Jill Caton Johnson
Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.
Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others
Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…
Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Hale, Andre D.; Neddenriep, Christine E.; Hawkins, Renee O.
This article describes a secondary analysis of a brief reading comprehension rate measure, percent comprehension questions correct per minute spent reading (%C/M). This measure includes reading speed (seconds to read) in the denominator and percentage of comprehension questions answered correctly in the numerator. Participants were 22 4th-, 29…
Salmeron, Ladislao, Canas, Jose J.; Kintsch, Walter; Fajardo, Immaculada
The literature on assessing the cognitive processes involved in hypertext comprehension during the past 15 years has yielded contradictory results. In this article we explore a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext.…
Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor
This study explored comprehension monitoring, use of reading strategies and reading comprehension of bilingual students at different levels of perceived proficiency in Italian. The participants were bilingual fifth to eighth-grade elementary school students from four Italian schools in Rijeka, Croatia. Students' reading comprehension was assessed.…
Johnson, Jill Caton; Martin-Hansen, Lisa
Students in science classrooms are given numerous opportunities to read expository text in a variety of formats and for a variety of purposes. They read to solve a problem, understand the steps in an experiment, gain base knowledge about a concept, answer their own questions, compare their inquiry results with what others have found, expand their…
Guerrero, Angella M.
A second grade Title I teacher conducted a study on how to help students become better comprehenders and to see what strategies students could be taught that would help them to comprehend and recall what they read. Participants were in an extended day program; they attended class after school two days a week. The section taught by the…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.
This study examined the quality of classroom talk and its relation to academic rigor in reading-comprehension lessons. Additionally, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data for this study included 21 reading-comprehension lessons in several elementary and middle schools from…
Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.
The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…
Cooter, Robert B.; And Others
Addresses the question of improving students' literal comprehension in reading by asking inferential and evaluative level question exclusively. Finds that teachers can teach literal comprehension skills more effectively by simply focusing instruction on higher cognitive levels. (MG)
Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo
Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…
In order to probe the relationship between reading strategies and comprehension monitoring strategies and how they function to help readers in comprehension process, the present study utilizes think-aloud and retrospective verbal reports to examine 20 EFL readers' performances in reading texts. The results reveal that the engagement of reading…
Burgon, J. R.
A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…
Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin
reading as a situational event in which readers bring their own prior knowledge and existing schema to the ‘activity’ of reading (Pearson, 2009; RAND Reading Study Group, 2002). Readers use a range of comprehension strategies to make connections between... sophisticated narrative structures in these modes beyond their abilities with written text modes (van den Broek 2001; Kendou 2008; Bazalgette 2010; Parry 2013). The RAND Reading Study Group (RRSG) defines comprehension as 'the process of simultaneously...
Solan, Harold A; Shelley-Tremblay, John; Ficarra, Anthony; Silverman, Michael; Larson, Steven
This study quantified the influence of visual attention therapy on the reading comprehension of Grade 6 children with moderate reading disabilities (RD) in the absence of specific reading remediation. Thirty students with below-average reading scores were identified using standardized reading comprehension tests. Fifteen children were placed randomly in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Attention Battery of the Cognitive Assessment System was administered to all participants. The experimental group received 12 one-hour sessions of individually monitored, computer-based attention therapy programs; the control group received no therapy during their 12-week period. Each group was retested on attention and reading comprehension measures. In order to stimulate selective and sustained visual attention, the vision therapy stressed various aspects of arousal, activation, and vigilance. At the completion of attention therapy, the mean standard attention and reading comprehension scores of the experimental group had improved significantly. The control group, however, showed no significant improvement in reading comprehension scores after 12 weeks. Although uncertainties still exist, this investigation supports the notion that visual attention is malleable and that attention therapy has a significant effect on reading comprehension in this often neglected population. PMID:15493437
There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a multifaceted approach to reading diagnosis and flexible interventions in order to cater for individual learning
Technology is an increasing part in the lives of junior high students, but little is known about how this technology affects their reading. Reading comprehension from e-books is compared to reading comprehension from conventional print books with junior high students. The problem is that students may be reading from a medium that is less than the…
Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Mayer, Michael B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
on ways to improve children's reading comprehension. However, processes and mechanisms underlying this skill are currently not well understood. This article describes one of the first attempts to study comprehension monitoring using eye-tracking methodology. Students in…
Lehto, Juhani E.; Scheinin, Patrik; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hautamaki, Jarkko
Examines the cognitively high-level text processing, or macro-processing, of expository passages. Investigates reading comprehension during the sixth and ninth school years. Finds that girls outperformed boys regardless of the comprehension measure and also finds that performance on both measures, but particularly on hierarchy-rating, correlated…
) to help you find the key elements and create potential test questions. Practice critical thinking temperature are elements of an ideal reading situation. Remember, you don't need to be totally alone while youReading Efficiency Strategies for Better Comprehension Try these techniques if you want to... Read
Just, Marcel Adam; Carpenter, Patricia A.
This book, intended for researchers in the psychology of reading and language, college students in psychology and education, teachers of reading, and educators in general, is designed to be used in a course on the psychology of reading or the psychology of language comprehension. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "An Introduction and…
Weisenbach, E. Lynne
Numerous comprehension strategies can be used successfully with both children's literature and a basal reading series to help children focus on written text during reading. One of the most important techniques is developing background knowledge prior to reading--the overall purpose of which is to help readers relate their existing schemata to the…
Fun with Reading Comprehension Pranav Anand Harvard Eric Breck MITRE Brianne Brown Bryn Mawr Marc Light MITRE Gideon Mann Johns Hopkins Ellen Riloff University of Utah Mats Rooth University of Stuttgart
Keenan, Janice M; Meenan, Chelsea E
The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251
Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John
Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.
Tyler, Sherman W.; And Others
Three studies examined the nature of individual differences and the role of advance information in reading comprehension. The subjects, 116 college students, read short passages--in some cases preceded by a given type of advance organizer--recalled the information therein, and finally sorted ideas from the passage into groups of similar ideas.…
Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.
Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…
Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne
This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…
Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin
An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…
Chevalier, Kim; Del Santo, Jolene; Scheiner, Deb; Skok, Elly; Tucci, Leah Rae
This report describes a program for using explicit instruction of reading strategies through the implementation of guided reading groups to improve student comprehension. The targeted population consisted of elementary school students in growing, middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. Evidence for the existence of a deficiency of…
Solan, Harold A.; Shelley-Tremblay, John; Ficarra, Anthony; Silverman, Michael; Larson, Steven
This study quantified the influence of visual attention therapy on the reading comprehension of 30 6th-grade children with moderate reading disabilities (RD). Experimental subjects received 12 one-hour sessions of individually monitored, computer-based attention therapy programs. After 12 weeks, the experimental subjects, but not the controls,…
Orasanu, Judith, Ed.
In response to recommendations by a National Institute of Education (NIE) planning group to the effect that NIE should support efforts to understand the cognitive processes involved in acquiring basic reading skills and in comprehending linguistic messages, this book summarizes what has been learned about reading comprehension in the decade since…
Lee, Icy K. B.
This study investigated the effects of "signals" in text (headings, previews, and logical connectives) on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Second Language. Subjects were 232 female Hong Kong secondary school students, all less-skilled readers of English. The subjects read a relatively difficult passage in English on an…
LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina
The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…
Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine
Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…
Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.
When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at…
Rojas-Drummond, Sylvia; Mazón, Nancy; Littleton, Karen; Vélez, Maricela
The present study explores the development and promotion of reading comprehension in primary school students, in the context of the implementation of an educational programme called "Learning Together" (LT). The programme, which centred on collaborative learning activities, was designed to promote oral and written communication in…
Macomber, Lois P.
The purpose of this paper was to relate Jean Piaget's stages of the learning process to the developmental aspects involved in reading comprehension. The need to correlate the developmental stage of the child's mind with the right types of activities was stressed. When a child has succeeded in the task of relating knowledge and affect to language…
Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan
The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…
Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…
Thompson, Eugene W.; Smidchens, Uldis
In a sample of more than 400 fifth grade students, the reading comprehension levels of children living with both parents and children living with only one parent were compared. Data were collected on the demographic variables of race, student sex, family organization (two parents/one parent), parent educational level, family occupational prestige,…
Coke, Esther U.
Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…
Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon
The purpose of this narrative synthesis is to determine the reliability and validity of retell protocols for assessing reading comprehension of students in grades K–12. Fifty-four studies were systematically coded for data related to the administration protocol, scoring procedures, and technical adequacy of the retell component. Retell was moderately correlated with standardized measures of reading comprehension and, with older students, had a lower correlation with decoding and fluency. Literal information was retold more frequently than inferential, and students with learning disabilities or reading difficulties needed more supports to demonstrate adequate recall. Great variability was shown in the prompting procedures, but scoring methods were more consistent across studies. The influences of genre, background knowledge, and organizational features were often specific to particular content, texts, or students. Overall, retell has not yet demonstrated adequacy as a progress monitoring instrument. PMID:23125521
Kirmizi, Fatma Susar
The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between levels of reading comprehension strategy use, reading attitudes, and the amount of reading per year among elementary school students. The study was conducted with 1316 students (649 girls and 667 boys) attending the fourth and fifth grades of 15 elementary schools in Denizli, Turkey.…
Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien
Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…
Glenberg, Arthur M.
Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis of affordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from…
Allan Wigfield; John T. Guthrie; Kathleen C. Perencevich; Ana Taboada; Susan Lutz Klauda; Angela McRae; Pedro Barbosa
The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' read- ing comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and moti- vational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for cognitive strategies in reading), and traditional instruction in fourth-grade classrooms differentially influenced students' reading comprehension,
Created by David B. Howell of the University of Vermont, this correlation and regression example compares performance on reading comprehension questions to performance on the SAT. It also compares those who read the passage referred to by the questions to those who did not. The author provides a detailed examination of the topic and then follows it up with the actual data sets behind the problem. The exercise also presents questions and the subsequent answers are also provided. This is an interesting case study which allows students to explore the workings of applied statistical research.
Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Defries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.
Longitudinal twin data were analyzed to investigate the etiology of the stability of genetic and environmental influences on word reading and reading comprehension, as well as the stability of those influences on their relationship. Participating twin pairs were initially tested at a mean age of 10.3 years, and retested approximately five years…
This study examined the relationship between fourth grade primary school students' reading habits/conditions/ situations and their comprehension regarding what they read. For this purpose, a correlational survey method was used in the study. 90 fourth-grade students who were attending a state primary school in the center of Ku¨tahya…
Raquel Garcia Jurado
Most universities in Mexico require that students pass requisite examinations in reading comprehension to get their bachelor's degree. Demand for preparation courses in reading comprehension in English is high, so the need to create a reading comprehension course on line was detected. The course design was based on expert readers' performance identified by thinking aloud protocols. This data was organized
Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.
The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling 9 cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts: Less than one percent of first- through third-grade students who scored as poor in reading comprehension were adequate in both decoding and vocabulary. Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:25143666
Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test…
Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina
The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…
Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle
From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256
McNamara, Danielle S.; Kendeou, Panayiota
The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decoding processes and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is…
Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph
We reintroduce a wide-angle view of reading comprehension, the Reading Systems Framework, which places word knowledge in the center of the picture, taking into account the progress made in comprehension research and theory. Within this framework, word-to-text integration processes can serve as a model for the study of local comprehension…
Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E. Mark; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.
Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children…
In this article, the author proposes ten principles through which she examines the essentials of teaching reading comprehension. Topics explored include the nature of reading comprehension and the roles of good readers and influential teachers. Related issues include motivation, comprehension strategies, explicit instruction, and vocabulary.…
Greene, Benjamin B., Jr.
Presents evidence from a large sample of reading test scores for the validity of cloze-based assessments of reading comprehension for the discourse typically encountered in introductory college economics textbooks. Notes that results provide strong evidence that appropriately designed cloze tests permit valid assessments of reading comprehension…
Kissau, Scott; Hiller, Florian
In response to international concern over poor reading skills among adolescent learners, teachers of these students are encouraged to integrate reading comprehension instruction into their classrooms. To increase the likelihood that reading comprehension strategies are effectively used in schools, teachers in all content areas need extensive…
Prior, Suzanne M.; Fenwick, Kimberley D.; Saunders, Katie S.; Ouellette, Rachel; O'Quinn, Chantell; Harvey, Shannon
The study examines comprehension after oral and silent reading in elementary- and middle-school students. It investigates whether and when one mode is superior to the other for comprehension as children develop, independent of reading ability levels. One hundred and seventy three children in first through seventh grades orally and silently read…
Baumann, James F.; And Others
A think-aloud instructional program was developed to help students acquire the ability to monitor their reading comprehension and to employ various strategies to deal with comprehension breakdowns. Several research studies indicate that comprehension monitoring abilities discriminate successful readers from less successful ones and that…
Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl F.
of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should...
Any understanding of the relationship of comprehension to grammar must go beyond the scope of the traditional limitations of syntax and relate to real world knowledge in terms of language usage. (Author)
Intercultural rhetoric has been studied in the context of second language writing for many decades. This article looks at the topic from a new perspective and offers an experimental study of the effects of intercultural rhetoric on reading comprehension. The experiment was set in Hong Kong, China, and assessed the reading comprehension (using a…
Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…
Aim of this study is to determine the effect of narrative and informative text types on Reading Comprehension levels of Primary Education 4th and 5th grade students. Application was fulfilled in 2011-2012 academic year with 134 students in a primary education school in Province Kirsehir. Reading comprehension tests prepared according to text types…
Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.
We report preliminary behaviour genetic analyses of reading and listening comprehension from The Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center. Although the twin sample with these new measures is still of limited size, we find substantial, and significant, genetic influences on individual differences in both reading and listening comprehension.…
Nguyen, Neal Nghia; Leytham, Patrick; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.
Reading comprehension is a critical building block for effective early literacy development. Many students with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate difficulties in reading comprehension. These difficulties may be attributed to deficits in Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence, and Executive Functioning. Given the rise in the number of students…
Cullen, Jennifer M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Schnell, Senny T.; Wheaton, Joe E.
Reading comprehension is a critical skill for school success. Struggling readers can benefit from computer-assisted instruction that utilizes components of effective instruction (e.g., frequent practice, immediate feedback). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Headsprout Comprehension, a computer-assisted reading program, on…
As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…
The effects on reading comprehension of prior cultural experience were assessed in a study of 72 advanced ESL students reading about Halloween. Prior cultural experience was found to be helpful, but exposure to meanings of target vocabulary words had no significant effect on comprehension. (Author/MSE)
Peckham, Terry; McCalla, Gord
Reading comprehension is critical in life-long learning as well as in the workplace. In this paper, we describe how multidimensional k-means clustering combined with Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to determine positive and negative cognitive skill sets with respect to reading comprehension tasks. This information could be used to inform environments…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Crosson, Amy C.; Resnick, Lauren B.
This study examined the relationship between the quality of classroom talk and academic rigor in reading comprehension lessons. In addition, the study aimed to characterize effective questions to support rigorous reading comprehension lessons. The data were collected as a part of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA) pilot. The IQA is a…
Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.
