized milk. Several researchers have attempted

  20. The Analysis of Compound Information Warfare Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kopp

    Abstract The practical defensive and offensive application of Information Warfare most frequently involves the use of complicated compound strategies, in which multichannel and multilayered attacks must be analysed. This paper presents a systematic approach to the analysis problem, which is exploitable for defensive and offensive purposes. Keywords Deception Techniques, Information Warfare, Strategic Deception, Tactical Deception, Perception Management

  1. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN PEANUT PLANT PARTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 60% of peanut plant biomass remains after peanut pods are harvested. This biomass includes leaves, roots and testa. Freeze dried peanut plant leaves and roots, as well as oven blanched skins were analyzed for total phenolic compound concentation by the Folin Ciocalteu method and reported...

  2. Azodicarboxylates: synthesis and functionalization of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, A. M.; Aksenov, A. V.

    2014-06-01

    The data on transformations of dialkyl azodicarboxylates and their analogues involving various substrates are generalized. Nucleophilic addition and oxidation, pericyclic reactions and reactions occurring under the Mitsunobu reaction conditions are considered. Ample opportunities for application of these compounds in fine organic synthesis are shown. The bibliography includes 245 references. Dedicated to Academician B A Trofimov on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

  3. Research on high Tc superconducting compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Frederick W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Mossbauer research using the 21.54 kev resonance radiation of Eu-151 on the high temperature superconductors Bi(2)Ca(0.5)Eu(0.5)Sr(2)CU2O(x), and EuBa(2)CU(3)O(7-x) is performed. For the Bismuth compound the Mossbauer measurements gave a weak signal at room temperature but improved at lower temperatures. Experimental data indicated that europium is located at only one crystallographic site. Isomer shift measurements were .69 + 0.02 mm/s with respect to EuF(3). The linewidth at room temperature was found to be 2.54 mm/s. This value falls within the values observed by other researchers on Eu based 1,2,3 high-Tc compounds. Our results also show the Eu to be trivalent with no trace of divalent europium present. Superconducting europium based 1,2,3 compounds were prepared and measurements completed. Our results show the Eu to be trivalent with no trace of divalent europium present. These compounds had an average isomer shift of .73 mm/s +/- O.02 for all samples made. One of these was irradiated with 3.5 X 10(exp 16) neutrons and a comparison made of the Mossbauer parameters for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Experimental results showed no difference between linewidths but a measurable effect was seen for the isomer shift.

  4. Compound internal combustion and external combustion engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marttila

    1986-01-01

    A compound engine is described comprising at least one internal combustion cylinder having an inlet and an outlet and one external combustion cylinder having an inlet and an outlet, each of the combustion cylinders having a reciprocable piston therein coupled to a common utilization output shaft, heat exchanger means associated with the external combustion cylinder for transferring heat to a

  5. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X?. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100?GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n ? 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications. PMID:25608669

  6. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  7. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  8. Pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Cooney, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds was studied under conditions optimized for the production of liquid products to provide mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways that lead to product formation. The major reaction products can be explained by cleavage of the C-O either linkage by a free radial or concerted 1,2-elimination.

  9. Antibacterial compounds from Salvia adenophora Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2015-02-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study. PMID:25435172

  10. Compound Words and Structure in the Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2007-01-01

    The structure of lexical entries and the status of lexical decomposition remain controversial. In the psycholinguistic literature, one aspect of this debate concerns the psychological reality of the morphological complexity difference between compound words ("teacup") and single words ("crescent"). The present study investigates morphological…

  11. Recent advances in compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J Sellin

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in compound semiconductor detectors are reviewed, highlighting the latest spectroscopic performance from devices fabricated from a range of wide bandgap materials. Cadmium zinc telluride and cadmium telluride continue to dominate the field, with a range of prototype imaging detectors under development, principally for nuclear medicine and X-ray astronomy applications. Improvements in material quality and supply plus metal–semiconductor contact

  12. SORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamic and kinetic principles which govern the uptake of nonionic, hydrophobic organic chemicals by sediments in aqueous systems are summarized. Sorption onto organic-rich sediments can be modeled as a process where the hydrophobic compound partitions into the organic matt...

