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Sample records for comprehensive histopathological evaluation

  1. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  2. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... Families Guide - Search No. 52; Updated November 2012 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate ...

  3. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  4. Development of a Comprehensive Osteochondral Allograft MRI Scoring System (OCAMRISS) With Histopathologic, Micro–Computed Tomography, and Biomechanical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Bae, Won C.; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cory, Esther; Amiel, David; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe and apply a semiquantitative MRI scoring system for multifeature analysis of cartilage defect repair in the knee by osteochondral allografts and to correlate this scoring system with histopathologic, micro–computed tomography (µCT), and biomechanical reference standards using a goat repair model. Design: Fourteen adult goats had 2 osteochondral allografts implanted into each knee: one in the medial femoral condyle and one in the lateral trochlea. At 12 months, goats were euthanized and MRI was performed. Two blinded radiologists independently rated 9 primary features for each graft, including cartilage signal, fill, edge integration, surface congruity, calcified cartilage integrity, subchondral bone plate congruity, subchondral bone marrow signal, osseous integration, and presence of cystic changes. Four ancillary features of the joint were also evaluated, including opposing cartilage, meniscal tears, synovitis, and fat-pad scarring. Comparison was made with histologic and µCT reference standards as well as biomechanical measures. Interobserver agreement and agreement with reference standards was assessed. Cohen’s κ, Spearman’s correlation, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used as appropriate. Results: There was substantial agreement (κ > 0.6, P < 0.001) for each MRI feature and with comparison against reference standards, except for cartilage edge integration (κ = 0.6). There was a strong positive correlation between MRI and reference standard scores (ρ = 0.86, P < 0.01). Osteochondral allograft MRI scoring system was sensitive to differences in outcomes between the types of allografts. Conclusions: We have described a comprehensive MRI scoring system for osteochondral allografts and have validated this scoring system with histopathologic and µCT reference standards as well as biomechanical indentation testing. PMID:24489999

  5. In vivo MR guided boiling histotripsy in a mouse tumor model evaluated by MRI and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; den Brok, Martijn H; Veltien, Andor; Wassink, Melissa; Wesseling, Pieter; Dumont, Erik; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Adema, Gosse J; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-06-01

    Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a new high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation technique to mechanically fragmentize soft tissue into submicrometer fragments. So far, ultrasound has been used for BH treatment guidance and evaluation. The in vivo histopathological effects of this treatment are largely unknown. Here, we report on an MR guided BH method to treat subcutaneous tumors in a mouse model. The treatment effects of BH were evaluated one hour and four days later with MRI and histopathology, and compared with the effects of thermal HIFU (T-HIFU). The lesions caused by BH were easily detected with T2 w imaging as a hyper-intense signal area with a hypo-intense rim. Histopathological evaluation showed that the targeted tissue was completely disintegrated and that a narrow transition zone (<200 µm) containing many apoptotic cells was present between disintegrated and vital tumor tissue. A high level of agreement was found between T2 w imaging and H&E stained sections, making T2 w imaging a suitable method for treatment evaluation during or directly after BH. After T-HIFU, contrast enhanced imaging was required for adequate detection of the ablation zone. On histopathology, an ablation zone with concentric layers was seen after T-HIFU. In line with histopathology, contrast enhanced MRI revealed that after BH or T-HIFU perfusion within the lesion was absent, while after BH in the transition zone some micro-hemorrhaging appeared. Four days after BH, the transition zone with apoptotic cells was histologically no longer detectable, corresponding to the absence of a hypo-intense rim around the lesion in T2 w images. This study demonstrates the first results of in vivo BH on mouse tumor using MRI for treatment guidance and evaluation and opens the way for more detailed investigation of the in vivo effects of BH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27061290

  6. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Juvenile Delinquency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Howard; And Others

    This paper discribes a comprehensive juvenile delinquency diversion program serving a poverty community in a large urban center, and attempts to evaluate the problems and effects of the program. The target population was primarily minority-group truants, aged 10-15, who had been in trouble with the authorities. The program included recreational…

  7. Histopathological and radiographic evaluation of rat molar teeth after traumatic injury-a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, T; Saraswathi, TR

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Radiographic and histopathological evaluation of mechanical trauma on the development of maxillary molars in rat. Materials and Methods: Experimental study with 7-day-old five new born Wistar rats. Trauma induced on 7th postnatal day with #55 K file. Right first molar region of the maxilla was the experimental side, and the left side as control. Each animal was sacrificed for histopathological observation on 8th day (immediately next day of injury), 10th day (after 3 days of injury), 13th day (Enamel completion), 19th day (Emergence into oral cavity) and 42nd day when all the teeth came into functional occlusion. Results: On the 42nd day experimental side of the study, the 1st molar tooth had not erupted and the radiographs taken revealed conglomerate mass suggestive of complex odontome. Reduced tooth size, altered enamel and dentin formation, abscess formation and complex odontome like structure were observed histopathologically. Conclusion: The diversity of morphlogical and histopathological changes to intrusive force implies intricate mechanism involved in tooth development. PMID:23248457

  8. Comprehensive system models: Strategies for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Christopher; Kutzbach, John E.; Ramanathan, V.; Maccracken, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models is vast involving validations of every model component at every scale of organization, as well as tests of all the individual linkages. Even the most detailed evaluation of each of the component processes and the individual links among them should not, however, engender confidence in the performance of the whole. The integrated earth system is so rich with complex feedback loops, often involving components of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, and cryosphere, that it is certain to exhibit emergent properties very difficult to predict from the perspective of a narrow focus on any individual component of the system. Therefore, a substantial share of the task of evaluating comprehensive earth system models must reside at the level of whole system evaluations. Since complete, integrated atmosphere/ ocean/ biosphere/ hydrology models are not yet operational, questions of evaluation must be addressed at the level of the kinds of earth system processes that the models should be competent to simulate, rather than at the level of specific performance criteria. Here, we have tried to identify examples of earth system processes that are difficult to simulate with existing models and that involve a rich enough suite of feedbacks that they are unlikely to be satisfactorily described by highly simplified or toy models. Our purpose is not to specify a checklist of evaluation criteria but to introduce characteristics of the earth system that may present useful opportunities for model testing and, of course, improvement.

  9. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives notice of the availability of two draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations (CEEs) for activities... Evaluation: Construction and Operation of Jang Bogo Antarctic Research Station, Terra Nova Bay,...

  10. A comprehensive approach to faculty evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boland, D L; Sims, S L

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this undertaking was to design a comprehensive faculty evaluation instrument that would reflect the complexities of the faculty role. An 80-item instrument was designed from a review of the literature, content analyses on job descriptions, existing evaluation tools. Items were modified on the basis of critical review by educators with expertise and experience in evaluation measurement and faculty role expectations. Instrument design incorporates the need for explicit criteria; flexibility in establishing performance standards and expectations; involvement of students, peers, administrators and self in the evaluation process; and greater consistency of judgments. When used in conjunction with a computerized data management package, this instrument provides a variety of information needed to make well-informed decisions regarding faculty development, promotion, retention and tenure of faculty members, and optimum utilization of faculty talents. Each school's faculty establishes standards of performance expectations according to its values, capitalizing on the unique nature of the proposed evaluation instrument. PMID:2852225

  11. Evaluation of the association between perineural invasion and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, You-Sheng; Yao, De-Sheng; Long, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been investigated as a new prognostic factor in a number of carcinomas. However, studies on PNI in cervical cancer are limited, and inconsistent conclusions have been reported by different groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer, and to evaluate the clinical significance of PNI of cervical cancer. Retrospective review identified 206 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy between December 2012 and August 2014. The association between PNI and clinical and histopathological features of cervical cancer and post-operative radiotherapy was evaluated based on univariate and multivariate analyses. PNI of cervical cancer was identified in 33 of 206 (16%) cervical cancer patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that PNI was associated with clinical stage, tumor grade, tumor size, depth of invasion, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), but not associated with age and histopathological types (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis suggests that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were associated with PNI of cervical cancer (P<0.05). In addition, post-operative radiotherapy was significantly more recommended for patients with PNI than those without PNI (P<0.001). In conclusion, PNI of cervical cancer is associated with LVSI and lymph node metastasis and can be used as an index for the determination of post-operative radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients. PMID:27588197

  12. Histopathological Evaluation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Patients Undergoing Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mont, Michael A; Elmallah, Randa K; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Banerjee, Samik; Kapadia, Bhaveen H

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed gross and histopathological ACL changes in arthritic knees (n=174) undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Histopathological changes were assessed and graded as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3). These were correlated to demographic and clinical factors, and radiographic evaluations. The ACL was intact in 43, frayed in 85, torn in 15, and absent in 31 knees. Eighty-five percent had histological changes. Overall, there were significant associations between greater age and BMI, and histological changes. Grade IV knees had significantly greater calcium pyrophosphate deposits, microcyst formation, and number of pathologic changes. These correlations may aid decision-making when determining suitability for unicompartmental or bicruciate-retaining arthroplasties, though further studies should correlate these histological findings to mechanical and functional knee status. PMID:26239235

  13. Hanford Site Comprehensive site Compliance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1997-08-05

    This document is the second annual submittal by WHC, ICF/KH, PNL and BHI and contains the results of inspections of the stormwater outfalls listed in the Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1993a) as required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-000F (WA-R-00-A17F): This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation, as required in Part IV, Section D, {ampersand} C of the General Permit, summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation, and documents significant leaks and spills.

  14. Hanford Site comprehensive site compliance evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the second annual submittal by WHC, ICF/KH, PNL and BHI and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1993a) as required by General Permit No. WA-R-00- 000F (WA-R-00-A17F): This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation, as required in Part IV, Section D. $. C. of the General Permit, summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation, and documents significant leaks and spills.

  15. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Şule; Ünübol, Mustafa; Aypak, Serap Ünübol; İpek, Emrah; Aktaş, Serdar; Ekren, Gamze Sevri; Yılmaz, Murat; Tunca, Recai; Güney, Engin

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA) for 12 weeks and the control group consumed tap water. At the end of week 12, serum glucose, ALT, AST, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, TSH, fT4, fT3, visfatin, and insulin assays were performed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and “Oil Red-O” for histopathologic examination of the livers. In our study, we detected mild hepatosteatosis in all hypothyroidism-induced rats. There was statistically significant difference with respect to obesity between the two groups (p < 0.001). The mean fasting blood glucose was 126.25 ± 23.4 mg/dL in hypothyroidism-induced group and 102.63 ± 15.51 mg/dL in the control group, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.032). The two groups did not differ statistically significantly with respect to visfatin levels (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we found that hypothyroidism-induced rats had mild hepatosteatosis as opposed to the control group histopathologically. Our study indicates that hypothyroidism can cause NAFLD. PMID:27143968

  16. Combined micro CT and histopathology for evaluation of skeletal metastasis in live animals

    PubMed Central

    Geffre, Christopher P; Pond, Erika; Pond, Gerald D; Sroka, Isis C; Gard, Jaime M; Skovan, Bethany A; Meek, William E; Landowski, Terry H; Nagle, Raymond B; Cress, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a favored site for solid tumor metastasis, especially among patients with breast, lung or prostate carcinomas. Micro CT is a powerful and inexpensive tool that can be used to investigate tumor progression in xenograft models of human disease. Many previous studies have relied on terminal analysis of harvested bones to document metastatic tumor activity. The current protocol uses live animals and combines sequential micro CT evaluation of lesion development with matched histopathology at the end of the study. The approach allows for both rapid detection and evaluation of bone lesion progression in live animals. Bone resident tumors are established either by direct (intraosseous) or arterial (intracardiac) injection, and lesion development is evaluated for up to eight weeks. This protocol provides a clinically relevant method for investigating bone metastasis progression and the development of osteotropic therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bone metastases. PMID:25901201

  17. Comparison of two histopathologic methods for evaluating subcutaneous reaction to mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Moradzadeh, Monir; Aghbali, Amirala; Rahimi, Saeed; Saghiri, Mohammadali; Zand, Vahid; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Doosti, Sirvan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: One of the most important factors for suitable materials for pulp therapy is biocompatibility. Two histopathologic methods of Cox and Federation Dentaire International (FDI) were used to evaluate inflammation. In Cox method, density of inflammatory cells, tissue reactions like fibrosis, vascular responses like congestion and fibrin extravasation have been used to evaluate inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of pathologists’ interpretations using two different methods. Study design: Three pathologists observed the degree of inflammation in 225 histopathologic sections. These sections showed inflammation in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats adjacent to polyethylene tubes, filled with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregate. Empty tubes served as controls. Samples were harvested after 7-, 15-, 30-, 60-, and 90-days. All pathologists examined the sections under a light microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) at ×400 magnifications. Chi-Square test was used to evaluate the difference between inflammation grades when one pathologist used two methods. Cohen’s Kappa value was used to measure agreement of three pathologists to recognize the degrees of inflammations when using one of the methods. Results: There were no significant differences between the two methods when one of the pathologist used these methods to report the degree of inflammation (p=0.054). However, two other pathologists reported significant differences between two methods (p=0.005, p=0.001). In the FDI method, there was an acceptable agreement between first and second, and first and third pathologist in terms of the degree of inflammation, and intermediate agreement existed between the second and third pathologist. With the Cox method, no agreement among the pathologists could be found. Conclusion: The results of three pathologists in terms of rating inflammation with the FDI method showed better agreement than with the Cox method

  18. Histopathological and Digital Morphometrical Evaluation of Uterine Leiomyoma in Brazilian Women

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Paula Fernandes; Mello, Luciano de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Erlene Roberta Ribeiro; Paz, Silvania Tavares; Cavalcanti, Carmelita Lima Bezerra; de Melo-Junior, Mario Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate histopathological and digital morphometrical aspects associated with uterine leiomyomas in one hundred and fifty (150) patients diagnosed with leiomyoma. Uterine tissues were subjected to the histopathological and digital morphometric analyses of the interstitial collagen distribution. The analysis of medical records indicates that most of the women diagnosed with uterine leiomyomas (68.7%) are between 37 and 48 years old. As for the anatomic location of the tumors, approximately 61.4% of the patients had intramural and subserosal lesions. In 50% of the studied cases, the patients developed uterine leiomyomatosis (with more than eight tumors). As for the morphometric study, the average size of the interstitial collagen distribution held approximately 28.53% of the capture area, whereas it was of 7.43% in the normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. Another important aspect observed in the current study was the high rate of young women subjected to total hysterectomy, a fact that resulted in early and definitive sterility. PMID:27293441

  19. Hyperthermic tissue sealing devices: a proposed histopathologic protocol for standardizing the evaluation of thermally sealed vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Ryan H.; Vos, Jeffrey A.; Coad, James E.

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermic tissue sealing devices are advancing modern laparoscopy and other minimally invasive surgical approaches. Histopathologic evaluation of thermally sealed vessels can provide important information on their associated tissue effects and reactions. However, a standardized systematic approach has not been historically used in the literature. This paper proposes a histologic approach for the analysis of thermally sealed vessels and their basis of hemostasis, including thermal tissue changes, healing, and thrombosis. Histologic evaluation during the first week (Days 3-7) can assess the seal's primary tissue properties. These parameters include the thermal seal's length, architecture, tissue layers involved, adventitial collagen denaturation length, entrapped vapor or blood pockets, tissue homogenization and thermal tissue injury zones. While the architectural features can be assessed in Day 0-3 specimens, the latter thermal injury zones are essentially not assessable in Day 0-3 specimens. Day 14 specimens can provide information on the early healing response to the sealed vessel. Day 30 and longer specimens can be used to evaluate the seal's healing reactions. Assessment of the healing response should include seal site inflammation, granulation tissue, necrosis resorption, fibroproliferative scar healing, and thrombus organization. In order to accurately evaluate these parameters, careful specimen orientation, embedding and multiple histologic sections across the entire seal width are required. When appropriate in vivo post-treatment times are used, thermal vessel seals can be evaluated with routine light microscopy and common histologic staining methods.

  20. Hanford Site comprehensive compliance evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-13

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). DOE-RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to the EPA in accordance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice (WA-R-00-Al 7F). The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC-SD-EN-EV-02 1) was certified by DOE-RL on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part 4.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit, Section 4, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by DOE-RL and retained onsite to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are implemented. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water discharges listed in Appendix B. This report also describes the methods used to conduct the Storm Water Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in the General Permit, Part 4, Section D.4.c; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The time frames for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998. There were no significant spills or leaks during this reporting period.

  1. Evaluation of the hematoma consequences, neurobehavioral profiles, and histopathology in a rat model of pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William; Manaenko, Anatol; Krafft, Paul R.; Kamper, Joel E.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hartman, Richard E.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Object Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) represents approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and is a clinical condition of which little is known. The aim of this study was to characterize the early brain injury, neurobehavioral outcome, and long-term histopathology in a novel preclinical rat model of PPH. Methods The authors stereotactically infused collagenase (Type VII) into the ventral pontine tegmentum of the rats, in accordance with the most commonly affected clinical region. Measures of cerebrovascular permeability (brain water content, hemoglobin assay, Evans blue, collagen Type IV, ZO-1, and MMP-2 and MMP-9) and neurological deficit were quantified at 24 hours postinfusion (Experiment 1). Functional outcome was measured over a 30-day period using a vertebrobasilar scale (the modified Voetsch score), open field, wire suspension, beam balance, and inclined-plane tests (Experiment 2). Neurocognitive ability was determined at Week 3 using the rotarod (motor learning), T-maze (working memory), and water maze (spatial learning and memory) (Experiment 3), followed by histopathological analysis 1 week later (Experiment 4). Results Stereotactic collagenase infusion caused dose-dependent elevations in hematoma volume, brain edema, neurological deficit, and blood-brain barrier rupture, while physiological variables remained stable. Functional outcomes mostly normalized by Week 3, whereas neurocognitive deficits paralleled the cystic cavitary lesion at 30 days. Obstructive hydrocephalus did not develop despite a clinically relevant 30-day mortality rate (approximately 54%). Conclusions These results suggest that the model can mimic several translational aspects of pontine hemorrhage in humans and can be used in the evaluation of potential preclinical therapeutic interventions. PMID:23198805

  2. Histopathologic and Radiographic evaluation of the electroacupuncture effects on ulna fracture healing in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Naddaf, H.; Baniadam, A.; Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Ghadiri, A.R.; Pourmehdi, M.; Falah, H.; Hosseini, O.; Farmani, F.; Sabiza, S.

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture can affect bone healing by stimulation of sensory nerves and releasing of local and systemic neuropeptides. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture on ulna fracture healing in dogs. In this study, 12 healthy dogs were randomly divided in to four equal groups, where group 1 was kept as control group and evaluated for 45 days, group 2: treatment group and evaluated for 45 days, group3: control group of 90 days and group 4: treatment group of 90 days. After induction of anesthesia, the ulna was cut with Gigli wire saw in each groups, 10 days after operation, the treatment (acupuncture) group was treated with 10 minutes electroacupuncture stimulations on the acupoints Kid1, Kid3, Kid6 and Kid7, for 10 days. Histopathologic samples of all dogs were harvested from bone osteotomized site in 45 and 90 days after surgery. Indices like, count of inflammatory cells, cartilaginous tissue, fibrotic tissue and deposition of collagen were evaluated on samples and classified with 0, 1, 2, and 3 degrees. Also, radiographic evaluation of the patients was applied using radiographic scoring system on days: 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 after surgery. This study revealed that, acupuncture had no effect on bone healing (p>0.05). Cause of non-significant difference changes between the control and treatment groups, and lack of complete healing in both groups may be due to lack of ulna bone fixation. Alternatively, selection of other acupoints in acupuncture could have a better healing role. PMID:26623337

  3. Comparison of two models for evaluation histopathology of experimental renal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, L F; Barione, D F; Trazzi, B F M; Tirapelli, D P C; Novas, P C; Silva, C S; Martinez, M; Costa, R S; Tucci, S; Suaid, H J; Cologna, A J; Martins, A C P

    2009-12-01

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the frequent causes of acute renal failure (ARF) due to the complex, interrelated sequence of events, that result in damage to and death of kidney cells. Cells of the proximal tubular epithelium are especially susceptible to I/R injury, leading to acute tubular necrosis, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ARF. Several models have been explicated to assess morphological changes, including those of Jabonski et al. and Goujon et al. We compared the 2 models for histopathological evaluation of 30- or 120-minute periods of renal ischemia followed by 24-hour reperfusion in rats. Several changes were observed after application of the 2 models: proximal tubular cell necrosis, loss of brush border, vacuolization, denudation of tubular basement membrane as a consequence of flattening of basal cells, and presence of intratubular exfoliated cells in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules at various stages of degeneration (karyorexis, kariopyknosis and karyolysis). Evaluating tubular lesions after 2 periods of experimental ischemia with light microscopy allowed us to conclude that the Goujon classification better characterized the main changes in cortical renal tubules after ischemia. PMID:20005345

  4. Evaluation of Raman spectroscopic macro raster scans of native cervical cone biopsies using histopathological mapping.

    PubMed

    Reble, Carina; Gersonde, Ingo; Dressler, Cathrin; Helfmann, Jürgen; Kühn, Wolfgang; Eichler, Hans Joachim

    2014-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy based discrimination of cervical precancer and normal tissue has been shown previously in vivo with fiber probe based measurements of colposcopically selected sites. With a view to developing in vivo large area imaging, macro raster scans of native cervical cone biopsies with an average of 200 spectra per sample are implemented (n=16). The diagnostic performance is evaluated using histopathological mapping of the cervix surface. Different data reduction and classification methods (principal component analysis, wavelets, k-nearest neighbors, logistic regression, partial least squares discriminant analysis) are compared. Using bootstrapping to estimate confidence intervals for sensitivity and specificity, it is concluded that differences among different spectra classification procedures are not significant. The classification performance is evaluated depending on the tissue pathologies included in the analysis using the average performance of different classification procedures. The highest sensitivity (91%) and specificity (81%) is obtained for the discrimination of normal squamous epithelium and high-grade precancer. When other non-high-grade tissue sites, such as columnar epithelium, metaplasia, and inflammation, are included, the diagnostic performance decreases. PMID:24549487

  5. Diabetic retinopathy: retina-specific methods for maintenance of diabetic rodents and evaluation of vascular histopathology and molecular abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Alexander; Liu, Haitao; Lee, Chieh Allen; Du, Yunpeng; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment, which continues to increase in prevalence as more and more people develop diabetes. Despite the importance of vision, the retina is one of the smallest tissues in the body, and specialized techniques to study the retinopathy have been developed. This chapter will summarize several methods used to (i) induce diabetes, (ii) maintain the diabetic animals throughout the months required for the development of typical vascular histopathology, (iii) evaluate vascular histopathology of diabetic retinopathy, and (iv) quantitate abnormalities implicated in the development of the retinopathy. PMID:26331759

  6. Comprehensive biometric, biochemical and histopathological assessment of nutrient deficiencies in gilthead sea bream fed semi-purified diets.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Estensoro, Itziar; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-09-14

    Seven isoproteic and isolipidic semi-purified diets were formulated to assess specific nutrient deficiencies in sulphur amino acids (SAA), n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), phospholipids (PL), P, minerals (Min) and vitamins (Vit). The control diet (CTRL) contained these essential nutrients in adequate amounts. Each diet was allocated to triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream fed to satiety over an 11-week feeding trial period. Weight gain of n-3 LC-PUFA, P-Vit and PL-Min-SAA groups was 50, 60-75 and 80-85 % of the CTRL group, respectively. Fat retention was decreased by all nutrient deficiencies except by the Min diet. Strong effects on N retention were found in n-3 LC-PUFA and P fish. Combined anaemia and increased blood respiratory burst were observed in n-3 LC-PUFA fish. Hypoproteinaemia was found in SAA, n-3 LC-PUFA, PL and Vit fish. Derangements of lipid metabolism were also a common disorder, but the lipodystrophic phenotype of P fish was different from that of other groups. Changes in plasma levels of electrolytes (Ca, phosphate), metabolites (creatinine, choline) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase) were related to specific nutrient deficiencies in PL, P, Min or Vit fish, whereas changes in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I primarily reflected the intensity of the nutritional stressor. Histopathological scoring of the liver and intestine segments showed specific nutrient-mediated changes in lipid cell vacuolisation, inflammation of intestinal submucosa, as well as the distribution and number of intestinal goblet and rodlet cells. These results contribute to define the normal range of variation for selected biometric, biochemical, haematological and histochemical markers. PMID:26220446

  7. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive environmental evaluation. (a) Preparation of a CEE. Unless a PERM or...

  8. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive environmental evaluation. (a) Preparation of a CEE. Unless a PERM or...