We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap…
This study examines interactions between teachers and students during reading comprehension instruction to determine how certain patterns of teacher-student talk support student comprehension achievement and reading engagement. The central focus of the study is "conceptual press discourse," a pattern of teacher response that includes requests for…
Karami, Hossein; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani
Little research has been conducted to investigate the effect of analogy on third language (L3, hereafter) reading comprehension though some experts believe that it has facilitating and debilitating effects on L1 and L2 respectively. This article explores the effect of analogies on reading comprehension of expository texts by students of English as…
This student book represents Level 6 in an eight-level supplemental reading series designed to help students learn and practice a variety of reading comprehension strategies. The number of the book corresponds to the approximate grade-equivalent reading level. This book has 31 lessons focusing on these areas: vocabulary, reading strategies, topic,…
This student book represents Level 5 in an eight-level supplemental reading series designed to help students learn and practice a variety of reading comprehension strategies. The number of the book corresponds to the approximate grade-equivalent reading level. This book has 31 lessons focusing on these areas: vocabulary, reading strategies, topic,…
This student book represents Level 4 in an eight-level supplemental reading series designed to help students learn and practice a variety of reading comprehension strategies. The number of the book corresponds to the approximate grade-equivalent reading level. This book has 31 lessons focusing on these areas: vocabulary, reading strategies, topic,…
This student book represents Level 8 in an eight-level supplemental reading series designed to help students learn and practice a variety of reading comprehension strategies. The number of the book corresponds to the approximate grade-equivalent reading level. This book has 20 lessons focusing on these areas: vocabulary, reading strategies, topic…
This student book represents Level 7 in an eight-level supplemental reading series designed to help students learn and practice a variety of reading comprehension strategies. The number of the book corresponds to the approximate grade-equivalent reading level. This book has 20 lessons focusing on these areas: vocabulary, reading strategies, topic…
Johns, Wendi; Peterson, Gina; Spivey, Lisa
This report describes a program that will improve reading comprehension. The targeted population consists of second grade students at a rural northwestern Illinois school. Evidence for the existence of reading problems included daily teacher observations, student reading surveys, and assessments that indicated the level of student reading…
Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian
The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace. PMID:25832739
Kendeou, Panayiota; Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.
The present set of 7 experiments systematically examined the effectiveness of adding causal explanations to simple refutations in reducing or eliminating the impact of outdated information on subsequent comprehension. The addition of a single causal-explanation sentence to a refutation was sufficient to eliminate any measurable disruption in…
Kim, Young-Suk; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.
In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word…
Tracy, John Michael
The study utilized standardized testing procedures to identify the reading comprehension and verbal language characteristics of 12 fourth and fifth grade disabled readers. Reading comprehension was assessed with a standardized test of reading comprehension. Verbal language was assessed with a standardized test of verbal language. Descriptive,…
Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A.; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S.
Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading…
This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
Richgels, Donald J.
Two research areas, schema theory and linguistic theory, are described which have contributed to theories about language comprehension. Models of language comprehension conceptualized by Roger Schank, Carl Frederiksen, and Walter Kintsch are discussed in relation to the research and evaluated for practical use in reading instruction. (Author/PP)
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret
English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that L2 oral language skills had a large, significant effect on L2 reading comprehension, whereas students' word-level reading skills, whether in L1 or L2, were not significantly related to English reading comprehension in three of four models fitted. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading. PMID:21243117
Muth, K. Denise
Suggests a way of helping students apply their reading skills to solve math word problems. Claims comprehension monitoring is a set of skills that can be applied to both reading and math problem solving to help students integrate their reading skills with their computational skills. (MS)
Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija
In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…
Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.
In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…
This teacher's guide is designed to assist in teaching an eight-level supplemental reading series to help students learn and practice a variety of reading comprehension strategies. It explains the format of the eight student books; provides a complete scope and sequence chart for the series; and includes a brief introduction to reading…
Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai
The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…
Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Boardman, Alison; Swanson, Elizabeth
Collaborative Strategic Reading is an innovative new approach to teaching reading that weaves together two instructional programs: cooperative learning and reading comprehension strategy instruction. In small groups, students work through the four main steps-Preview, "Click and Clunk," Get the Gist, and Wrap Up-helping each other improve…
Svjetlana Koli?-Vehovec; Igor Bajšanski; Barbara Ron?evi? Zubkovi?
\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the authors’ work on age differences in children’s metacognition and reading comprehension\\u000a during upper elementary and high school (9–17-years old) in Croatia, with an emphasis on gender differences. The focus was\\u000a placed on upper elementary school as a crucial period for the development of metacognition in the domain of reading comprehension.\\u000a In the first
Santoro, Julie Kay
There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…
While a number of studies have investigated the influence of background knowledge and reading comprehension strategies on comprehension, no L2 research exists examining and comparing the unique contributions of these two variables examined together. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the combined and individual…
Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S
Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences. PMID:24999710
Fujita, Ken; Yamashita, Junko
The current study investigated the relation and comparison of reading comprehension and reading rate in Japanese high school EFL learners. One hundred and forty-eight tenth-graders in a Japanese high school participated in this study. Results showed that the relation between reading comprehension and reading rate was weak, but significant (r =…
Hausheer, Robin; Hansen, Alana; Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined the effectiveness of a remedial reading program on improving reading fluency and comprehension among elementary school students. Twenty-four students were selected to participate in the 8-month program. Results indicated reading fluency and reading comprehension scores improved significantly across the academic year for both…
Coppins, Laci Sharyl
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…
Abu-Leil, Aula Khateeb; Share, David L.; Ibrahim, Raphiq
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of decoding efficiency to the development of reading comprehension among skilled adult native Arabic speakers. In addition, we tried to investigate the influence of Arabic vowels on reading accuracy, reading speed, and therefore to reading comprehension. Seventy-five Arabic…
Hollimon, Deborah Neal
The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are changes in student motivation to read and reading comprehension when the instructional strategy of shared reading is used with sixth grade students. The quasi-experimental design for the study was based on the pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The sample for the study…
Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John
This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…
Xiangying Jiang; Yasuyo Sawaki; John Sabatini
This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language™ (TOEFL®) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a computer-based test battery of word reading efficiency and text reading fluency in addition to
Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate
This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…
Yeh, Hui-Chin; Lai, Pei-Yi
Many studies have concluded that question generation has a positive effect on students' reading comprehension. However, few studies have delineated how students generate questions from a text and what processes are involved in question generation. This study aims to investigate how the question generation processes improve students' reading…
Kreamer, Thomas Lawrence
The major purposes of this study were (1) to determine if a listening comprehension test was as valid as a reading readiness test, a visual motor test, a group intelligence test, or an individual intelligence test in measuring the reading readiness of first grade pupils; and (2) to determine if a combination of two or more of these tests would…
Sweet, Anne Polselli, Ed.; Snow, Catherine E., Ed.
This practical book grew out of a recent report written by the RAND Reading Study Group (RRSG), which proposed a national research agenda in the area of reading comprehension. In the book, RRSG members have expanded on their findings and translated them into clear recommendations to inform practice. The book explains research-based ways to plan…
The classroom interaction model is a strategy to help both teachers and students with reading comprehension. It focuses on literary or informational work rather than on specific skills abstracted from the work or skills proposed by reading texts or curriculum guides. The interaction model indicates that interpretation, application, and…
Shieh, Wenyuh; Freiermuth, Mark R.
Vocabulary knowledge has been recognized by researchers as a critical component of reading comprehension, not only as a means to facilitate first language acquisition but also as an integral element in the learning of English as a second or foreign language. To reduce the effect of insufficient vocabulary knowledge during reading, a compensatory…
Conner, Timothy W., II; Aagaard, Lola
Differences in reading comprehension were examined in students with disabilities after use of three reader modification types. Participants (n=10) conveniently selected from two school districts were students grades three through eight reading on a third grade level that received a reader as a modification in their Individualized Education…
Sterzik, Angela Meyer; Fraser, Carol
In academic environments, reading is assigned not simply to transmit information; students are required to take the information, and based on the task set by the instructor, assess, analyze, and critique it on the basis of personal experiences, prior knowledge, and other readings (Grabe, 2009). Thus text-based comprehension (Kintsch, 1998) alone…
Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wexler, Jade
The authors examine the results for students with disabilities from a 2-year randomized controlled trial with students identified in ninth grade and followed through 10th grade in their allotted condition group. Prior to ninth grade, students with disabilities who met criteria for low reading comprehension (i.e., through failure on the state…
This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…
Maria Cristina; R. A. JOLY; Alessandra S. G. CAPOVILLA; Cássia BIGHETTI; Marina L. NERI; Adriana F. NICOLAU
This study aims to evaluate the reading comprehension of 80 freshman psychology students. 79% of them were female. 69,1% study at night. The age varied between 17 to 56 years old (M=24,05, SD=7,13). 59,3% of the students had less than 22 years old and 30,9% had more than 25. The students were evaluated about the differences of comprehension of a
Solís, Michael; Vaughn, Sharon; Scammacca, Nancy
This experimental study examined the efficacy of a multicomponent reading intervention compared to a control condition on the reading comprehension of adolescent students with low reading comprehension (more than 1½ standard deviations below normative sample). Ninth-grade students were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 25) and comparison (n =…
This article highlights four cognitive processes key to online reading comprehension and how one might begin to transform existing think-aloud strategy models to encompass the challenges of reading for information on the Internet. Informed by principles of cognitive apprenticeship and an emerging taxonomy of online reading comprehension…
Gabl, Kari A.; Kaiser, Kristi L.; Long, Julie K.; Roemer, Jessica L.
This action research report describes a program to increase students' reading comprehension and fluency through the use of guided reading. The targeted population consists of second and fourth grade students in a northwest suburban area of a large city located in the Midwest. The problems of low reading comprehension and fluency scores were…
Solis, Michael; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.
We describe findings from a series of longitudinal studies utilizing a response to intervention framework implemented over 3 years with students in Grades 6 through 8 with reading disabilities and poor reading comprehension. Students were identified based on reading comprehension scores in Grade 5 (n = 1,083) and then randomized to treatment or…
Fluency instruction has had limited effects on reading comprehension relative to reading rate and prosodic reading (Dowhower, 1987; Herman, 1985; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000a). More specific components (i.e., error detection) of comprehension may yield larger effects through exposure to a wider range of materials…
Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah
This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…
Kelly, R R; Albertini, J A; Shannon, N B
Two comprehension studies were conducted with 46 deaf college students. In the first, 20 deaf college students representing higher and lower reading-ability levels were tested for correctly stating the main idea of a passage, answering content questions, indicating their understanding of the words and phrases, and recognizing a topically incongruent sentence embedded in the passage. The results suggest that deaf students profess a better understanding of what they read than they are able to demonstrate. The students' inability to identify a topically incongruent sentence in the passage further suggests a need for them to more carefully and accurately evaluate their understanding of what they are reading. A second study investigated the effect of strategy review instruction on deaf college students' comprehension of short reading passages. Students reading at a higher level showed improved comprehension on the posttraining passage, but students reading at a lower level did not. Similarly, the control group of deaf students comparable to the higher-level readers did not show improved comprehension. PMID:11865569
Ukrainetz, Teresa A
Understanding and learning from academic texts involves purposeful, strategic reading. Adolescent readers, particularly poor readers, benefit from explicit instruction in text comprehension strategies, such as text preview, summarization, and comprehension monitoring, as part of a comprehensive reading program. However, strategies are difficult to teach within subject area lessons where content instruction must take primacy. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have the expertise and service delivery options to support middle and high school students in learning to use comprehension strategies in their academic reading and learning. This article presents the research evidence on what strategies to teach and how best to teach them, including the use of explicit instruction, spoken interactions around text, cognitive modeling, peer learning, classroom connections, and disciplinary literacy. The article focuses on how to move comprehension strategies from being teaching tools of the SLP to becoming learning tools of the student. SLPs can provide the instruction and support needed for students to learn and apply of this important component of academic reading. PMID:25633141
Li, James J.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark
A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension. PMID:19221923
Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.
The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…
Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007), it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words), but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007). Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers. PMID:24219914
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…
DeMao, Vicki Arnolt
Many young children are being placed in a formal reading program before they are cognitively ready. Jean Piaget's developmental theory challenges educators to begin viewing learning and cognitive development from the child's point of view. Interpreters of Piaget's theory have addressed themselves to the teaching of math and science concepts, but…
El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.
This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…
Huggins, A. W. F.
This review of research related to syntactic aspects of reading comprehension points out that readability formulas and surface-structure measures do not adequately describe the complexity of single sentences. According to current theories, extraction of meaning depends on recovering simple propositions that underlie each clause in the message. How…
Guttman implicational scaling techniques were used to identify a unidimensional set of English as a Second Language reading comprehension items. Data were analyzed from 202 students who sat for an institutional administration of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The examinees who contributed to the scalable set had significantly…
Weekes, Brendan S.; Hamilton, Stephen; Oakhill, Jane V.; Holliday, Robyn E.
Children with reading comprehension difficulties display impaired performance on semantic processing tasks. These impairments are assumed to reflect weaker knowledge about abstract semantic associations between words in poor comprehenders [Nation, K., & Snowling, M. (1999). Developmental differences in sensitivity to semantic relations among good…
Describes cultural bias at four levels: lexico-syntactic, content and concepts, social and cognitive, and schematic or frame of reference. A study is described which provides examples of cultural bias in reading comprehension items because of a mismatch between the culture of the test item and that of the test taker.
Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence…
Montes, Florencia; Botero, María Patricia; Pechthalt, Tracy
The purpose of this action research paper is to disseminate the results of a 2-month study which focuses on how a student's first language (L1) reading comprehension skills affect the same skills in their second language (L2). The subjects of the study are sixth grade girls, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years old. They attend a private bilingual…
Parkhurst, Perrin E.
The influence on learning of visuals accompanying self-paced text materials was investigated for students of varied reading comprehension ability levels. The use of varied degrees of realism and media presentation formats in facilitating learning on specific tasks was examined in order to clarify previous research, and to provide specific…
Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of thought, this thematic reading comprehension unit on "loneliness" is intended for teachers of grades 7-9. The thinking process is broken into six categories: (1) recall; (2) inference; (3) application; (4) analysis; (5) synthesis; and (6) evaluation. A short description is given for each of these processes. Students…
Swanwick, Ruth A.; Kitchen, Ruth; Clarke, Paula J.
This study examined different perspectives of deaf education practitioners on deafness and reading comprehension. This involved a full deaf education support team comprising teachers of the deaf, communication support workers, and deaf instructors from a UK citywide service covering early years, primary and secondary settings. Using a focus group…
Li, Miao; Kirby, John; Georgiou, George K.
This study examined the development of rapid automatised naming (RAN) components (i.e. articulation time and pause time) in English and Chinese, and their relations to English reading comprehension, in Chinese English immersion students at Grades 2, 4 and 6. Results indicated that pause time rather than articulation time was highly correlated with…
Research in four areas has the potential to dramatically improve how practitioners address the challenges of integrating digital texts and tasks into their literacy curriculum. Advances in defining and measuring key components of online reading comprehension are rapidly emerging. In addition, instructional models, such as Internet reciprocal…
Winer, Lise; Benson, Scott
Presents excerpts from a discussion in an English-as-a-Second-Language classroom to illustrate the role of group discussion in assessing reading comprehension and shaping realizations through a type of scaffolded instruction. Discusses the "stepping stones" technique with a classroom transcript illustrating its use. (nine references) (Author/CK)
David R. Cross; Scott G. Paris
Children's understanding of their own cognitive skills, or metacognition, has been hypothesized to play a major role in learning and development. In this study, we examine the developing relation between children's metacognition and reading comprehension. Children in third- and fifth-grade classes were given an experimental curriculum, Informed Strategies for Learning (ISL), designed to increase their awareness and use of effective
Choo, Tan Ooi Leng; Eng, Tan Kok; Ahmad, Norlida
Reading Comprehension is one of the four components tested by the "MUET" (Malaysian University English Test) for Sixth-Form students in Malaysia, and school teachers are charged with the task of helping these students improve. This article discusses how "reciprocal teaching strategies" could help low-proficiency Sixth-Form students improve their…
Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Ray, Melissa N.