  13. Geometric frustration in Rare Earth antiferromagnetic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafik Ballou

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the magnetic phases that emerge or could be expected from the geometric frustration of antiferromagnetic interactions, without strictly adhering to the compounds containing a Rare Earth element. An emphasis is put on the actively searched spin liquid or topological glassy phases and on the mixed phases, characterised by the co-existence of magnetic and non magnetic

  14. Perfluorinated Compounds in Food: A Global Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOLANDA PICO; MARINELLA FARRÉ; MARTA LLORCA; DAMIÀ BARCELÓ

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are resistant to breakdown and are turning up in unexpected places around the world, becoming emerging food contaminants. Although these chemicals have been used since the 1950s in countless products, they have been subject to little control until now. There is still an insufficient knowledge of their sources, occurrence and hazards for food safety decision making. This

  15. Separation of catechin compounds from different teas.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinzhe; Jin, Chun Hua; Row, Kyung Ho

    2006-02-01

    Catechin compounds from Korean and Chinese green tea, and pu-erh, Indian black, Longjing, Tieguanyin, Bamboo, Jasmine, Oolong, Flower, Red teas, as potential anticancer and antioxidant components, were target material in this work. After extracting the green tea with water at 50 degrees C for 4 h, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned with water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the five catechin compounds epigallocatechin, (+) catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. The extracted samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The mobile phase applied was the binary system of A (water/acetic acid, 100/0.1 vol%) and B (acetonitrile/acetic acid 100/0.1 vol%) from 90:10 to 70:30 (A:B vol%) in a linear gradient over 30 min time. The amount of catechin compounds extracted from Chinese green tea was 114.65% higher than from the Korean green tea. Comparing various tea sorts, the green teas contained more than 1.7 times of the five catechin compounds contained in other teas. PMID:16892250

  16. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

  17. Emerging Control Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geeta Rani Parmar; N. N. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Environmental problems associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have provided the driving force for sustained fundamental and applied research in the area of environmental remediation. Conventional methods currently used to treat VOCs include incineration, condensation, adsorption, and absorption. Incineration and condensation are cost-effective only for moderate to high VOC concentrations. Adsorption and absorption do not destroy VOCs

  18. Production of volatile organic compounds by mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Okolo, Phyllis Ifeoma; Turner, Claire

    2012-03-01

    The need for improved rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis disease has prompted interest in the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. We have investigated VOCs emitted by Mycobacterium bovis BCG grown on Lowenstein-Jensen media using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds observed included dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, butanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-phenylethanol and hydrogen sulphide. Changes in levels of acetaldehyde, methanol and ammonia were also observed. The compounds identified are not unique to M. bovis BCG, and further studies are needed to validate their diagnostic value. Investigations using an ultra-rapid gas chromatograph with a surface acoustic wave sensor (zNose) demonstrated the presence of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) in the headspace of cultures of M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis, when grown on Lowenstein-Jensen supplemented with glycerol. PEA is a reversible inhibitor of DNA synthesis. It is used during selective isolation of gram-positive bacteria and may also be used to inhibit mycobacterial growth. PEA production was observed to be dependent on growth of mycobacteria. Further study is required to elucidate the metabolic pathways involved and assess whether this compound is produced during in vivo growth of mycobacteria. PMID:22224870

  19. Volatile Organic Compound Detection Using Nanostructured Copolymers

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Lee E.

    ,3-6 conductive poly- mers (CPs),7-12 and carbon black-polymer composites.13,14 Metal oxide materials compound (VOC) chemresistor sensors. While the regioregular polythiophene polymer chain provides a charge conductivity of these copolymers increased or decreased depending upon the polymer composition and the specific

  20. Manure amino acid compounds and their bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids (AA) have long been known to be present in animal manure. Amino acid compounds are widely presumed to be the primary pool of organic nitrogen (N) in soil, which provides nutrition for plant growth through N mineralization. Recent studies have also demonstrated some plants can directly ta...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPARTICLES CONTAINING ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Branquinho; M. Figueiredo; M. H. Gil

    The development of new methods of preparation and characterisation of microparticles (microcapsules and microspheres) with active compounds inside (liquid droplets or solid particles), has been intensively pursued. In fact, microencapsulation has many industrial applications, such us pharmaceutical, food, agro-chemistry and, recently, also in coating industry. Nowadays, there are new technologies that enable a more sophisticated control of certain properties concerning

  2. Controlling chlorinated benzene compounds in plant wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wroniewicz

    1978-01-01

    Four treatment schemes were studied for secondary treatment of the wastewaters from a plant producing chlorinated benzene compounds: a biological system; air stripping; steam distillation; and activated carbon preceded by sand filtration. Laboratory tests of the sand filter\\/activated carbon approach showed that it would meet the final limitations set by the regulatory agency. The system would also be capable of