  9. Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

    2014-03-01

    This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

  10. Histopathologic Evaluations of the Lingual Artery in Healthy Tongue of Adult Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Mi Jin; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Lee, Jin-Choon; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Jung, Sung Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To clarify the anatomical distribution of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects through histopathologic evaluations. Methods. Eighteen healthy cadaveric tongues were used to produce 8 paraffin-embedded tissue sections each. Length from midline raphe, depth from dorsum of tongue and the whole transverse length tongue were measured. The lateral distance, depth, and proportion of lateral distance of deep lingual artery were determined from tip to base of tongue gradually. Lateral distance is length from median raphe to the center of deep lingual artery lumen. Depth is vertical distance from dorsal surface of tongue to the center of deep lingual artery. Proportion of lateral distance is obtained by dividing lateral distance with transverse length from median raphe to lateral border of tongue. The degree of symmetry between right and left sides and the difference between selected spots were evaluated. Results. Right and left sides of the lingual artery were symmetric. The lingual artery was lateralized as it run posterior. The lingual artery runs gradually deeper from the surface as it goes near the base of tongue. Both length and depth of the lingual artery gradually increased between 0%–75% of the mobile tongue, but 75%–100% zone of the lingual artery showed no significant difference. There was no anastomosis between right and left side of the lingual arteries. The lingual artery was located within 50% of the transverse length of tongue from median raphe. Conclusion. The present study reveals 3-dimensional information on the anatomical distributions of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects. These findings gives us beneficial information about the handling of the lingual artery during oral and base of tongue-related surgery. PMID:27334510

  11. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

  12. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  13. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  14. 40 CFR 8.8 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 8.8 Section 8.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.8 Comprehensive...

  15. Community Intervention Development Using Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition needs assessment and program planning requires involvement of community members in order to yield programs that address local priorities. The Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) approach emphasizes direct, active participation of community members in assessment, plan...

  16. Factors associated with completing comprehensive traumatic brain injury evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Lau, Karen M; Madden, Erin; Seal, Karen

    2012-07-01

    This study examined factors associated with Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans following up with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) comprehensive traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluation after a positive first-level VA TBI screen. Participants included 465 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans at one VA Medical Center and its five affiliated community-based outpatient clinics, with a positive initial TBI screen between April 1, 2007 and June 1, 2010. We found that 75% of Veterans completed the comprehensive TBI evaluation. Women were three times less likely to complete the comprehensive TBI evaluation than men, and those who endorsed post-traumatic stress disorder avoidance symptoms were nearly two times less likely to complete the comprehensive TBI evaluation. In contrast, headaches, Hispanic ethnicity, and the season of the initial TBI screen (summer vs. winter) were positively associated with completing a comprehensive TBI evaluation. A substantial minority of Veterans who screen positive on the VA initial TBI screen fail to present for the comprehensive TBI evaluation. Addressing specific gender-related issues, avoidance, and the timing of referrals in the context of VA polytrauma programs may increase the likelihood that Veterans receive further assessment, education, and early intervention for TBI or other mental health problems to prevent chronic postdeployment disability. PMID:22808886

  17. Evaluation of 12 strategies for obtaining second opinions to improve interpretation of breast histopathology: simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna NA; Pepe, Margaret S; Longton, Gary M; Nelson, Heidi D; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A; Onega, Tracy; Allison, Kimberly H; Jackson, Sara L; Weaver, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential effect of second opinions on improving the accuracy of diagnostic interpretation of breast histopathology. Design Simulation study. Setting 12 different strategies for acquiring independent second opinions. Participants Interpretations of 240 breast biopsy specimens by 115 pathologists, one slide for each case, compared with reference diagnoses derived by expert consensus. Main outcome measures Misclassification rates for individual pathologists and for 12 simulated strategies for second opinions. Simulations compared accuracy of diagnoses from single pathologists with that of diagnoses based on pairing interpretations from first and second independent pathologists, where resolution of disagreements was by an independent third pathologist. 12 strategies were evaluated in which acquisition of second opinions depended on initial diagnoses, assessment of case difficulty or borderline characteristics, pathologists’ clinical volumes, or whether a second opinion was required by policy or desired by the pathologists. The 240 cases included benign without atypia (10% non-proliferative, 20% proliferative without atypia), atypia (30%), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, 30%), and invasive cancer (10%). Overall misclassification rates and agreement statistics depended on the composition of the test set, which included a higher prevalence of difficult cases than in typical practice. Results Misclassification rates significantly decreased (P<0.001) with all second opinion strategies except for the strategy limiting second opinions only to cases of invasive cancer. The overall misclassification rate decreased from 24.7% to 18.1% when all cases received second opinions (P<0.001). Obtaining both first and second opinions from pathologists with a high volume (≥10 breast biopsy specimens weekly) resulted in the lowest misclassification rate in this test set (14.3%, 95% confidence interval 10.9% to 18.0%). Obtaining second opinions only for

  18. Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in C57BL/6J Mice by Using MRI and Histopathologic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae-Eun; Jo, Woori; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Jang, Sungwoong; Lee, Hyo-Ju; Woo, Dong-Cheul; Kim, Jeong Kon; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Eun Sil; Son, Woo-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ultimately death. Magnetic resonance techniques are accurate, noninvasive methods for evaluating hepatic steatosis but, in animals, have not been fully validated against histologic findings. We sought to validate the MRI fat-signal fraction (MRI–FSF) used for diagnosing NAFLD in human nonclinical trials by comparing MRI data with histopathologic findings in C57BL/6J mice (n= 24) fed normal chow (controls) or a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce NAFLD. Axial T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were used to examine the entire liver. For histopathologic analyses, liver slides were evaluated for hepatic steatosis according to the NAFLD activity score. Pearson correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed. According to the fat-fraction signal, the mean percentage of liver fat in mice with induced NAFLD was 57%, which correlated with the histologically determined steatosis grade. The proton-density fat fraction effectively distinguished severe from mild hepatic steatosis, with an AUC of 0.92. Evaluation accuracy decreased when lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning were considered. This study showed strong concurrence between MRI–FSF and histopathologic steatosis in a murine model of NAFLD. MRI–FSF had moderate sensitivity and specificity in this context. These results confirm that the MRI is a useful biomarker of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD in murine model. PMID:26473344

  19. Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in C57BL/6J Mice by Using MRI and Histopathologic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae-Eun; Jo, Woori; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Jang, Sungwoong; Lee, Hyo-Ju; Woo, Dong-Cheul; Kim, Jeong Kon; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Eun Sil; Son, Woo-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ultimately death. Magnetic resonance techniques are accurate, noninvasive methods for evaluating hepatic steatosis but, in animals, have not been fully validated against histologic findings. We sought to validate the MRI fat-signal fraction (MRI-FSF) used for diagnosing NAFLD in human nonclinical trials by comparing MRI data with histopathologic findings in C57BL/6J mice (n = 24) fed normal chow (controls) or a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce NAFLD. Axial T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were used to examine the entire liver. For histopathologic analyses, liver slides were evaluated for hepatic steatosis according to the NAFLD activity score. Pearson correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed. According to the fat-fraction signal, the mean percentage of liver fat in mice with induced NAFLD was 57%, which correlated with the histologically determined steatosis grade. The proton-density fat fraction effectively distinguished severe from mild hepatic steatosis, with an AUC of 0.92. Evaluation accuracy decreased when lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning were considered. This study showed strong concurrence between MRI-FSF and histopathologic steatosis in a murine model of NAFLD. MRI-FSF had moderate sensitivity and specificity in this context. These results confirm that the MRI is a useful biomarker of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD in murine model. PMID:26473344

  20. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  1. Comprehensive Guidance Results-Based Evaluation: Developing a Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliszewski, Stan J.; Mackiel, John J.

    Results-based evaluation and assessment of guidance and counseling is a difficult task. How to best evaluate whether the comprehensive guidance program was getting the intended results became an issue for Omaha Public Schools. They set about to draft a framework for measuring student behavior or learning resulting from activities associated with…

  2. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. PMID:27130820

  3. A comprehensive evaluation of assembly scaffolding tools

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome assembly is typically a two-stage process: contig assembly followed by the use of paired sequencing reads to join contigs into scaffolds. Scaffolds are usually the focus of reported assembly statistics; longer scaffolds greatly facilitate the use of genome sequences in downstream analyses, and it is appealing to present larger numbers as metrics of assembly performance. However, scaffolds are highly prone to errors, especially when generated using short reads, which can directly result in inflated assembly statistics. Results Here we provide the first independent evaluation of scaffolding tools for second-generation sequencing data. We find large variations in the quality of results depending on the tool and dataset used. Even extremely simple test cases of perfect input, constructed to elucidate the behaviour of each algorithm, produced some surprising results. We further dissect the performance of the scaffolders using real and simulated sequencing data derived from the genomes of Staphylococcus aureus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens. The results from simulated data are of high quality, with several of the tools producing perfect output. However, at least 10% of joins remains unidentified when using real data. Conclusions The scaffolders vary in their usability, speed and number of correct and missed joins made between contigs. Results from real data highlight opportunities for further improvements of the tools. Overall, SGA, SOPRA and SSPACE generally outperform the other tools on our datasets. However, the quality of the results is highly dependent on the read mapper and genome complexity. PMID:24581555

  4. Insulin glulisine--a comprehensive preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stammberger, Ingo; Seipke, Gerhard; Bartels, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Receptor binding and signaling and the mitogenic potential of insulin glulisine (glulisine), regular human insulin (RHI), and Asp(B10) were compared in vivo and in vitro. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor binding was studied with human insulin receptors (293HEK cells) and the human osteosarcoma-derived cell line B10. Insulin receptor-mediated signaling was assessed in rat-1 fibroblasts overexpressing insulin receptors. Activation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1/ IRS-2) was studied in rat and human myoblasts and rat cardiomyocytes. DNA synthesis induction was assessed by [3H] thymidine incorporation in the human epithelial breast cell line MCF10. Interaction with the IGF-1 receptor, DNA synthesis, and intracellular signal transduction were assessed in cardiac K6 myoblasts. Immunohistochemical examination of Sprague-Dawley rat tissue treated with glulisine for 6 months (n = 40), and glulisine and RHI for 12 months (n = 60), was performed. Steady-state insulin receptor binding affinity was slightly lower for glulisine versus RHI (approximately 0.70). IGF-1 receptor binding affinity was lower (four- to fivefold) for glulisine, but significantly higher (four-fold) for Asp(B10) versus RHI. Glulisine, Asp(B10), and RHI showed similar insulin receptor-association kinetics; however, Asp(B10) revealed increased insulin receptor affinity. Glulisine and RHI showed similar insulin receptor-mediated phosphorylation and IRS-2 activation. Activation of IRS-1 was 6- to 10-fold lower with glulisine; glulisine was less potent and Asp(B10) slightly more potent in stimulating DNA synthesis versus RHI. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was comparable for glulisine and RHI in K6 myoblasts. At 12 months, there was no significant difference between glulisine and RHI in proliferative activity. This preclinical evaluation suggests that structural changes in glulisine versus RHI are not associated with any safety issues. PMID:16510354

  5. Comparison between cytology and histopathology to evaluate subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Hostens, Miel; Dini, Pouya; Vandepitte, Jan; Ducatelle, Richard; Opsomer, Geert

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial cytology with histopathology to diagnose subclinical endometritis (SCE) in dairy cows. Endometrial cytology samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 32) just before slaughtering. Half of them were obtained by in vivo cytobrush (IV-CB), whereas the other half by in vivo low-volume lavage (IV-LVL). After slaughtering, reproductive tracts were collected, and the endometrium was sampled at eight locations. At each location, both a ex vivo cytobrush sample (EV-CB) and a tissue sample for histopathologic examination were taken. In the histopathology slides, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell counts were differentiated as PMN cells in direct contact with the epithelial cells of the endometrium (PMN-EP), and PMN cells present in the deeper stratum compactum (PMN-SC). Summation of both countings was referred to as PMN-total. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to assess the correlation and agreement between both sampling methods (in vivo cytology [IV-CB and IV-LVL] with EV-CB and PMN-total). A Poisson mixed effect model was used to analyze the PMN cells' distribution. The prevalence of SCE was 18.75% (n = 6/32) for in vivo cytology. The SCE prevalence based on EV-CB analyses and on the assessment of PMN-total was determined both at the sample (n = 256) as well as at the cow level (n = 32): EV-CB 25% (n = 64/256) and 35.5% (n = 12/32), and PMN-total 37.11% (n = 95/256) and 59.38% (n = 19/32). Correlation and agreement between IV-CB and EV-CB were r = 0.81 and k = 0.97, whereas between IV-CB and PMN-total r = 0.15 and k = 0.23, respectively. In vivo low-volume lavage correlation and agreement were r = 0.52 and k = 0.66 with EV-CB, and r = 0.45 and k = 0.44 with PMN-total. Moreover, correlation and agreement between EV-CB and PMN-total were r = 0.60 and k = 0.50, respectively. More PMN cells (P < 0.05) were detected in PMN-SC when compared to PMN

  6. Endoscopic evaluation of celiac disease severity and its correlation with histopathological aspects of the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Mauro W.; Kotze, Luiz; Orlandoski, Marcia; Tsuchyia, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Carlos A.; Lima, Doryane; Kurachi, Gustavo; Orso, Ivan R.B.; Kotze, Lorete

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals, triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten. Triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten, celiac disease is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals. Persistent related inflammation of the duodenal mucosa causes atrophy architecture detectable on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology. We investigated the association between endoscopic features and histopathological findings (Marsh) for duodenal mucosa in celiac disease patients and propose an endoscopic classification of severity. Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and March 2010, an electronic database containing 34,540 EDGs of patients aged > 14 years was searched for cases of CD. Out of 109 cases, 85 met the inclusion criteria: conventional EGD combined with chromoendoscopy, zoom and biopsy. EGD types 0, I and II corresponds to Marsh grades 0, 1 and 2, respectively, while EGD type III corresponds to Marsh grade 3 and 4. Results: Five patients (5.8 %) were EGD I but not Marsh grade 1; 25 patients (29.4 %) were EGD II, 4 of whom (16 %) were classified as Marsh grade 2; and 55 patients (64.7 %) were EGD III, 51 (92.7 %) of whom were classified as Marsh grades 3 and 4. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.33) revealed a significant association between the methods (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Changes in the duodenal mucosa detected on EGD were significantly and positively associated with histopathologic findings. The use of chromoendoscopy in addition to conventional EGD enhances changes in the duodenal mucosa and permits diagnosis of CD, even in routine examinations. The proposed endoscopic classification is practical and easily reproducible and provides valuable information regarding disease extension. PMID:27556094

  7. Comprehensive Child Care Program: Phase 1 - Evaluation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harachi, Tracy; Anthony, Emily; Bleisner, Siri

    Seattle's Comprehensive Child Care Program (CCCP) (Washington) is made up of a child care subsidy to offset child care costs for working and student families with low incomes, and quality assurance and technical assistance for 150 child care providers, including on-site evaluations, public health consulting, continuing education for providers, and…

  8. Comprehensive Science Evaluation Project: Hudson County Community College. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oromaner, Mark

    A summary is provided of the goals, objectives, activities, and findings of Hudson County Community College's (HCCC's) comprehensive science evaluation project. After introductory material outlines the status of science education at HCCC, the project's objectives are presented; i.e., to analyze the college's science courses and their ability to…

  9. Does Validation during Language Comprehension Depend on an Evaluative Mindset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Whether information is routinely and nonstrategically evaluated for truth during comprehension is still a point of contention. Previous studies supporting the assumption of nonstrategic validation have used a Stroop-like paradigm in which participants provided yes/no judgments in tasks unrelated to the truth or plausibility of the experimental…

  10. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  11. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  12. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  13. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  14. 45 CFR 641.18 - Comprehensive environmental evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comprehensive environmental evaluation. 641.18 Section 641.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  15. [Comprehensive evaluation on drought-resistance of different soybean varieties].

    PubMed

    Li, Guiquan; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ji, Lan; Zhao, Erkai; Liu, Jianbing; Li, Ling; Zhang, Jiarong

    2006-12-01

    The drought-resistance of ten soybean cultivars of various ecotypes was investigated by pot culture and in field. At the stages from flowering and podding, the physiological and ecological indices related to drought-resistance were measured and analyzed under normal and water stress conditions. Taking each drought-resistance coefficient as an index to measure single drought-resistance capacity, all drought-resistance coefficients were synthesized into several new independent comprehensive indices by using principal component analysis. On the bases of above results, subordinate values of comprehensive indices were worked out by subordinate function, on which, the drought resistance of different soybean cultivars or lines could be evaluated. By means of this method, Jinda 74 and Jinda 53 were evaluated as two cultivars with strong drought-resistance. The evaluation results corresponded well to the fact. PMID:17330490

  16. Histopathological and biomechanical evaluation of tenocyte seeded allografts on rat Achilles tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Güngörmüş, Cansın; Kolankaya, Dürdane; Aydin, Erkin

    2015-05-01

    Tendon injuries in humans as well as in animals' veterinary medicine are problematic because tendon has poor regenerative capacity and complete regeneration of the ruptured tendon is never achieved. In the last decade there has been an increasing need of treatment methods with different approaches. The aim of the current study was to improve the regeneration process of rat Achilles tendon with tenocyte seeded decellularized tendon matrices. For this purpose, Achilles tendons were harvested, decellularized and seeded as a mixture of three consecutive passages of tenocytes at a density of 1 × 10(6) cells/ml. Specifically, cells with different passage numbers were compared with respect to growth characteristics, cellular senescence and collagen/tenocyte marker production before seeding process. The viability of reseeded tendon constructs was followed postoperatively up to 6 months in rat Achilles tendon by histopathological and biomechanical analysis. Our results suggests that tenocyte seeded decellularized tendon matrix can significantly improve the histological and biomechanical properties of tendon repair tissue without causing adverse immune reactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first long-term study in the literature which was accomplished to prove the use of decellularized matrix in a clinically relevant model of rat Achilles tendon and the method suggested herein might have important implications for translation into the clinic. PMID:25771002

  17. FDG PET in the evaluation of the aggressiveness of pulmonary adenocarcinoma: correlation with histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Higashi, K; Ueda, Y; Ayabe, K; Sakurai, A; Seki, H; Nambu, Y; Oguchi, M; Shikata, H; Taki, S; Tonami, H; Katsuda, S; Yamamoto, I

    2000-08-01

    2-[Fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake within the primary lesion correlates with survival on positron emission tomography (PET) studies of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The more metabolically active the tumour, the worse the outcome. The aim of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between aggressiveness as determined by pathology and the findings of FDG PET in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Thirty-five patients with 38 adenocarcinomas of the lung were studied. All patients underwent thoracotomy within 4 weeks of the FDG PET study. For semiquantitative analysis, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. Patients were classified into high SUV (> or = 4.0) and low SUV (<4.0) groups. The degree of FDG uptake (SUVs) in primary lung lesions was correlated with the histopathological features of aggressiveness (pleural involvement, vascular invasion or lymphatic permeation). The mean SUV of aggressive adenocarcinomas (4.36+/-1.94, n = 22) was higher than that of non-aggressive ones (1.53+/-0.88, n = 16) (P < 0.0001). Tumours with a high FDG uptake have a significantly higher likelihood of aggressiveness than those with a low FDG uptake (P = 0.0004). Analysis by the Kaplan-Meier methods revealed that the groups had different prognoses (log-rank test, P = 0.0099). The high SUV group had a significantly worse prognosis. In conclusion, a correlation was seen between aggressiveness as determined by pathology and glucose metabolism as measured by FDG PET in adenocarcinoma of the lung. FDG PET may be used as a non-invasive diagnostic technique in measuring aggressiveness and prognosis in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:11039452

  18. Evaluation of Renal Histopathological Changes, as a Predictor of Recoverability of Renal Function Following Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kaushal; Ahmad, Ahsan; Kumar, Shailendra; Choudhry, Vijyanand; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Mahendra; Muzaffar, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results. Objectives: In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF) revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scan. A Fischer’s t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values. Results: This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU), with minimal histopathological changes (grade I), 21 ORU (87.5%), with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P < 0.05). On the other hand, all kidneys (n = 29) with moderate to severe obstructive changes (grade II and III) had minimal improvement in DRF, after pyeloplasty, which was clinically insignificant (P > 0.05). Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases. Conclusions: The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I) renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional

  19. Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollenbach, Carolyn

    1986-01-01

    Teaching comprehension skills requires teaching to intuition with activities such as presenting puzzling situations to introduce a topic, using art to elicit latent feelings, using imagery and improvisations to enhance visualization, and using music and dance to encourage nonverbal expressions. (DB)

  20. Comprehensive cognitive and cerebral hemodynamic evaluation after cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Fernanda; Oliveira, Arthur Maynart; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tome; Amorim, Robson Luis; Neville, Iuri Santana; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Anghinah, Renato; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2014-01-01

    Decompressive craniectomy is an established procedure to lower intracranial pressure and can save patients’ lives. However, this procedure is associated with delayed cognitive decline and cerebral hemodynamics complications. Studies show the benefits of cranioplasty beyond cosmetic aspects, including brain protection, and functional and cerebrovascular aspects, but a detailed description of the concrete changes following this procedure are lacking. In this paper, the authors report a patient with trephine syndrome who underwent cranioplasty; comprehensive cognitive and cerebral hemodynamic evaluations were performed prior to and following the cranioplasty. The discussion was based on a critical literature review. PMID:24833902

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation and Implementation of Improvement Actions in Butcher Shops.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Gerardo A; Brusa, Victoria; Galli, Lucía; Adriani, Cristian; Linares, Luciano; Etcheverría, Analía; Sanz, Marcelo; Sucari, Adriana; Peral García, Pilar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens can cause acute and chronic diseases and produce a wide range of symptoms. Since the consumption of ground beef is a risk factor for infections with some bacterial pathogens, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of butcher shops, implemented improvement actions for both butcher shops and consumers, and verified the impact of those actions implemented. A comprehensive evaluation was made and risk was quantified on a 1-100 scale as high-risk (1-40), moderate-risk (41-70) or low-risk (71-100). A total of 172 raw ground beef and 672 environmental samples were collected from 86 butcher shops during the evaluation (2010-2011) and verification (2013) stages of the study. Ground beef samples were analyzed for mesophilic aerobic organisms, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus enumeration. Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and Listeria monocytogenes were detected and isolated from all samples. Risk quantification resulted in 43 (50.0%) high-risk, 34 (39.5%) moderate-risk, and nine (10.5%) low-risk butcher shops. Training sessions for 498 handlers and 4,506 consumers were held. Re-evaluation by risk quantification and microbiological analyses resulted in 19 (22.1%) high-risk, 42 (48.8%) moderate-risk and 25 (29.1%) low-risk butcher shops. The count of indicator microorganisms decreased with respect to the 2010-2011 period. After the implementation of improvement actions, the presence of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and stx genes in ground beef decreased. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 10 (11.6%) ground beef samples, without detecting statistically significant differences between both study periods (evaluation and verification). The percentage of pathogens in environmental samples was reduced in the verification period (Salmonella spp., 1.5%; L. monocytogenes, 10.7%; E. coli O157:H7, 0.6%; non-O157 STEC, 6.8%). Risk quantification was useful to identify those relevant facts

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of compressor oils by laboratory methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ershova, A.N.; Smertyak, Yu.L.; Lukashenko, E.V.; Kozhekin, A.V.; Bauman, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The present work has been aimed at a comprehensive investigation of the carbon deposition, antioxidant, anticorrosion, and antiwear properties of a number of compressor oils, and at establishing a correlation between the results obtained in evaluations of high-temperature properties by different methods. The basic physicochemical properties and group compositions of the test oils are shown, which includes oils for reciprocating air compressors and other oils. Results are presented which were obtained in determinations of the carbon deposition tendency of compressor oils by two methods, the test-stand method and the laboratory method. Results are also shown from evaluations of the lubricity of the compressor oils and their anticorrosion properties at high temperature. The greatest viscosity increase is observed for the oil from medium-sulfur crudes with a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, the smallest viscosity increase for oils with a naphthemic-paraffinic base.