In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six…
Thompson, William Forde; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Letnic, Adriana Katharine
We examined the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Because the emotional consequences of music listening are affected by changes in tempo and intensity, we manipulated these variables to create four repeated-measures conditions: slow/low, slow/high, fast/low, fast/high. Tempo and intensity manipulations were selected to be…
The definitions of and literature on test speededness are reviewed, and factors and areas in which the tests reveal their strengths and limitations are discussed. The focus of this article is on speeded reading comprehension tests used for entry or re-entry placement in postsecondary institutions. Speeded tests were prompted by the accelerating…
Roberts, Greg; Good, Roland; Corcoran, Stephanie
This article presents a fluency-based measure of reading comprehension. A part of the Vitals Indicators of Progress (VIP) system, the measure outlined here represents an alternate form to the retell-fluency measure in the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy System (DIBELS). Measures of retell fluency provide an efficient, fluency-based tool…
Furniss, David W.; Graves, Michael F.
Summarizes a study in which third-grade students were asked to read a book passage aloud, then recount as much as they could remember. Results show that overemphasizing accuracy of word pronunciation can actually retard comprehension of material by student. (HTH)
Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects on decoding mistakes and comprehension of text passages at fastest and slowest reading rates. Subjects included 181 Israeli first graders and 60 American first graders. Subjects reading at their normal maximum speed averaged fewer errors and higher comprehension. (Author/LMO)
Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin
Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332
Kim, Christina S; Carbary, Kathleen M; Tanenhaus, Michael K
Syntactic priming without lexical overlap is well-documented in language production. In contrast, reading-time comprehension studies, which typically use locally ambiguous sentences, generally find syntactic priming only with lexical overlap. This asymmetry has led some researchers to propose that distinct mechanisms underlie the comprehension and production of syntactic structure. Instead, we propose that methodological differences in how priming is assessed are largely responsible for the asymmetry: in comprehension, lexical biases in a locally ambiguous target sentence may overwhelm the influence of syntactic priming effects on a reader's interpretation. We addressed these issues in a self-paced reading study by (1) using target sentences containing global attachment ambiguities, (2) examining a syntactic structure which does not involve an argument of the verb, and (3) factoring out the unavoidable lexical biases associated with the target sentences in a mixed-effects regression model. Under these conditions, syntactic priming affected how ambiguous sentences were parsed, and facilitated reading times when target sentences were parsed using the primed structure. This resolves discrepancies among previous findings, and suggests that the same mechanism underlies syntactic priming in comprehension and production. PMID:25102605
Performing text in the form of choral reading, rap, reader's theatre, and/or simulations offers students a powerful vehicle for understanding and recalling key concepts and significant details culled from textual materials. Creating a script, poem, or lyrics to perform requires repeated readings of a text, a practice that increases participants' comprehension, reading rate, and enjoyment (McCauley and McCauley 1992; Young and Vardell 1993). As an added benefit, performing text also provides an exciting change from oral recitations of textbook materials.
Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan
In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…
Park, Jie Y.
Many literacy teachers are creating contexts for students to learn and use a range of reading comprehension strategies. As useful as reading strategy instruction is, relatively little has been documented on the ways in which reading strategies can become tools for critical literacy. In this paper, the author illustrates how a reading strategy can…
McNinch, George H., Ed.; And Others
Conference presentations of research on reading comprehension, reading instruction, computer applications in reading instruction, and reading theory are compiled in this yearbook. Titles and authors of some of the articles are as follows: "A Rationale for Teaching Children with Limited English Proficiency" (M. Zintz); "Preliminary Development of a…
James R. Booth; William S. Hall
Cognitive internal state words (e.g., think and know) may be central to accessing, monitoring, and transforming our internal states, processes that seem to be critical for high-level text understanding (e.g., E. K. Scholnick & W. S. Hall, 1991). Fifth graders, 10th graders, and college undergraduates participated in this study of the importance of cognitive words in skilled reading comprehension. Positive
Substance Dependency's Effect on Reading Decoding and Comprehension: Reading Decoding and Comprehension Levels as Indicators of Brain Dysfunctioning with Ramifications for Traditional Rehabilitation Programming.
Schadler, Debbie E.
This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of substance dependency on the reading decoding and comprehension of 497 adolescents (ages 12-18) involved in an inpatient drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. The first part of the study involved the formal assessment of reading decoding and reading comprehension…
Melhi, Abdullah A.
Prior research indicated that computer-mediated glosses had an overall medium effect on second language reading comprehension. This study investigated the effects of computer-mediated glosses on reading comprehension. It also investigated the predictive power index of the e-glosses use with regard to reading comprehension performance, from a…
Acosta Caballero, Karen Anelice
Reading comprehension of school-aged students is an important topic of research; however, research on the reading comprehension of adult foreign/second language learners whose first language is English is limited, especially studies investigating the reading comprehension strategies that readers of different proficiency levels use when they…
Swanson, H. Lee
This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…
Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara
In this study, we examined the relationship of growth trajectories of oral reading fluency, vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter-naming fluency, and nonsense word reading fluency from 1st grade to 3rd grade with reading comprehension in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades. Data from 12,536 children who were followed from kindergarten to 3rd grade…
Millett, Joseph Ridge
The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS-ORF) test and scores on a reading comprehension test…
This study investigated factors affecting second/foreign language (L2) reading comprehension in a hypermedia environment within the theoretical framework of dual coding and cognitive load theories, and interactive models of L2 reading. The independent variables were reading ability, topic interest, prior topical knowledge, and the number of times…
In this study, we explored the structural relationship between the students' perceived use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies (CMRS) and their reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP), and we also examined the differences in students' perceived use of reading strategies among the poor, moderate and good comprehenders. A sample…
Mangen, Anne; Walgermo, Bente R.; Bronnick, Kolbjorn
Objective: To explore effects of the technological interface on reading comprehension in a Norwegian school context. Participants: 72 tenth graders from two different primary schools in Norway. Method: The students were randomized into two groups, where the first group read two texts (1400-2000 words) in print, and the other group read the same…
Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students ("N" = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for…
This activity is designed to enhance student comprehension of mineralogy and its applications by having students read scientific articles from the journal American Mineralogist, answer questions, and discuss the article in class.
Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare
Background: Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading…
Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina
This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…
Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija
In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.
Petscher, Yaacov; Kim, Young-Suk
This study used data from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good & Kaminski, 2002) oral reading fluency (ORF) probes to examine variation among different ORF score types (i.e., the median of three passages, the mean of all three passages, the mean of passages 2 and 3, and the score from passage 3) in predicting reading comprehension as a function of student reading fluency level and to compare the screening accuracy of these score types in predicting student reading comprehension. The results revealed that the relation between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension varied as a function of students' oral reading fluency and that different score types had varying predictive validity for year-end reading comprehension. The mean of all three passages demonstrated a marginally better balance in screening efficiency from September to December of grade one (especially for low-performing students), whereas in grades two and three, the median score was the best predictor. Furthermore, across all grades, increasing reading rates were observed for the three administered passages within an assessment period. The observed patterns mimicked previous experimental studies (Francis et al., 2008; Jenkins, Graff, & Miglioretti, 2009), suggesting that practice effects are an important consideration in the administration of multiple passages assessing oral reading fluency. PMID:21215838
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…
Benedict, Kendra M.
The purpose of this intervention study was to test the use of a reading comprehension strategy with students who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) in monitoring and resolving problems with comprehension. The strategy, named Comprehension Check and Repair (CC&R), was designed for D/HH students who struggle with comprehension, despite at least…
Tran, Hong; Porter, Jacob; Sun, Ming-An; Xie, Hehuang; Zhang, Liqing
Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries). We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes), usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data. PMID:24839440
Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries). We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes), usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data. PMID:24839440
Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing
The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…
Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Nelson, Jason; Lindstrom, William; Gregg, K. Noel
The comprehension section of the "Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) is widely used to assess the reading comprehension skills of adolescents and adults in the United States. In this study, the authors explored the content validity of the NDRT Comprehension Test (Forms G and H) by asking university students (with and without at-risk status for…
Boulware-Gooden, Regina; Carreker, Suzanne; Thornhill, Ann; Joshi, R. Malatesha
Comprehension is the reason for reading, and vocabulary plays a significant role in comprehension. The question is, What kind of instruction best promotes the development of comprehension and vocabulary? The National Reading Panel (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000) concluded that there are eight effective or promising…
Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.
Does the choice of test for assessing reading comprehension influence the outcome of genetic analyses? A twin design compared two types of reading comprehension tests classified as primarily associated with word decoding (RC-D) or listening comprehension (RC-LC). For both types of tests, the overall genetic influence is high and nearly identical.…
Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ
This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 second and 974 third graders. Results found a significant relationship between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and…
van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos
On the basis of a validation study of a new test for assessing low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension skills--the SALT-reading--we analyzed two issues relevant to the field of reading test development. Using the test results of 200 seventh graders, we examined the possibility of identifying reading comprehension subskills and the effects…
Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon
Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension…
Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov
The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for…
Reading teachers focus more on the instruction of reading content or strategies, but pay relatively less attention to the impact of writing on reading comprehension. Based on mediation theory, the author examined the effect of summary writing about reading texts on readers' comprehension. By reviewing relevant literatures on the topic of…
The present study investigated proximal and distal predictors of reading comprehension by including latent factors such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, word reading, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. The sample consisted of 79 five-year-old Korean-monolingual children who were assessed at the end…
With the global expansion of technology our reading platform has changed from traditional text to predominantly hypertext. Little consideration has been given to how the shift in reading platforms might help or hinder children's reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to compare reading comprehension in computer-based and paper-based…
Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan
This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…
Pearman, Cathy J.
CD-ROM storybooks may facilitate reading comprehension for students who are struggling with reading comprehension. Therefore, the use of CD-ROM storybooks in the classroom as part of a reading instruction program, literacy center, or for independent reading time could benefit young readers. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar
In this intervention study, teachers tried to implement four instructional principles derived from the literature on research-based, explicit reading comprehension instruction in their fifth-grade classrooms. The principles focused on relevant background knowledge, reading comprehension strategies, reading-group organization, and reading…
A text was presented on three levels with regard to lexical density (LD - the quota of lexical words/total amount of words in a sentence). 132 subjects' comprehension of the text (discourse comprehension) was tested by a knowledge test and by subjective ratings. Results for discourse and single-sentence analysis were discussed as well as…
Cibula, June Clarke
A practicum was conducted to improve reading comprehension in classroom performance with the basal reading series and on norm-referenced tests. Subjects included a fifth-grade class of 28 students who were paired with another fifth-grade class as peer teachers. New skills were taught and practiced with the target population early in the week. On…
The purpose of this study is to determine which reading strategies students use while learning Turkish as a foreign language and investigate the effects of these strategies on reading comprehension skill. Conducted in compliance with "pretest-posttest control group model" as the experimental design, this research involved totally 36…
This study focuses on two pre-reading strategies: vocabulary pre-teaching and comprehension question presentation. Researchers have claimed that a vocabulary strategy is less effective than any other pre-reading strategy. This study investigates whether their claim is true of Japanese university students. The purpose of the study is twofold. The…
Gutkind, Rebeka Chaia
This mixed method study investigated the schema strategy uses of fourth-grade boys with reading challenges; specifically, their ability to understand text based on two components within schema theory: tuning and restructuring. Based on the reading comprehension scores from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (Form 2010), four comparison groups were…
This action research developed as a response to the researcher's experience with struggling and alliterate readers across all content areas in secondary schools. The researcher witnessed the negative impact of a depressed economy and depressed reading proficiency pervasive among students based on classroom experience and standardized testing. The…
Examines the skills and abilities needed to interact with text on the Internet. Proposes that the Internet provides opportunities for interacting with new text formats, reader elements, and activities. Notes that it also expands and influences the sociocultural context in which a student learns to read. Considers the implications of a broader…
Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.
This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…
Roller, Cathy M., Ed.
This collection of 9 papers from the International Reading Association's Reading Research 2001 Conference (RR2001) addresses comprehensive reading instruction across the grade levels. The introduction, "How Will We Develop the Concept of Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across Grade Levels?," notes that five quandaries arose in the discussion of…
Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle
From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…
Roberts, Judith C.; Roberts, Keith A.
Reading comprehension skill is often assumed by sociology instructors, yet many college students seem to have marginal reading comprehension skills, which may explain why fewer than half of them are actually doing the reading. Sanctions that force students to either read or to pay a price are based on a rational choice model of behavior--a…
Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun
Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530
Brown, Heather M; Oram-Cardy, Janis; Johnson, Andrew
This meta-analysis examined 36 studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control groups in reading comprehension. Three moderators (semantic knowledge, decoding skill, PIQ) and two text types (high vs. low social knowledge) were examined as predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The overall standardized mean difference for reading comprehension was g = -0.7 SD. The strongest individual predictors of reading comprehension were semantic knowledge (explaining 57 % of variance) and decoding skill (explaining 55 % of variance). Individuals with ASD were significantly worse at comprehending highly social than less social texts. Having ASD alone does not predict reading comprehension deficits. Instead, individual skills, especially language ability, must be considered before one can accurately predict whether a given individual with ASD will experience difficulties in reading comprehension. PMID:23054199
Asbell, Shana; Donders, Jacobus; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Warschausky, Seth
Predictors of reading comprehension were evaluated in 41 children with cerebral palsy and 74 typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relative contributions of measures of phonemic awareness, receptive vocabulary, and general reasoning to variance in reading comprehension. All three independent variables were statistically significant predictors of reading comprehension in both groups of participants. The impact of phonemic awareness on reading comprehension was moderated by age, but only in the typically developing group. Within the group with cerebral palsy, there was an indirect effect of functional expressive ability on reading comprehension, mediated by phonemic awareness. It is concluded that largely the same variables predict reading comprehension in children with cerebral palsy as in typically developing children, but that children with cerebral palsy continue to rely on phonological processing for a more protracted period of time. PMID:20455127
The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…
Brown, Heather M.; Oram-Cardy, Janis; Johnson, Andrew
This meta-analysis examined 36 studies comparing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and control groups in reading comprehension. Three moderators (semantic knowledge, decoding skill, PIQ) and two text types (high vs. low social knowledge) were examined as predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The overall standardized mean difference for reading…
Bellinger, Jillian M.; DiPerna, James C.
This study examined the reliability and validity of scores on a fluency-based measure of reading comprehension. The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; 6th ed. revised) Retell Fluency (RTF), Oral Reading Fluency (DORF), and Woodcock Johnson III NU Tests of Achievement (WJ-III NU ACH) Reading Comprehension measures were…
Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony
Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…
Anderson, Stacey A.; Fuller, Gerald B.
This quantitative study was an investigation of the effect of lyrical music on reading comprehension by adolescents. Existing research has produced results that range from concluding such distraction may be detrimental to finding it could be helpful. The reading comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, 4th edition (MacGinitie,…
Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross
This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…
Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.; Graves, Michael F., Ed.; van den Broek, Paul, Ed.
Reading comprehension is of great concern to many Americans, as evidenced by the mandate in most states today for graduation standards in reading and for assessments aligned to those standards. This book focuses on what has been learned from research about fostering reading comprehension in the middle grades, providing a broad overview of current…
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren
In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal…
Elkind, Jerome; And Others
Twenty-eight middle school students with dyslexia read literature daily using a computer-based reading system. Seventy percent of the students read with greater comprehension. Fourteen percent showed lower comprehension scores, perhaps associated with kinesthetic motor weakness. The system did not provide a positive remediation benefit incremental…
Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C.