  3. Biologically active compounds of semi-metals.

    PubMed

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Semi-metals (boron, silicon, arsenic and selenium) form organo-metal compounds, some of which are found in nature and affect the physiology of living organisms. They include, e.g., the boron-containing antibiotics aplasmomycin, borophycin, boromycin, and tartrolon or the silicon compounds present in "silicate" bacteria, relatives of the genus Bacillus, which release silicon from aluminosilicates through the secretion of organic acids. Arsenic is incorporated into arsenosugars and arsenobetaines by marine algae and invertebrates, and fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds. Some prokaryotes can use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor while others can utilize arsenite as an electron donor to generate energy. Selenium is incorporated into selenocysteine that is found in some proteins. Biomethylation of selenide produces methylselenide and dimethylselenide. Selenium analogues of amino acids, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-infective drugs are often used as analogues of important pharmacological sulfur compounds. Other metalloids, i.e. the rare and toxic tellurium and the radioactive short-lived astatine, have no biological significance. PMID:17991498

  4. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  5. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Weschler; William W. Nazaroff

    2008-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic

  6. Arrays of stacked metal coordination compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bulkowski, J.E.

    1986-10-21

    A process is disclosed for preparing novel arrays of metal coordination compounds characterized by arrangement of the metal ions, separated by a linking agent, in stacked order one above the other. The process permits great flexibility in the design of the array. For example, layers of different composition can be added to the array at will. 3 figs.

  7. Biological activity of organometallic bismuth compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Klapötke

    1988-01-01

    Summary The chemical aspects of organometallic bismuth(Ill) compounds are discussed with respect to the stability of the metal-carbon s bond, their low dipole moments, and the limited solubility of these complexes in hydrophilic solvents. A new Bi heterocycle, which is of potential interest in terms of stability and solution behaviour, was shown to exist as an intermediate under the conditions

  8. Acidifying Nitrogen Compounds and Range Fertilization1

    E-print Network

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    Acidifying Nitrogen Compounds and Range Fertilization1 CLENTON E. OWENSBY AND JOHN L. LAUNCHBAUGH on plots fertil- ized with ammonium-containing com- pounds indicated possible detrimental effects on range are discussed. Fertilization offers range man- agers a tool to manipulate for- age production. Herbage yield

  9. A Radically Configurable Six-State Compound

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    A Radically Configurable Six-State Compound Jonathan C. Barnes,1,5 Albert C. Fahrenbach,1,5 Dennis Stoddart1,5 * Most organic radicals possess short lifetimes and quickly undergo dimerization or oxidation. Here, we report on the synthesis by radical templation of a class of air- and water-stable organic

  10. THE ENTIRE COMPOUND AUTOSOMES OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. NOVITSKI; D. GRACE; C. STROMMEN

    Three new unusual compound chromosomes have been synthesized in Drosophila melanogaster. They consist of two homologous autosomes joined together in the new order: right arm, left arm, centromere, left arm, right arm, for each of the two major autosomes, and one in which chromosomes 2 and 3 have been combined in the order: right arm of 2, left arm of

  11. Evaluating compound generalized Poisson distributions recursively

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. GOOVAERTS; R. KAAS

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we give a recursive scheme, involving Panjer's recursion, to compute the distribution of a compound sum of integer claims, when the number of summands follows a Generalized Poisson distribution. Also, an elegant derivation is given for some basic properties of this counting distribu- tion. The Generalized Poisson distribution, see CONSUL (1989), is an integer-valued, non-negative distribution with

  12. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  13. Nitrite and nitrosyl compounds in food preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Cammack; C. L Joannou; Xiao-Yuan Cui; Claudia Torres Martinez; Shaun R Maraj; Martin N Hughes

    1999-01-01

    Nitrite is consumed in the diet, through vegetables and drinking water. It is also added to meat products as a preservative. The potential risks of this practice are balanced against the unique protective effect against toxin-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. The chemistry of nitrite, and compounds derived from it, in food systems and bacterial cells are complex. It is

  14. Guest Comment: Polyfluorinated Compounds Focus Issue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a great deal has been learned about the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a new class of environmental contaminants that includes the now well-known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and many other related compounds. These mater...

  15. Ozone Production Potential of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Butler; M. G. Lawrence; J. Lelieveld

    2010-01-01

    Calculation of the ozone production potential of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) has traditionally been performed using so-called incremental reactivity techniques. Here were present a new approach to this problem using a photochemical box model with a tagged chemical mechanism. The results of our approach are consistent with previous work, but deliver much more detailed information about the VOC intermediate oxidation

  16. Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.