  3. Ex vivo comparison of angioscopy and histopathology for the evaluation of coronary plaque characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Masahiko; Fujii, Kenichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Imanaka, Takahiro; Fukunaga, Masashi; Miki, Kojiro; Tamaru, Hiroto; Nakata, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Hisashi; Naito, Yoshiro; Hirota, Seiichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    The yellow plaque has been considered to be a vulnerable and high risk for acute coronary syndrome events but not fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between angioscopic color grade and histological features in coronary autopsy specimens. We longitudinally sectioned 110 coronary arteries from 40 autopsy hearts with non-cardiovascular death. Harvested arteries were imaged with intravascular ultrasound to identify the focal plaque (plaque burden >50 %). An angioscopic examination of each focal plaque evaluated its color intensity as follows: 0 (white), 1 (light yellow), 2 (yellow), or 3 (dark yellow). The corresponding histological assessment was classified according to a modified version of the American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis. Two hundred six plaques were matched to the histological analysis. Of these, 82 (40 %) were categorized as yellow (≥grade 1). Although, yellow plaque often includes thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall diagnostic accuracy for histological TCFA were 83, 91, 22, 99 and 91 %, respectively. The false-positive coronary angioscopic diagnoses for TCFA that contributed to the low positive predictive value consisted of the following plaques: thick FA (>65 μm), accumulations of large quantities of foam cells on the luminal surface, or dense calcified plates at the surface of the intima. Vulnerable coronary plaques were detected with high sensitivity and low positive predictive value from their yellow color on angioscopy. Not only fibroatheroma but also various types of plaques and their components, such as immature lipidic components and superficial calcium plates, appeared yellow on coronary angioscopy. PMID:26873010

  4. Evaluation of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in sodium fluoride-induced behavioural, biochemical, and histopathological alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Bhaskar; Kumar, Ekambaram Prem; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Effect of standardized Bacopa monniera (BM; family: Scrophulariaceae) extract (100 and 300 mg/kg) against sodium fluoride (NaF; 100 and 200 ppm)-induced behavioural, biochemical, and neuropathological alterations in mice was evaluated. Akinesia, rotarod (motor coordination), forced swim test (depression), open field test (anxiety), transfer latency (memory), cholinesterase (ChE), and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation) were determined in mice treated with NaF for 30 days alone and in combination with BM. NaF induced motor incoordination, depression, and memory impairment, and these were prevented by coadministration of BM in mice. However, NaF did not alter the weight gain, feed/water consumption, and anxiety profile. Suppression of ChE levels and increased oxidative stress were observed in mice treated with NaF. Coadministration of BM significantly improved the memory, ChE levels, and antioxidant enzymes but failed to alter the fluoride levels in NaF-treated mice. Histopathological studies revealed that BM protected the neuropathological alterations induced by NaF. PMID:23222693

  5. Histopathological evaluation of gastro protective effect of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds against aspirin induced ulcer in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Wafa; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Khaliq, Tanweer; Muhammad, Faqir; Ali, Asghar; Raza, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole. PMID:26639472

  6. Evaluating for Success. Comprehensive School Reform: An Evaluation Guide for Districts and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchinelli, Louis F.; Barley, Zoe

    This guide is designed to help districts and schools, participating in the federally sponsored Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program, meet the evaluation requirements of the program as well as their own needs for useful evaluation information. Much of the information is applicable to any local jurisdiction engaged in school reform that…

  7. Evaluation of liver histopathology and EROD activity in St. Lawrence lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in comparison with a reference population

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseaux, C.G. ||; Branchaud, A.; Spear, P.A.

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effects of contaminants on the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, fish were netted from two sites: Riviere des Prairies, confluent with the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, and a reference site on the upper reaches of the Ottawa River in the La Verendrye Park. Livers of fish collected from the Riviere des Prairies were difficult to homogenize, and they left behind strands of what appeared to be connective tissue. Suspecting hepatic fibrosis, the authors decided to evaluate the livers for histopathologic changes. Nineteen adult lake sturgeon (eleven male and eight female) were examined. Following fixation, routine processing, sectioning, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin, microscopic evaluation revealed the following: Sections taken from livers of fish from the Riviere des Prairies site showed excessive fat accumulation and often severe chronic-active cholangiohepatitis. Bile duct proliferation (p < 0.0001), periportal fibrosis (p < 0.0001), inflammation (p < 0.001), and fat accumulation (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the fish from the Riviere des Prairies site. Melano-macrophage centers appeared to be both paler and gave the appearance of fewer numbers (p < 0.01). Livers from lake sturgeon taken from the reference site had a more normal appearance. The EROD levels were also significantly induced in these fish (reference 3.39 {+-} 0.57; Riviere des Prairies site 8.21 {+-} 0.87 pmol/mg protein/min; p < 0.0005). The EROD levels positively correlated with bile duct proliferation (r{sup 2} = 0.44; p = 0.001) and periportal fibrosis (r{sup 2} = 0.41; p = 0.002). Despite the statistical associations above, the authors cannot categorically state that contaminants are the sole cause of the lesions seen.

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

    1984-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

  9. Metabolic networks are almost nonfractal: A comprehensive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Network self-similarity or fractality are widely accepted as an important topological property of metabolic networks; however, recent studies cast doubt on the reality of self-similarity in the networks. Therefore, we perform a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic network fractality using a box-covering method with an earlier version and the latest version of metabolic networks and demonstrate that the latest metabolic networks are almost self-dissimilar, while the earlier ones are fractal, as reported in a number of previous studies. This result may be because the networks were randomized because of an increase in network density due to database updates, suggesting that the previously observed network fractality was due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. This finding may not entirely discount the importance of self-similarity of metabolic networks. Rather, it highlights the need for a more suitable definition of network fractality and a more careful examination of self-similarity of metabolic networks.

  10. Evaluating the effects of cognitive support on psychiatric clinical comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Dalai, Venkata V.; Khalid, Sana; Gottipati, Dinesh; Kannampallil, Thomas; John, Vineeth; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla L.; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinicians’ attention is a precious resource, which in the current healthcare practice is consumed by the cognitive demands arising from complex patient conditions, information overload, time pressure, and the need to aggregate and synthesize information from disparate sources. The ability to organize information in ways that facilitate the generation of effective diagnostic solutions is a distinguishing characteristic of expert physicians, suggesting that automated systems that organize clinical information in a similar manner may augment physicians’ decision-making capabilities. In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of a theoretically driven cognitive support system (CSS) that assists psychiatrists in their interpretation of clinical cases. The system highlights, and provides the means to navigate to, text that is organized in accordance with a set of diagnostically and therapeutically meaningful higher-level concepts. Methods and Materials To evaluate the interface, 16 psychiatry residents interpreted two clinical case scenarios, with and without the CSS. Think-aloud protocols captured during their interpretation of the cases were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. In addition, the frequency and relative position of content related to key higher-level concepts in a verbal summary of the case were evaluated. In addition the transcripts from both groups were compared to an expert derived reference standard using latent semantic analysis (LSA). Results Qualitative analysis showed that users of the system better attended to specific clinically important aspects of both cases when these were highlighted by the system, and revealed ways in which the system mediates hypotheses generation and evaluation. Analysis of the summary data showed differences in emphasis with and without the system. The LSA analysis suggested users of the system were more “expert-like” in their emphasis, and that cognitive support was more effective in the

  11. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres. PMID:25712402

  12. Effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of caprine umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing; histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Azari, Omid; Babaei, Homayoon; Derakhshanfar, Amin; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin; Poursahebi, Raheleh; Moshrefi, Mojgan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transplanted Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) of caprine umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing process in goat. After collection of caprine pregnant uterus of mixed breed goats from abattoir, the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of umbilical cord was harvested. The tissues were minced in ventilated flasks and explant culture method was used for separating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The isolated cells were immunostained for Actin protein, histochemically assayed for the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, and analyzed for detection of matrix receptors (CD44) and hematopoetic lineage markers (CD34), using flow cytometery. After The isolated cells, 3×10(6) MSCs were stained with BrdU and prepared for transplantation to each wound. Four 3-cm linear full thickness skin incisions were made on both sides of thoracic vertebrate of four Raeini goats (two wounds on each side). The left wounds were implanted with MSCs in 0.6 ml of Phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and the right wounds considered as control group that received 0.6 ml of PBS. The samples were taken from the wounds 7 and 12 days after the wounding, and healing process was compared histologically between the two groups. Anti-BrdU staining showed that the transplanted cells were still alive in the wound bed during the study. The histopathological study revealed that re-epithelialization was complete at days 7 in treated wounds with WJMSCs, whereas in control wound the wounds still showed incomplete epithelialization 12 days after wounding. Also, microscopic evaluation showed less inflammation, thinner granulation tissue formation with minimum scar in the treated wounds in comparison with control wounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the beneficial effect of caprine WJMSCs in cutaneous wound healing in goat. PMID:21340694

  13. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Disease Phenotype Networks for Gene Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Lin, Xiaoyan; Teng, Yueyang; Qi, Shouliang; Xiao, Dayu; Zhang, Jianying; Kang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Identification of disease-causing genes is a fundamental challenge for human health studies. The phenotypic similarity among diseases may reflect the interactions at the molecular level, and phenotype comparison can be used to predict disease candidate genes. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a database of human genetic diseases and related genes that has become an authoritative source of disease phenotypes. However, disease phenotypes have been described by free text; thus, standardization of phenotypic descriptions is needed before diseases can be compared. Several disease phenotype networks have been established in OMIM using different standardization methods. Two of these networks are important for phenotypic similarity analysis: the first and most commonly used network (mimMiner) is standardized by medical subject heading, and the other network (resnikHPO) is the first to be standardized by human phenotype ontology. This paper comprehensively evaluates for the first time the accuracy of these two networks in gene prioritization based on protein–protein interactions using large-scale, leave-one-out cross-validation experiments. The results show that both networks can effectively prioritize disease-causing genes, and the approach that relates two diseases using a logistic function improves prioritization performance. Tanimoto, one of four methods for normalizing resnikHPO, generates a symmetric network and it performs similarly to mimMiner. Furthermore, an integration of these two networks outperforms either network alone in gene prioritization, indicating that these two disease networks are complementary. PMID:27415759

  14. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Interim Report. NCEE 2010-4033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek; Sipe, Cynthia L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This first of two reports presents early findings from the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers (Comprehensive Centers), a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. The law authorizing the Comprehensive Centers, the…

  15. Perception of School Teachers with Reference to Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manichander, T.; Brindhamani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation refers to a system of school-based evaluation of students that covers all aspects of students' development. The main purpose of this study was to find out teachers' perception about the scheme of continuous and comprehensive evaluation and the problems they faced while its execution in the school system. The…

  16. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task: Comprehension Predicts Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret; Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the challenges inherent in measuring comprehension have impeded our ability to predict the course of language acquisition. The present research reports on a longitudinal assessment of the convergent and predictive validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Gestures (CDI: WG; Fenson et al.,…

  17. A prospective evaluation of the impact of second-opinion histopathology on diagnostic testing, cost and treatment in dogs and cats with cancer.

    PubMed

    Regan, R C; Rassnick, K M; Malone, E K; McDonough, S P

    2015-06-01

    Second-opinion histopathology is a common practice in human medicine to avoid unnecessary procedures, costs and to optimize therapy. Histopathology review has been recommended in veterinary oncology as well. In this prospective evaluation of 52 tumours over a 1-year period, there was diagnostic agreement between first and second opinions in 52% of cases. Twenty-nine percent of cases had partial diagnostic disagreement, most often a change in grade, tumour subtype or margin status. Nineteen percent had complete diagnostic disagreement, including a change in cell of origin or a change from benign to malignant. Minor disagreements, which would not affect treatment or prognosis, were present in 21% of cases. Major disagreements, which would affect either treatment or prognosis, were present in 37% of cases. Costs of ideal staging and treatment recommendations were considerably different between first and second opinions. PMID:23421645

  18. Young Speakers' Evaluations of Their Listener's Comprehension in a Referential Communication Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Flavell, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates children's knowledge of the role of message quality in referential communication and their ability to evaluate the accuracy of a listener's feedback about his/her comprehension. Children evaluated a puppet listener's comprehension after they had given complete or inadequate directions and received his report that he did or did not…

  19. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Learning Tools and Educational Software (CEELTES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolcík, Štefan; Cipková, Elena; Hrušecký, Roman; Veselský, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that digital technologies are more and more used in the learning and education process, there is still lack of professional evaluation tools capable of assessing the quality of used digital teaching aids in a comprehensive and objective manner. Construction of the Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Learning Tools and…

  20. Quantitative, Notional, and Comprehensive Evaluations of Spontaneous Engaged Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molholt, Garry; Cabrera, Maria Jose; Kumar, V. K.; Thompsen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This study provides specific evidence regarding the extent to which quantitative measures, common sense notional measures, and comprehensive measures adequately characterize spontaneous, although engaged, speech. As such, the study contributes to the growing body of literature describing the current limits of automatic systems for evaluating…

  1. Exploring the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for the evaluation of liver toxicity by histopathology and expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Marja; Kienhuis, Anne S; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Pronk, Tessa E; van de Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Roodbergen, Marianne; Spaink, Herman P; van de Water, Bob; van der Ven, Leo T M

    2013-05-01

    The whole zebrafish embryo model (ZFE) has proven its applicability in developmental toxicity testing. Since functional hepatocytes are already present from 36 h post fertilization onwards, whole ZFE have been proposed as an attractive alternative to mammalian in vivo models in hepatotoxicity testing. The goal of the present study is to further underpin the applicability of whole ZFE for hepatotoxicity testing by combining histopathology and next-generation sequencing-based gene expression profiling. To this aim, whole ZFE and adult zebrafish were exposed to a set of hepatotoxic reference compounds. Histopathology revealed compound and life-stage-specific effects indicative of toxic injury in livers of whole ZFE and adult zebrafish. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to compare transcript profiles in pooled individual RNA samples of whole ZFE and livers of adult zebrafish. This revealed that hepatotoxicity-associated expression can be detected beyond the overall transcription noise in the whole embryo. In situ hybridization verified liver specificity of selected highly expressed markers in whole ZFE. Finally, cyclosporine A (CsA) was used as an illustrative case to support applicability of ZFE in hepatotoxicity testing by comparing CsA-induced gene expression between ZFE, in vivo mouse liver and HepaRG cells on the levels of single genes, pathways and transcription factors. While there was no clear overlap on single gene level between the whole ZFE and in vivo mouse liver, strong similarities were observed between whole ZFE and in vivo mouse liver in regulated pathways related to hepatotoxicity, as well as in relevant overrepresented transcription factors. In conclusion, both the use of NGS of pooled RNA extracts analysis combined with histopathology and traditional microarray in single case showed the potential to detect liver-related genes and processes within the transcriptome of a whole zebrafish embryo. This supports the applicability of the whole ZFE

  2. Monitoring impacts of air pollution: PIXE analysis and histopathological modalities in evaluating relative risks of elemental contamination.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Camer, Gerry Amor; Anwar, Khaleeq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Environmental toxicants invariably affect all biological organisms resulting to sufferings ranging from subclinical to debilitating clinical conditions. This novel research aimed to determine the toxic burdens of increased environmental elements in some vital organs/tissues of the wild animals (starling, owl, crow and pigeon), exposed to air polluted environment were assessed using particle induced X-ray emission and histopathological approaches. The presence of significantly elevated amounts of elemental toxicants namely: Aluminum (Al), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Vanadium (V) from the skin, muscle, lungs, liver and kidney of sampled animals were in concurrence with the observed histopathological changes. The skin of sampled starling, owl, pigeon and crow spotlighted highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in Al, Cl, Mg and Si. Muscle samples with myodegenerative lesions and mineral depositions highlighted substantial augmentation (P < 0.001) in the amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Si and V. The lungs of starling, owl, and pigeon were severely intoxicated (P < 0.001) with increased amount of Al, Fe, K, Mn and Si producing pulmonary lesions of congestion, edema, pneumonitis and mineral debris depositions. Liver samples revealed that the sampled animals were laden with Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and V with histopathological profound degenerative changes and hepatic necrosis. Kidney sections presented severe tubular degenerative and necrotic changes that may be attributed to increased amounts of Cl and Fe. These current findings implied that the environmental/elemental toxicants and the accompanying lesions that were discerned in the organs/tissues of sampled birds may as well be afflicting people living within the polluted area. Further assessment to more conclusively demonstrate correlations of current findings to those of the populace within the area is encouraged. PMID:24468923

  3. Evaluation of Eleventh Grade Turkish Pupils' Comprehension of General Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate eleventh grade Turkish pupils' comprehension of various general chemistry concepts which in turn enables to investigate chemistry concepts which are easier and harder for students to comprehend. Examining the effect of gender and last semester chemistry course grades on pupils' comprehension of general…

  4. Evaluation of Attention Training and Metacognitive Facilitation to Improve Reading Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaime B.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week…

  5. A comprehensive process evaluation of a community based participatory research intervention, Fit for Life Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive process evaluation of Fit for Life Steps (FFLS), a community based participatory research (CBPR) influenced intervention focused on improving physical activity and health in residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta. A comprehensive framework f...

  6. Essential Components of a Comprehensive Faculty Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul A.

    In response to an increasing demand for faculty evaluation, focus is on elements of a successful evaluation program. It is suggested that faculty must be consulted in order to arrive at a mutually agreed upon structure, incorporating such areas as which sources should provide the information or data on which the evaluation will be based. Another…

  7. A Comprehensive Approach To Critically Evaluate an Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachimowicz, Ruth A.; Lee, David Y.

    1999-01-01

    At Illinois College of Optometry a peer-review committee evaluates the exams of both basic science and clinical courses to provide an objective means of evaluating a faculty member's teaching ability. Five aspects of the exam (content, construction, statistical analysis, adjusted questions, instructor's rationale) are evaluated to determine the…

  8. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation in a Preclinical Restorative Dentistry Technique Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugars, Daniel A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A student evaluation system is described that maximizes characteristics of formative evaluation, uses multiple forms of assessment to evaluate competency, and provides timely and detailed feedback and opportunities for remediation. Student and faculty opinions of the program have been positive. (Author/MSE)

  10. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality. PMID:25938696

  11. Histopathological evaluation of potential impact of β-tricalcium phosphate (HA+ β-TCP) granules on healing of segmental femur bone defect.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, H; Farahpour, M R; Rabiee, S M

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological evaluation of β-tricalcium phosphate (HA+ β-TCP) granules demonstrated that it has properties to heal segmental femur bone defect in rat. In this study, 27 male white rats were examined. Rats were divided into tree groups. Surgical procedures were done after IP administration of ketamine 5 % and xylazine HCL 2 %. Then an approximately 5-mm long, 3-mm deep and 2-mm wide bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs using a No. 0.14 round bur. After inducing the surgical wound, all rats were colored and randomly divided into three experimental groups of nine animals each: Group 1 received medical pure β-tricalcium phosphate granules, group 2 received hydroxyapatite and third group was a control group with no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30 and 45 after surgery. On day 45 after surgery, the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the healing site in β-TCP group was better than onward compared to HA and control groups. In conclusion, β-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules exhibited a reproducible bone-healing potential (Fig. 10, Ref. 28). PMID:25666959

  12. Prospective evaluation of potential toxicity of repeated doses of Thymus vulgaris L. extracts in rats by means of clinical chemistry, histopathology and NMR-based metabonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Benourad, Fouzia; Kahvecioglu, Zehra; Youcef-Benkada, Mokhtar; Colet, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    In the field of natural extracts, research generally focuses on the study of their biological activities for food, cosmetic, or pharmacological purposes. The evaluation of their adverse effects is often overlooked. In this study, the extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. were obtained by two different extraction methods. Intraperitoneal injections of both extracts were given daily for four days to male Wistar Han rats, at two different doses for each extract. The evaluation of the potential toxic effects included histopathological examination of liver, kidney, and lung tissues, as well as serum biochemistry of liver and kidney parameters, and (1)H-NMR-based metabonomic profiles of urine. The results showed that no histopathological changes were observed in the liver and kidney in rats treated with both extracts of thyme. Serum biochemical investigations revealed significant increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid in animals treated with polyphenolic extract at both doses. In these latter groups, metabonomic analysis revealed alterations in a number of urine metabolites involved in the energy metabolism in liver mitochondria. Indeed, the results showed alterations of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and β-oxidative pathways as evidenced by increases in lactate and ketone bodies, and decreases in citrate, α-ketoglutarate, creatinine, hippurate, dimethylglycine, and dimethyalanine. In conclusion, this work showed that i.p. injection of repeated doses of thyme extracts causes some disturbances of intermediary metabolism in rats. The metabonomic study revealed interesting data which could be further used to determine the cellular pathways affected by such treatments. PMID:24574060

  13. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  14. Developing a Comprehensive Faculty Evaluation System: A Handbook for College Faculty and Administrators on Designing and Operating a Comprehensive Faculty Evaluation System. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul A.

    This handbook offers a practical model for developing a comprehensive faculty evaluation system that responds to the specific needs, concerns, and characteristics of faculty and administration in an individual academic unit. The eight steps of the model are: (1) determining the faculty role model; (2) determining faculty role model parameter…

  15. Developing a Comprehensive Faculty Evaluation System: A Handbook for College Faculty and Administrators on Designing and Operating a Comprehensive Faculty Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul A.

    This handbook provides a practical model for developing and using a comprehensive faculty evaluating system that responds to the specific needs, concerns, and characteristics of the faculty and administration of an individual academic unit. It outlines an eight-step procedure that focuses on the determination of: (1) the faculty role model; (2)…

  16. Source Evaluation, Comprehension, and Learning in Internet Science Inquiry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Jennifer; Goldman, Susan R.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ash, Ivan K.; Hemmerich, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates' evaluation and use of multiple Internet sources during a science inquiry task were examined. In Experiment 1, undergraduates had the task of explaining what caused the eruption of Mt. St. Helens using the results of an Internet search. Multiple regression analyses indicated that source evaluation significantly…

  17. Strategy for Developing a Comprehensive Faculty Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a variety of examples for developing a faculty evaluation system and gathering data about faculty members' activities. An equation is given that can be used to compute merit pay. The system for evaluation is designed to promote individualization in many settings. (SA)

  18. Program Evaluation Theory and Practice: A Comprehensive Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; Wilson, Amy T.

    2012-01-01

    This engaging text takes an evenhanded approach to major theoretical paradigms in evaluation and builds a bridge from them to evaluation practice. Featuring helpful checklists, procedural steps, provocative questions that invite readers to explore their own theoretical assumptions, and practical exercises, the book provides concrete guidance for…

  19. Creating a Comprehensive System for Evaluating and Supporting Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Virtually everyone agrees that teacher evaluation in the United States needs an overhaul. Existing systems rarely help teachers improve or clearly distinguish those who are succeeding from those who are struggling. The tools that are used do not always represent the important features of good teaching. Criteria and methods for evaluating teachers…

  20. Histopathology and the future

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    A plea is made for a revolution in diagnostic histopathology. In the present account a brief analysis is given of the drawbacks to existing methods used in the histopathological laboratory and suggestions are made for research in those methods which could lead to progress in the speed and sensitivity of diagnosis and to great economies in histopathological practice. The abolition or replacement of certain techniques used at present is proposed. PMID:4912667

  1. Developing a Comprehensive Teaching Evaluation System for Foundation Courses with Enhanced Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yueyu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at developing a comprehensive teaching evaluation system, a more useful educational technology, for achieving relatively reliable and valid results that can be well acknowledged by instructors, students, and by administrators. Adopting multi-method approaches, the study integrates student evaluation, expert evaluation and regular…

  2. Interim Outcomes Assessment of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolls, Dorothy Bazzinotti; Carlson, Nancy; Wilson, Roger; Richman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the viability of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation, introduced at The New England College of Optometry in 1996 in clinical student assessment. Analyzed faculty and student feedback and consistency with previous evaluations, between evaluators, and between clinical sites and tracts. Found satisfaction with…

  3. Evaluation of Hearing Impaired Student's Reading Comprehension with the Cloze Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgin, Umit

    2007-01-01

    Different evaluation methods are applied in order to determine and develop the skills used for reading comprehension. Cloze is an informal evaluation method which is used to determine students' current reading knowledge, to develop their focusing skills on contextual cues and to enhance critical reading. Cloze involves evaluating readers' prior…

  4. Objective and Comprehensive Evaluation of Bisulfite Short Read Mapping Tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries). We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes), usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data. PMID:24839440

  5. Objective and comprehensive evaluation of bisulfite short read mapping tools.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hong; Porter, Jacob; Sun, Ming-An; Xie, Hehuang; Zhang, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries). We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes), usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data. PMID:24839440

  6. Educational Accountability and the Need for Comprehensive Evaluation in TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, J. L.

    This paper seeks to provide a rationale for evaluating Technical and Further Education (TAFE) programs by using a management system approach that is based on corporate planning. The first section reviews the sources of increased demands for accountability in TAFE (societal, economic, government, and legislative sources) and examines various…

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of the 1996 Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.

    The Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction (ITI) Project was a 2-year project aimed at determining the effects of ITI on teaching and learning and at validating the effectiveness of a professional development model to facilitate development, implementation, and evaluation of ITI. Through summer institutes and onsite workshops, project staff provided…

  8. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Yellow-flowering Magnolias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. All selections were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color in this test ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration to dark yellow. The darkest...

  9. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF A FIELD TEST KIT FOR LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hach Lead-Trak(R) test kit for lead in water was tested in a laboratory evaluation. onsidered were: perator bias, precision, accuracy, linear calibration range, and potential drinking water interferences. nterferences tested were realistic levels off: a, Mg, Ni, Sb, Mn, Cd, C...