We explore the relationship between second language (L2) learners' vocabulary size, lexical text coverage that their vocabulary provides and their reading comprehension. We also conceptualize "adequate reading comprehension" and look for the lexical threshold for such reading in terms of coverage and vocabulary size. Vocabulary size was measured…
Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati
The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…
Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne
In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…
Packman, Linda Arlene
Some oral reading errors were found to be more significant than others in evaluating a pupil's performance in reading at six comprehension levels. The percentage of seven kinds of errors (pronunciation, mispronunciation, omission, substitution, addition, repetition, and punctuation) was computed to the levels of reading comprehension for good,…
This mixed-method study investigated the extent to which new reading comprehension proficiencies may be required on the Internet. It a lso explored the nature of online reading comprehension among adolescent readers who read online at different levels of proficiency. Results of a hierarchical regression analysis of da ta from a stratified random sample of 109 seventh graders indicated performance on
Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip
Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…
Hale, Andrea D.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Jenkins, Shonna; Schmitt, Ara J.; Martin, Daniel A.
Many reading comprehension measures require the student to read silently. When students read silently, important information (e.g., consistent reading errors) may not be identified. It may also be difficult to detect a student who is choosing not to read the passage. For this reason, investigating whether there is a significant difference in…
Soden, Brooke; Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K.; Cutting, Laurie; Keenan, Janice M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976). Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading. PMID:25602760
Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara
The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research. PMID:26407836
Ortlieb, Evan; Sargent, Stephan; Moreland, Meagan
This study examined the effectiveness of using the online digital reading environment to increase elementary students' comprehension within a reading clinic. Preservice teachers at a four-year university in the Midwest worked one-on-one with 58 fourth-grade students from three schools who were assigned to one of three conditions: print-based…
Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra
We used eye movement measures of paragraph reading to examine whether word frequency and predictability interact during the earliest stages of lexical processing, with a specific focus on whether these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading comprehension or launch site (i.e., saccade length between the prior and currently fixated word--a proxy for the amount of parafoveal word processing). The joint impact of frequency and predictability on reading will elucidate whether these variables additively or multiplicatively affect the earliest stages of lexical access, which, in turn, has implications for computational models of eye movements during reading. Linear mixed effects models revealed additive effects during both early- and late-stage reading, where predictability effects were comparable for low- and high-frequency words. Moreover, less cautious readers (e.g., readers who engaged in skimming, scanning, mindless reading) demonstrated smaller frequency effects than more cautious readers. Taken together, our findings suggest that during extended reading, frequency and predictability exert additive influences on lexical and postlexical processing, and that individual differences in reading comprehension modulate sensitivity to the effects of word frequency. PMID:24205888
Rossana De Beni; Erika Borella; Barbara Carretti
This study examines age-related differences in reading comprehension analyzing the role of working memory and metacomprehension components in a sample of young (18–30 years), young-old (65–74 years), and old-old (75–85 years) participants. Text comprehension abilities were measured by a standardized test, including two texts: a narrative and an expository text. The elderly's reading comprehension performance, when compared to the norm,
Aimee Dietz; Karen Hux; Miechelle L. McKelvey; David R. Beukelman; Kristy Weissling
Background: People with aphasia often have concomitant reading comprehension deficits that interfere with their full participation in leisure and social activities involving written text comprehension.Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to explore the impact of three levels of visuographic support—(a) high?context photographs, (b) low?context photographs, and (c) no photographs—on the reading comprehension of narratives by people with chronic aphasia.Methods
Wang, Lihui; Lawson, Michael J.; Curtis, David D.
Imagery training has been shown to improve reading comprehension. Recent research has also shown that the quality of visual mental imagery used is important for reading comprehension. A review of literature shows that there has been relatively little detailed research on the quality of imagery used by learners, especially in the case of students…
Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James
Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…
Chen, Kuang Yu
Success in reading comprehension is usually seen as fundamental to the academic success of foreign language learners. Many language factors affect second language learners' reading comprehension, such as vocabulary, and syntactic or grammatical knowledge. In practice, vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge can not be discussed separately with…
This study examined fourth graders' performance on two reading comprehension measures, involving a question-answering format and a cloze format, which were part of a state-mandated assessment. Word-level reading skills and oral language comprehension were important to success on both formats, but word accuracy had a stronger relationship to the…
Iddings, Scott M.; Ortmann, Tammy L.; Pride, Buddy; Pride, Heidi L.
This report describes a program for enhancing reading comprehension and vocabulary development through the use of multiple instructional strategies and technology. The targeted elementary population exhibits both poor reading comprehension and poor vocabulary acquisition and understanding, which interfere with academic achievement. Evidence for…
Romes Beziat, Tara Lynne
One way to improve students' academic performance is to improve their reading comprehension. Previous investigations demonstrated that testing students on learning material as well as having them use metacognitive strategies have independently improved reading comprehension. The test used in the learning phase in previous investigates has…
Peyman, Somayeh; Sadighi, Firooz
This investigation intended to find out the relationship between EFL learners' stress and their reading comprehension. The subjects who included ninety EFL juniors from Shiraz Azad University were asked to answer a standardized reading comprehension test and a stress questionnaire. After finding out the results of stress questionnaire, 10% of the…
Hagaman, Jessica L.; Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert
Reading comprehension is an important component of academic success and a skill required for many activities in school. However, little is known about effective reading comprehension interventions for younger students. This study investigated the effects of the paraphrasing strategy taught using the self-regulated strategy development model.…
Examines the influence of exposure to literary Arabic of preschool children on their reading comprehension of literary Arabic stories in grades 1 and 2. Indicates better reading comprehension results for the children who were exposed to literary Arabic than for the children who were exposed only to spoken Arabic. (SC)
Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker; Kalchman, Mindy
In this paper we examine American inservice teachers' instructional methods in reading comprehension following professional development (PD), illustrating the prolonged and significant gap between research and practice in the field of reading comprehension. We explore this gap from a conceptual change perspective, positing that some level of…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Phillips, Beth M.; Kaschak, Michael; Apel, Kenn; Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Johnson, Lakeisha Cooper; Lonigan, Christopher J.
This paper describes the theoretical framework, as well as the development and testing of the intervention, "Comprehension Tools for Teachers" (CTT), which is composed of eight component interventions targeting malleable language and reading comprehension skills that emerging research indicates contribute to proficient reading for…
Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore
Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…
Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.
In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…
Ponce, Hector R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Lopez, Mario J.
This article explores the effectiveness of a computer-based spatial learning strategy approach for improving reading comprehension and writing. In reading comprehension, students received scaffolded practice in translating passages into graphic organizers. In writing, students received scaffolded practice in planning to write by filling in graphic…
Carrasquillo, Angela; Nunez, Dulcinea
With the advent of the computer as an instructional tool many curriculum specialists have been designing software for reading instruction. However, most of the software designed to help develop reading comprehension skills does not consider the inclusion of monitoring comprehension strategies, therefore limiting the instructional potential of the…
Feldmann, Shirley C.; Fish, Marian C.
A study examined the relative comprehension difficulty and the influence of reader and text characteristics on reading comprehension for texts presented in traditional print or on the microcomputer screen. Two urban samples of mixed ethnicity were used, 95 low reading level high school students (grades 9 through 12) and 112 high ability eighth…
The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…
Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa
This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…
Mason, Linda H.; Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.
Comprehension problems have become an epidemic: One out of every four secondary school students is unable to read and comprehend the material in textbooks. Start addressing the root of the problem today with this practical guidebook, designed to strengthen adolescents' reading comprehension and written expression so they can master academic…
Elbro, Carsten; Buch-Iversen, Ida
Failure to "activate" relevant, existing background knowledge may be a cause of poor reading comprehension. This failure may cause particular problems with inferences that depend heavily on prior knowledge. Conversely, teaching how to use background knowledge in the context of gap-filling inferences could improve reading comprehension in…
Hollingsworth, Amanda; Sherman, Jennifer; Zaugra, Cynthia
The purpose of this action research project report was to increase reading comprehension by using cooperative learning. Reading comprehension was a concern for the three teacher researchers at both research sites. There were 51 first and second grade students, 28 elementary teachers, and 51 families of the first and second grade students involved…
Garcia, Luis Gonzalez
An assessment is presented of the current situation of text reading comprehension research with Spanish-speaking blind persons. An overall view is offered on the operativity and evaluation of text reading comprehension processes, presented in a number of different media, such as braille, recordings and speech synthesis. A programme of future…
Toward Unobtrusive Measurement of Reading Comprehension Using Low-Cost EEG Yueran Yuan, Kai and obtrusive. In this paper, we use inexpensive EEG to detect reading comprehension of readers in a school environment. We use EEG signals to produce above-chance predictors of student performance on end
Arrington, C. Nikki; Kulesz, Paulina A.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barnes, Marcia A.
Little is known about how specific components of working memory, namely, attentional processes including response inhibition, sustained attention, and cognitive inhibition, are related to reading decoding and comprehension. The current study evaluated the relations of reading comprehension, decoding, working memory, and attentional control in…
Wauters, Loes N.; van Bon, Wim H. J.; Tellings, Agnes E. J. M.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.
The present study examined whether specific item characteristics, such as mode of acquisition (MoA) of word meanings, make reading comprehension tests particularly difficult for deaf children. Reading comprehension data on nearly 13,000 hearing 7-to-12-year-olds and 253 deaf 7-to-20-year-olds were analyzed, divided across test levels from second…
Billingsley, Bonnie S.; Wildman, Terry M.
This article addresses the planning of metacognitive instruction in reading, including such elements of metacognitive theory as metacognitive knowledge, self-regulation, comprehension monitoring, and regulation. Metacognitive goals for instruction, selected research in improving reading comprehension, and specific instructional implications for…
Solan, Harold A.; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Hansen, Peter C.; Larson, Steven
The authors examined the relationships between reading comprehension, visual attention, and magnocellular processing in 42 Grade 7 students. The goal was to quantify the sensitivity of visual attention and magnocellular visual processing as concomitants of poor reading comprehension in the absence of either vision therapy or cognitive…
Garcia-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosua, Maria Rosa; Gil, Laura; Gomez-Veiga, Isabel; Vila, Jose Oscar; Orjales, Isabel; Contreras, Antonio; Rodriguez, Raquel; Melero, Maria Angeles; Duque, Gonzalo
Reading comprehension is a highly demanding task that involves the simultaneous process of extracting and constructing meaning in which working memory's executive processes play a crucial role. In this article, a training program on working memory's executive processes to improve reading comprehension is presented and empirically tested in two…
Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S.
Reading comprehension is a multi-dimensional process that includes the reader, the text, and factors associated with the activity of reading. Most research and theories of comprehension are based primarily on research conducted with monolingual English speakers (L1). The present study was designed to investigate the cognitive and linguistic…
Payne, Tabitha W.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Jungers, Melissa K.
Reading comprehension in a second language (L2) is a complex task involving knowledge of vocabulary and grammar as well as controlled attention for continuous updating of information. The purpose was to examine the relative contributions of working memory capacity (WMC), first language (L1) comprehension, and domain experience on L2 reading…
Rupley, William H.; And Others
A study explored an application of rauding theory to the developmental components that contribute to elementary-age children's reading comprehension. The relationships among cognitive power, auditory accuracy level, pronunciation (word recognition) level, rauding (comprehension) accuracy level, rauding rate (reading rate) level, and rauding…
Abdul Gafoor, K.; Remia, K. R.
In the context of observations that students lack mastery of elementary reading comprehension in Malayalam even by the end of 5-7 years of formal schooling, this study applies multiple regression analysis for reading comprehension. Longitudinal survey data from a representative sample of 159 lower primary students from grade 2 to 4 revealed…
Gorin, Joanna S.
Based on a previously validated cognitive processing model of reading comprehension, this study experimentally examines potential generative components of text-based multiple-choice reading comprehension test questions. Previous research (Embretson & Wetzel, 1987; Gorin & Embretson, 2005; Sheehan & Ginther, 2001) shows text encoding and decision…
Leu, Donald J.; McVerry, J. Gregory; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Kiili, Carita; Zawilinski, Lisa; Everett-Cacopardo, Heidi; Kennedy, Clint; Forzani, Elena
This commentary explores a central issue for our times, online reading comprehension. It first defines three issues that have largely gone unnoticed as the Internet enters our classrooms: (1) literacy has become deictic; (2) effective online information use requires additional online reading comprehension practices, skills, and dispositions; and…
Perkins, Kyle; And Others
A study was undertaken to identify the prerequisite relations (or hierarchies among the items) existing in the item responses of a sample of 86 foreign students who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) vocabulary and reading comprehension test, Form 3JTF1. The form contains 30 vocabulary items and 30 reading comprehension items.…
Tobing, Irene Rebecca Angela
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of reading strategies and self-efficacy with the reading comprehension of high school students in Indonesia. A convenience sample of 138 high school students ...
Materek, April; Cole, Carolyn A. S.; Levine, Terry M.; Mahone, E. Mark
Reading disability (RD) typically consists of deficits in word reading accuracy and/or reading comprehension. While it is well known that word reading accuracy deficits lead to comprehension deficits (general reading disability, GRD), less is understood about neuropsychological profiles of children who exhibit adequate word reading accuracy but nevertheless develop specific reading comprehension deficits (S-RCD). Establishing the underlying neuropsychological processes associated with different RD types is essential for ultimately understanding core neurobiological bases of reading comprehension. To this end, the present study investigated isolated and contextual word fluency, oral language, and executive function on reading comprehension performance in 56 9- to 14-year-old children [21 typically developing (TD), 18 GRD, and 17 S-RCD]. Results indicated that TD and S-RCD participants read isolated words at a faster rate than participants with GRD; however, both RD groups had contextual word fluency and oral language weaknesses. Additionally, S-RCD participants showed prominent weaknesses in executive function. Implications for understanding the neuropsychological bases for reading comprehension are discussed. PMID:19396550
Grant, Jamillah M. A.
Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…
Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi
The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…
Schadler, Margaret; Juola, James F.
This report summarizes research performed at the Universtiy of Kansas that involved several topics related to reading and learning to read, including the development of automatic word recognition processes, reading for comprehension, and the development of new computer technologies designed to facilitate the reading process. The first section…
Spear-Swerling, Louise; Brucker, Pamela O.; Alfano, Michael P.
This study examined sixth-graders' reading comprehension and component reading abilities in relation to two measures of print exposure: an author recognition test (ART) involving fiction authors and a reading habits questionnaire (RHQ) about children's voluntary reading for enjoyment across various genres. The ART correlated only with children's…
Atai, Mahmood Reza; Nazari, Ogholgol
Discipline-based English for Academic Purposes (EAP) reading programs in Iran are designed to fill the gap between the students' general English reading competence and their ability to read authentic discipline-specific texts. This study attempted to assess target and present reading comprehension needs of EAP students of Health Information…
O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Swanson, H. Lee; Geraghty, Cathleen
Improving reading rate can be difficult for poor readers. In this experiment, we investigated the impact of improvement in reading rate on other aspects of reading, including word recognition, decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension. Poor readers in Grades 2 or 4 (N = 123) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: practice reading text at their…
simply reading them receptively in one's mind, for ESL word reading development in rural India studentsSMART: Speech-enabled Mobile Assisted Reading Technology for word comprehension Anuj Kumar1-recognition to examine and train the cognitive underpinnings of word reading in English as a Second Language (ESL
This study investigates the effectiveness of online versus paper-based reading strategy instruction on EFL learners' reading comprehension. Fifty-seven university students from two intact reading classes with comparable proficiency levels were assigned to participate in either a paper-based or an online reading instructional module. Both…
of good readers is good decoding and oral language comprehension abilities (Catts, Hogan, & Adlof, 2005; Gough & Tunmer, 1986). Another group comprises readers with good oral language comprehension but poor decoding. Dyslexia is associated... Poor Listening Comprehension Good Decoding Ability Good Readers Hyperlexia/Special Comprehension Deficit Poor Decoding Ability Dyslexia Mixed/Garden-Variety Readers Despite the various studies demonstrating the importance of decoding...
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K.