    PubMed

    Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2004-02-01

    This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen). PMID:14987072

  17. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-compound interactions.

    PubMed

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-01

    The influence of flavor compound-compound interactions on flavor release properties and flavor perception in hard candy was investigated. Hard candies made with two different modes of binary flavor delivery, (1) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added as a mixture and (2) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added separate from one another, were analyzed via breath analysis and sensory time-intensity testing. Single-flavor candy containing only L-menthol or 1,8-cineole was also investigated via breath analysis for comparison. The release rates of both L-menthol and 1,8-cineole in the breath were more rapid and at a higher concentration when the compounds were added to hard candy separate from one another in comparison to their addition as a mixture (conventional protocol). Additionally, the time-intensity study indicated a significantly increased flavor intensity (measured as overall cooling) for hard candy made with separate addition of these flavor compounds. In conclusion, the flavor properties of hard candy can be controlled, at least in part, by flavor compound-compound interactions and may be altered by the method of flavor delivery. PMID:15113168

  18. Effect of intermediate compounds and products on wet oxidation and biodegradation rates of pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Kinetics of pure compounds in batch agitated reactors are useful data to clarify the characteristics of a given reaction, but they frequently do not provide the required information to design industrial mixed continuous processes because in this case the final and intermediate products interact with the reaction of interest, due to backmixing effects. Simultaneously, the presence and transformations of other compounds, frequent in industrial wastewater treatments, adds more complexity to these types of interactions, whose effect can be different, favorable or unfavorable, for chemical or biological reactions. In this work, batch laboratory reactor data were obtained for the wet oxidation and biodegradation of four phenolic compounds present in a pharmaceutical wastewater and then compared with those collected from industrial continuous stirred tank reactors. For wet oxidation, batch laboratory degradation rates were significantly lower than those found in industrial continuous stirred operation. This behavior was explained by a different distribution of intermediate compounds in lab and industrial treatments, caused by the degree of backmixing and the synergistic effects between phenolic compounds (matrix effects). On the other hand, the specific utilization rates during aerobic biodegradation in the continuous industrial operation were lower than those measured in the laboratory, due to the simultaneous presence of the four pollutants in the industrial process (matrix effects) increasing the inhibitory effects of these compounds and its intermediates. PMID:23582709

  19. Partial purification of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Balzan, S.; Ghione, S.; Biver, P.; Gazzetti, P.; Montali, U. (C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy))

    1991-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in human body fluids. In this preliminary report, we describe a study of the partial purification by HPLC of these compounds in the plasma of neonates (who have particularly high concentrations of this substance) and adults. Plasma samples from neonates (cord blood) and adults, lyophilized and extracted with methanol, were applied on a 300 x 3.9 mm C18 Nova Pak column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water (17/17/66 or 14/14/72 by vol) and, after 30 min, with 100% methanol. We assayed eluted fractions for inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake and for digoxin-like immunoreactivity. The elution profile revealed a first peak of inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake at the beginning of the chromatography; another peak was eluted with the 100% methanol. The two peaks also cross-reacted with antidigoxin antibodies. Because the second peak could possibly reflect the nonspecific interference of various lipophilic compounds, we focused our attention on the first peak. For these fractions dose-response curves for 86Rb uptake and for displacement of digoxin were parallel, respectively, to those of ouabain and digoxin, suggesting similarities of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance to cardiac glycosides. Similar chromatographic profiles were also obtained for plasma from adults, suggesting that the endogenous glycoside-like compound(s) in the neonate may be the same as those in the adult.

  20. Compound transfer matrices: Constructive and destructive interference

    E-print Network

    Petarpa Boonserm; Matt Visser

    2011-12-21

    Scattering from a compound barrier, one composed of a number of distinct non-overlapping sub-barriers, has a number of interesting and subtle mathematical features. If one is scattering classical particles, where the wave aspects of the particle can be ignored, the transmission probability of the compound barrier is simply given by the product of the transmission probabilities of the individual sub-barriers. In contrast if one is scattering waves (whether we are dealing with either purely classical waves or quantum Schrodinger wavefunctions) each sub-barrier contributes phase information (as well as a transmission probability), and these phases can lead to either constructive or destructive interference, with the transmission probability oscillating between nontrivial upper and lower bounds. In this article we shall study these upper and lower bounds in some detail, and also derive bounds on the closely related process of quantum excitation (particle production) via parametric resonance.