  10. Children's Effective Use of Multiple Standards for Evaluating Their Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Linda

    1984-01-01

    Children 5, 7, 9, and 11 years old were presented short narrative passages imbedded with three types of problems which could only be identified by using three specific evaluation standards. Although older children used standards more effectively, overall problem identification was considerably better than that reported in noninstructed settings.…

  11. Enhanced Histopathology of the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The spleen is the largest secondary lymphoid organ, is considered the draining site for compounds that are administered intravenously, and is therefore considered an important organ to evaluate for treatment-related lesions. Due to the presence of B and T lymphocytes, the immunotoxic effects of xenobiotics or their metabolites on these cell populations may be reflected in the spleen. Therefore it is one of the recommended organs to evaluate for enhanced histopathology of the immune system. The two major functional zones of the spleen are the hematogenous red pulp and the lymphoid white pulp (periarteriolar sheaths, follicles and marginal zones). For enhanced histopathology, these splenic compartments should be evaluated separately for changes in size and cellularity, and descriptive rather than interpretive terminology should be used to characterize any changes (Haley et al., 2005). Moreover, germinal center development within the lymphoid follicles should be noted as increased or decreased. PMID:17067950

  12. Effects of subchronic exposure to lead acetate and cadmium chloride on rat's bone: Ca and Pi contents, bone density, and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongke; Yuan, Guiping; Yin, Zhongqiong; Dai, Shujun; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Lv, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of low-dose subchronic exposure to lead acetate (Pb(NO₃)₂) and cadmium chloride (CdCl₂·2.5H₂O) on bone in rats. The rats were assigned randomly to a control group and three experimental groups that were given the mixture of Pb(NO₃)₂ and CdCl₂·2.5H₂O by gastric gavage at doses of 0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) (Group I, to serve as a control), 29.96 mg/kg b.w. (Group II, 29.25+0.71), 89.88 mg/kg b.w. (Group III, 87.74+2.14), and 269.65 mg/kg b.w. (Group IV, 263.23+6.42) for at least 90 consecutive days. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Pi) contents in the bone were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the tibia and femur region by dual-energy X-ray absorbsiometry. The histopathology of bone was evaluated by light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The BMD of rats in the experimental group was significantly lower and the contents of Ca and Pi were decreased than those in the control group. The histopathological evaluation showed that co-induction of Pb and Cd results in bone microstructure damage, especially to trabecular bone, marrow cavity, collagen fiber, and osteoblast. In general, results indicate that combining Pb with Cd induces bone damage and increases the risk of osteoporosis. PMID:24551284

  13. Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

  14. Comprehensive non-clinical respiratory evaluation of promising new drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Dennis J. . E-mail: dennis.j.murphy@GSK.com

    2005-09-01

    The need to evaluate the potential for new drugs to produce adverse effects on respiratory function in non-clinical safety assessment is based on the known effects of drugs from a variety of pharmacological/therapeutic classes on the respiratory system, the life-threatening consequences of respiratory dysfunction, and compliance with world-wide regulatory safety guidelines. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the functional disorders of the respiratory system and to present the strategy and techniques considered to be most appropriate for detecting and characterizing drug-induced respiratory disorders in non-clinical safety studies.

  15. Comprehensive Support Services Program for Serving Pupils with Special Educational Needs, 1975 - 1976. Report and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Sarah H.

    Presented are a description and evaluation report of the Comprehensive Support Services Program (CSSP), a regional effort by seven New York school districts to identify, evaluate, and provide supplemental educational support for learning disabled students with special educational needs through a multi-disciplinary team in each school. Summarized…

  16. Evaluation of Comprehensive Treatment Models for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hall, Laura J.; Hume, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Multiple dimensions of comprehensive treatment models (CTMs) for learners with autism were evaluated in this study. The purpose of the study was to provide evaluative information upon which service providers, family members, and researchers could make decisions about model adoption, selection for a family member, or future research. Thirty CTMs…

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture parameters by dual laterolog data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboorian-Jooybari, Hadi; Dejam, Morteza; Chen, Zhangxin; Pourafshary, Peyman

    2016-08-01

    Reservoir quality and productivity of tight formations depend heavily on the degree of fracture development. In fact, hard and dense carbonate formations may not be considered as net pay without the presence of fractures that convey fluids towards the wellbore. The evaluation of fractures is key to effective reservoir characterization for purposes like well drilling and completion as well as development and simulation of fractured reservoirs. Although imaging technologies such as Formation Micro-Scanners and Imagers (FMS and FMI) provide useful information about fracture properties (i.e., dip angle, porosity, aperture, and permeability), they are very expensive and may not be available in all wells. In this work, fracture parameters are estimated using conventional dual laterolog (DLL) resistivity which includes shallow (LLS) and deep (LLD) responses. This technique is based on electrical resistivity anomalies resulting from the separation of shallow and deep laterolog curves. Fracture parameters that can be calculated by DLL include dip angle, aperture, porosity, permeability, and cementation factor. The accuracy of the parameters calculated using DLL data is validated by the results of FMI in a well in one of the Iranian fractured reservoirs. Contrary to the image logs, the conventional DLL is run routinely in all drilled wells. Therefore, if a reservoir has limited and insufficient data of image logs, as it is often the case, the DLLs can be used as a reliable replacement in the construction of fracture models. Furthermore, DLL has an advantage of deeper evaluation of fractures in comparison with the immediate borehole investigation of image logs.

  18. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. Methods In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150–200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. Result The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. Conclusions To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196 PMID:23866960

  19. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2mg) exposure for 12-120h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin of both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12-24h); however, at later time points (72 and 120h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both the mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM. PMID:24373750

  20. Evaluation of Gastric Lesions Based on Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter-Like Organisms (HLOs) in Cats; A Histopathological and Bacteriological Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Farhang; Javanbakht, Javad; Kabir, Farrokh Reza; Agha Mohammad Hassan, Mehdi; Pashaei, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The lesions induced by Helicobacter pylori in a candidate animal model should always be examined thoroughly. The resemblance of these lesions to those observed in humans can indicate whether the usage of this model will contribute to the understanding of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of human H. pylori-associated diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to perform a histopathological and bacteriological evaluation of gastric lesions based on H. pylori and Helicobacter-like organisms (HLOs) in cats. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 28 cat’s (13 male and 15 female cases) gastric mucosae, which were tested by bacteriological and histopathological methods. Biochemical tests such as catalase, oxidase and urease were utilized in addition to Gram and Giemsa staining. Results: This research demonstrated that solely one case of H. pylori was isolated by gastric mucosal culture. Microscopically, the infected stomachs by HLOs comprised a mild to severe diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration into the subglandular and gastric mucosa. Lymphoid follicles were also marked, particularly within pyloric tissues and mostly in displaced mucosal glands. For 75% of the gastritis cases, both HLOs and rapid urease tests were positive, whereas 83% of cases were more than one-year-old with gastritis. Furthermore, 75% of cats indicated gastritis, though 25% encompassed no gastritis; hence 20% had negative results for the rapid urease test and 25% for the Giemsa staining test. Such results may indicate that cats without gastritis were considered as free of HLOs pathogenic bacteria. Conclusions: These results suggest that most cases of gastritis were located in the antral region. Additionally, the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats raises the possibility of zoonotic characteristics for the slightly pathogen; therefore transmission occurs from cats to human and vice versa. PMID:25371810

  1. Orientation of histopathology specimens.

    PubMed

    Burns, A; Adams, J; Endersby, S

    2004-02-01

    We present a simple way of orientating large specimens being sent to the laboratory for histopathological examination by supplementing the pinning of the specimen on a cork board with Polaroid photographs of the specimen and numbered tags. PMID:14706306

  2. Cutaneous Phototoxicity: Clinical Observations versus Histopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Learn, Douglas B; Elliott, Michelle W

    2016-06-01

    Determination of test material-induced cutaneous phototoxicity for risk assessment has traditionally been based on visually observed skin reactions such as erythema, edema, and flaking. Because of its role in determining a toxic effect, the use of histopathological evaluation in this determination arises from time to time. However, there is little published information regarding the time course and types of histopathologic changes in the skin after test material-induced phototoxic insult nor any regulatory requirement or precedent for its use. This work evaluated both the visual and histopathological time course of the phototoxic response of the skin of the Long-Evans rat after oral administration of the phototoxins sparfloxacin and 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP) followed by a single exposure to solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation. Both sparfloxacin and 8-MOP elicited visual cutaneous reactions and microscopic changes consistent with a phototoxic response. The visually observed cutaneous time course and elicited histopathologic changes differed in response and extent for each phototoxin, but in both instances, microscopic evaluation did not alter the determination of a phototoxic response based on visual observations. These results indicate that, though histopathologic evaluations may have value for investigating mechanisms of phototoxicity, histopathologic evaluation of the skin is not warranted for determination of phototoxic potential in safety assessment intended for regulatory submission. PMID:27073086

  3. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. Executive Summary. NCEE 2011-4032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  4. PAVEd for Success: An Evaluation of a Comprehensive Preliteracy Program for Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Claire E.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Bradley, Barbara A.; Webb, Mi-Young

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of "PAVEd for Success," comprehensive preliteracy program guidelines to support the development of foundational preliteracy skills in 4 year olds. Prekindergarten teachers received professional development on variables of the program that included a summer institute, after-school…

  5. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Professional Development Software: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaupsin, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the development of professional development software for special education teachers reviews the literature to (1) consolidate the database of literature regarding professional development software; (2) examine the degree to which the described software has been comprehensively evaluated; and (3) provide suggestions for future…

  6. Comprehensive Model for Planning and Evaluating Secondary Vocational Education Programs in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, William L.

    A comprehensive model for planning and evaluating secondary vocational education programs in Georgia was developed to assist the state's vocational supervisors and directors in planning and improving vocational programs so as to make them more effective in enhancing students' basic and employability skills. The model is based on the following…

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical. PMID:25605265

  8. Forming a Belief: The Contribution of Comprehension to the Evaluation and Persuasive Impact of Argumentative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.; Christodoulou, Stelios A.; Floros, Georgios; Iordanou, Kalypso; Kargopoulos, Philip V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown substantial belief change as a result of reading text and the pervasive influence of prior belief in the evaluation of short arguments. Both outcomes have been attributed to the depth to which the text or the argument has been processed. This study brings together critical thinking and text comprehension research by…

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Supreme Court's "Forest Grove" Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    The article by Dixon, Eusebio, Turton, Wright, and Hale is entitled "Forest Grove School District v. T.A. Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice." Its implications are that a "comprehensive evaluation" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires assessment of the child's…

  10. National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4031

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.; White, Richard N.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Riley, Derek L.; Pistorino, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This final report presents findings from a multi-year evaluation of the Comprehensive Technical Assistance Centers, a federally funded program that provides technical assistance to states in connection with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. With the redesign of the Center…

  11. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: I. Theory and Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a project that proposes and tests a comprehensive and systematic model of user evaluation of Web search engines. This article describes the model, including a set of criteria and measures and a method for implementation. A literature review portrays settings for developing the model and places applications of the model in contemporary…

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Control Continuing Education Course in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Kirsten E.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Drope, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: To respond to the increasing need to build capacity for planning, implementing, and supporting tobacco control strategies, an evidence-based, online continuing education (CE) course aimed at Canadian public health professionals was developed. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the course, Tobacco and Public…

  13. The Research and Evaluation of Serious Games: Toward a Comprehensive Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Igor; Bekebrede, Geertje; Harteveld, Casper; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi; van Ruijven, Theo; Lo, Julia; Kortmann, Rens; Wenzler, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the methodological background to and underlying research design of an ongoing research project on the scientific evaluation of serious games and/or computer-based simulation games (SGs) for advanced learning. The main research questions are: (1) what are the requirements and design principles for a comprehensive social…

  14. Teaching Fourth and Fifth Graders to Evaluate Information Sources during Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Britt, M. Anne; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue.…

  15. Audit and Evaluation of the Georgia Comprehensive Career Guidance Project, Grades 7-12. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    An external evaluation was conducted to assess the training packages developed by the Georgia Comprehensive Career Guidance Project (see CE 018 130 for the final report of this project). Three secondary staff development training packages (Educational Environment, CE 018 154; Work and Leisure Environments, CE 018 161; and Human Relations, CE 018…

  16. Evaluating the extent of cell death in 3D high frequency ultrasound by registration with whole-mount tumor histopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, Roxana M.; Kolios, Michael C.; Moseley, Joanne L.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: High frequency ultrasound imaging, 10-30 MHz, has the capability to assess tumor response to radiotherapy in mouse tumors as early as 24 h after treatment administration. The advantage of this technique is that the image contrast is generated by changes in the physical properties of dying cells. Therefore, a subject can be imaged before and multiple times during the treatment without the requirement of injecting specialized contrast agents. This study is motivated by a need to provide metrics of comparison between the volume and localization of cell death, assessed from histology, with the volume and localization of cell death surrogate, assessed as regions with increased echogeneity from ultrasound images. Methods: The mice were exposed to radiation doses of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Ultrasound images were collected from each tumor before and 24 h after exposure to radiation using a broadband 25 MHz center frequency transducer. After radiotherapy, tumors exhibited hyperechoic regions in ultrasound images that corresponded to areas of cell death in histology. The ultrasound and histological images were rigidly registered. The tumors and regions of cell death were manually outlined on histological images. Similarly, the tumors and hyperechoic regions were outlined on the ultrasound images. Each set of contours was converted to a volumetric mesh in order to compare the volumes and the localization of cell death in histological and ultrasound images. Results: A shrinkage factor of 17{+-}2% was calculated from the difference in the tumor volumes evaluated from histological and ultrasound images. This was used to correct the tumor and cell death volumes assessed from histology. After this correction, the average absolute difference between the volume of cell death assessed from ultrasound and histological images was 11{+-}14% and the volume overlap was 70{+-}12%. Conclusions: The method provided metrics of comparison between the volume of cell death assessed from

  17. Long-Term Histopathologic and IVUS Evaluations of a Novel Coiled Sheet Stent in Porcine Carotid Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Hideaki; Ikeno, Fumiaki Lyons, Jennifer; Rezaee, Mehrdad; Yeung, Alan C.; Fitzgerald, Peter J.

    2006-06-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stent placement has been proposed as an alternative method for revascularization of carotid artery stenosis. A novel stent with a laser-cut, rolled sheet of Nitinol (EndoTex Interventional Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA) has been developed to customize treatment of stenotic lesions in carotid arteries utilizing a single stent, designed to adapt to multiple diameters and to tapered or nontapered configurations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the conformability and vascular response to a novel stent in a chronic porcine carotid model using serial three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis as well as histological examination. Ten Yucatan pigs underwent stent implantation in both normal carotid arteries with adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Three-dimensional IVUS analysis was performed before stent implantation, after adjunctive balloon angioplasty, and at follow-up [1 month (n = 6), 3 months (n = 6), or 6 months (n = 8)]. Histological examination (injury score, percent plaque obstruction, and qualitative analysis) was also performed. All stents were successfully deployed and well apposed in different sized vessels (lumen area range: 19-30 mm{sup 2}). Volumetric IVUS analysis showed no significant difference between the lumen areas before stent implantation and after adjunctive balloon angioplasty and no stent area change at each follow-up point compared to immediately postprocedure. Histological examination revealed minimal injury and neointimal hyperplasia at each follow-up point. In the chronic porcine carotid model, the novel stent system demonstrated good conformability, resulting in minimal vessel injury and neointimal formation.

  18. Research on the Construction Method of Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Geographic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, S. H.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhang, Z. H.; Jiao, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    This article proposes a construction method for a comprehensive geographic conditions evaluation index based on geographic conditions survey data combined with thematic data on society, economy, ecology and population. This article constructs a three-level evaluation framework composed of index level, object level and factor level from the perspectives of ecological coordination, urban development, regional economic potential and basic public services, studies a method of acquiring all-level factor data on geographic conditions and discusses the comprehensive evaluation factor system of geographic conditions. The components of the all-level index are selected through principal component analysis, and iterative analysis is performed by innovatively setting conditions to ensure the independence of the factors and establish an evaluation factor set for geographic conditions. The weighting for the all-level index is obtained through the analytic hierarchy process resulting in the index of geographic conditions. From the perspective of geographic conditions, this article makes a dynamic and quantitative evaluation of national conditions and strengths to provide a reference basis for regional sustainable development and governmental management decisions. By using the method, this article first obtains the index of geographic conditions of Q city with comprehensive evaluation and analysis to verify the objectivity and scientific nature of the method and expand and deepen the application of survey data on geographic conditions.

  19. Comprehensive measurement and evaluation system of high-speed motorized spindle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dashuai; Wu, Liangsheng; Xiao, Yichuan

    2011-06-01

    Reducing the manufacturing time is the trend of high-precision manufacturing, and the precision of a work-piece is very important for manufacturing industry. The high-speed motorized spindle is the most critical part and becoming more widely used in the machine tool at present, and its precision may affect the overall performance of high-speed cutting. Most of the studies on high-speed cutting are focused on the cutting force, the vibration of the spindle and effects of the spindle's thermal deformations; hence, how to roundly measure and objectively evaluate high-speed spindle is an imminence question of it because the comprehensive dynamic properties and evaluation system of spindles directly affect the cutting ability of the whole machine tool before they are manufactured. This paper presents a comprehensive measurement and evaluation system of high-speed motorized spindle, which reflects the overall performance of motorized spindle and bases on international standard.

  20. The Evaluation of the Universities' Science and Technology Comprehensive Strength Based on Management Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baiqing; Li, Yange; Zhang, Lin

    This paper proposes the evaluation methods of Universities’ science and technology, which can eliminate the advantage and disadvantage effects between the objective being evaluated, truly reflect the improvement of science and technology comprehensive strength, due to the subjective efforts, and very fair and objective. Management efficiency methods make universities be in a difficult condition, which is beneficial to university manager to find differences and improve management condition duo to the dynamic changes of the benchmark indexes and present indexes of the colleges and universities’ science and technology comprehensive strength. It is showed that management efficiency methods have impact of incentive on the all universities, and have a broad application prospect in the area of performance evaluation.

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation and Analysis of China's Mainstream Online Map Service Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.; Wang, Q.; Gu, X.

    2012-08-01

    With the flourish development of China's Internet market, all kinds of users for map service demand is rising continually, within it contains tremendous commercial interests. Many internet giants have got involved in the field of online map service, and defined it as an important strategic product of the company. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate these online map service websites comprehensively with a model, and analyse the problems according to the evaluation results. Then some corresponding solving measures are proposed, which provides a theoretical and application guidance for the future development of fiercely competitive online map websites. The research consists of three stages: (a) the mainstream online map service websites in China are introduced and the present situation of them is analysed through visit, investigation, consultant, analysis and research. (b) a whole comprehensive evaluation quota system of online map service websites from the view of functions, layout, interaction design color position and so on, combining with the data indexes such as time efficiency, accuracy, objectivity and authority. (c) a comprehensive evaluation to these online map service websites is proceeded based on the fuzzy evaluation mathematical model, and the difficulty that measure the map websites quantitatively is solved.

  2. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621

  3. Diode laser (808 nm) applied to oral soft tissue lesions: a retrospective study to assess histopathological diagnosis and evaluate physical damage.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Parma, Luisa; Crippa, Rolando; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    The diode laser is today widely used in oral pathology to excise lesions; however, some controversy surrounds laser surgery, specifically the accuracy of pathological diagnosis and the control over thermal tissue damage. This study aimed to establish if physical damage induced by the diode laser could affect the histopathological diagnosis and to evaluate the damage caused to the resection margins. Between 2005 and 2010, at S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan, 608 cases of soft tissue lesions localized in the oral cavity (cheek, gingiva, buccal mucosa, tongue, and lips) were examined. Specimens were excised with an 808-nm diode laser, output 1.6-2.7 W, in continuous-wave mode with fibers of 320 μm. Specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution and examined separately under an optical microscope by two pathologists. In all of the specimens, changes to the epithelium, connective tissue and blood vessels, shape of incision damage, and overall width of modified tissues were evaluated. The data for specimens larger than 3 mm excised with the diode laser were not significant in terms of stromal changes or vascular stasis, while epithelial and stromal changes were significantly more frequent in specimens with a mean size below 3 mm; the diagnosis was not achievable in 46.15%. Our data show that the diode laser is a valid therapeutic instrument for excising oral lesions larger than 3 mm in diameter, but induces serious thermal effects in small lesions (mean size below 3 mm). However, from a clinical standpoint, it is suggested necessary that the specimens taken have in vivo a diameter of at least 5 mm in order to have a reliable reading of the histological sample. PMID:21387158

  4. Research on Comprehensive Evaluation of Knowledge Capital of Power Enterprise Based on Membership Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligen, Yao; Miaomiao, Li

    Based on the knowledge capital theory, the article attempts to conduct a research on the evaluation of the electric power enterprise's knowledge capital. Firstly this paper explained the theory of knowledge capital, and analyzed the particularity of the power enterprise. Then we constructed an evaluation index system on the basis of structure of knowledge capital and also established a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on membership conversion. The case presented proves that this model is feasible and simple and the result of appraisal is practical and reliable.

  5. Adding New Dimensions to Case Study Evaluations: The Case of Evaluating Comprehensive Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Davis, Darnella

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptation of the case study method to assessing increasingly complex, comprehensive reform initiatives that highlight the blurring of the boundaries between phenomenon and context and the concurrence of multiple interventions. Completed studies of two education reform programs illustrate the ongoing challenges of…

  6. Histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Sperling, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis for any form of alopecia can be challenging. Adding to the diagnostic complexity is the fact that many patients have more than one form of alopecia contributing to their hair loss. We conducted a review of 1360 consecutive scalp biopsy specimens submitted for the evaluation of scalp hair loss over a 16-month period, demonstrating that 12.5% of cases had a combination of diagnoses (multifactorial alopecia) accounting for their hair loss. An approach to the histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia, particularly multiple forms of alopecia found in a single biopsy, is here presented. PMID:26956781

  7. Study on Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Wind Farm Operation Performances Based on the Multi-Level Fuzzy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junyi; Huang, Yuanchao; Yang, Chaoying; Han, Yu

    In order to evaluate comprehensively and objectively the safety performance of the grid connected wind farms, a comprehensive evaluation index system is built, and multilayer fuzzy synthesis evaluation method is used to evaluate the grid connected wind farm operation safety. Firstly, a judgment matrix is built to determine the weight of each index, then, according to the fuzzy boundary tectonic membership description of each factor and factor fuzzy evaluation matrix, finally, through the composite operation of multi-layer evaluation object belongs to grade fuzzy behavior index and membership function, implementation of the system, on the performance of grid connected wind farm, a comprehensive evaluation of the quantitative and the relative ranking of wind farm. In the example analysis, the comprehensive evaluation of three typical wind farm to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the method.

  8. ComprehensiveBench: a Benchmark for the Extensive Evaluation of Global Scheduling Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, Laércio L.; Bozzetti, Tiago C.; Castro, Márcio; Navaux, Philippe O. A.; Méhaut, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    Parallel applications that present tasks with imbalanced loads or complex communication behavior usually do not exploit the underlying resources of parallel platforms to their full potential. In order to mitigate this issue, global scheduling algorithms are employed. As finding the optimal task distribution is an NP-Hard problem, identifying the most suitable algorithm for a specific scenario and comparing algorithms are not trivial tasks. In this context, this paper presents ComprehensiveBench, a benchmark for global scheduling algorithms that enables the variation of a vast range of parameters that affect performance. ComprehensiveBench can be used to assist in the development and evaluation of new scheduling algorithms, to help choose a specific algorithm for an arbitrary application, to emulate other applications, and to enable statistical tests. We illustrate its use in this paper with an evaluation of Charm++ periodic load balancers that stresses their characteristics.

  9. Artefacts in histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Histopathology is the science of slide analysis for the diagnostic and research purposes. However, sometimes the presence of certain artefacts in a microscopic section can result in misinterpretations leading to diagnostic pitfalls that can result in increased patient morbidity. This article reviews the common artefacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artefact and tissue constituent. PMID:25364159

  10. A comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of existing cooperative transcription factors identification algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is known to be highly connected through the networks of cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Measuring the cooperativity of TFs is helpful for understanding the biological relevance of these TFs in regulating genes. The recent advances in computational techniques led to various predictions of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. As each algorithm integrated different data resources and was developed based on different rationales, it possessed its own merit and claimed outperforming others. However, the claim was prone to subjectivity because each algorithm compared with only a few other algorithms and only used a small set of performance indices for comparison. This motivated us to propose a series of indices to objectively evaluate the prediction performance of existing algorithms. And based on the proposed performance indices, we conducted a comprehensive performance evaluation. Results We collected 14 sets of predicted cooperative TF pairs (PCTFPs) in yeast from 14 existing algorithms in the literature. Using the eight performance indices we adopted/proposed, the cooperativity of each PCTFP was measured and a ranking score according to the mean cooperativity of the set was given to each set of PCTFPs under evaluation for each performance index. It was seen that the ranking scores of a set of PCTFPs vary with different performance indices, implying that an algorithm used in predicting cooperative TF pairs is of strength somewhere but may be of weakness elsewhere. We finally made a comprehensive ranking for these 14 sets. The results showed that Wang J's study obtained the best performance evaluation on the prediction of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. Conclusions In this study, we adopted/proposed eight performance indices to make a comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of 14 existing cooperative TFs identification algorithms. Most importantly, these proposed indices can be easily applied to

  11. Evaluating Specialized Instructional Support Personnel: Supplement to the Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Hayes, Lindsey; Goe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In most states, educator evaluation systems are moving toward more frequent and focused evaluations that include educators' contributions to student outcomes such as learning growth. Many states include "Specialized Instructional Support Personnel" (SISP) in their educator evaluation systems, but the measures and methods used to evaluate…

  12. Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

  13. The Study of CIQ Inspection Rate's Setting Problem Based on Gray-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen

    Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.