The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from Diffusion Tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the Arcuate Fasciculus (AF) and Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. PMID:24909792
As computer technology developed, hypertexts emerged as an influential environment for developing language skills. This study aims to evaluate a text prepared in a hypertextual environment and its effects on academic success and comprehension skills. In this study, "preliminary test final test control group experimental pattern" was used…
Spooner, Alice L. R.; Gathercole, Susan E.; Baddeley, Alan D.
Seven- and eight-year-old skilled and less-skilled comprehenders were compared on a sentence recognition task in two conditions varying in memory load and retention interval. Integration of story information during comprehension was indexed by inflated recognition errors of foils that had been constructed by integrating information across original…
Williams, Joanna P.; Stafford, K. Brooke; Lauer, Kristen D.; Hall, Kendra M.; Pollini, Simonne
This study evaluated the effectiveness of comprehension training embedded in a program that taught science content to 2nd graders. The program included instruction about the structure of compare-contrast expository text, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of well-structured text exemplars. This…
Roehrig, Alysia D; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M; Hudson, Roxanne F; Torgesen, Joseph K
We evaluated the validity of DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) ORF (Oral Reading Fluency) for predicting performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT-SSS) and Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good, R.H., Simmons, D.C., and Kame'enui, E.J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.] for third grade students were evaluated on calibration (n(S1)=16,539) and cross-validation (n(S2)=16,908) samples representative of Florida's Reading First population. The strongest correlations were the third (February/March) administration of ORF with both FCAT-SSS and SAT-10 (r(S)=.70-.71), when the three tests were administered concurrently. Recalibrated ORF risk-level cut scores derived from ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve analyses produced more accurate identification of true positives than previously established benchmarks. The recalibrated risk-level cut scores predict performance on the FCAT-SSS equally well for students from different socio-economic, language, and race/ethnicity categories. PMID:19083363
Investigates the contribution of first language (L1) reading ability and second or foreign language (L2) proficiency to L2 reading comprehension, by focusing on the compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency among Japanese university students. Demonstrates the mutual compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency. (SG)
Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin
This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…
Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.
Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…
Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko
This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…
Culver, Victor Irwin
The primary purpose of this study was to experimentally evaluate the Guided Reading Procedure (GRP) as a teaching strategy designed to improve reading comprehension. The chief experimental strategy was compared with a current instructional strategy, the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) described by Stauffer (1969). The effects on reading…
Eason, Sarah H.; Sabatini, John; Goldberg, Lindsay; Bruce, Kelly; Cutting, Laurie E.
To further explore contextual reading rate, an important aspect of reading fluency, we examined the relationship between word reading efficiency (WRE) and contextual oral reading rate (ORR), the degree to which they overlap across different comprehension measures, whether oral language (semantics and syntax) predicts ORR beyond contributions of…
Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne
While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and deaf native signers. 3. Free recall memory (primacy effect) better predicted reading comprehension in deaf native signers as compared to oral deaf or hearing individuals. 4. Language experience should be taken into account when considering cognitive processes that mediate reading in deaf individuals.
Lan, Yi-Chin; Lo, Yu-Ling; Hsu, Ying-Shao
Comprehension is the essence of reading. Finding appropriate and effective reading strategies to support students' reading comprehension has always been a critical issue for educators. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 17 studies of metacognitive strategy instruction on students' reading comprehension in computerized…
Thomas, Lisa B.
Reading comprehension is a critical aspect of the reading process. Children who experience significant problems in reading comprehension are at risk for long-term academic and social problems. High-quality measures are needed for early, efficient, and effective identification of children in need of remediation in reading comprehension. Substantial…
Kennedy, Delores Kessler
The purpose of this study was to determine if training auditorially would improve listening comprehension and/or reading comprehension and if visual training with the Cloze Procedure would improve reading and/or listening comprehension. The experimental reading group received training visually with the Cloze Procedure and the experimental…
Abnett, Jenelle M.
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) commonly show deficits in social and communication skills, as well as in interpreting metaphorical meaning of language. These deficits often make reading comprehension more difficult for students with ASD. Past research has primarily focused on decoding rather than on comprehension skill interventions;…
Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko
This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…
Hayes, Suzanne Scott
The researcher studied the effect of multiple strategy instruction on the reading comprehension of low-achieving and average first-grade readers, and gifted first-grade students. The researcher also sought to determine how the effect of multiple strategy instruction differs according to gender. Running records and "Assessing Comprehension…
Flynt, E. Sutton; Cooter, Jr., Robert B.
The authors describe a content-reading instruction scaffolding called The Memphis Comprehension Framework, which was found to be effective in significantly improving higher order comprehension skills for students in grades 4 through 6 in two major U.S. urban school districts. This model is especially potent in improving students' higher order…
Schorzman, Emma M.; Cheek, Earl H.
Little empirical evidence supporting various instructional strategies for teaching reading comprehension exists. Because difficulties with comprehension are intensified as students reach the intermediate grades, it is essential that middle school educators provide research-based instruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the Directed…
Low working memory capacity is only spuriously related to poor reading comprehension Julie A. Van working memory capacity as the key causal factor. However, extant research suggests that this position Working memory Vocabulary Corsi blocks a b s t r a c t Accounts of comprehension failure, whether
Narkon, Drue E.; Wells, Jenny C.
Story mapping is an effective visual strategy to enhance comprehension of narrative text in students, with or without disabilities. This article demonstrates how instruction can be designed using principles of universal design for learning with the evidence-based story-mapping strategy to improve reading comprehension for elementary students with…
Hart, Sara A.; Soden, Brooke; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Background Influential work has explored the role of family socioeconomic status (SES) as an environmental moderator of genetic and environmental influences on cognitive outcomes. This work has provided evidence that socioeconomic circumstances differentially impact the heritability of cognitive abilities, generally supporting the bioecological model in that genetic influences are greater at higher levels of family SES. The present work expanded consideration of the environment, using school-level SES as a moderator of reading comprehension. Methods The sample included 577 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, Behavior and Environment. Reading comprehension was measured by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) Reading in third or fourth grade. School-level SES was measured by the mean Free and Reduced Lunch Status (FRLS) of the schoolmates of the twins. Results The best-fitting univariate G × E moderation model indicated greater genetic influences on reading comprehension when fewer schoolmates qualified for FRLS (i.e., “higher” school-level SES). There was also an indication of moderation of the shared environment; there were greater shared environmental influences on reading comprehension at higher school-level SES. Conclusions The results supported the bioecological model; greater genetic variance was found in school environments in which student populations experienced less poverty. In general, “higher” school-level SES allowed genetic and probably shared environmental variance to contribute as sources of individual differences in reading comprehension outcomes. Poverty suppresses these influences. PMID:23725549
Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Osborn Popp, Sharon E.; Dorn, Ronald I.; Ekiss, Gale Olp; Mater, Martha; Smith, Carl B.; Libbee, Michael
To provide the first interstate quasi-experimental assessment on the power of content integration in building reading skills, the authors studied the effects on reading comprehension of GeoLiteracy--a K-8 package of 85 lessons that teaches geography in the context of practicing reading and writing skills. Ninety-six third through eighth grade…
Baker, Doris Luft; Stoolmiller, Mike; Good, Roland H., III; Baker, Scott K.
We empirically examined the effect of reading comprehension on passage fluency in English and Spanish in the context of Cummins interdependence hypothesis (1979) and Perfetti's blueprint of the General Components of Reading (1999). Participants were 96 second-grade English learners being taught to read in Spanish and English. Measures in both…
Nation, Kate; Clarke, Paula; Marshall, Catherine M.; Durand, Marianne
This study investigates the oral language skills of 8-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading and normal nonverbal ability, these children are poor at understanding what they have read. Tasks tapping 3 domains of oral language, namely phonology, semantics, and morphosyntax, were administered,…
Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.
Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…
Lucariello, Joan M.; Butler, Allison G.; Tine, Michele T.
An innovative reading comprehension curriculum that recruits social cognition in the teaching of visualizing, making inferences, and literature concepts was created, thereby achieving the first aim of the research. The Reading Rangers (RR) program was based on three research-based learning principles that were relied on in converting reading…
Weih, Timothy G.
This thesis examined the reading comprehension process of three fifth-grade students who demonstrated the ability to read and write fluently but had difficulties remembering and understanding important information about what they read. The aim of this research was to develop and implement an effective teaching strategy for low-achieving students…
Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan
Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading…
Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.
We examined the roles of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies, syntactic awareness in English, and English vocabulary knowledge in the English reading comprehension of Chinese-speaking university students (n = 278). Results suggested a two-factor model of a General Reading Knowledge factor (metacognitive awareness employed during the…
Background: The latest report by the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), issued in 2006, indicated that Hong Kong Primary 4 Chinese students outperformed children from 45 countries and provinces in reading comprehension tests that measured their higher-order reading proficiency. However, the study gave no indication of how…
Background:?The latest report by the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), issued in 2006, indicated that Hong Kong Primary 4 Chinese students outperformed children from 45 countries and provinces in reading comprehension tests that measured their higher-order reading proficiency. However, the study gave no indication of how factors such as attribution beliefs, motivation and strategy use might contribute to
Kucer, Stephen B.
Drawing upon reading and text comprehension theories and the sociolinguistic studies of M. A. K. Halliday and R. Hasan, this paper builds theoretical links between the reading and writing processes. The major portion of the paper discusses the five language concepts that undergird both processes: (1) text processing in both reading and writing…
Background: Deficits in reading airment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: In this review (based on a search of the ISI Web of Knowledge database to 2011), the Simple View of Reading is used as a framework for considering reading comprehension in these groups. Conclusions: There is substantial evidence for…
This paper reports a study that explored the overall pattern of metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use and its possible relationship with reading comprehension. Moreover, the study investigated the influence of gender and proficiency level on the use of these strategies. The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS), the…
PADS Restoration and Its Importance in Reading Comprehension and Meaning Representation Shian by authors' use of transformations in their writing such as permutation, addition, deletion, and substitution (PADS), these operations are challenging to computer readers and new foreign language learners
NAPLES, ADAM; KATZ, LEN; GRIGORENKO, ELENA L.
Based on numerous suggestions in the literature, we evaluated lexical decision (LD) as a putative endophenotype for reading comprehension by investigating heritability estimates and segregation analyses parameter estimates for both of these phenotypes. Specifically, in a segregation analysis of a large sample of families, we established that there is little to no overlap between genes contributing to LD and reading comprehension and that the genetic mechanism behind LD derived from this analysis appears to be more complex than that for reading comprehension. We conclude that in our sample, LD is not a good candidate as an endophenotype for reading comprehension, despite previous suggestions from the literature. Based on this conclusion, we discuss the role and benefit of the endophenotype approach in studies of complex human cognitive functions. PMID:23062302
Anderson, Leah A
The purpose of this research—which was divided into two parts—was to evaluate the extent to which adolescent reading comprehension research has addressed student engagement and examine the relationship between engagement, ...
Boudah, Daniel J.
This article introduces the Main Idea Strategy, a strategy to improve the performance of students with disabilities and students who perform poorly on reading comprehension tasks. The rationale, research background, and detailed implementation information are presented.
Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.; Suzuki, Satoru
Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400–500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID:24223540
Riitta Kinnunen; Marja Vauras
\\u000a This chapter focuses on on-line metacognitive processes, in particular, comprehension monitoring in reading. Interesting prospects\\u000a of technology-supported on-line methods for metacognitive studies on comprehension monitoring are outlined on the basis of\\u000a current empirical evidence. First, the on-line methods to study comprehension monitoring are described and discussed, and\\u000a our studies of elementary (Grade 1–6) school students’ monitoring and regulating comprehension feature
Schotter, Elizabeth R; Tran, Randy; Rayner, Keith
Recent Web apps have spurred excitement around the prospect of achieving speed reading by eliminating eye movements (i.e., with rapid serial visual presentation, or RSVP, in which words are presented briefly one at a time and sequentially). Our experiment using a novel trailing-mask paradigm contradicts these claims. Subjects read normally or while the display of text was manipulated such that each word was masked once the reader's eyes moved past it. This manipulation created a scenario similar to RSVP: The reader could read each word only once; regressions (i.e., rereadings of words), which are a natural part of the reading process, were functionally eliminated. Crucially, the inability to regress affected comprehension negatively. Furthermore, this effect was not confined to ambiguous sentences. These data suggest that regressions contribute to the ability to understand what one has read and call into question the viability of speed-reading apps that eliminate eye movements (e.g., those that use RSVP). PMID:24747167
Parsky, Larry Melvin
This study investigated the efficacy of four different reading treatments for reading disabled children. EMG biofeedback training for suppression of subvocalization and individualized reading instruction were combined in an orthogonal design to assess their independent and combined effects on subvocalization, comprehension, and vocabulary mastery.…
Primor, Liron; Pierce, Margaret E.; Katzir, Tami
The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and reading-related linguistic skills contribute to reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The study examined an Israeli national database of Hebrew-speaking readers in fourth grade, from which a subsample of 190 readers with a reading disability (RD) and 190 readers with…
Cuevas, Joshua A.; Russell, Roxanne L.; Irving, Miles A.
This research sought to add to a body of knowledge that is severely underrepresented in the scientific literature, the effects of technological tools on reading comprehension and reading motivation in diverse secondary students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program across a 5-month…
Shapiro, Edward S.; Fritschmann, Nanette S.; Thomas, Lisa B.; Hughes, Cheyenne L.; McDougal, James
Concurrent and predictive validity between the Retell Reading Rubric (RRR), Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), an adaptation of the DIBELS Retell Fluency (RTF-A), and a state assessment emphasizing reading comprehension were examined across students in grades 3 and 5. Results showed the RRR to have moderate and statistically significant relationships to…
Soriano, Manuel; Miranda, Ana; Soriano, Emilia; Nievas, Francisco; Felix, Vicente
The main goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a multi-component programme to improve reading fluency and text comprehension in Spanish children with reading disabilities (RD). Special needs teachers were trained in the application of the programme, which included repeated reading plus phonological awareness training and…
Wilkins, Chuck; Gersten, Russell; Decker, Lauren E.; Grunden, Leslie; Brasiel, Sarah; Brunnert, Kim; Jayanthi, Madhavi
This report presents estimates from a large-scale, multi-district RCT (randomized controlled trial) on the effectiveness of a summer reading program on improving student reading comprehension for economically disadvantaged grade 3 students reading below the 50th percentile nationally. This study focused on the summer between grades 3 and 4 for…
This study analysed the reading lessons of 35 Hong Kong Grade 2 Chinese teachers to investigate whether their instructional practices were related to their students' motivation and reading comprehension scores. The reading lessons of the teachers were analysed according to the five dimensions of the Motivating Instructional Context Inventory.…
Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar
The study scrutinized the interaction between reading proficiency and strategic competence via reading comprehension test performance of Iranian EFL learners. The further concern was to scrutinize the extent to which strategic competence affected the participants' test performance. The participants were 506 postgraduate students who took a reading…
Reports on the newly devised optional Reading Comprehension Test in the high school graduation examination for Realschulen. Proposes a coordination of learning goals and teaching procedures with the various parts of the test. Offers suggestions for grading. Many examples are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Kahl, Peter W.
Discussing G. Neuner's article on the reading comprehension test in issue no. 2, 1977, of this journal, the construction of the test, the distribution of points, problem design, and choice of texts are criticized. Suggestions for correcting are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Realschulen (secondary schools) in Baden-Wurttemberg now permit a reading comprehension test, plus dictation, for the graduation examination in FL, instead of the traditional translation. The test is described: Part A tests receptive skills, Part B reproductive-productive. Suggestions are given on content and conducting tests. (Text is in German.)…
Smolkin, Laura B.; Donovan, Carol A.
This paper reports on an examination of the strategies that one of the researchers (Donovan), then a first-grade teacher, modeled while reading information books aloud in class. Returning to previously tape-recorded read aloud sessions, the researchers studied student and teacher responses during the reading of six storybooks and six information…
Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro
Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes. PMID:19264929
Center, Yola; Freeman, Louella; Robertson, Gregory; Outhred, Lynne
Assesses effectiveness of a representational visual imagery training program on the reading and listening comprehension of a group of poor listening comprehenders (mean age: 7 years 8 months). Finds significant improvement on a curriculum-based test of listening comprehension, a standardised test of reading comprehension, and a measure of story…
Wang, W. Maria
The Problem. In its meta-analysis on teaching children to read, U.S. National Reading Panel (NICHD & NIH, 2000) found repeated reading to be an effective technique for reading instruction. Specifically, the report determined that repeated reading procedures had a positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of…
Van Keer, Hilde; Vanderlinde, Ruben
The present study explores the impact of an experimental reading intervention focusing on explicit reading strategy instruction and cross-age peer tutoring on third and sixth graders' reading strategy awareness, cognitive and metacognitive reading strategy use, and reading comprehension achievement. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was…
Using a large adult reading database, we examined the relationships between high-level and low-level reading skills and between multiple reading skills, general cognitive ability, and reading comprehension ability. A principal components analysis found partial dissociability between higher-level skills including reading comprehension, vocabulary…
Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. PMID:25349092
Mosberg, Ludwig; Shima, Fred
A rationale was developed for researching reading comprehension based on information gain. Previous definitions of comprehension which were reviewed included operational vs. nonoperational and skills vs. processes. Comprehension was viewed as an informational processing event which includes a constellation of cognitive and learning processes. Two…
El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek
A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…
Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This longitudinal study examined the process of English reading comprehension at age 11 years for 173 low-achieving Spanish-speaking children. The influence of growth rates, from early childhood (age 4.5 years) to pre-adolescence (age 11 years), in vocabulary and word reading skills on this complex process were evaluated with structural equation…
Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark
With 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish, the present study utilized domain specific texts to examine the effects of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without the adjuncts, from a social psychology textbook, and then…
Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Snow, Catherine E.
The development of reading skills in language minority (LM) learners, particularly during the middle school years, remains unclear despite the increasing need for educators to serve this rapidly growing population. In this study, the English reading comprehension growth of middle school LM learners was investigated using a longitudinal design and…
Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola
Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading, but it is a very complex task consisting of multiple component skills. A number of studies have tested the simple view of reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986) in opaque languages, but few investigations of the SVR components have been conducted on transparent languages. In the present study, we…
Chen, Jun-Ming; Chen, Meng-Chang; Sun, Yeali S.
For students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), reading exercises are critical not only for developing strong reading comprehension, but also for developing listening, speaking, and writing skills. Prior research suggests that social, collaborative learning environments are best suited for improving language ability. However, opportunities…
Castek, Jill; Coiro, Julie
This piece is framed by questions we are often asked when we talk about online reading assessments and instruction with teachers. We begin with some of the lessons we have learned in our own experiences with designing measures of online reading comprehension. Then we share our thoughts about key design considerations as well as some of the biggest…
Proctor, C. Patrick; August, Diane; Carlo, Maria S.; Snow, Catherine
This study explored a holistic model of English reading comprehension among a sample of 135 Spanish-English bilingual Latina and Latino 4th-grade students This model took into account Spanish language reading skills and language of initial literacy instruction. Controlling for language of instruction, English decoding skill, and English oral…
Readers possess vast amounts of knowledge gained from their prior experiences and exposures. The more they are helped to use that knowledge for connecting new ideas to known subjects as they read, the better their comprehension will be. Discussions before reading have been a traditional way to activate students' schema for stories, but a new…
Topping, Keith J.
Are the books preferred and most enjoyed by children harder than other books they read? Are non-fiction books read and understood at the same level of difficulty as fiction books? The Accelerated Reader software offers computerized comprehension quizzes of real books individually chosen by children, giving children (and teachers, librarians, and…
Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
This technical report provides data on the extent to which progress monitoring measures explain reading achievement. The four progress monitoring measures discussed are: letter sounding, phonemic segmentation, oral reading fluency, and comprehension given in either oral or written form. These measures were administered to first grade students in…
Kelso, Katrina; Fletcher, Janet; Lee, Penny
Background: In reading research, children with specific language impairment (SLI) have tended to be included in groups of children expected to have difficulties with both decoding and reading comprehension (generally poor readers). This is because generally children with specific language impairment display difficulties with phonology as well as…
Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Misquitta, Radhika
This review examined the effectiveness of critical factors in instruction for improving the reading comprehension of middle school students with learning disabilities. Five critical factors were identified: (i) type of instructional methods, (ii) self-monitoring, (iii) components of reading incorporated, (iv) fidelity of instruction (scripted vs.…
Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas; Grant, Maria
Shared reading with think-alouds provides adolescent students with the modeling they need to become successful readers and writers. This article provides a sample of this type of interactive comprehension instruction in a science classroom. The authors then focus on the dimensions of effective shared readings with think-alouds that can be used…
Cervetti, Gina N.; Bravo, Marco A.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; Jaynes, Carolyn A.
This study examined ease of reading, comprehension, and recall and preference for the same scientific content under two conditions: an informational text and a fictional narrative text. Seventy-four third and fourth graders were assessed individually around the reading of fictional narrative and informational texts that were about either snails or…
Cuero, Kimberley K.; Bonner, Jennifer; Smith, Brittaney; Schwartz, Michelle; Touchstone, Rose; Vela, Yvonne
Based on Elliot Eisner's notions of multiple forms of representation and Rosenblatt's aesthetic/efferent responses to reading, a teacher educator/researcher had her undergraduate students explore their connections, using aesthetic representations, to a course entitled "Reading Comprehension". Each aesthetic representation revealed the complexities…
Ramsay, Crystal M.; Sperling, Rayne A.
In 2 experiments the authors investigated whether assigning a perspective to middle school students prior to reading a long informational text would improve their reading comprehension. Pretest-posttest control group designs were employed in both experiments, in Experiment 1 (n = 146 fifth- and sixth-grade students) and in Experiment 2 (n = 83…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.
The aim of the current study was to investigate students' mind wandering while reading different types of textual narrations (macroscopic and submicroscopic) in chemistry. Another goal was to determine the relationship between mind wandering and students' reading comprehension. The participants were 65 female ninth grade students in Oman. Using a…
Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia
Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)
Sideridis, Georgios D.; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Simos, Panagiotis; Protopapas, Athanassios
Attempts to evaluate the cognitive-motivational profiles of students with reading comprehension difficulties have been scarce. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to assess the discriminatory validity of cognitive, motivational, affective, and psychopathological variables for identification of students with reading difficulties, and…
Awabdy, Graziella Whipple
An investigation of the relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension performance on standardized reading tests (the California STAR Test) was conducted with sixth, seventh, and eighth-grade ethnic minority children from low-income backgrounds (N = 68). Predictor variables examined included perceived background knowledge…
In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…
Lee, Yin Lam
Due to the dominance of behaviorism, applied linguistics, and cognitive psychology since 1960s, many research studies in reading focused on the accuracy and speed required for successful comprehension. There exists a research gap in understanding the individual differences among readers when reading the same text. This study aimed at investigating…
This study explores the role of culturally familiar background knowledge in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. Ninety-eight Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) university students were divided into two groups of equivalent English proficiency. They read either the original of an American short story or a "nativized"…
Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming
To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that…
Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko
The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2…
Holdren, Tara Shoemaker
In the current testing environment, high school reading teachers may often rely on a multiple-choice assessment as the best practice. This study suggests that a visual arts assessment of reading comprehension can rigorously measure critical thinking. This action research study follows 21 high school juniors through the selection, creation, and…
Berkeley, Sheri; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
A pre-post experimental design with 6-week delayed posttest was implemented to investigate the effects of reading comprehension strategy (RCS) instruction with and without attribution retraining (AR) on reading outcomes for seventh, eighth, and ninth graders with learning and other mild disabilities. Students were randomly assigned to one of three…
Angeliki Mouzaki; Athanassios Protopapas; Ioannis Spantidakis
Reading efficiency is a major accomplishment that has an enormous impact on the child's academic and personal life. The purpose of the present study was to identify the potential contribution of language skills to the development of fluent reading and comprehension. In the present study, children in grades 2-4 (representing a random sample of 587 students in 17 Greek schools)
Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor
The developing relation between children's knowledge about the goals and processes of reading, their skills to apply metacognitive strategies, and reading comprehension was examined. Participants were children in third-, fifth-, and eighth-grades in two primary schools in Rijeka, Croatia. All students were Croatian-speaking. A questionnaire of…
Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.
We examined reading comprehension in children with ADHD by assessing their ability to build a coherent mental representation that allows them to recall central and peripheral information. We compared children with ADHD (mean age 9.78) to word reading-matched controls (mean age 9.89) on their ability to retell a passage. We found that even though…
Neumann, Veda S.; Ross, Dorothy K.; Slaboch, Anita F.
The authors of this action research project report implemented oral reading fluency-based interventions for the purpose of improving students' reading comprehension. Six students in grade three, six students in grade five and six students in grade six participated in the study from Monday, August 27 through Friday, December 7, 2007. Researchers…
Manzo, Anthony V.; Casale, Ula Price
Data from 80 junior high school students who completed the Assessment of Language and Reading Maturity (ALARM) test battery were used to delineate elements within the concept of mature reading comprehension. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on the 15 ALARM test factors to isolate both the principal elements and the "trace…
Weinstein, Carol S.; Weinstein, Neil D.
Parents and educators have expressed fears that high noise levels in open space schools may interfere with academic achievement. This investigation compared the reading comprehension of 60 fourth grade students in an open space school during periods both of quiet and of naturally occurring background noise. The reading tasks resembled normal…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.
Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…
Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B
A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from the 2-year reading intervention (reading with and without dropout prevention combined and BAU) are reported in this article. Students in reading treatment compared to students in BAU demonstrated significant gains on reading comprehension (effect size = .43), and improved reading was associated with better grades in social studies. Findings from this study provide a rationale for further implementation and investigation of intensive intervention for high school students with reading difficulties. PMID:24395083
Basic reading comprehension and summary tend to be the focus in social studies and history classrooms, if reading and writing are included at all. But such a focus inhibits a conception of history as an interpretive discipline grounded in evidence that is analyzed, not simply accepted. Understanding the past is impossible without such historical…
Granger, Noelle; Black, Alison; Miller, Jane
The purpose of the study was to examine how reader response journals followed by classroom discussion ("Reader Response Plus") contributed to students' reading comprehension and to their attitudes toward reading. The study was conducted in a rural school in upstate New York. The twelfth grade class that participated in the study…
Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Swanson, Elizabeth; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison Gould
This project is a multi-site, multi-year study designed to test the efficacy of a fully developed intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), with adolescent readers. In year 1, the research questions were: (1) "Does CSR improve reading comprehension for adolescent readers attending relatively low SES schools?"; and (2) "Does CSR improve…
Swanson, Elizabeth; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Boardman, Alison Gould; Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette; Roberts, Greg; Leroux, Audrey; Solis, Michael
The current study is the second in a series of multi-site, multi-year randomized control trials designed to test the efficacy of a fully developed intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), with adolescent readers. In year 1, the research questions were: (1) Does CSR improve reading comprehension for adolescent readers attending…
Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson
This study investigated how resource-demanding reading tasks and stressful conditions affect 1st-language (L1) and intermediate 2nd-language (L2) reading comprehension. Using the attentional control theory framework (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we investigated the roles of central executive working memory (WM) resources,…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L.
Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions. PMID:20179309
Rasinski, Timothy; Samuels, S. Jay; Hiebert, Elfrieda; Petscher, Yaacov; Feller, Karen
Reading fluency has been identified as a key component in effective literacy instruction (National Reading Panel, 2000). Instruction in reading fluency has been shown to lead to improvements in reading achievement. Reading fluency instruction is most commonly associated with guided repeated oral reading instruction. In the present retrospective study we examine the effects of a computer-based silent reading fluency instructional system called Reading Plus (Taylor Associates, Winooski, Vermont, USA) on the reading comprehension and overall reading achievement of a large corpus of students in an urban school setting. Findings indicate that the program resulted in positive, substantial, and significant improvements in reading comprehension and overall reading achievement on a criterion referenced reading test for Grades 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and on a norm-referenced test of reading achievement for Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10. Moreover, mean gains made by students in the Reading Plus intervention were greater than mean gains for all students at the state and district level. The findings were generally positive for all subpopulations studied, including special education and regular education students. Qualitative reports from teachers who participated in the study were also supportive of the program. Implications for the study are explored for particular subgroups of students and for the role of fluency instruction with struggling adolescent readers.
Simplicio, Joseph S. C.
Explores an innovative teaching methodology designed to improve students' reading abilities. Discusses how this strategy, know as "snap shot linkage," has proven to be effective in combating not only students' inabilities to read and learn, but the anxiety that often accompanies reading activities. (SG)
Neiles, Kelly Y.
There is great concern in the scientific community that students in the United States, when compared with other countries, are falling behind in their scientific achievement. Increasing students' reading comprehension of scientific text may be one of the components involved in students' science achievement. To investigate students' reading comprehension this quantitative study examined the effects of different reader characteristics, namely, students' logical reasoning ability, factual chemistry knowledge, working memory capacity, and schema of the chemistry concepts, on reading comprehension of a chemistry text. Students' reading comprehension was measured through their ability to encode the text, access the meanings of words (lexical access), make bridging and elaborative inferences, and integrate the text with their existing schemas to make a lasting mental representation of the text (situational model). Students completed a series of tasks that measured the reader characteristic and reading comprehension variables. Some of the variables were measured using new technologies and software to investigate different cognitive processes. These technologies and software included eye tracking to investigate students' lexical accessing and a Pathfinder program to investigate students' schema of the chemistry concepts. The results from this study were analyzed using canonical correlation and regression analysis. The canonical correlation analysis allows for the ten variables described previously to be included in one multivariate analysis. Results indicate that the relationship between the reader characteristic variables and the reading comprehension variables is significant. The resulting canonical function accounts for a greater amount of variance in students' responses then any individual variable. Regression analysis was used to further investigate which reader characteristic variables accounted for the differences in students' responses for each reading comprehension variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.
Johnson, Robert L.; Johnson, Henry C.
The effect of anxiety-reducing hypnotic training on learning and reading-comprehension tasks was examined. Fifteen college students who reported having test-taking anxiety were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received hypnotic training to reduce anxiety prior to taking a learning and reading-comprehension test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and the control group on the simple-recall task. However, on the reading-comprehension test the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group. Further examination of the total score revealed that the experimental group difference was due to superior performance on the inference items. There was no difference between groups on items that required the recall of information from the passage. These findings support the notion that hypnotic training may be useful to reduce anxiety and improve test performance. PMID:6716497
Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Guthrie, John T.
This study examined the extent that motivational processes facilitate the comprehension of texts and the extent of culture's role in children's motivational processes of text comprehension. Relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the amount of reading, past reading achievement, and text comprehension were examined by utilizing…
Schmitt, Ara J.; Hale, Andrea D.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Mauck, Brittany
Word reading accommodations are commonly applied in the general education setting in an attempt to improve student comprehension and learning of curriculum content. This study examined the effects of listening-while-reading (LWR) and silent reading (SR) using text-to-speech assistive technology on the comprehension of 25 middle-school remedial…
Benedict, Kendra M.; Rivera, Maria C.; Antia, Shirin D.