  14. On the classification of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: A comprehensive performance evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegseis, J.; Duchmann, A.; Tropea, C.; Grundmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    The increasing popularity and maturity of plasma actuators for many flow control applications requires a common standard for plasma actuator performance evaluation. In the present work, a comprehensive comparative study of existing and new evaluation measures is presented, based on results from identical plasma-actuator configurations. A power-flow diagram is introduced that covers the entire range of power stages from the energy source to the flow-control success. All individual power stages are explained, existing controversial definitions are clarified, and an evaluation guideline is applied to previously obtained data. Finally, the defined systematic analysis is applied to the results of a recently conducted plasma-actuator in-flight experiment.

  15. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety. PMID:24574660

  16. Histopathological Features of Tungiasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Tantalean, Manuel E.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by Tunga penetrans and Tunga trimamillata. There is a lack of histopathological studies that evaluate the recognition of this flea in tissues. We describe the ex vivo dermoscopic and the histopathological patterns of six cases and relate the findings to the developmental stage of the parasite as defined by the Fortaleza classification: two were classified as Fortaleza 3b, 3 as 4a, and 1 as 4b. Two dermoscopic patterns were observed: a brown pigmented ring and a radial crown with a central pore. The most common histopathological findings were an eosinophilic cuticle, eggs in different stages of development, tracheal rings (parasite), and basal hyperplasia (host). The eosinophilic cuticle, eggs in different stages of evolution, and tracheal rings can help to establish the diagnosis when other parts of the parasite are lacking. The Fortaleza staging may represent a tool for pathology reporting purposes. PMID:23478579

  17. Large B-cell lymphoma in a dog: A cyto-histopathological evaluation and Immunophenotyping according to WHO classification for canine lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Nikousefat, Zahra; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Javdani, Moosa

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we described cyto-histopathological features and immunophenotyping of the large B-cell lymphoma in an 8-year-old mixed breed dog with applying the World Health Organization (WHO) system of classification of canine lymphomas. In fine-needle aspiration (FNA), lymph nodes were involved by neoplastic cells of intermediate to large size with deep blue cytoplasm; consist of centroblasts, immunoblast and medium-sized cells. Histopathologically, the follicles and sinuses of lymph nodes were replaced by sheets of numerous immunoblasts (less than 90.0% of total cells) and centroblasts. Numerous mitotic figures were also observed. Immunohistochemical analysis presented that the neoplastic cells express B-cell phenotype CD20 and CD79a, but do not stain for T phenotype CD3. On the basis of cytology, histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high-grade centroblastic type (DLBCL-CB) according to WHO histological classification. Applying this classification system for diagnosis of canine lymphomas is very useful and has a high accuracy and consistency. However, further co-operative studies between clinicians and pathologists should be performed, in order to improve the effectiveness of this classification. PMID:27226892

  18. Consistency Rates of Clinical Diagnosis and Histopathological Reports of Oral Lesions: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Shirin; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Mostafazadeh, Samira; Gheisar, Azhdar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. A correct diagnosis is the most important step in the treatment of oral lesions and each oral lesion has specific clinical features that provide clinical diagnosis; however, some of these features are common among different lesions. In these situations, biopsy and histopathological examination are indicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clinical and histopathological diagnosis of patients referred to the Department of Oral Pathology, Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, from 2009 to 2011. Materials and methods. In this retrospective study, individual data and clinical findings of 311 patients who had been referred to the Department of Oral Pathology during a three-year period were collected through questionnaires and compared with histopathological reports. Data were analyzed by using chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Results. In 80.7% of the cases the clinical diagnosis of the lesions was consistent with pathology reports. In 19.3% of the cases, the clinical diagnosis of the lesions was not confirmed histopathologically. The greatest consistency was observed for lichen planus (100%) and inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (epulis fissuratum) (94.3%). Conclusion. Although great consistency rates were observed in this study between clinical diagnoses and pathology reports, there was also a significant disagreement with the literature, indicating that comprehensive clinical examination, high consistency with oral lesion features and effective cooperation between surgeons and pathologists are necessary. PMID:25093056

  19. [The comprehensive nature of primary health care: evaluation from the user standpoint].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Silvana de Oliveira e; Fonseca, Adélia Dayane Guimarães; Souza, Luís Paulo Souza e; Siqueira, Leila das Graças; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida

    2014-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the comprehensive nature of Primary Health Care (PHC), from the standpoint of the users of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and users of others services of PHC. It involved a cross-sectional, analytical and quantitative study conducted in Montes Claros in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. For data collection, the adult version of a validated Primary Care Assessment Tool questionnaire was applied to 373 adult service users, of which 124 (33.6%) reported attendance by the FHS and 249 (66.4%) reported attendance by other services. Scores were assigned for the eight dimensions of the instrument, though only three were used for this study, namely first contact, accessibility, and longitudinality. The results showed that in relation to the comprehensive nature of PHC, there was a better evaluation by the population that uses the FHS compared to those who use other services. The first contact, accessibility and longitudinality attributes obtained higher scores in the FHS care provided in comparison with other services, with statistical significance for all attributes. The conclusion drawn is that it is of fundamental importance to assess the attributes of PHC in order to improve the quality of services provided. PMID:25351307

  20. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of molecularly targeted drugs in cancer for target pathway evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Tetsuo; Ushijima, Masaru; Matsuura, Masaaki; Tsukahara, Satomi; Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Furuno, Aki; Saito, Sakae; Kitamura, Masami; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Dan, Shingo; Yamori, Takao; Tomida, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy is a rational and promising strategy for the treatment of advanced cancer. For the development of clinical agents targeting oncogenic signaling pathways, it is important to define the specificity of compounds to the target molecular pathway. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis is an unbiased approach to evaluate the compound mode of action, but it is still unknown whether the analysis could be widely applicable to classify molecularly targeted anticancer agents. We comprehensively obtained and analyzed 129 transcriptomic datasets of cancer cells treated with 83 anticancer drugs or related agents, covering most clinically used, molecularly targeted drugs alongside promising inhibitors of molecular cancer targets. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that compounds targeting similar target molecules or pathways were clustered together. These results confirmed that the gene signatures of these drugs reflected their modes of action. Of note, inhibitors of oncogenic kinase pathways formed a large unique cluster, showing that these agents affect a shared molecular pathway distinct from classical antitumor agents and other classes of agents. The gene signature analysis further classified kinome-targeting agents depending on their target signaling pathways, and we identified target pathway-selective signature gene sets. The gene expression analysis was also valuable in uncovering unexpected target pathways of some anticancer agents. These results indicate that comprehensive transcriptomic analysis with our database (http://scads.jfcr.or.jp/db/cs/) is a powerful strategy to validate and re-evaluate the target pathways of anticancer compounds. PMID:25911996

  1. Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination: A Multilevel Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Approach Based on DRASTIC Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a serious threat to water supply. Risk assessment of groundwater contamination is an effective way to protect the safety of groundwater resource. Groundwater is a complex and fuzzy system with many uncertainties, which is impacted by different geological and hydrological factors. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the risk assessment of groundwater contamination, we propose an approach with analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation integrated together. Firstly, the risk factors of groundwater contamination are identified by the sources-pathway-receptor-consequence method, and a corresponding index system of risk assessment based on DRASTIC model is established. Due to the complexity in the process of transitions between the possible pollution risks and the uncertainties of factors, the method of analysis hierarchy process is applied to determine the weights of each factor, and the fuzzy sets theory is adopted to calculate the membership degrees of each factor. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate and test this methodology. It is concluded that the proposed approach integrates the advantages of both analysis hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, which provides a more flexible and reliable way to deal with the linguistic uncertainty and mechanism uncertainty in groundwater contamination without losing important information. PMID:24453883

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of antioxidant activity: A chemometric approach using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoni, Dorina; Sârbu, Costel

    2014-01-01

    A novel chemometric approach is described for evaluating the radical scavenging activity of biogenic amine related compounds by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad ) procedure and principal component analysis (PCA) tool. By a comprehensive chemometric investigation of variations in the radical scavenging profiles provided by the full-range UV-Vis spectra for different test duration and different relative concentrations (different molar ratio - [AH]/[DPPHrad ]) of the investigated compounds, new antioxidant activity evaluation parameters were proposed. The new proposed parameters (PC1, mPC1, maxPC1) are in good agreement with the reference DPPHrad results (% RSA and IC50 derived from the reference DPPHrad test), obtained for the investigated amines and reference antioxidants. Much more, the PCA profiles are better patterns for the comprehensive characterization of radical scavenging activity of compounds, allowing visualization of complex information by a simple graphical representation and underlying the (dis)similarity of compounds related both to the reaction kinetics and compounds concentration.

  3. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions. PMID:20825011

  4. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method Applied in the Real Estate Investment Risks Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ML(Zhang Minli), Zhang; Wp(Yang Wenpo), Yang

    Real estate investment is a high-risk and high returned of economic activity, the key of real estate analysis is the identification of their types of investment risk and the risk of different types of effective prevention. But, as the financial crisis sweeping the world, the real estate industry also faces enormous risks, how effective and correct evaluation of real estate investment risks becomes the multitudinous scholar concern[1]. In this paper, real estate investment risks were summarized and analyzed, and comparative analysis method is discussed and finally presented fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, not only in theory has the advantages of science, in the application also has the reliability, for real estate investment risk assessment provides an effective means for investors in real estate investing guidance on risk factors and forecasts.

  5. No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2014-05-01

    The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error(MSE) and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

  6. [Comprehensive Toxicity Evaluation and Toxicity Identification Used in Tannery and Textile Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chen, Wen-yan; Wan, Yu-shan; Zheng, Guo-juan; Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    To better evaluate the toxicity of tannery and textile effluents from various emission stages, the research attempted battery of toxicological bioassays and toxicological indices. The bioassays employed Microtox test, zebra fish embryo-larval test and algae (Chlorella vulgaris) test. Meanwhile, toxicological indices including Toxicity Unit (TU), Average Toxicity (AvTx), Toxic Print (TxPr), Most Sensitive Test (MST) and Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) were applied. The results illustrated that PEEP was the most comprehensive index to take account of the emissions and toxic potential of effluents. PEEP values showed that the reduction rates of toxicity in tannery and textile effluents were 36. 8% and 23. 2%, respectively. Finally, based on the Microtox toxicity test, toxicants in textile effluent were identified through the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. The results indicated that the main toxicant of textile effluent was non-polar organic pollutants, followed by filterable compounds, heavy metals, oxidizing substances and volatile components. PMID:26489331

  7. Comprehensive retrospective evaluation of existing in vitro chromosomal aberration test data by cytotoxicity index transformation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yurika; Morita, Takeshi; Matsumura, Shoji; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ito, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    New OECD test guidelines have been issued, in which the cytotoxicity index relative cell count (RCC) is replaced with a new index, RICC or RPD (relative increase in cell count/relative population doubling), with the goal of reducing the high proportion of false positive results in in vitro chromosomal aberration tests. Using a mathematical approach to estimate new indices from the RCC, we constructed an evaluation flow that quantitatively estimates how often the previous test conclusions change when applying the updated cytotoxicity criteria. The new evaluation flow was applied to a retrospective evaluation of 285 chemicals in two databases. The effects of the employment of new cytotoxicity indices are investigated at a large scale. Using the new evaluation flow, 90 chemicals were estimated as positive, 39 were designated as estimated negative (13 probably negative and 26 possibly negative), and 140 were designated as negative. Moreover, we also applied a prioritization index to indicate the likelihood of a chemical being re-evaluated as negative and assigned priorities for testing. Most of the chemicals that were designated as estimated negative and had negative results in the in vivo micronucleus tests were considered as false-positives that would be correctly judged under the new test guideline. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the frequency of estimated negatives revealed that the results for Ames-positive chemicals, especially those with a strong response, are unlikely to change. Therefore, we concluded that the new indices would likely reduce the proportion of false positive results and not increase the proportion of false negative results. This study is the first report of a comprehensive re-evaluation of test results in terms of new cytotoxicity indices. The evaluation flow we have developed facilitates efficient retrospective evaluation of genotoxicity. PMID:27169375

  8. Reporting Tumor Molecular Heterogeneity in Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Antonello, Davide; Vicentini, Caterina; Scardoni, Maria; Bersani, Samantha; Gottardi, Marisa; Rusev, Borislav; Malpeli, Giorgio; Corbo, Vincenzo; Barbi, Stefano; Sikora, Katarzyna O.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS) in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity. Methods 35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing. Results TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57%) tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis. Conclusions TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25127237

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs. PMID:26387347

  10. Optimizing informed consent in living liver donors: Evaluation of a comprehension assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elisa J; Mullee, Jack; Butt, Zeeshan; Kang, Joseph; Baker, Talia

    2015-10-01

    Adult-to-adult living liver donation is associated with considerable risks with no direct medical benefit to liver donors (LDs). Ensuring that potential LDs comprehend the risks of donation is essential to medically and ethically justify the procedure. We developed and prospectively evaluated the initial psychometrics of an "Evaluation of Donor Informed Consent Tool" (EDICT) designed to assess LDs' comprehension about the living donation process. EDICT includes 49 true/false/unsure items related to LD informed consent. Consecutive LDs undergoing evaluation at 1 academic medical center from October 2012 to September 2014 were eligible for participation in pretest/posttest interviews. Medical records were reviewed for postdonation complications. Twenty-seven LDs participated (96% participation rate). EDICT demonstrated good internal consistency reliability at pretest, 2 days before donating (Cronbach's α = 0.78), and posttest, 1 week after donating (α = 0.70). EDICT scores significantly increased over time (P = 0.01) and demonstrated good test-retest reliability (r = 0.68; P < 0.001). EDICT was associated with race/ethnicity (P = 0.02) and relationship to the recipient (P = 0.01; pretest), and income (P = 0.01) and insurance (P = 0.01; posttest), but not with decisional conflict, preoperative preparedness, satisfaction, or decisional regret (pretest and posttest). Donor complications did not impact postdonation EDICT scores. In conclusion, EDICT has promising measurement properties and may be useful in the evaluation of informed consent for potential LDs. PMID:25990592

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted Mammotome® system for ultrasound-guided diagnostic biopsy and selective excision of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P; Jimenez, Rafael E

    2007-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive breast biopsy technology is now considered a standard of care for the diagnostic evaluation of suspicious breast lesions. The aim of the current study was to present a comprehensive evaluation of the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted Mammotome® system for ultrasound-guided diagnostic biopsy and selective excision of breast lesions. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of a series of 304 consecutive 8-gauge Mammotome® procedures that were performed under ultrasound guidance by a single surgeon from March 2004 to December 2006. Multiple variables, including patient demographics, characteristics of the breast lesion (based on ultrasound and mammography), procedural and histopathology variables, and interval follow-up variables (based on ultrasound and mammography), were evaluated. Results Among 304 procedures, 235 (77%) were performed with the presumption of complete excision of the ultrasound lesion during Mammotome® core acquisition, while 69 (23%) were performed with only partial excision of the ultrasound lesion during Mammotome® core acquisition (diagnostic tissue sampling only). 100% of all ultrasound lesions were accurately diagnosed, demonstrating no apparent false-negative results among the 256 patients that were compliant with follow-up at a median interval follow-up duration of 11 months (range 1 to 37). Likewise, 89% of all appropriately selected ultrasound lesions were completely excised, as demonstrated on interval follow-up ultrasound at a median time of 6 months (range, 3 to 16). There were no independent predictors of successful complete excision of any given appropriately selected ultrasound lesion by the ultrasound-guided 8-gauge Mammotome® biopsy technique. Conclusion The 8-gauge vacuum-assisted Mammotome® system is highly accurate for ultrasound-guided diagnostic biopsy of suspicious breast lesions and is highly successful for complete excision of appropriately selected presumed benign breast lesions. This

  12. Recommended neuroanatomical sampling practices for comprehensive brain evaluation in nonclinical safety studies.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Robert C; Lowry-Franssen, Catherine; Benkovic, Stanley A

    2011-01-01

    Adequate tissue sampling is known to reduce the likelihood that the toxicity of novel biomolecules, chemicals, and drugs might go undetected. Each organ, and often specific structurally and functionally distinct regions within it, must be assessed to detect potential site-specific toxicity. Adequate sampling of the brain requires particular consideration because of the many major substructures and more than 600 subpopulations of generally irreplaceable cells with unique functions and vulnerabilities. All known neurotoxicants affect specific subpopulations (usually neurons) rather than damaging a certain percentage of cells throughout the brain; thus, all populations should be independently assessed for lesions. Historically, the affected neural cell subpopulation has not been predictable, but it is now clear that sampling selected populations (e.g., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellar folia) cannot forecast the health of other populations. This article reviews the neuroanatomical domains affected by several model neurotoxicants to illustrate the need for more comprehensive neurohistological evaluation during nonclinical development of novel compounds. The article also describes an easily executed, cost-effective method that uses a set number of evenly spaced coronal (cross) sections to accomplish this comprehensive brain assessment during nonclinical safety studies performed in rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates. PMID:21378207

  13. A Novel Evaluation algorithm of Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity Index System in Northwest China:Lanzhou city as a example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Lei, Song; Ling, Ma

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid growth of the urban population and quick expansion of urban dimensions, the affecting urban development constraints of urban carrying capacity has increasingly been attracting people's attention. However, the effective synthesization of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity hardly acted as an urban comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system. In this paper, the novel comprehensive index system of urban resources carrying capacity, urban environmental carrying capacity, economic carrying capacity, society carrying capacity and traffic carrying capacity was used for analyzing and evaluating urban comprehensive carrying capacity. Firstly, the standardization of evaluation index was constructed in the urban comprehensive carrying capacity index system. In addition, the past decade data from 2002 to 2011 was analyzed and evaluated in the weighted index system. Finally, the influence mechanism of various carrying capacity factors on urban comprehensive carrying capacity was investigated in Lanzhou. Experimental results can be summarized that the variation tendency of urban comprehensive carrying capacity was the annual increase of levels and the promotion countermeasure was put forward with congenital restricting factors and acquired restricting factors.

  14. Statistical analysis of histopathological endpoints.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Saulnier, Amy N; Swintek, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Histopathological assessments of fish from aquatic ecotoxicology studies are being performed with increasing frequency. Aquatic ecotoxicology studies performed for submission to regulatory agencies are usually conducted with multiple subjects (e.g., fish) in each of multiple vessels (replicates) within a water control and within each of several concentrations of a test substance. A number of histopathological endpoints are evaluated in each fish, and a severity score is generally recorded for each endpoint. The severity scores are often recorded using a nonquantitative scale of 0 to 4, with 0 indicating no effect, 1 indicating minimal effect, through 4 for severe effect. Statistical methods often used to analyze these scores suffer from several shortcomings: computing average scores as though scores were quantitative values, considering only the frequency of abnormality while ignoring severity, ignoring any concentration-response trend, and ignoring the possible correlation between responses of individuals within test vessels. A new test, the Rao-Scott Cochran-Armitage by Slices (RSCABS), is proposed that incorporates the replicate vessel experimental design and the biological expectation that the severity of the effect tends to increase with increasing doses or concentrations, while retaining the individual subject scores and taking into account the severity as well as frequency of scores. A power simulation and examples demonstrate the performance of the test. R-based software has been developed to carry out this test and is available free of charge at www.epa.gov/med/Prods_Pubs/rscabs.htm. The SAS-based RSCABS software is available from the first and third authors. PMID:24464649

  15. Controlled reperfusion for different durations in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat ovary: evaluation of biochemical features, molecular gene expression, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Yapca, Omer Erkan; Kumbasar, Serkan; Salman, Suleyman; Yarali, Oguzhan; Sener, Ebru; Mammadov, Renad; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Aksoy, Aysenur; Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Cetin, Nihal

    2015-04-01

    High numbers of proinflammatory cells (PMNLs), which are carried by the blood to ischemic tissue during reperfusion, are considered responsible for inducing the inflammatory response that occurs in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our objective was to determine the controlled reperfusion (CR) interval duration (CRID) that would minimize the injury caused by the PMNLs that infiltrate ischemic tissue. Animal groups were divided into the following groups: Sham group, ovarian I/R group (OIR), and ovarian ischemia controlled-reperfusion groups OICR-1, OICR-2, OICR-3, OICR-4, OICR-5, OICR-6, which had their ovarian artery opened and then closed for 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, or 1 s, respectively. The results show that the COX-2 activity and the gene expression decreased while the COX-1 activity and the gene expression were found to be increased in parallel to the shortening of the period in CRID. From the histopathological examinations, the findings of hemorrhage, edema, congested vascular structures, degenerated cells, and migration and adhesion of PMNLs were scaled as follows: Sham group < OICR-6 < OICR-5 < OICR-4 < OICR-3 < OICR-2 < OICR-1. The results from the histopathological assessments were consistent with the molecular and biochemical findings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased COX-2 activity plays a role in I/R injury of the rat ovary, and that controlled reperfusion for 3, 2, or 1 s following 2 h of ischemia may attenuate the effects of I/R injury. PMID:25730518

  16. Evaluating the potential role of pomegranate peel in aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in brain of female rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2012-12-01

    Studies have shown that pomegranate, Punica granatum Linn. (Lythraceae), has remarkable biological and medicinal properties. However, the effects of pomegranate peel methanolic extract (PPME) on the aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological change have not been reported yet. To determine the effect of PPME (200 mg/kg bwt) on the aluminum chloride (AlCl₃; 34 mg/kg bwt)-induced neurotoxicity, aluminum accumulation in brain and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. The change of brain structure was investigated with hematoxylin and eosin, and anti-apoptosis effects of PPME were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The present study showed an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl₃-treated group representing an increase in tissue tumor markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α and angiogenin and inflammation by inducing an increase in prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2α. PPME protected brain through decreasing the aluminum accumulation and stimulating antioxidant activities and anti-apoptotic proteins namely Bcl-2. Therefore, these results indicated that pomegranate peel methanolic extract could inhibit aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alternations in brain of female rats, and these effects may be related to anti-apoptotic and antioxidants activities. PMID:22945624

  17. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  18. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  19. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia. PMID:26811580

  20. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia. PMID:26811580

  1. Cognitive spare capacity: evaluation data and its association with comprehension of dynamic conversations

    PubMed Central

    Keidser, Gitte; Best, Virginia; Freeston, Katrina; Boyce, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that communication involves the working memory system, which becomes increasingly engaged in understanding speech as the input signal degrades. The more resources allocated to recovering a degraded input signal, the fewer resources, referred to as cognitive spare capacity (CSC), remain for higher-level processing of speech. Using simulated natural listening environments, the aims of this paper were to (1) evaluate an English version of a recently introduced auditory test to measure CSC that targets the updating process of the executive function, (2) investigate if the test predicts speech comprehension better than the reading span test (RST) commonly used to measure working memory capacity, and (3) determine if the test is sensitive to increasing the number of attended locations during listening. In Experiment I, the CSC test was presented using a male and a female talker, in quiet and in spatially separated babble- and cafeteria-noises, in an audio-only and in an audio-visual mode. Data collected on 21 listeners with normal and impaired hearing confirmed that the English version of the CSC test is sensitive to population group, noise condition, and clarity of speech, but not presentation modality. In Experiment II, performance by 27 normal-hearing listeners on a novel speech comprehension test presented in noise was significantly associated with working memory capacity, but not with CSC. Moreover, this group showed no significant difference in CSC as the number of talker locations in the test increased. There was no consistent association between the CSC test and the RST. It is recommended that future studies investigate the psychometric properties of the CSC test, and examine its sensitivity to the complexity of the listening environment in participants with both normal and impaired hearing. PMID:25999904

  2. Short Time Exposure (STE) test in conjunction with Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay including histopathology to evaluate correspondence with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation classification of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Ducas, Rafael do Nascimento; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2015-09-01

    Eye irritation evaluation is mandatory for predicting health risks in consumers exposed to textile dyes. The two dyes, Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19) are classified as Category 2A (irritating to eyes) based on the UN Globally Harmonized System for classification (UN GHS), according to the Draize test. On the other hand, animal welfare considerations and the enforcement of a new regulation in the EU are drawing much attention in reducing or replacing animal experiments with alternative methods. This study evaluated the eye irritation of the two dyes RO16 and RG19 by combining the Short Time Exposure (STE) and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assays and then comparing them with in vivo data from the GHS classification. The STE test (first level screening) categorized both dyes as GHS Category 1 (severe irritant). In the BCOP, dye RG19 was also classified as GHS Category 1 while dye RO16 was classified as GHS no prediction can be made. Both dyes caused damage to the corneal tissue as confirmed by histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the STE test did not contribute to arriving at a better conclusion about the eye irritation potential of the dyes when used in conjunction with the BCOP test. Adding the histopathology to the BCOP test could be an appropriate tool for a more meaningful prediction of the eye irritation potential of dyes. PMID:26026500

  3. Evaluation of CAMEL - comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, S.B.; Keefer, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    A new comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides (CAMEL) has been developed to assist in planning decisions related to disaster risk reduction. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using fuzzy logic systems and geographic information systems. CAMEL is designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative representation of terrain conditions and knowledge about these conditions on the likely areal concentration of each landslide type. CAMEL has been empirically evaluated with respect to disrupted landslides (Category I) using a case study of the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta, CA earthquake. In this case, CAMEL performs best in comparison to disrupted slides and falls in soil. For disrupted rock fall and slides, CAMEL's performance was slightly poorer. The model predicted a low occurrence of rock avalanches, when none in fact occurred. A similar comparison with the Loma Prieta case study was also conducted using a simplified Newmark displacement model. The area under the curve method of evaluation was used in order to draw comparisons between both models, revealing improved performance with CAMEL. CAMEL should not however be viewed as a strict alternative to Newmark displacement models. CAMEL can be used to integrate Newmark displacements with other, previously incompatible, types of knowledge. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  4. A Comprehensive Evaluation of PCR Primers to Amplify the nifH Gene of Nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The nifH gene is the most widely sequenced marker gene used to identify nitrogen-fixing Bacteria and Archaea. Numerous PCR primers have been designed to amplify nifH, but a comprehensive evaluation of nifH PCR primers has not been performed. We performed an in silico analysis of the specificity and coverage of 51 universal and 35 group-specific nifH primers by using an aligned database of 23,847 nifH sequences. We found that there are 15 universal nifH primers that target 90% or more of nitrogen fixers, but that there are also 23 nifH primers that target less than 50% of nifH sequences. The nifH primers we evaluated vary in their phylogenetic bias and their ability to recover sequences from commonly sampled environments. In addition, many of these primers will amplify genes that do not mediate nitrogen fixation, and thus it would be advisable for researchers to screen their sequencing results for the presence of non-target genes before analysis. Universal primers that performed well in silico were tested empirically with soil samples and with genomic DNA from a phylogenetically diverse set of nitrogen-fixing strains. This analysis will be of great utility to those engaged in molecular analysis of nifH genes from isolates and environmental samples. PMID:22848735

  5. Verification and validation of the comprehensive operational support evaluation model for space. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.A.