The purpose of this intervention study was to examine the use of a metacognitive strategy--the Comprehension, Check, and Repair Strategy--on strategic reading behavior, nonstrategic reading behavior, and reading comprehension of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). A multiple baseline design was used across 3 teacher-student dyads.…
Beecher, Larissa; Childre, Amy
This study evaluated the impact of a comprehensive reading program enhanced with sign language on the literacy and language skills of three elementary school students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Students received individual and small group comprehensive reading instruction for approximately 55 minutes per session. Reading…
Srivastava, Pradyumn; Gray, Shelley
Purpose: With the global expansion of technology, our reading platform has shifted from traditional text to hypertext, yet little consideration has been given to how this shift might help or hinder students' reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to compare reading comprehension of computer-based and paper-based texts in adolescents…
McCane-Bowling, Sara J.; Strait, Andrea D.; Guess, Pamela E.; Wiedo, Jennifer R.; Muncie, Eric
This study examined the predictive utility of five formative reading measures: words correct per minute, number of comprehension questions correct, reading comprehension rate, number of maze correct responses, and maze accurate response rate (MARR). Broad Reading cluster scores obtained via the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Achievement…
Tsai, Yea-Ru; Talley, Paul C.
This paper reports on the effect of a Moodle-supported strategy instruction on both reading comprehension and strategy use among EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. Specific reading strategy training was first integrated into a Moodle system, which included reading exercises on problem identification, monitoring comprehension,…
Williams, Robert L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Jaspers, Kathryn E.
Students in an undergraduate human development course (N = 215) participated in a brief assessment of their reading (comprehension level, reading speed, comprehension rate) and multiple-choice test-taking skills on the second day of class. Students first read a one-page, 400-word passage unrelated to the course and then answered 10…
Christopher, Micaela E.; Miyake, Akira; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.
The present study explored whether different executive control and speed measures (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) independently predict individual differences in word reading and reading comprehension. Although previous studies suggest these cognitive constructs are important for reading, we analyze the constructs simultaneously to test whether each is a unique predictor. We used latent variables from 483 participants (ages 8 to 16) to portion each cognitive and reading construct into its unique and shared variance. In these models we address two specific issues: (a) given that our wide age range may span the theoretical transition from “learning to read” to “reading to learn,” we first test whether the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is stable across two age groups (ages 8 to 10 and 11 to 16); and (b) the main theoretical question of interest: whether what is shared and what is separable for word reading and reading comprehension are associated with individual differences in working memory, inhibition, and measures of processing and naming speed. The results indicated that: (a) the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is largely invariant across the age groups; (b) working memory and general processing speed, but not inhibition or the speeded naming of non-alphanumeric stimuli, are unique predictors of both word reading and comprehension, with working memory equally important for both reading abilities and processing speed more important for word reading. These results have implications for understanding why reading comprehension and word reading are highly correlated yet separable. PMID:22352396
This 4-part videotape series and viewing guide shows Cris Tovani, a high school teacher, working with a wide range of students, from college-bound seniors to students who have been referred to her classroom because of their struggles with reading. The viewing guide is designed to help teachers use the video series "Thoughtful Reading" in workshop…
Bullion-Mears, Ann; McCauley, Joyce K.; McWhorter, J. YeVette
Performing text in the form of choral reading, rap, reader's theatre, and/or simulations offers students a powerful vehicle for understanding and recalling key concepts and significant details culled from textual materials. Creating a script, poem, or lyrics to perform requires repeated readings of a text, a practice that increases participants'…
Leirer, K; Dancer, J
13 reading strategies of deaf adolescent boys and girls attending residential middle schools were compared. Boys reported the lower-level strategy of reading aloud more often than girls. Both reported top strategies of asking someone to explain (dependent) and rereading and looking at the pictures (independent). PMID:9885051
Baker, Linda; Dreher, Mariam Jean; Shiplet, Angela Katenkamp; Beall, Lisa Carter; Voelker, Anita N.; Garrett, Adia J.; Schugar, Heather R.; Finger-Elam, Maria
The Reading, Engaging, and Learning project (REAL) investigated whether a classroom intervention that enhanced young children's experience with informational books would increase reading achievement and engagement. Participants attended schools serving low income neighborhoods with 86% African American enrollment. The longitudinal study spanned…
Rather than treating phonics as an end in itself, this brief text shows how phonics fits into the overall process of a child's learning to read. It helps students understand how phonics can be integrated successfully into an effective classroom reading program. While it includes a wealth of suggestions for practical classroom applications, the…
Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan
Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…
Van Dyke, Julie A.; Johns, Clinton L.; Kukona, Anuenue
Accounts of comprehension failure, whether in the case of readers with poor skill or when syntactic complexity is high, have overwhelmingly implicated working memory capacity as the key causal factor. However, extant research suggests that this position is not well supported by evidence on the span of active memory during online sentence processing, nor is it well motivated by models that make explicit claims about the memory mechanisms that support language processing. The current study suggests that sensitivity to interference from similar items in memory may provide a better explanation of comprehension failure. Through administration of a comprehensive skill battery, we found that the previously observed association of working memory with comprehension is likely due to the collinearity of working memory with many other reading-related skills, especially IQ. In analyses which removed variance shared with IQ, we found that receptive vocabulary knowledge was the only significant predictor of comprehension performance in our task out of a battery of 24 skill measures. In addition, receptive vocabulary and non-verbal memory for serial order—but not simple verbal memory or working memory—were the only predictors of reading times in the region where interference had its primary affect. We interpret these results in light of a model that emphasizes retrieval interference and the quality of lexical representations as key determinants of successful comprehension. PMID:24657820
Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert
Although evidence suggests that individual differences in reading and mathematics skills are correlated, this relationship has typically only been studied in relation to word decoding or global measures of reading. It is unclear whether mathematics is differentially related to word decoding and reading comprehension. The current study examined these relationships at both a phenotypic and etiological level in a population-based cohort of 5162 twin pairs at age 12. Multivariate genetic analyses of latent phenotypic factors of mathematics, word decoding and reading comprehension revealed substantial genetic and shared environmental correlations among all three domains. However, the phenotypic and genetic correlations between mathematics and reading comprehension were significantly greater than between mathematics and word decoding. Independent of mathematics, there was also evidence for genetic and nonshared environmental links between word decoding and reading comprehension. These findings indicate that word decoding and reading comprehension have partly distinct relationships with mathematics in the middle school years. PMID:24319294
Eason, Sarah H.; Sabatini, John; Goldberg, Lindsay; Bruce, Kelly; Cutting, Laurie E.
To further explore contextual reading rate, an important aspect of reading fluency, we examined the relationship between word reading efficiency (WRE) and contextual oral reading rate (ORR), the degree to which they overlap across different comprehension measures, whether oral language (semantics and syntax) predicts ORR beyond contributions of word-level skills, and whether the WRE–ORR relationship varies based on different reader profiles. Assessing reading and language of average readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders, ages 10 to 14, ORR was the strongest predictor of comprehension across various formats; WRE contributed no unique variance after taking ORR into account. Findings indicated that semantics, not syntax, contributed to ORR. Poor comprehenders performed below average on measures of ORR, despite average WRE, expanding previous findings suggesting specific weaknesses in ORR for this group. Together, findings suggest that ORR draws upon skills beyond those captured by WRE and suggests a role for oral language (semantics) in ORR. PMID:23667307
Eason, Sarah H; Sabatini, John; Goldberg, Lindsay; Bruce, Kelly; Cutting, Laurie E
To further explore contextual reading rate, an important aspect of reading fluency, we examined the relationship between word reading efficiency (WRE) and contextual oral reading rate (ORR), the degree to which they overlap across different comprehension measures, whether oral language (semantics and syntax) predicts ORR beyond contributions of word-level skills, and whether the WRE-ORR relationship varies based on different reader profiles. Assessing reading and language of average readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders, ages 10 to 14, ORR was the strongest predictor of comprehension across various formats; WRE contributed no unique variance after taking ORR into account. Findings indicated that semantics, not syntax, contributed to ORR. Poor comprehenders performed below average on measures of ORR, despite average WRE, expanding previous findings suggesting specific weaknesses in ORR for this group. Together, findings suggest that ORR draws upon skills beyond those captured by WRE and suggests a role for oral language (semantics) in ORR. PMID:23667307
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee
We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…
Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov
The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for grades 3 through 5. Data from fall and winter assessments of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and 4Sight Benchmark Assessment (4Sight) measures along with outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) across a total of 1000 students from 6 schools were examined using indices of diagnostic efficiency, ROC curve, and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that the addition of a measure of reading comprehension (4Sight) to DORF enhanced the decision making process for identifying students at risk for reading difficulties, especially for those students at higher elementary grades and those who achieved benchmark levels on the DORF. Although DORF alone showed a good level of prediction to the statewide assessment, the combination of the DORF plus 4Sight measures resulted consistently in the best predictive outcomes. Suggestions are made to consider alternative cut points for the DORF and 4Sight measures.
Joels, Rosie Webb; Anderson, Betty
Presents a study which examines elementary school students' performance on the JAT (Joels, Anderson, and Thompson) Reading Inventory, noting variable student performance on the different question types. Reports that the validity of the JAT as a diagnostic instrument is established. (ARH)
only attempts to extract facts from redundant web-scale corpora. In this pa- per, we focus on a new-reading, i.e., processing large text collec- tions and extracting knowledge bases of facts (Et- zioni et al consider processes in biology text- books such as this excerpt and the question that follows: "... Water
Hays, Warren S.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between word recognition and comprehension achieved by second and fifth grade students when reading material at various levels of readability. A random sample of twenty-five second and twenty-five fifth graders, taken from three middle class schools, was administered a…
Ercetin, Gulcan; Alptekin, Cem
Following an extensive overview of the subject, this study explores the relationships between second-language (L2) explicit/implicit knowledge sources, embedded in the declarative/procedural memory systems, and L2 working memory (WM) capacity. It further examines the relationships between L2 reading comprehension and L2 WM capacity as well as…
Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine
This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…
Horn, Mary; Feng, Jianhua
This study reports an investigation on the effects of directed vocabulary and whole class instruction on improving students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Fifty-eight seventh grade students participated in the study, and a pre-test/post-test experimental design was employed. The results did not indicate any statistically…
Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…
The present study targeted the online reading strategies of upper-elementary and middle school students with and without learning disabilities in the U.S. and in Taiwan. Several aspects of the comprehension process were studied, including: (1) Internet navigation strategies and behaviours, (2) sensitivity to the organisational structure of…
Palmer, Barbara C.; Shackelford, Vikki S.; Miller, Sharmane C.; Leclere, Judith T.
The authors discuss the challenges encountered by English-language learners (ELLs) as they attempt to interpret the figurative language of their new cultures. Providing ELL students with explicit instruction in interpreting figurative language--a bridge to reading comprehension--is a significant goal for teachers who design instruction for…
Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.
This longitudinal investigation examined word decoding and reading comprehension measures from first grade through sixth grade for a sample of Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs). The sample included 261 children (average age of 7.2 years; 120 boys; 141 girls) at the initial data collection in first grade. The ELLs' word decoding and…
Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
This study compared the effects of comprehension fostering strategies on science and social studies texts with 54 eighth-grade students with learning disabilities. Strategies included text-structure-based strategy, paragraph-restatement strategy, and traditional instruction. Text-structure-based reading strategies had a significant effect on…
Farvardin, Mohammad Taghi; Biria, Reza
Research has shown that the effect of marginal glosses on reading comprehension and vocabulary retention is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue among Iranian university EFL students. Three types of glosses were applied in this study: single gloss in participants' first language (SL1G), single gloss in…
Alshumaimeri, Yousif A.; Almasri, Meshail M.
This paper is a report on the effects of using WebQuest on Saudi male EFL students reading comprehension performance. WebQuests expose students to several online resources and require them to gather information about a specific topic. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus WebQuests as supplementary activities. The control group…
Smolkin, Laura B.; Donovan, Carol A.
This article discusses interactive information book read-aloud, an instructional approach that supports both non-readers and non-fluent readers prior to the introduction of instruction in cognitive and comprehension strategies. Key components of the approach are presented, including interaction, information books, teacher awareness of text…
Ramos, Jose A.
Through a single-subject multiple-baseline across-participants design, the present study examined the effects of Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instruction and Spanish use on the cognitive strategy use and English reading comprehension of four, 4th grade Spanish-speaking bilingual students that are "good" decoders but "poor"…
McVay, Jennifer C.
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mind wandering in the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and reading comprehension as predicted by the executive-attention theory of WMC (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). I used a latent-variable, structural-equation-model approach with three WMC span tasks, seven…
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adding symbols to written text can improve its comprehensibility for adults with learning disabilities. Methods: Nineteen adults with mild or borderline learning disabilities attempted to read four short passages of text, two of which had Widgit Rebus symbols added to them. Following each…
Roux, Catherine; Dion, Eric; Barrette, Anne
Reading with comprehension is a challenge for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Unfortunately, research has little to offer to teachers trying to help these students. The present study pilots a new intervention targeting vocabulary, main idea identification, anaphoric relations, and text structure. Students (N = 13, M…
It is evident from reading research that students with learning disabilities (LD) greatly benefit from teacher-student interactions during small group comprehension instruction (e.g., Berkeley, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 2010). Given that questioning takes up the vast majority of instructional interactions between teachers and students (Chin,…
Markham, Paul; Peter, Lizette
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using Spanish captions, English captions, or no captions with a Spanish language soundtrack on intermediate university-level Spanish as a Foreign Language students' listening/reading comprehension. A total of 213 intermediate (fourth semester) students participated as intact groups in the…
Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia
The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…
This action research project sets out to identify which component of multi-text instruction is most effective in increasing the reading comprehension level of middle school students with learning disabilities. The research is going to be conducted over a two-week time period during the Spring 2009 with three male middle school students with…
Tous, Maryam Danaye; Tahriri, Abdorreza; Haghighi, Sara
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of instruction through debate on male and female EFL learners' reading comprehension. Also, their perception of critical thinking (CT) instruction was investigated. A quantitative research method with experimental pre-and post-tests design was conducted to collect the data. Eighty-eight…
Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle
The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…
This study describes a program designed to increase student background knowledge in order to improve reading comprehension. The targeted first grade class is located in a Midwest, middle class, metropolitan community. More than half of the school's population is identified as low-income. Evidence for the existence of the problem was obtained…
Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Fall, Ana-Mari
This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content knowledge and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade general education social studies teachers among students with disabilities included in the classes. Data on students with disabilities across 2 years of study were combined for the analysis presented here. Students in…
De Koning, Bjorn B.; van der Schoot, Menno
Visualizing the events described in a text is crucial for constructing a rich and coherent visuospatial mental representation (i.e., situation model) of the text. According to current reading comprehension theories, the construction of such a situation model likely involves all sensory modalities. However, at present these insights are hardly used…
Sridhar, Dheepa; Vaughn, Sharon
This article describes using bibliotherapy to improve reading comprehension and enhance self-esteem or improve behavior for students with learning and behavior problems. A step-by-step procedure is provided to ensure success with all students. A list of recommended books to use with students in preschool through second grade is provided. (Contains…
A path model of second language (L2; English) oral language and reading comprehension variables was tested on a sample of 100 Spanish-speaking English-language learners enrolled in a transitional bilingual program over a 3-year period. The data...
Mills, Kathy A.
Talk is the foundation for thought and understanding and the key to literacy learning. Research demonstrates that powerful metacognitive strategies can be taught to help students self-monitor their comprehension when reading print and digital texts. This article provides a repertoire of speaking and listening strategies to develop the…
Gaines, Darren; Lehmann, Donna
This report describes a project for improving reading comprehension through the use of multiple intelligences. The action research took place from September 2001 to January 2002. The targeted population consisted of fourth grade students living in two suburbs of a major metropolitan city. The two communities range from low income to upper middle…
Nikolaraizi, Magda; Vekiri, Ioanna; Easterbrooks, Susan R.
A mixed research design was used to examine how deaf students used the visual resources of a multimedia software package that was designed to support reading comprehension. The viewing behavior of 8 deaf students, ages 8-12 years, was recorded during their interaction with multimedia software that included narrative texts enriched with Greek Sign…
Johnson, Kaprea F.
The impact of hyperactivity and peer relationships on academic achievement has long been highlighted in the professional literature. This study highlights how much variation in reading comprehension scores, an indicator of academic achievement, are accounted for by hyperactivity, conduct problems, and peer problems. The participants included 129…
This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…
Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia
Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…
Nguyen, Thao M. T.; Trinh, Lap Q.
The effects of meta-cognitive strategy use on learning reading comprehension have gained much interest of researchers and educators (Chumpavan, 2000; Shmais, 2002; Phakiti, 2003; Aegpongpaow 2008; Subasi, 2009; Zhang and Wu, 2009). Available literature indicated a positive correlation between learners' meta-cognitive strategy use and their…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Recent research supports what many teachers already know---that students with a developed understanding that words are combinations of meaningful parts tend to have better vocabularies and stronger reading comprehension performance. These meaningful parts are called morphemes, and the study of them is called morphology. Teaching students to…
López-Higes, Ramón; Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, María Teresa; Melle, Natalia
This study explores morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in 19 Spanish children who received a cochlear implant (CI) before 24 months of age (early CI [e-CI]) and 19 Spanish children who received a CI after 24 months (late CI [l-CI]). They all were in primary school and were compared to a hearing control (HC) group of 19 children. Tests of…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Box, Catherine DiFelice
This study investigated the multiple roles of morphological awareness in reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking language minority (LM) learners and their native English-speaking (NE) peers. Sixth-grade students (N = 137; 82 LM, 55 NE) were assessed on English measures of derivational morphological awareness, morphologically complex academic…
Johnson, Joseph W.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strategy instruction on the reading comprehension of high school students with ADHD. The research design was a multiple baseline across participants design with multiple probes during baseline (Kazdin, 1982). The participants were three female high school students with ADHD who were also…
Templeton, Josey; Jones, Robbie
To determine if a relationship existed between physical skills and achievement in reading, mathematics, and listening comprehension of fifth-grade students, a study evaluated 334 fifth-graders in Starkville, Mississippi, on 20 physical fitness, motor fitness, and sports skills, as well as the Stanford Achievement Tests. The physical skills test…
AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan Munify
This study explored whether hypermedia annotation presentation in different locations of the text facilitates EFL vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. It also examined participants' preferences for the location of hypermedia-annotated text (at the end of the text, in the margin, at the bottom of the screen, or in a pop-up window).…
Cronin, Kathleen A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among oral language, decoding, and reading comprehension for children with autism. Participants included 13 English-speaking children with a diagnosis of high-functioning autism (IQ > 70) who were included in a typical classroom, and who had parents who spoke English. Parts of the…
This study investigated the impact of Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) and Group Investigation (GI), which are two techniques of Cooperative Learning, on students' reading comprehension achievement of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). After administering an English Language Proficiency test (Fowler and Coe, 1976), 90 homogeneous…
Zipke, Marcy; Ehri, Linnea C.; Cairns, Helen Smith
An experiment examined whether metalinguistic awareness involving the detection of semantic ambiguity can be taught, and whether this instruction improves students' reading comprehension. Lower SES third graders from a variety of cultural backgrounds (M = 8 yr. 7 mo., N = 46) were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Those receiving…
In the second edition of "Reading with Meaning," Debbie Miller shares her new thinking about comprehension strategy instruction, the gradual release of responsibility instructional model, and planning for student engagement and independence. It has been ten years since the first edition, in which Debbie chronicled a year in her own classroom.…
Garwood, Justin D.; Brunsting, Nelson C.; Fox, Leslie C.
As the reading difficulties experienced by students with emotional-behavioral disorders (EBD) receive more attention, the corresponding call for evidence-based practices has become more pronounced. We conducted a systematic review of comprehension and fluency interventions for middle and high school students with EBD served outside of the general…
Neiles, Kelly Y.
There is great concern in the scientific community that students in the United States, when compared with other countries, are falling behind in their scientific achievement. Increasing students' reading comprehension of scientific text may be one of the components involved in students' science achievement. To investigate students'…
Metacognition has received recent attention by researchers and teachers alike because of the possibilities for successful instruction and intervention for readers at all levels. This paper explores the area of metacognition as it relates specifically to reading comprehension. The paper addresses six areas: (1) the definitions of metacognition,…
Alexandra E. Marx; Petra Stanat
International studies, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), have shown that, in most participating countries, students who do not typically speak the test language at home reach\\u000a lower levels of reading comprehension than students using the test language at home (Stanat & Christensen, 2006). Results from PISA indicate that Germany is among the countries with the most
Cooter, Robert B.; Flynt, E. Sutton
To determine what effect the elimination of all literal questioning would have on students' literal comprehension abilities as well as inferential abilities, a five-month study was conducted with four groups of third and fourth grade students (n=33) who were reading on grade level in their school's adopted basal series. Two different third and…
Urakami, Jacqueline; Krems, Josef F.
The goal of this study is to examine the comprehension of global causal and temporal relations between events that are represented in single hypertext documents. In two experiments we examined how reading sequences of hypertext nodes affects the establishment of event relations and how this process can be supported by advanced organizers that…
McCown, Margaret Averill; Thomason, Gina B.
With the increased emphasis on informational text with Common Core State Standards and the difficulty many students have with this type of text, this study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. Participating students included a…
Underwood, Phyllis Swann
Accumulating research reveals that children's reading comprehension is influenced by a reader's experiences, knowledge, language structure, and vocabulary. Thus, this researcher investigated the construct, culturally-responsive practice, as a way to provide effective learning opportunities for children from non-mainstream cultures, including…
Calby, Diana Heywood
The effects of specific directions on the reading comprehension of sixth-grade students were investigated. Two passages on different topics, each with 20 percent of the sentences relevant to the topic, were materials for two informal tests administered to 92 six-grade students. Half of the students were given specific directions to learn about the…
This study investigated which level of graded reader was most appropriate for Chinese-speaking learners of various English abilities and whether there were significant differences in comprehension and vocabulary acquisition when different English proficiency (EP) groups read texts of varying difficulty levels. Eight-two senior high school students…
Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
For purposes of the present study, it was hypothesized that field (in)dependence would introduce systematic variance into Iranian EFL learners' overall and task-specific performance on task-based reading comprehension tests. 1743 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior students all majoring in English at different Iranian universities and colleges…
Kendeou, Panayiota; van den Broek, Paul; White, Mary Jane; Lynch, Julie S.
The authors examined the development of oral language and decoding skills from preschool to early elementary school and their relation to beginning reading comprehension using a cross-sequential design. Four- and 6-year-old children were tested on oral language and decoding skills and were retested 2 years later. In all age groups, oral language…
Goldman, Janet M.
A 10-week study examined whether the use of computers could be more effective than basal readers for improving reading comprehension at the primary level. Subjects, 12 students from the second grade, were divided into two groups, 6 in the experimental group using computers only and 6 in the control group using basal readers only. Both groups used…
Dixon, Kimberly T.
The purpose of this qualitative heuristic case study (supported by quantitative data) was to investigate the change in reading comprehension after implementation of a fluency intervention. The study participants were five students on tier 2 of the Response to Intervention pyramid. The study was guided by three research questions. RQ1: Why does…
Holmes, Virginia M.
Previous research has indicated a weak to moderate role for word recognition skill in contributing to reading comprehension efficiency in highly experienced adult readers. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate the strength of this association, including assessment of the contribution of skill in discriminating unfamiliar shapes and identifying…
Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Grünke, Matthias; Wilbert, Jürgen; Stegemann, Kim Calder
This single-case study examined the effects of a graphic organizing strategy on the ability of children to improve their text comprehension abilities. Participants were six students between ten and fourteen years old with major problems in understanding what they read. The intervention intended to teach them to visually highlight key elements of a…
Luebke, Stephen; Lorie, James
This article is a brief account of the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) by staff of the Law School Admission Council in the 1990 development of redesigned specifications for the Reading Comprehension section of the Law School Admission Test. Summary item statistics for…
Hsu, Pei-Ling; Yang, Wen-Gin
Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) was the foundation for this study that explored the effect of science text and image integration on grade 9 students' reading comprehension. Two texts in Chinese on the moon phase with different print and image integration were compared--a traditional textbook (TT) used in Taiwanese junior high schools and a…
Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.
Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…
Ware, Ralph H.
The purpose of this study was to provide increased understanding of the process and testing of the comprehension of certain kinds of expository and argumentative prose. A criterion-related reading test was constructed using as a criterion the Finder-Cochrane Task Analysis for Comprehending Exposition and Argument. A panel of three experts ruled on…
Patricia A. Carlson; Veronica Larralde
WHEN DRIVEN BY SIMPLE MODELS of information processing, reading instruction focuses on basic decoding skills centering on\\u000a words and sentences. Factoring in advanced cognitive studies adds at least two more dimensions. First, readers must learn\\u000a a collection of strategies for constructing meaning from text. Second, and most important, readers must develop enough situational\\u000a awareness to diagnose a text and know
Baker, Doris Luft; Biancarosa, Gina; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Bousselot, Tracy; Smith, Jean-Louise; Baker, Scott K.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
We examined the criterion validity and diagnostic efficiency of oral reading fluency (ORF), word reading accuracy, and reading comprehension (RC) for students in Grades 7 and 8 taking into account form effects of ORF, time of assessment, and individual differences, including student designations of limited English proficiency and special education…
Chen, Chin-Neng; Chen, Shu-Chu; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Wey, Shyh-Chyi
This study investigates the effects of extensive reading of e-books on tertiary level EFL students' English reading attitude, reading comprehension and vocabulary. Eighty-nine participants were assigned in two groups, with 46 students in the experimental group and the other 43 students in the control group. In addition to a traditional…
Bremer, Christine D.; Vaughn, Sharon; Clapper, Ann T.; Kim, Ae-Hwa
This brief introduces a research-based practice, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). This reading comprehension practice, designed to improve secondary students reading comprehension skills, combines two instructional elements: modified reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning or student pairing. In reciprocal teaching, teachers and…
Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique
In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Biancarosa, Gina; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette
This study investigated the direct and indirect roles of morphological awareness reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking language minority learners reading in English. Multivariate path analysis was used to investigate the unique contribution of derivational morphological awareness to reading comprehension as well as its indirect contributions…
This template is an instructional tool that can be used to guide elementary students (grades 2-5) through the reading strategy of questioning. The template is based on the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) approach in which students classify questions according to type and then provide answers from text. The template was designed to be used with the Feature Story, The Dance of Life, by students in grades 2-5. It is a PDF document that can be copied and distributed to students.
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Bryant, V Joan; Hamlett, Carol L; Lambert, Warren
In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal reasoning. Throughout first grade, they also modeled the students' reading progress by means of weekly Word Identification Fluency (WIF) tests to derive December and May intercepts. The authors assessed their reading comprehension in the spring of Grades 1-5. With the four cognitive variables and the WIF December intercept as predictors, 50.3% of the variance in fifth-grade reading comprehension was explained: 52.1% of this 50.3% was unique to the cognitive variables, 13.1% to the WIF December intercept, and 34.8% was shared. All five predictors were statistically significant. The same four cognitive variables with the May (rather than December) WIF intercept produced a model that explained 62.1% of the variance. Of this amount, the cognitive variables and May WIF intercept accounted for 34.5% and 27.7%, respectively; they shared 37.8%. All predictors in this model were statistically significant except RAN. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the accuracy with which the cognitive variables predicted end-of-fifth-grade RD status was 73.9%. The May WIF intercept contributed reliably to this prediction; the December WIF intercept did not. Results are discussed in terms of a role for cognitive abilities in identifying, classifying, and instructing students with severe reading problems. PMID:22539057
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren
In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children’s phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal reasoning. Throughout first grade, they also modeled the students’ reading progress by means of weekly Word Identification Fluency (WIF) tests to derive December and May intercepts. The authors assessed their reading comprehension in the spring of Grades 1–5. With the four cognitive variables and the WIF December intercept as predictors, 50.3% of the variance in fifth-grade reading comprehension was explained: 52.1% of this 50.3% was unique to the cognitive variables, 13.1% to the WIF December intercept, and 34.8% was shared. All five predictors were statistically significant. The same four cognitive variables with the May (rather than December) WIF intercept produced a model that explained 62.1% of the variance. Of this amount, the cognitive variables and May WIF intercept accounted for 34.5% and 27.7%, respectively; they shared 37.8%. All predictors in this model were statistically significant except RAN. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the accuracy with which the cognitive variables predicted end-of-fifth-grade RD status was 73.9%. The May WIF intercept contributed reliably to this prediction; the December WIF intercept did not. Results are discussed in terms of a role for cognitive abilities in identifying, classifying, and instructing students with severe reading problems. PMID:22539057
Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana
It is well established that working memory is related to reading comprehension ability. However, its role in explaining specific reading comprehension difficulties is still under debate: the issue mainly concerns whether the contribution of working memory is dependent on task modality (verbal tasks being more predictive than visuo-spatial tasks)…
This pilot study explores the impact of online electronic storybooks (e-books) on the reading motivation and listening comprehension of six grade 1 students (aged 7 years) from Ontario, Canada. The researcher measured participants' perceived enjoyment of the online e-book reading experience using standardized listening comprehension tests,…
Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.
The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…
Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit
The purpose of this study was to explore whether there was a significant correlation between vocabulary and reading comprehension in terms of text types as well as whether the vocabulary was a predictor of reading comprehension in terms of text types. In this regard, the correlational research design was used to explain specific research…
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.
Individual differences in mind wandering and reading comprehension were examined in the current study. In particular, individual differences in mind wandering, working memory capacity, interest in the current topic, motivation to do well on the task, and topic experience and their relations with reading comprehension were examined in the current…
Plourde, Vickie; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Marino, Cecilia; Tremblay, Richard T.; Dionne, Ginette
Background: The phenotypic and genetic associations between decoding skills and ADHD dimensions have been documented but less is known about the association with reading comprehension. The aim of the study is to document the phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension and ADHD dimensions of inattention and…
Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren
This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…
The importance of vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and metacognitive awareness in reading comprehension has been established in the first language research. By contrast, fewer studies have documented the role of these components in the reading comprehension of English language learners (ELLs) in the field of second language (L2) research. The proposed study specifically focused on an L2-only model to examine
This software product presents multi-level stories to capture the interest of children in grades two through five, while teaching them crucial reading comprehension skills. With stories touching on everything from the invention of velcro to the journey of food through the digestive system, the open-ended reading comprehension program is versatile…
Stetter, Maria Earman; Hughes, Marie Tejero
This literature review synthesizes the effects of computer-assisted instruction to enhance the reading comprehension of students with disabilities and struggling readers from 1985-2009. First, it addresses research investigates the impact on comprehension when students are presented with computerized versus printed reading material. Second, it…
Stern, Pnina; Shalev, Lilach
Difficulties in reading comprehension are common in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed at investigating the relation between sustained attention and reading comprehension among adolescents with and without ADHD. Another goal was to examine the impact of two manipulations of the…
Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung; Chang, Yu-Ju
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college learners' English reading comprehension. The research questions were: (1) what was the influence of the computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on different learners' English reading comprehension? (2) did…
Ahmed, Abdelhamid Mohamed Abdelhamid
Background: There is limited research on the FL/SL reading comprehension of Non-native speakers of English at the post-graduate level at university. Purpose: This study investigated the knowledge of and the attitude towards FL/SL reading comprehension through (1) the effect of (a) post-graduate specialization, and (b) nationality, (2) the…