    1991-12-01

    This study details the verification and validation (V and V) of the Comprehensive Operational Support Evaluation Model for Space (COSEMS). COSEMS is an Ada-based simulation which models spacecraft constellation support concepts such as support from the ground and on-orbit support. While the model is intended for use in analyzing Strategic Defense System concepts, it can easily evaluate non-military satellite constellations. The VV was confined to a subset of the over 200 subprograms which comprise COSEMS. This subset covered random number generation, reliability, orbital mechanics, and mission planning functions. The study used traces and comparison to other models to perform the VV. An input/output analysis was also performed to ascertain the ease of use of COSEMS and the utility of its output. The analysis showed that the areas under investigation performed according to the model and that the model approximated real-world behavior except for orbital motion. The part of the model governing orbital perturbations due to the non-spherical earth omitted rotation of the line-of-apsides. The analysis also revealed that the Ada code and the input/output format are highly machine dependent, which restricts the program from coming into widespread use and limits the usefulness of the output.

  6. Comprehensive evaluations of the adverse effects of drugs: importance of appropriate study selection and data sources

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Su P.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are at the top of the evidence hierarchy, most of the methodology has focused on assessing treatment benefit. Hence, we propose a structured framework for the initial steps of searching and identifying relevant data sources so that adverse effects can be evaluated in a comprehensive, unbiased manner. The unique methodological challenges stem from the difficulties of addressing diverse outcomes encompassing common, mild symptoms to rare, fatal events. Retrieval of the most appropriate studies should be specifically tailored to fit the nature of the adverse effects, according to the primary objective and study question. In our framework, the structure of the review takes different forms depending on whether the main aim is on scoping/hypothesis generation, or evaluating statistically the magnitude of risk (hypothesis testing), or clarifying characteristics and risk factors of the adverse effect. The wide range of data sources covering adverse effects all have distinct strengths and limitations, and selection of appropriate sources depends on characteristics of the adverse effect (e.g. background incidence and effect size of the drug, clinical presentation, time of onset after drug exposure). Reviewers need to retrieve particular study designs that are most likely to yield robust data on the adverse effects of interest, rather than rely on studies that cannot reliably detect adverse effects, and may yield ‘false negatives’. Type II errors (a particular problem when evaluating rare adverse effects) can lull us into a false sense of security (e.g. wrongly concluding that there was no significant difference in harm between drug and control, with the drug erroneously judged as safe). Given the rapid rate at which methodological improvements occur, this proposed framework is by no means definitive, but aims to stimulate further debate and discussion amongst the pharmacoepidemiological and systematic review communities to reach

  7. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  8. Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs. PMID:23346552

  9. Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs. PMID:23346552

  10. Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Teacher Evaluation Systems. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goe, Laura; Holdheide, Lynn; Miller, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Across the nation, states and districts are in the process of building better teacher evaluation systems that not only identify highly effective teachers but also systematically provide data and feedback that can be used to improve teacher practice. The "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems" is a tool…

  11. A clinical evaluation of comprehensive dental treatment for children under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Su, H L; Chen, P S

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the comprehensive dental treatment for children under general anesthesia. From 1989 to 1991, 57 children with mean age of 3 years 2 months were treated, followed up with a minimal of 1 year. This procedure allows the dentition to be restored in one visit. Further care including preventive options and behavior shaping was provided on a 3-6 months recall schedule. The reasons for general anesthesia are that these children were either unable to accept treatment because of handicaps, extreme fear or young age. Their mean number of decayed tooth was 15 (Standard Deviation, SD = 5) and nearly three quarters of the children were under 6 years old. The most frequent treatment procedures were the extraction of teeth, composite resin restoration and Ni-Cr crown restoration. The Ni-Cr crown (1.7% failure rate) was more successful than the amalgam and composite resin restoration (9.7% failure rate). Pedo-strip crown had the highest failure rate (22%) for anterior teeth restoration. Nineteen children needed retreatment with conventional behavior guide. Six children had new caries and required further treatment. Thirty eight children returned for regular recall during the minimal 1 year follow-up period. PMID:1295652

  12. Methodology for comprehensive evaluation of UV-B tolerance in trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas G.; Heisler, Gordon M.; Qin, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Decreasing stratospheric ozone concentrations have led to concern for an enhanced UVB radiation (wavelength range of 280-315 nm) reaching the Earth's surface. An understanding of the mechanism of UVB radiation tolerance and sensitivity may improve our ability to assess the potential effects of changes in solar UVB radiation on plant species. The purpose of this research was to conduct an assessment of tolerance of southern trees to future enhanced UVB radiation. This paper describes the systematic approach developed for such an assessment and the preliminary results associated with thirty-five broadleaf tree species in the South studied during two growing seasons. Results indicated that the diverse trees in the South possessed various biological characteristics in defense of UVB damage. It is suggested that the approach to comprehensive evaluation of UVB tolerance in diverse trees should focus on leaf optical properties, mainly depth of light penetration into leaves, leaf anatomical and morphological changes, and concentration of leaf UVB absorbing compounds during leaf development.

  13. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation-Based Disaster Risk Assessment of Desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an “S” type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China. PMID:25654772

  14. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed. PMID:18089258

  15. PFO: Button me up, but wait … Comprehensive evaluation of the patient.

    PubMed

    Pizzino, Fausto; Khandheria, Bijoy; Carerj, Scipione; Oreto, Giuseppe; Cusmà-Piccione, Maurizio; Todaro, Maria Chiara; Oreto, Lilia; Vizzari, Giampiero; Di Bella, Gianluca; Zito, Concetta

    2016-06-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a slit or tunnel-like communication in the atrial septum occurring in approximately 25% of the population. A wide number of pathological conditions have been linked to its presence, most notably, cryptogenic stroke (CS) and migraine. However, in the setting of a neurological event, it is not often clear whether the PFO is pathogenically related to the index event or an incidental finding. Therefore, a detailed analysis of several clues is needed for understanding PFO's clinical significance, with a frequent case-by-case decision about destination therapy. Indeed, the controversy about PFO's pathogenicity prompted a paradigm shift of research interest from medical therapy with antiplatelets or anticoagulants to percutaneous transcatheter closure, in secondary prevention. Observational data and meta-analysis of observational studies had previously suggested that PFO closure with a device was a safe procedure with a low recurrence rate of stroke. To date, however, recent randomized controlled trials have not shown the superiority of PFO closure over medical therapy. Thus, the optimal strategy for secondary prevention of paradoxical embolism in patients with a PFO remains unclear. Moreover, the latest guidelines for the prevention on stroke restricted indications for PFO closure to patients with deep vein thrombosis and high-risk of its recurrence. Given these recent data, in the present review, we critically discuss current treatment options, pointing out the role of a comprehensive patient evaluation in overcoming PFO closure restrictions and planning the best management for each patient. PMID:26917197

  16. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation-based disaster risk assessment of desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-02-01

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an "S" type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China. PMID:25654772

  17. Event-Driven Observations and Comprehensive Evaluation for Natural Disaster Assessment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Shen, Y.; Wu, L.; Li, H.

    2012-08-01

    The Chinese event-driven observations and disaster assessment system is established so as to make information related to environmental risk and vulnerability easily accessible to decision-makers through this centralized platform. At 7:49 AM on April 14, 2010, an earthquake of 7.1 magnitude collapsed buildings in Yushu County, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province. For emergence response, we presented a method for generating seismic intensity map based on seismological mechanism solutions. The disaster assessment system automatically drew the distribution map of affected population 1 hour after the Yushu earthquake. In the case of distribution map of affected population, we made the judgment that the Gyêgu town maybe the worst hit town in the Yushu earthquake because it is not only near the epicenter, but also the capital of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Then event-driven observations are taken on Gyêgu town. Referring to usable data, the chains of rapid assessment on earthquake disaster were analyzed, and different models were established for assessing affected population, damaged houses and lifelines and comprehensive earthquake loss evaluation.

  18. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  19. Review of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2011-01-01

    This review is of "The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Fourth Year Reports," published by the School Choice Demonstration Project, University of Arkansas. The report makes eight claims about the effectiveness of the program, most of them positive. On the key issue of achievement of…

  20. Evaluating School and Parent Reports of the National Student Achievement Testing System (SIMCE) in Chile: Access, Comprehension, and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Cortes, Flavio; Sebastian, Christian; Preiss, David

    2009-01-01

    This evaluation examined school and parent reports of the national student achievement testing system (SIMCE) in Chile regarding three dimensions: access, comprehension, and use. We conducted phone surveys with a representative sample of directors (N = 375), teachers (N = 1145) and parents (N = 625), and we collected more in-depth data through…

  1. Comprehensive Instructional Management System (CIMS) Mathematics Project 1985-1986 End of Year Report. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    This report describes the Comprehensive Instructional Management System (CIMS), which includes a teacher-developed mathematics curriculum for kindergarten through grade seven, corresponding criterion-referenced tests, and a computerized test scoring and reporting management system. The evaluation focused on the five pilot districts in New York…

  2. An Evaluation of Public School Participation in Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) Youth Programs in Utah's Bear River District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Michael; Jones, Roger C.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of school district participation in CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) youth programs in Box Elder and Cache Counties, Utah, as well as the overall effectiveness of CETA youth programs administered by the Bear River Association of Governments. For three years, the Bear River Association of…

  3. Using a Comprehensive Case-Based Examination to Evaluate and Integrate Student Learning in Social Work Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Thomas; Austin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    While the case method has been used in teaching social work practice for many years, its use as an evaluation tool is less common. This analysis describes the use of the case method in a comprehensive examination for MSW students in an Administration concentration. After a brief review of the issues related to student outcome assessment and the…

  4. Comprehensive High School Bilingual Program. E.S.E.A. Title VII Final Evaluation Report, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima, Ed.; And Others

    This report describes, provides demographic data for, and evaluates the effectiveness of the Comprehensive High School Bilingual Program (C.H.S.B.P.), which provided staff and material resources to five high school Spanish, Chinese, and Italian bilingual programs in New York City. In 1980-81, C.H.S.B.P. served 468 students of limited English…

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term hydrological data sets: Constraints of the Budyko framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2013-04-01

    An accurate estimate of the climatological land water balance is essential for a wide range of socio-economical issues. Despite the simplicity of the underlying water balance equation, its individual variables are of complex nature. Global estimates, either derived from observations or from models, of precipitation (P ) and especially evapotranspiration (ET) are characterized by high uncertainties. This leads to inconsistent results in determining conditions related to the land water balance and its components. In this study, we consider the Budyko framework as a constraint to evaluate long-term hydrological data sets within the period from 1984 to 2005. The Budyko framework is a well established empirically based relationsship between ET-P and Ep-P , with Ep being the potential evaporation. We use estimates of ET associated with the LandFlux-EVAL initiative (Mueller et. al., 2012), either derived from observations, CMIP5 models or land-surface models (LSMs) driven with observation-based forcing or atmospheric reanalyses. Data sets of P comprise all commonly used global observation-based estimates. Ep is determined by methods of differing complexity with recent global temperature and radiation data sets. Based on this comprehensive synthesis of data sets and methods to determine Ep, more than 2000 possible combinations for ET-P in conjunction with Ep-P are created. All combinations are validated against the Budyko curve and against physical limits within the Budyko phase space. For this purpose we develop an error measure based on the root mean square error which combines both constraints. We find that uncertainties are mainly induced by the ET data sets. In particular, reanalysis and CMIP5 data sets are characterized by low realism. The realism of LSMs is further not primarily controlled by the forcing, as different LSMs driven with the same forcing show significantly different error measures. Our comprehensive approach is thus suitable to detect uncertainties

  6. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC). Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only) usual and customary (UCC) therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary hypothesis is that the

  7. Short- and long-term histopathologic evaluation of stenting using a self-expanding nitinol stent in pig carotid and iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    Verheye, S; Salame, M Y; Robinson, K A; Post, M J; Carrozza, J P; Baim, D S; Sigwart, U; King, S B; Chronos, N A

    1999-11-01

    Stenting is increasingly being used to treat carotid artery disease. However, complications including distal embolization, stent thrombosis, stent collapse from external compression, the need for high-pressure inflation with increased neointimal response, or balloon rupture during stent expansion and stent loss are all potential problems and of concern. To address each of these specific concerns, a new stent was designed, which is self-expandable, made of nitinol, with temperature-dependent superelastic properties, and with high vessel wall surface coverage. Since this device has a number of novel characteristics, we aimed to assess the short- and long-term histopathologic response in pig carotid and iliac arteries. Single stents were deployed in pig carotid and iliac arteries after overstretch balloon injury. Angiograms were performed pre- and poststenting and prior to sacrifice. Intravascular ultrasound was used before implantation to determine vessel size. Vessels were examined histologically at 1 month (n = 6) and 6 months (n = 6) for morphometric analysis, hemorrhage and thrombus, endothelialization, and inflammatory and fibrotic responses. There was a 100% angiographic success rate at implantation. In one case, it was determined histologically that a single stent was implanted in a dissection plane of a pig's left iliac artery and was occluded by organized thrombus, with the true lumen being patent. At 6-month follow-up, this was the only evidence of a single stent occlusion, with flow adjacent to the stent in the true lumen. In the other vessels, the stents showed good vessel wall-stent apposition and the lumens were patent with a concentric and thin neointima. Inflammatory cells were rare and there were no mural thrombi. Coverage of the vessel wall by endothelial-like cells was complete at 1 month. The novel nitinol EndoStent appears to have favorable biocompatibility with minimal thrombus deposition or inflammatory response, and its use is feasible for

  8. Evaluation of Computational Techniques for Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis of Comprehensive Watershed Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, H.; Arabi, M.; Records, R.

    2012-12-01

    The structural complexity of comprehensive watershed models continues to increase in order to incorporate inputs at finer spatial and temporal resolutions and simulate a larger number of hydrologic and water quality responses. Hence, computational methods for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis of complex models have gained increasing popularity. This study aims to evaluate the performance and applicability of a range of algorithms from computationally frugal approaches to formal implementations of Bayesian statistics using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. The evaluation procedure hinges on the appraisal of (i) the quality of final parameter solution in terms of the minimum value of the objective function corresponding to weighted errors; (ii) the algorithmic efficiency in reaching the final solution; (iii) the marginal posterior distributions of model parameters; (iv) the overall identifiability of the model structure; and (v) the effectiveness in drawing samples that can be classified as behavior-giving solutions. The proposed procedure recognize an important and often neglected issue in watershed modeling that solutions with minimum objective function values may not necessarily reflect the behavior of the system. The general behavior of a system is often characterized by the analysts according to the goals of studies using various error statistics such as percent bias or Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient. Two case studies are carried out to examine the efficiency and effectiveness of four Bayesian approaches including Metropolis-Hastings sampling (MHA), Gibbs sampling (GSA), uniform covering by probabilistic rejection (UCPR), and differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM); a greedy optimization algorithm dubbed dynamically dimensioned search (DDS); and shuffle complex evolution (SCE-UA), a widely implemented evolutionary heuristic optimization algorithm. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to simulate hydrologic and

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of Protein Structure Alignment Methods: Scoring by Geometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Kolodny, Rachel; Koehl, Patrice; Levitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report the largest and most comprehensive comparison of protein structural alignment methods. Specifically, we evaluate six publicly available structure alignment programs: SSAP, STRUCTAL, DALI, LSQMAN, CE and SSM by aligning all 8,581,970 protein structure pairs in a test set of 2930 protein domains specially selected from CATH v.2.4 to ensure sequence diversity. We consider an alignment good if it matches many residues, and the two substructures are geometrically similar. Even with this definition, evaluating structural alignment methods is not straightforward. At first, we compared the rates of true and false positives using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with the CATH classification taken as a gold standard. This proved unsatisfactory in that the quality of the alignments is not taken into account: sometimes a method that finds less good alignments scores better than a method that finds better alignments. We correct this intrinsic limitation by using four different geometric match measures (SI, MI, SAS, and GSAS) to evaluate the quality of each structural alignment. With this improved analysis we show that there is a wide variation in the performance of different methods; the main reason for this is that it can be difficult to find a good structural alignment between two proteins even when such an alignment exists. We find that STRUCTAL and SSM perform best, followed by LSQMAN and CE. Our focus on the intrinsic quality of each alignment allows us to propose a new method, called “Best-of-All” that combines the best results of all methods. Many commonly used methods miss 10–50% of the good Best-of-All alignments. By putting existing structural alignments into proper perspective, our study allows better comparison of protein structures. By highlighting limitations of existing methods, it will spur the further development of better structural alignment methods. This will have significant biological implications now that structural

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of functional and anatomical disorders of the patients with distal occlusion and accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, F. H.; Dobrodeev, A. S.; Libin, P. V.; Kotov, I. I.; Ovsyannikov, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The paper defines the therapeutic and rehabilitation approach to the patients with Angle's classification Class II dento-facial anomalies, accompanied by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The proposed comprehensive approach to the diagnostics and treatment of patients with posterior occlusion, accompanied by OSA, allows for objective evaluation of intensity of a dento-facial anomaly and accompanying respiratory disorders in the nasal and oral pharynx, which allows for the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA to be identified, and an optimal plan for surgical procedures to be developed. The proposed comprehensive approach to the diagnostics and treatment of patients with Angle's classification Class II dento-facial anomalies provides high functional and aesthetic results.

  11. Development of a comprehensive list of criteria for evaluating consumer education materials on colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Appropriate patient information materials may support the consumer’s decision to attend or not to attend colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests (fecal occult blood test and screening colonoscopy). The aim of this study was to develop a list of criteria to assess whether written health information materials on CRC screening provide balanced, unbiased, quantified, understandable, and evidence-based health information (EBHI) about CRC and CRC screening. Methods The list of criteria was developed based on recommendations and assessment tools for health information in the following steps: (1) Systematic literature search in 13 electronic databases (search period: 2000–2010) and completed by an Internet search (2) Extraction of identified criteria (3) Grouping of criteria into categories and domains (4) Compilation of a manual of adequate answers derived from systematic reviews and S3 guidelines (5) Review by external experts (6) Modification (7) Final discussion with external experts. Results Thirty-one publications on health information tools and recommendations were identified. The final list of criteria includes a total of 230 single criteria in three generic domains (formal issues, presentation and understandability, and neutrality and balance) and one CRC-specific domain. A multi-dimensional rating approach was used whenever appropriate (e.g., rating for the presence, correctness, presentation and level of evidence of information). Free text input was allowed to ensure the transparency of assessment. The answer manual proved to be essential to the rating process. Quantitative analyses can be made depending on the level and dimensions of criteria. Conclusions This comprehensive list of criteria clearly has a wider range of evaluation than previous assessment tools. It is not intended as a final quality assessment tool, but as a first step toward thorough evaluation of specific information materials for their adherence to EBHI requirements. This

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of multisatellite precipitation estimates over India using gridded rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunilkumar, K.; Narayana Rao, T.; Saikranthi, K.; Purnachandra Rao, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of five widely used multisatellite precipitation estimates (MPEs) against 1° × 1° gridded rain gauge data set as ground truth over India. One decade observations are used to assess the performance of various MPEs (Climate Prediction Center (CPC)-South Asia data set, CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA-3B42), and Global Precipitation Climatology Project). All MPEs have high detection skills of rain with larger probability of detection (POD) and smaller "missing" values. However, the detection sensitivity differs from one product (and also one region) to the other. While the CMORPH has the lowest sensitivity of detecting rain, CPC shows highest sensitivity and often overdetects rain, as evidenced by large POD and false alarm ratio and small missing values. All MPEs show higher rain sensitivity over eastern India than western India. These differential sensitivities are found to alter the biases in rain amount differently. All MPEs show similar spatial patterns of seasonal rain bias and root-mean-square error, but their spatial variability across India is complex and pronounced. The MPEs overestimate the rainfall over the dry regions (northwest and southeast India) and severely underestimate over mountainous regions (west coast and northeast India), whereas the bias is relatively small over the core monsoon zone. Higher occurrence of virga rain due to subcloud evaporation and possible missing of small-scale convective events by gauges over the dry regions are the main reasons for the observed overestimation of rain by MPEs. The decomposed components of total bias show that the major part of overestimation is due to false precipitation. The severe underestimation of rain along the west coast is attributed to the predominant occurrence of shallow rain

  13. A review and update on the practice of evaluating Miranda comprehension.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, L B; Goldstein, N E

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes recent developments in constitutional law relevant to the Miranda warning. We describe the origins of the warning, concerns about the use of the Miranda warning, perspectives on the utility of the warning, and the relevance of the warning. We describe how the warning has changed over time, requirements for administering the warning, and procedures that police use in delivering the warning and obtaining confessions. We review case law relevant to "coerced" Miranda waivers and confessions, changes over time in the court's interpretation of what constitutes "coercion," use of the warning with special populations, and the recent focus in case law on individual factors that might impair Miranda comprehension. We review empirical research on factors associated with deficits in Miranda comprehension. We integrate case law rulings and empirical research into suggested approaches to forensic assessment of Miranda comprehension. PMID:11568955

  14. Frequency of abnormal findings detected by comprehensive clinical evaluation at 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie J; Seaborn, Travis; Mao, Frances J; Massey, Susan C; Luu, Ngoc Q; Schubert, Mary A; Chien, Jason W; Carpenter, Paul A; Moravec, Carina; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2009-04-01

    Consensus guidelines recommend various screening examinations for survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but how often these examinations detect abnormal findings is unknown. We reviewed the medical records of 118 patients who received comprehensive, standardized evaluations at 1 year after allogeneic HCT at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Abnormal findings were common, including moderate to severe pulmonary dysfunction (16%), fasting hyperlipidemia (56%), osteopenia (52%), osteoporosis (6%), and active chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) (64%). Recurrent malignancy (4%) and cGVHD (29%) were detected in previously unsuspected cases. Only 3% of patients had no abnormal findings. We conclude that comprehensive evaluation at 1 year after allogeneic HCT detects a high prevalence of medical problems. Longer follow-up is needed to determine whether early detection and intervention affect later morbidity and mortality. PMID:19285628

  15. Histopathology reconstruction on digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Lieberman, Rich W.; Nie, Sixiang; Xie, Yihua; Eldred, Michael; Oyama, Jody

    2009-02-01

    Diagnosing cervical cancer in a woman is a multi-step procedure involving examination of the cervix, possible biopsy and follow-up. It is open to subjective interpretation and highly dependent upon the skills of cytologists, colposcopists, and pathologists. In an effort to reduce the subjectiveness of the colposcopist-directed biopsy and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, we have developed new colposcopic imaging systems with accompanying computer aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to guide a colposcopist in deciding if and where to biopsy. If the biopsy's histopathology, the identification of the disease state at the cellular and near-cellular level, is to be used as the gold standard for CAD, then the location of the histopathologic analysis must match exactly to the location of the biopsy tissue in the digital image. Otherwise, no matter how perfect the histopathology and the quality of the digital imagery, the two data sets cannot be matched and the true sensitivity and specificity of the CAD cannot be ascertained. We report here on new approaches to preserving, continuously, the location and orientation of a biopsy sample with respect to its location in the digital image of the cervix so as to preserve the exact spatial relationship throughout the mechanical aspects of the histopathologic analysis. This new approach will allow CAD to produce a linear diagnosis and pinpoint the location of the tissue under examination.

  16. Response to Intervention: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fluency Interventions on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Kimberly T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative heuristic case study (supported by quantitative data) was to investigate the change in reading comprehension after implementation of a fluency intervention. The study participants were five students on tier 2 of the Response to Intervention pyramid. The study was guided by three research questions. RQ1: Why does…

  17. Understanding What Students Know: Evaluating Their Online Research and Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Coiro, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This piece is framed by questions we are often asked when we talk about online reading assessments and instruction with teachers. We begin with some of the lessons we have learned in our own experiences with designing measures of online reading comprehension. Then we share our thoughts about key design considerations as well as some of the biggest…

  18. A Summative Program Evaluation of a Comprehensive 9th Grade Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 8th grade to 9th grade is one that is replete with challenges for students, especially for minority students who live in economically disadvantaged communities. One low-income, high minority comprehensive high school in the western United States implemented five separate strategies to create a freshman transition program to aid…

  19. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Schulman, Robert

    Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) in its first year provided career orientation and support services to 460 Russian-speaking students of limited English proficiency at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. The primary project goal was to help students to plan and prepare for future…

  20. Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes. Third-Year Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland, Martin; Connolly, Brooke; Fong, Tony; Sosenko, Lauren Davis; Tushnet, Naida C.; Yin, Robert K.; Burt, Janeula M.; Warner, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) Program was established as a demonstration program in 1998 and authorized as a full program in 2002 as part of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). It is one approach to help low-performing K-12 public schools meet state performance standards. CSR emphasizes two major concepts: mandating that school reform…

  1. Follow-Up Study of Schools Implementing Comprehensive School Reform in the Southwest. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs were implemented in 1998 in five states working with the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). SEDL's five-state region includes Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. This study examined the implementation status of CSR programs since funding ended. Two hundred and…

  2. Print and Digital Texts: Evaluating the Differences in Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Stephanie Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the reading comprehension skills of students in the United States have been raised partly because of the introduction of digital products into their lives and the classroom setting. The Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards results from 2013 that were provided by the Arizona Department of Education indicated that reading scores…

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Comprehensive Substance Abuse Intervention on Successful Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Jody; McDonald, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines permanency outcomes of families with children in foster care who participated in a comprehensive service-delivery program designed to assist families and communities in dealing with alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. Method: Survival analysis is used to measure the impact of program participation on family…

  4. Redescription of Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) with histopathological observations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerca lupi is a dog parasite of increasing zoonotic concern, with new human cases diagnosed in Turkey, Tunisia, Iran, and the United States. Information about the morphology of this nematode is scant and a detailed re-description of this species is overdue. In addition, histopathological data of potential usefulness for the identification of O. lupi infections are provided. Methods Male and female nematodes, collected from the connective tissue of a dog, were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and an histological evaluation was performed on biopsy samples from periocular tissues. Results The morphological identification was confirmed by molecular amplification and partial sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. This study provides the first comprehensive morphological and morphometric description of O. lupi from a dog based on light microscopy, SEM, molecular characterization, and histological observations. Conclusions Data herein presented contribute to a better understanding of this little known parasitic zoonosis, whose impact on human and animal health is still underestimated. The presence of granulomatous reactions only around the female adult suggests that the release of microfilariae from the uterus might be the cause of the inflammatory reaction observed. PMID:24499611

  5. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Final Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This report contains a summary of the findings from the various topical reports that comprise the author's comprehensive longitudinal study. As a summary, it does not include extensive details regarding the study samples and scientific methodologies employed in those topical studies. The research revealed a pattern of school choice results that…

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of Cardiac Hydatid Using 256 Slice Dual Source CT: One Stop Shop

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sonali; Gupta, Nishant; Goel, Vandana; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease results from infection with larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. Dogs and other canines are the definitive hosts; Human beings are common accidental intermediate hosts. Liver is the most common organ to be involved in this condition. Cardiac hydatid, seen in only 0.5 to 2% cases, is a rare entity because of myocardial contractility. Larvae reach the myocardium through coronary circulation. Among various locations of cardiac hydatid, due to its rich coronary arterial supply Left ventricle (LV) myocardium is the most common site of involvement followed by interventricular septum and right ventricle. Rare locations include pericardium, right atrium and left atrium. A 50-year-old woman presented with dyspnoea for 11 months, chest X-ray showed a well defined, homogenous left paracardiac mass, which is not separable from left heart border. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a complex multicystic mass lesion abutting antero-lateral wall of left ventricle. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed multicystic mass lesion with honeycomb appearance arising from myocardium of anterolateral wall of left ventricle. Indirect haemagglutination test for hydatid disease was positive. At surgery the cyst was seen to arise from LV myocardium. It was incised and grape like contents were evacuated. The cavity was irrigated with scolicidal solution. Thereafter, the cyst was marsupialised. Histopathological examination revealed grape like cyst contents consistent with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. PMID:26557591

  7. 99Tcm-MIBI scintimammography in the evaluation of breast lesions and axillary involvement: a comparison with mammography and histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Arslan, N; Oztürk, E; Ilgan, S; Urhan, M; Karaçalioglu, O; Pekcan, M; Tufan, T; Bayhan, H

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the diagnostic value of prone lateral 99Tcm-MIBI scintimammography in the detection of primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement in patients with breast lesions. We evaluated 83 palpable and 22 non-palpable lesions in 77 consecutive patients with a clinically palpable mass and/or suspicious mammographic finding. Early and late scintimammograms were performed after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq 99Tcm-MIBI. The overall sensitivity of both scintimammography and mammography in the detection of primary breast cancer was 94%. The overall specificity was 84% and 56% for scintimammography and mammography respectively. In the patients with palpable masses, the sensitivity of scintimammography was 97% and the specificity was 84%; in those with non-palpable masses, the sensitivity was 35% and the specificity 100%. For the detection of axillary lymph node involvement, the sensitivity and specificity of scintimammography were 68% and 93% respectively. However, conventional mammography showed 37% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, scintimammography is an accurate and clinically valuable tool for evaluating palpable and non-palpable breast abnormalities. In addition to its high sensitivity, it improves the specificity of mammography both in the evaluation of breast masses and in the detection of axillary involvement. PMID:10319351

  8. Developing and testing a framework for evaluating the quality of comprehensive family assessment in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Smithgall, Cheryl; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Gnedko-Berry, Natalya; Mason, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Comprehensive Family Assessment (CFA) has become a best practice in child welfare. Comprehensive Family Assessments go beyond risk assessment to develop a full picture of the child's and family's situation. When appropriately synthesized, assessment information can lead to a clear articulation of the patterns of child or family functioning which are related to child abuse and maltreatment or which can be strengthened to facilitate change. This study defines and provides concrete examples of dimensions of quality in child welfare assessment reports that are consistent with the CFA guidelines and best practices embraced by child welfare agencies, courts, and other key stakeholders. Leveraging a random assignment design, the study compares the quality of reports written by a caseworker alone versus those written by a caseworker paired with a licensed Integrated Assessment (IA) screener. Findings are discussed in the context of the dual professional model and factors contributing to the timely completion of high quality assessment reports. PMID:25563410

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  10. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Michaels, Blayk B; Crain, Debbi; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill-Lepomis macrochirus; crappie-Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at -20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  11. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    PubMed Central

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Michaels, Blayk B.; Crain, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  12. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  13. 70 FR 13033 - Building Comprehensive Prevention Program Planning and Evaluation Capacity for Rape Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-03-17

    ... Planning and Evaluation Capacity for Rape Prevention and Education Funded Programs Announcement Type: New... evaluation capacity among selected Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) funded sexual violence prevention... program planning and evaluation will be focused on the national Rape Prevention and Education...

  14. Evaluation of a Comprehensive AIDS Education Curriculum in Hungary--The Role of Good Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Molnar, Andrea; Morse, Dale L.; DeHovitz, Jack; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Szmad, Szabolcs

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate a school-based AIDS education program in Eastern Europe. Four evaluation segments were undertaken: process and outcome evaluations of the training of AIDS educators and of the educational activities for students. While most AIDS education curricula focus on the content of the education, findings demonstrate…

  15. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  16. Evaluation of Microscopic Disease in Oral Tongue Cancer Using Whole-Mount Histopathologic Techniques: Implications for the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sorcha; Poon, Ian; Markel, Dan; Vena, Dan; Higgins, Kevin; Enepekides, Dan; Rapheal, Simon; Wong, John; Allo, Ghassan; Morgen, Eric; Khaoum, Nader; Smith, Ben; Balogh, Judith; MacKenzie, Robert; Davidson, Jean; Wang, Dan; Yaffe, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To map the distribution of microscopic disease (MD) in head-and-neck cancer by analyzing digital images of whole-mounted serial sections of tongue cancer specimens. Methods and Materials: Ten T1-3 oral tongue cancer specimens were evaluated. The specimens were sliced into 3-mm blocks from which one or more 4-{mu}m slides were taken and digitized to create whole-mounted serial sections. Gross tumor and microscopic disease were digitally contoured on each slide. Lines perpendicular to the gross tumor volume (GTV) edge were created at 0.05-mm intervals and the distance between GTV and MD measured. Results: Of 88 slides assessed, 44 (50%) had evidence of MD. Of the 63,809 perpendicular lines drawn along the GTV edges, 2320 (3.6%) encountered microscopic disease along their path. The majority of MD abutted the GTV, and only 26.7% was noncontiguous with the GTV edge. The maximum distance from the border was 7.8 mm. Ninety-nine percent of all MD was within 4.75 mm and 95% was within 3.95 mm of the GTV. Conclusion: In this study we were able to assess the distribution of MD more accurately than has been possible with routine pathologic techniques. The results indicate that when the GTV is correctly identified, there is very little MD to be found outside this volume. This has implications for the volume of tissue resected at surgery and the volume included in the clinical target volume in conformal radiotherapy planning.

  17. Evaluation of gastric toxicity of indomethacin acid, salt form and complexed forms with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on Wistar rats: histopathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Rama, A C; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitoria; Veiga, F; Castel-Branco, M M; Cabrita, A M S; Caramona, M M

    2009-12-01

    Indomethacin (IM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis. It is practically insoluble in water and has the capacity to induce gastric injury. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is an alkylated derivative of beta-CD with the capacity to form inclusion complexes with suitable molecules. IM is considered to form partial inclusion complexes with HP-beta-CD by enclosure of the p-chlorobenzoic part of the molecule in the cyclodextrin channel, reducing the adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the gastric damage induced by the IM inclusion complex prepared by freeze-drying and spray-drying. A total of 135 Wistar rats weighing 224.4 +/- 62.5 g were put into 10 groups. They were allowed free access to water but were maintained fasted for 18 h before the first administration until the end of the experiment. IM acid-form, IM trihydrated-sodium-salt and IM-HP-beta-CD spray and freeze-dried, at normal and toxic doses, were administered through gastric cannula once/day for 3 days. Seventy-two hours after the first administration, the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs collected and prepared for morphological study by using the haematoxylin-eosin technique. Lesion indexes (rated 0/4) were developed and the type of injury was scored according to the severity of damage and the incidence of microscopic evidence of harm. Microscopic assessment demonstrated levels of injury with index one on 10-25%. The type of complexation method had different incidence but the same degree. The results show that IM inclusion complexation protects against gastric injury, reducing the incidence and the maximum degree of severity from 4 to 1, with a better performance of the spray-dried complex. PMID:19656206

  18. Evaluating clinical competence during nursing education: A comprehensive integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    This paper explored concepts, definitions and theoretical perspectives evaluating clinical competence during nursing education. The questions were: (i) How is clinical competence evaluated? and (ii) What is evaluated? An integrative review of 19 original research articles from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Results showed that evaluation tools were used in 14, observations in 2 and reflecting writing in 3 studies. The students participated in all but one evaluation alone or together with peers, faculty members or preceptors. Three themes were found: (i) professional practice with a caring perspective; (ii) clinical skills and reflective practice; and (iii) cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills both with a nursing perspective. This review shows an emphasis on structured methods with a risk reducing nursing to tasks and skills why combinations with qualitative evaluations are recommended. A holistic view of competence dominated and in designing evaluations, explicit perspectives and operationalized definitions of clinical competence became evident. PMID:26369943

  19. A Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Principal Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Principal Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Hansen, Ulcca Joshni; Wraight, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Across the country, states and districts are designing principal evaluation systems as a means of improving leadership, learning, and school performance. Principal evaluation systems hold potential for supporting leaders' learning and sense of accountability for instructional excellence and student performance. Principal evaluation is also an…

  20. A Comprehensive and Systematic Model of User Evaluation of Web Search Engines: II. An Evaluation by Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an application of a model of user evaluation of four major Web search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, Infoseek, and Lycos) by undergraduates. Evaluation was based on 16 performance measures representing five evaluation criteria-relevance, efficiency, utility, user satisfaction, and connectivity. Content analysis of verbal data identified a…

  1. From Implementation to Outcomes to Impacts: Designing a Comprehensive Program Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebby, S.

    2015-12-01

    Funders are often interested in learning about the impact of program activities, yet before the impacts are determined, educational evaluations should first examine program implementation and outcomes. Implementation evaluation examines how and the extent to which program activities are delivered as intended, including the extent to which activities reached the targeted participants. Outcome evaluation is comprised of a systematic examination of the effects that a program has on program participants, such as changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors. In this presentation, presenters will share insights on evaluating the implementation, outcomes, and impacts associated with an online science curriculum for K-2 students. The science curriculum was designed to provide students with access to science concepts and skills in an interactive and innovative environment, and teachers with embedded, aligned, and on-demand professional development. One of the most important—and challenging—steps in this evaluation was to select outcomes that were well-defined, measurable, and aligned to program activities, as well as relevant to program stakeholders. An additional challenge was to measure implementation given limited access to the classroom environment. This presentation will include a discussion of the process evaluators used to select appropriate implementation indicators and outcomes (teacher and student), design an evaluation approach, and craft data collection instruments. Although examples provided are specific to the K-2 science intervention, the best practices discussed are pertinent to all program and event evaluations. Impact evaluation goes beyond implementation and outcome evaluation to inform whether a program is working or not. It requires a comparison group to inform what outcomes would have been in the absence of the intervention. As such, this presentation will also include a discussion of impacts, including how impacts are defined

  2. A comprehensive evaluation of a community based participatory research intervention-Fit for Life Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study describes the process evaluation of Fit for Life Steps, a community-based participatory research-influenced intervention focused on improving physical activity and health. Process evaluation data were collected from participants, including volunteer coaches who led walking group members, ...

  3. Correlations Between Histopathologic Changes and Clinical Features in Pterygia

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Hamid; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Molaei, Saber; Hashemi, Hassan; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlations between clinical findings and histopathologic changes in eyes with pterygium. Methods: This prospective study included 70 eyes with primary pterygia undergoing surgical excision. Prior to surgery, clinical features of the pterygia including extension over the cornea, redness, fleshiness (based on obscuration of the underlying episcleral vessels), and obliteration of the plica semilunaris were determined. Postoperatively, pterygium specimens were examined by hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining to evaluate histopathologic characteristics including vascular density, leukocytic infiltration, stromal elastosis, stromal fibrosis and subepithelial fibrosis. Correlations between clinical findings and histopathologic changes were then investigated. Results: There was a marginally significant correlation between the redness and the fleshiness of pterygium (P = 0.06). Both redness and fleshiness of the pterygium had significant positive correlation with dimensions of the lesion over the cornea. Moreover, larger pterygia were associated with obliteration of the plica semilunaris. Pterygium redness showed a significant correlation with vascular density (P = 0.04), and pterygium fleshiness had a significant correlation with stromal fibrosis (P = 0.04). Pterygium dimensions over the cornea demonstrated a positive correlation with vascular density and a negative correlation with stromal elastosis. Conclusion: Redness and fleshiness of pterygium were only marginally correlated with each other, and each one showed a correlation with different histopathologic features. Larger pterygia were associated with more significant changes at the clinical and histopathologic levels.

  4. Teaching Comprehension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Association of School Superintendents.

    Materials used in a one-day conference on teaching reading comprehension skills are summarized in this publication. Contents consist of three articles on teaching the comprehension skills, informal reading inventories in science and in geography, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address with comprehension questions, a checklist for the evaluation of teaching…

  5. Rystrom Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rystrom, Richard

    Designed to measure specific dimensions of reading comprehension, the items for this test are based on a comprehension model which suggests that comprehension can be defined as six different skill areas: vocabulary, syntax, item recall, item sequence, interpretation, and evaluation. The test is divided into sections to correspond to each of the…

  6. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Second Year Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the progress of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) evaluation and presents a brief summary of the main findings of the seven distinct topical reports that have been completed for 2007-08--the second year of the evaluation. Those seven specialized reports build on the five reports that were released in 2008 and are:…

  7. The Comprehensive Longitudinal Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: Summary of Baseline Reports. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and the author's plan for evaluating it over a five year period. It also presents a brief summary of the main findings of the four distinct topical reports that the author and his colleagues have completed for 2006-07--the baseline year of the evaluation. Those four…

  8. Forging a Strategic and Comprehensive Approach to Evaluation within Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Integrating Measurement and Analytics within Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomer, Kathryn; Brass, Clinton T.

    2016-01-01

    The "performance movement" has been a subject of enthusiasm and frustration for evaluators. Performance measurement, data analytics, and program evaluation have been treated as different tasks, and those addressing them speak their own languages in their own circles. We suggest that situating performance measurement and data analytics…

  9. Spectral topography of histopathological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Jeremy M.; Lu, Thomas T.; Vari, Sandor G.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of imaging spectroscopy is to obtain independent spectra from individual objects in a field-of-view. In the case of biological materials, such as histopathology samples, it has been well established that spectral characteristic can be indicative of specific diseases including cancer. Diagnosis can be enhanced by the use of probes and stains to indicate the presence of individual genome or other biologically active cell components or substances. To assess a specimen through a microscope is directly analogous to serving the Earth from space to assess natural features. This paper describes a simple and inexpensive imaging spectrometer, with an origin in remote sensing, that demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly identify evidence of disease in histopathology samples using spatially resolved spectral data. The PARISS imaging spectrometer enables a researcher to acquire multi-spectral images that yield functional maps, showing what and where biological molecules are located within a structure. It is the powerful combination of imaging and spectroscopy that provides the tools not readily available to the Life Sciences. The PARISS system incorporates a powerful hybrid neural network analysis to break the data logjam that is often associated with the acquisition and processing of multiple spectra.

  10. Evaluation of the comprehensiveness and reliability of the chromium composition of foods in the literature ().

    PubMed

    Thor, Mayly Y; Harnack, Lisa; King, Denise; Jasthi, Bhaskarani; Pettit, Janet

    2011-12-01

    In the early 1960s, trivalent chromium Cr(3+) became recognized as an essential trace element due to its potential metabolic and cardiovascular benefits. No comprehensive chromium database currently exists; thus a thorough review of the literature was conducted to examine the availability and reliability of chromium data for foods. A number of key issues were identified that challenge the feasibility of adding chromium to a food and nutrient database. Foremost, dietary chromium data reported in the literature prior to 1980 cannot be relied on because of problematic analytical issues before that time. Next, paucity of data emerged as an issue that could impede database completeness. Finally, large variation in reported chromium content of foods may render disputable representative chromium values. This variation has been speculated to originate from differences in growing and particularly processing foods. Furthermore, contamination of chromium from laboratory equipment and/or materials is possible and also believed to contribute to the variation observed in reported values. As a result, database developers must carefully consider the availability and reliability of information on the chromium composition of foods when deciding whether to incorporate chromium into or exclude it from a nutrient database. PMID:23066174

  11. Evaluation of the comprehensiveness and reliability of the chromium composition of foods in the literature ☆

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Mayly Y.; Harnack, Lisa; King, Denise; Jasthi, Bhaskarani; Pettit, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1960s, trivalent chromium Cr3+ became recognized as an essential trace element due to its potential metabolic and cardiovascular benefits. No comprehensive chromium database currently exists; thus a thorough review of the literature was conducted to examine the availability and reliability of chromium data for foods. A number of key issues were identified that challenge the feasibility of adding chromium to a food and nutrient database. Foremost, dietary chromium data reported in the literature prior to 1980 cannot be relied on because of problematic analytical issues before that time. Next, paucity of data emerged as an issue that could impede database completeness. Finally, large variation in reported chromium content of foods may render disputable representative chromium values. This variation has been speculated to originate from differences in growing and particularly processing foods. Furthermore, contamination of chromium from laboratory equipment and/or materials is possible and also believed to contribute to the variation observed in reported values. As a result, database developers must carefully consider the availability and reliability of information on the chromium composition of foods when deciding whether to incorporate chromium into or exclude it from a nutrient database. PMID:23066174

  12. A comprehensive review of diagnostic imaging technologies to evaluate the retina and the optic disk.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Asima; Aman, Rabia; Reddy, Ashvini K

    2015-10-01

    Ophthalmic imaging has undergone a revolution over the past 20 years with increasingly efficient and high-definition modalities now available. The use of wide-field retinal angiography, fundus autofluorescence, state-of-the-art spectral domain, and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography has proven to be effective in this field. This comprehensive review is devoted to retinal and optic disk imaging modalities and their clinical implications. It is based on the published literature in the field of ophthalmic imaging with a focus on recent advances. Ophthalmic imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with both isolated retinal disease and systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. Evolving technology enables imaging of ocular disease in vivo, facilitating objective assessment of disease progression and response to treatment. These latest technical improvements in ophthalmic imaging are now a part of standard ophthalmic assessment in academic centers and most private practices. In the coming years, further advances may improve diagnostic sensitivity and enable cost-effective screening of large populations. PMID:26043677

  13. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign to Support Mexico City's Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liling; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Alday, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the level of awareness and impact of a social marketing campaign to promote Mexico City's 2008 comprehensive smoke-free law. Methods. Four months after the smoke-free law was implemented but before the campaign launch, we collected data from a population-based, random sample of 961 inhabitants of Mexico City. We analyzed data from 786 respondents who completed follow-up at the end of the campaign to determine campaign exposure and the association between campaign exposure and changes in campaign-targeted knowledge and attitudes. Results. Recall of any of the 5 campaign materials was 69%, with a uniform distribution of exposure to 1, 2, and 3 or more campaign materials (25%, 25%, and 19%, respectively). Exposure to a greater number of campaign materials was associated in a monotonic relation with campaign-targeted knowledge of ammonia and arsenic in cigarette smoke. In models assessing support for, perceived benefits of, and perceived right to smoke-free places, campaign exposure accounted for a positive change in half of the indicators within each of these domains. Conclusions. Social marketing campaigns can reinforce knowledge and attitudes that favor smoke-free laws, thereby helping to establish smoke-free norms. PMID:21164097

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of coagulation in swine subjected to isolated primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Prat, Nicolas J; Montgomery, Robbie; Cap, Andrew P; Dubick, Michael A; Sarron, Jean-Claude; Destombe, Casimir; May, Philippe; Magnan, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    Blast is one of the major causes of injury and death in recent armed conflicts. With increased use of improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan, more than 71% of combat casualties are caused by explosions. Blast injuries can range from primary (caused by shock wave) to quaternary injuries (e.g., burns), and such injuries can result in an acute coagulopathy denoted by a hypocoagulable state. It is not clear if this coagulopathy observed in victims of explosion is caused by local or general effect of the primary blast injury itself. In this study, 13 pigs were subjected to severe isolated open-field blast injury and we measured indices of coagulation impairment during the first hour after injury: ROTEM, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, coagulation factors, thrombin generation potential, platelet count, platelet activation, platelet function, and procoagulant microparticle formation. After 1 h, the mortality was 33%. No coagulation dysfunction was observed in the survivors in this period. This study presented a highly reproducible and consistent isolated blast injury in large mammals with comprehensive coagulation testing. The data suggest that isolated primary blast injury is not responsible for acute coagulopathy of trauma in victims of explosion but seems to lead to an early hypercoagulable state. PMID:25643012

  15. Evaluating the use of outputs from comprehensive meteorological models in air quality modeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, Vlad; Venkatram, Akula; Touma, Jawad S.; Koračin, Darko; Otte, Tanya L.

    Currently used dispersion models, such as the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD), process routinely available meteorological observations to construct model inputs. Thus, model estimates of concentrations depend on the availability and quality of meteorological observations, as well as the specification of surface characteristics at the observing site. We can be less reliant on these meteorological observations by using outputs from prognostic models, which are routinely run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The forecast fields are available daily over a grid system that covers all of the United States. These model outputs can be readily accessed and used for dispersion applications to construct model inputs with little processing. This study examines the usefulness of these outputs through the relative performance of a dispersion model that has input requirements similar to those of AERMOD. The dispersion model was used to simulate observed tracer concentrations from a Tracer Field Study conducted in Wilmington, California in 2004 using four different sources of inputs: (1) onsite measurements; (2) National Weather Service measurements from a nearby airport; (3) readily available forecast model outputs from the Eta Model; and (4) readily available and more spatially resolved forecast model outputs from the MM5 prognostic model. The comparison of the results from these simulations indicate that comprehensive models, such as MM5 and Eta, have the potential of providing adequate meteorological inputs for currently used short-range dispersion models such as AERMOD.

  16. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude. PMID:27377755

  17. Comprehensive RNA-Seq profiling to evaluate lactating sheep mammary gland transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Vega, Aroa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Klopp, Christophe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Arranz, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq enables the generation of extensive transcriptome information providing the capability to characterize transcripts (including alternative isoforms and polymorphism), to quantify expression and to identify differential regulation in a single experiment. Our aim in this study was to take advantage of using RNA-Seq high-throughput technology to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of the sheep lactating mammary gland. Eight ewes of two dairy sheep breeds with differences in milk production traits were used in this experiment (four Churra and four Assaf ewes). Milk samples from these animals were collected on days 10, 50, 120 and 150 after lambing to cover the various physiological stages of the mammary gland across the complete lactation. RNA samples were extracted from milk somatic cells. The RNA-Seq dataset was generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. The information reported here will be useful to understand the biology of lactation in sheep, providing also an opportunity to characterize their different patterns on milk production aptitude. PMID:27377755

  18. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Elizabeth M; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2010-01-01

    Histological analysis of liver biopsies remains a standard against which other methods of assessment for the presence and amount of hepatic injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are measured. Histological evaluation remains the sole method of distinguishing steatosis from advanced forms of NAFLD, i.e. nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Included in the lesions of NAFLD are steatosis, lobular and portal inflammation, hepatocyte injury in the forms of ballooning and apoptosis, and fibrosis. However, patterns of these lesions are as distinguishing as the lesions themselves. Liver injury in adults and children due to NAFLD may have different histological patterns. In this review, the rationale for liver biopsy, as well as the histopathological lesions, the microscopically observable patterns of injury, and the differential diagnoses of NAFLD and NASH are discussed. PMID:21072891

  19. A preliminary compilation and evaluation of a comprehensive emission inventory for polychlorinated biphenyls in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Song; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Liu, Li-Yan; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-11-15

    Emission inventories for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are crucial input data for atmospheric transport modeling and for the study of source-receptor relationships and the environmental behavior of these chemicals. Three types of primary PCB sources are considered in this study: intentionally produced PCBs (IP-PCBs), unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCBs), and PCB emissions from two e-waste sites (EW-PCBs). This study presents the historical emissions of all IP-, UP- and EW-PCBs into the air in China and the gridded Chinese emission inventories at a resolution of 1/6° latitude×1/4° longitude from 1950 to 2010. The UP-TPCB emissions from 1950 to 2010 were re-estimated to be 8.56t from eight emission sources comprising 96.3% of the Chinese UP-TPCB emissions. The EW-TPCB emissions from 1990 to 2010 were estimated to be 103.5 t, of which 7.1t and 12.3t were EW-PCB28 and EW-7PCB congeners (i.e., indicator-PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), respectively. The IP-PCB28 and IP-7PCB congener emissions from 1965 to 2010 were estimated to be 57.4 t and 130.1t, respectively. A significant correlation was found between congener PCB28 and 7PCBs (R(2)=0.988 and P=0.000), which suggests that PCB28 is a good marker congener for describing the emission trends of all 7PCB emission sources. The gridded emission data were compared with published measured atmospheric concentrations for 2004 and 2008, and a significant correlation was found between the modeled emissions and monitoring data. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive gridded emission inventories that include all IP-, UP-, and EW-PCBs on a national scale. PMID:26172591

  20. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Colonic Mucosal Isolates of Sutterella wadsworthensis from Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, Charlotte E.; Alhaidan, Yazeid A.; Thomson, John M.; Berry, Susan H.; Pattinson, Craig; Stead, David A.; Russell, Richard K.; El-Omar, Emad M.; Hold, Georgina L.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of an unidentified environmental trigger, possibly a hitherto unknown bacterial pathogen. Twenty-six clinical isolates of Sutterella wadsworthensis were obtained from 134 adults and 61 pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy, of whom 69 and 29 respectively had IBD. S. wadsworthensis was initially more frequently isolated from IBD subjects, hence this comprehensive study was undertaken to elucidate its role in IBD. Utilizing these samples, a newly designed PCR was developed, to study the prevalence of this bacterium in adult patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Sutterella wadsworthensis was detected in 83.8% of adult patients with UC as opposed to 86.1% of control subjects (p = 0.64). Selected strains from IBD cases and controls were studied to elicit morphological, proteomic, genotypic and pathogenic differences. This study reports Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) appearances and characteristic MALDI-TOF MS protein profiles of S. wadsworthensis for the very first time. SEM showed that the bacterium is pleomorphic, existing in predominantly two morphological forms, long rods and coccobacilli. No differences were noted in the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry proteomic analysis. There was no distinct clustering of strains identified from cases and controls on sequence analysis. Cytokine response after monocyte challenge with strains from patients with IBD and controls did not yield any significant differences. Our studies indicate that S. wadsworthensis is unlikely to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Strains from cases of IBD could not be distinguished from those identified from controls. PMID:22073125

  1. A Teachable-Agent-Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition: Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareto, Lena; Haake, Magnus; Lindstrom, Paulina; Sjoden, Bjorn; Gulz, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (1) conceptual understanding and (2) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and…

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation Criteria for English Learning Websites Using Expert Validity Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Chan, Chia-Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a set of evaluation criteria for English learning websites. These criteria can assist English teachers/web designers in designing effective websites for their English courses and can also guide English learners in screening for appropriate and reliable websites to use in increasing their English ability. To fulfill our…

  3. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the 1990-91 Model Career Options Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Carol Scott; And Others

    This publication provides evaluative information to decision makers at the state and local levels to assist in making judgments about the extent to which the goals of the Model Career Options Program (MCOP) were attained. The MCOP goals are: (1) to provide an opportunity for teachers to expand their professional horizons and explore new avenues in…

  4. Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating e-Learning Systems: Using BSC Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momeni, Mansor; Jamporazmey, Mona; Mehrafrouz, Mohsen; Bahadori, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing the way in which people work, communicate and learn. Recently developing and implementing e-learning solutions have increased dramatically. According to heavily investing in this area, it is essential to evaluate its different aspects and understand measures, which…

  5. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  6. [R-value comprehensive evaluation of effect of three methods for lung-kidney comprehensive evaluation study on R value of three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney in regulating lung inflammation signaling pathways in COPD rats].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong-xin; Tian, Yan-ge; Li, Jian-sheng; Xie, Yang; Li, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies showed that three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney (lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, and Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing) could regulate inflammatory signaling pathways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats, so as to alleviate inflammation. In the present study, R-value comprehensive evaluation method was used to evaluate the comprehensive effect of three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney on inflammatory signaling pathways. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing and aminophylline groups. The COPD rat models were established by cigarette smoking combined with bacterial infection, and orally administered with drugs between the 9th and 20th week. Afterwards, efforts were made to observe the long-term effects between the drug withdrawal and the 32rd week and detect indicators in two batches in the 20th week and 32th week. Specifically, (1) Linking JAK/STAT signaling pathway: JAK2 mRNA, and protein expressions of STAT-1, STAT-3, STAT-5, JAK-2; (2) NF-kappaB signaling pathway: Smad2 mRNA and protein expressions of I-kappaB, NF-kappaB, TGF-beta1; (3) PPARgamma and antioxidant signaling pathway: SOD, PGE mRNA, PPARgamma protein. According to the results, 5 indicators in JAK/STAT pathway, 4 indicators in NF-kappaB pathway, and 3 indicators in PPARgamma pathway were significantly rectified by three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney in between the 20th week and 32nd week. Between the 20th and 32nd week, the recipes for rectifying JAK/STAT pathway with intensity from high to low were recipes for lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, aminophylline, particularly those for lung invigorating and spleen

  7. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-09-18

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997.

  8. A Comprehensive Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaled Climate Predictions and Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsugli, J. J.; Guentchev, G.

    2012-12-01

    The variety of methods used for downscaling climate predictions and projections is large and growing larger. Comparative studies of downscaling techniques to date are often initiated in relation to specific projects, are focused on limited sets of downscaling techniques, and hence do not allow for easy comparison of outcomes. In addition, existing information about the quality of downscaled datasets is not available in digital form. There is a strong need for systematic evaluation of downscaling methods using standard protocols which will allow for a fair comparison of their advantages and disadvantages with respect to specific user needs. The National Climate Predictions and Projections platform, with the contributions of NCPP's Climate Science Advisory Team, is developing community-based standards and a prototype framework for the quantitative evaluation of downscaling techniques and datasets. Certain principles guide the development of this framework. We want the evaluation procedures to be reproducible and transparent, simple to understand, and straightforward to implement. To this end we propose a set of open standards that will include the use of specific data sets, time periods of analysis, evaluation protocols, evaluation tests and metrics. Secondly, we want the framework to be flexible and extensible to downscaling techniques which may be developed in the future, to high-resolution global models, and to evaluations that are meaningful for additional applications and sectors. Collaboration among practitioners who will be using the downscaled data and climate scientists who develop downscaling methods will therefore be essential to the development of this framework. The proposed framework consists of three analysis protocols, along with two tiers of specific metrics and indices that are to be calculated. The protocols describe the following types of evaluation that can be performed: 1) comparison to observations, 2) comparison to a "perfect model" simulation

  9. Spatial-temporal distribution and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of total phosphorus and total nitrogen in the Yangtze River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Chen, Yaxin; Yu, Wenwen; Xu, Fei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-01-01

    Based on water sample data collected from the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) during four sampling periods in 2010 and 2011, the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) content were evaluated using the traditional single-factor evaluation (TSE) and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Statistical analyses showed that the average TN and TP for the four periods were 2.60 mg/L and 0.11 mg/L, respectively. August 2010 showed the lowest TN (1.57 mg/L), and February 2011 showed the highest TP (0.15 mg/L). The annual spatial distribution results indicated that an area of high TN concentration (TN ≥ 3.0 mg/L) occurred in the adjacent sea and increased on an eastward gradient. An area of high TP concentration (TP ≥0.10 mg/L) occurred in the inner YRE and decreased on an eastward gradient. There were significant differences in the results of TSE and FCE. The TSE results only reflected the TN evaluation results for certain locations of the YRE. The FCE method combined the effects of the TN and TP factors, and the results indicate that the Chinese water quality classification of Class 5 was dominant in the YRE. PMID:26901737

  10. Evaluation for coastal reclamation feasibility using a comprehensive hydrodynamic framework: A case study in Haizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; He, Jia; Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Bian, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Coastal reclamation (CR) is a prevailing approach to solve the contradiction between the land shortage and the growing demand of living space for human beings. In general, environmental impact assessment (EIA) focuses on evaluating the feasibility of individual coastal reclamation project (CRP). However, few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of multiple CRPs on surrounding environment. In this study, an integrated framework based on coastal hydrodynamics was established, and then applied to the feasibility evaluation of multiple CRPs for future coastal management in Haizhou Bay, China. The results indicated that three out of five reclamation projects were feasible and the remaining two were forbidden in the study area, whereas EIA approves of all the CRPs. It provides a scientific reference for effective management of coastal reclamation and future environmental impact researches when new CRPs are proposed. PMID:26364204

  11. Costs and benefits of hospital-wide PACS networks: an overview of a comprehensive evaluation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Stirling; Weatherburn, Gwyneth C.; Watkins, Jessamy; Keen, Justin; Muris, Nicole; Buxton, Martin J.

    1998-07-01

    The experimental site for the evaluation reported was the Hammersmith Hospital, London. The study adopted an economic perspective in that the focus was on the change in various elements of cost and the change in various parameters of benefit following the implementation of a hospital-wide PACS. Comparison was made of hospital operation in a film-based situation with operation in a PACS-based situation. Some of the research activities focused on the radiology service itself at Hammersmith, others focused on other areas of the hospital where radiological information was seen as an important component in clinical decision-making, and others looked outside the hospital. In terms of operational, clinical and patient benefits, the evaluation found no significant indicators of disadvantages of PACS and many examples of significant actual measurable benefits or perceived advantages by users. However, as one might expect, these advantages come at a significant net cost.

  12. Evaluation of a Virtual Citizen Science Facility: A Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracey, G.

    2014-07-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Citizen Science Facility allows the public to participate in scientific research, learning opportunities, and community activities. Evaluation efforts include an online survey of users' attitudes about and use of the CosmoQuest website and their motivations for participation. Pre/post-participation assessments examine learning of science content. Along with these quantitative assessments we seek a deeper level of understanding through qualitative methods. Formative and summative evaluations use semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. Participant responses are analyzed using an iterative process of open coding, allowing patterns to emerge inductively from the data. Triangulation of data increases the validity of findings. This approach gives a more rigorous look at the motivations, behaviors, and learning of participants, and a more complete and in-depth understanding of project impact.

  13. A Comprehensive Evaluation of NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeters on Three Orthogonal Planes and Temporal Stability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters have been proven useful for dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that using a polymer gel dosimeter requires a 24 h reaction time to stabilize and further evaluate the measured dose distribution in two-dimensional dosimetry. In this study, the short-term stability within 24 h and feasibility of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeters for use in three-dimensional dosimetry were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NIPAM gels were used to measure the dose volume in a clinical case of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). For dose readouts, MR images of irradiated NIPAM gel phantoms were acquired at 2, 5, 12, and 24 h after dose delivery. The mean standard errors of dose conversion from using dose calibration curves (DRC) were calculated. The measured dose volumes at the four time points were compared with those calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS). The mean standard errors of the dose conversion from using the DRCs were lower than 1 Gy. Mean pass rates of 2, 5, 12, and 24 h axial dose maps calculated using gamma evaluation with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria were 83.5% ± 0.9%, 85.9% ± 0.6%, 98.7% ± 0.3%, and 98.5% ± 0.9%, respectively. Compared with the dose volume histogram of the TPS, the absolute mean relative volume differences of the 2, 5, 12, and 24 h measured dose volumes were lower than 1% for the irradiated region with an absorbed dose higher than 2.8 Gy. It was concluded that a 12 h reaction time was sufficient to acquire accurate dose volume using the NIPAM gels with MR readouts. PMID:27192217

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  15. Preoperative evaluation and comprehensive risk assessment for children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewanda, Amy Feldman; Matisoff, Andrew; Revenis, Mary; Harahsheh, Ashraf; Futterman, Craig; Nino, Gustavo; Greenberg, Jay; Myseros, John S; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N; Summar, Marshall

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome is a common chromosome disorder affecting all body systems. This creates unique physiologic concerns that can affect safety during anesthesia and surgery. Little consensus exists, however, on the best way to evaluate children with Down syndrome in preparation for surgery. We review a number of salient topics affecting these children in the perioperative period, including cervical spine instability, cardiovascular abnormalities, pulmonary hypertension, upper airway obstruction, hematologic disturbances, prematurity, low birth weight, and the use of supplements and alternative therapies. Recommendations include obtaining a complete blood count to detect an increased risk for bleeding or stroke, and cardiology evaluation to identify patients with pulmonary hypertension, as well as undiagnosed or residual heart disease. Pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists should be involved as needed. The potential for cervical spine instability should be considered, and the anesthesiologist may wish to have several options available both for the medications and equipment used. The child's family should always be asked if he or she is on any nutritional supplements, as some products marketed to families may have secondary effects such as inhibition of platelet function. Using this evaluation in presurgical planning will allow physicians to better consider the individual circumstances for their patients with Down syndrome. Our goal was to optimize patient safety by choosing the most appropriate setting and perioperative personnel, and to mitigate those risk factors amenable to intervention. PMID:26749540

  16. Histopathology of a wavy medaka

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Kota; Kuroda, Yusuke; Mimori, Norihiko; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naho; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Furukawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Wavy medakas are medakas that exhibit spinal curvature characterized by dorsoventrally curved vertebrae. We found a spontaneous wavy medaka in our experimental stock and subjected it to a histopathological examination. Macroscopically, the wavy medaka’s spine formed an M shape, and its vertebrae displayed a dorsoventral curvature that started at the third vertebral bone. Microscopically, the vertebral cavities were filled with fibrous tissue, which was similar to that seen in the central parts of the intervertebral discs of a normal medaka. The vertebral joints were composed of vacuolated notochord cells without intervertebral disc formation. These changes were also observed in the caudal region, which exhibited less curvature. In the normal medaka, the intervertebral discs form via the regression of the notochord that plays a key role in the development of vertebrae and disc formation. We concluded that notochordal subinvolution had induced intervertebral disc dysplasia, leading to lordokyphosis, in the wavy medaka. PMID:27182116

  17. Toward a More Comprehensive Approach to Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness: Supplementing Student Evaluations of Teaching with Pre-Post Learning Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Ahlering, Robert F.; Brill, Flannery M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of student evaluations of teaching (SETs) to assess teaching effectiveness remains controversial. Without clear guidelines regarding how to best document effective teaching, faculty members may wonder how to convincingly demonstrate teaching effectiveness in preparation for promotion and tenure review. Based on a study that examined the…

  18. Centralised Evaluation Practices: An Ethnographic Account of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in a Government Residential School in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of students' learning has been the central focus in Indian schools for a very long time. Teachers and school administrators in most schools train students from the very beginning to sit for the examinations conducted at the end of Classes X and XII. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (popularly known as RTE)…

  19. Evaluating Early Childhood Educators: Prekindergarten through Third Grade. Supplement to the "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Educator Evaluation Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Jana; Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood educators play a critical role in preparing students for success later in their school experience. The instructional techniques, emotional supports, and assessment approaches for early childhood settings are different from classroom settings in later grades. How can states and districts develop evaluation systems that are tuned to…

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of poly(I:C) induced inflammatory response in an airway epithelial model

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Amanda R; Park, Hyoungshin; Mulhern, Thomas J; Jackson, George R; Comolli, James C; Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Hayden, Patrick J; Prantil-Baun, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory viruses invade the upper airway of the lung, triggering a potent immune response that often exacerbates preexisting conditions such as asthma and COPD. Poly(I:C) is a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA that induces the characteristic inflammatory response associated with viral infection, such as loss of epithelial integrity, and increased production of mucus and inflammatory cytokines. Here, we explore the mechanistic responses to poly(I:C) in a well-defined primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) model that recapitulates in vivo functions and responses. We developed functional and quantifiable methods to evaluate the physiology of our model in both healthy and inflamed states. Through gene and protein expression, we validated the differentiation state and population of essential cell subtypes (i.e., ciliated, goblet, club, and basal cells) as compared to the human lung. Assays for total mucus production, cytokine secretion, and barrier function were used to evaluate in vitro physiology and response to viral insult. Cells were treated apically with poly(I:C) and evaluated 48 h after induction. Results revealed a dose-dependent increase in goblet cell differentiation, as well as, an increase in mucus production relative to controls. There was also a dose-dependent increase in secretion of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and RANTES. Epithelial barrier function, as measured by TEER, was maintained at 1501 ± 355 Ω*cm² postdifferentiation, but dropped significantly when challenged with poly(I:C). This study provides first steps toward a well-characterized model with defined functional methods for understanding dsRNA stimulated inflammatory responses in a physiologically relevant manner. PMID:25847914

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  2. Evaluation of Docking Target Functions by the Comprehensive Investigation of Protein-Ligand Energy Minima

    PubMed Central

    Oferkin, Igor V.; Katkova, Ekaterina V.; Sulimov, Alexey V.; Kutov, Danil C.; Sobolev, Sergey I.; Voevodin, Vladimir V.; Sulimov, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The adequate choice of the docking target function impacts the accuracy of the ligand positioning as well as the accuracy of the protein-ligand binding energy calculation. To evaluate a docking target function we compared positions of its minima with the experimentally known pose of the ligand in the protein active site. We evaluated five docking target functions based on either the MMFF94 force field or the PM7 quantum-chemical method with or without implicit solvent models: PCM, COSMO, and SGB. Each function was tested on the same set of 16 protein-ligand complexes. For exhaustive low-energy minima search the novel MPI parallelized docking program FLM and large supercomputer resources were used. Protein-ligand binding energies calculated using low-energy minima were compared with experimental values. It was demonstrated that the docking target function on the base of the MMFF94 force field in vacuo can be used for discovery of native or near native ligand positions by finding the low-energy local minima spectrum of the target function. The importance of solute-solvent interaction for the correct ligand positioning is demonstrated. It is shown that docking accuracy can be improved by replacement of the MMFF94 force field by the new semiempirical quantum-chemical PM7 method. PMID:26693223

  3. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation. PMID:26296352

  4. Effect of Comprehensive Oncogenetics Training Interventions for General Practitioners, Evaluated at Multiple Performance Levels

    PubMed Central

    Houwink, Elisa J. F.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van Teeffelen, Sarah R.; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; Jacobi, Florijn; van der Jagt, Liesbeth; Stirbu, Irina; van Luijk, Scheltus J.; Stumpel, Connie T. R. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C.; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reflecting the prioritized educational needs of primary care physicians. It also reports on an ongoing study to investigate long-term increase in genetic consultation skills (1-year follow-up) and interest in and satisfaction with a supportive website on genetics among GPs. Three oncogenetics modules were developed: an online Continuing Professional Development (G-eCPD) module, a live genetic CPD module, and a “GP and genetics” website (huisartsengenetica.nl) providing further genetics information applicable in daily practice. Three assessments to evaluate the effectiveness (1-year follow-up) of the oncogenetic modules were designed: 1.An online questionnaire on self-reported genetic competencies and changes in referral behaviour, 2.Referral rates from GPs to clinical genetics centres and 3.Satisfaction questionnaire and visitor count analytics of supportive genetics website. The setting was Primary care in the Netherlands and three groups of study participants were included in the reported studies:. Assessment 1. 168 GPs responded to an email invitation and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, evaluating the G-eCPD module (n = 80) or the live module (n = 88). Assessment 2. Referral rates by GPs were requested from the clinical genetics centres, in the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Maastricht), for the two years before (2010 [n = 2510] and 2011 [n = 2940]) and the year after (2012 [n = 2875]) launch of the oncogenetics CPD modules and the website. Assessment 3. Participants of the website evaluation were all recruited online. When they visited the website during the month of February 2013

  5. Design and Outcomes of a Comprehensive Care Experience Level System to Evaluate and Monitor Dental Students' Clinical Progress.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Roperto, Renato; Alonso, Aurelio A; Lang, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    A Comprehensive Care Experience Level (CCEL) system that is aligned with Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standards, promotes comprehensive care and prevention, and addresses flaws observed in previous Relative Value Units (RVU)-based programs has been implemented at the School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University since 2011. The purpose of this article is to report on the design, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of this novel clinical evaluation system. With the development of the CCEL concept, it was decided not to award points for procedures performed on competency exams. The reason behind this decision was that exams are not learning opportunities and are evaluated with summative tools. To determine reasonable alternative requirements, production data from previous classes were gathered and translated into CCEL points. These RVU points had been granted selectively only for restorative procedures completed after the initial preparation stage of the treatment plan, and achievement of the required levels was checked at multiple points during the clinical curriculum. Results of the CCEL system showed that low performing students increased their productivity, overall production at graduation increased significantly, and fluoride utilization to prevent caries rose by an order of magnitude over the RVU system. The CCEL program also allowed early identification and remediation of students having difficulty in the clinic. This successful implementation suggests that the CCEL concept has the potential for widespread adoption by dental schools. This method also can be used as a behavior modification tool to achieve specific patient care or clinical educational goals as illustrated by the way caries prevention was promoted through the program. PMID:27251347

  6. Cutaneous porphyrias part I: epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Horner, Mary E; Alikhan, Ali; Tintle, Suzanne; Tortorelli, Silvia; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Hand, Jennifer L

    2013-12-01

    The porphyrias are a group of disorders characterized by defects in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Many present with skin findings including photosensitivity, bullae, hypertrichosis, and scarring. Systemic symptoms may include abdominal pain, neuropsychiatric changes, anemia, and liver disease. With advances in DNA analysis, researchers are discovering the underlying genetic causes of the porphyrias, enabling family members to be tested for genetic mutations. Here we present a comprehensive review of porphyria focusing on those with cutaneous manifestations. In Part I, we have included the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and histopathology. Treatment and management options will be discussed in Part II. PMID:24261722

  7. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE∕optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    PubMed Central

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5× scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1×3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5× commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to ∼2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in opaqueness

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Sakhalkar, H S; Adamovics, J; Ibbott, G; Oldham, M

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1 x 3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to approximately 2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  9. A Cross-Cultural, Long-Term Outcome Evaluation of the ISTAR Comprehensive Stuttering Program across Dutch and Canadian Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Marilyn; Huinck, Wendy J.; Kully, Deborah; Peters, Herman F. M.; Lomheim, Holly; Tellers, Marian

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of stuttering treatment programs delivered in domestic and international contexts and to determine if treatment delivered internationally is culturally sensitive. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the ISTAR Comprehensive Stuttering Program (CSP) within and across client groups from the Netherlands and…

  10. Automated Formative Evaluations for Reading Comprehension in an English as a Foreign Language Course: Benefits on Performance, User Satisfaction, and Monitoring of Higher Education Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzeri, Santos; Cabezas, Ximena; Ojeda, Luis; Leiva, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    We assess the effect of automated formative evaluations on reading comprehension skills in a course of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the area of kinesiology at the Universidad Austral de Chile-Valdivia (UACh). The evaluations were implemented using Questionmark's Perception (QMP) (Questionmark-Corporation, 2015). We investigate: (1) Do…

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  12. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Performance and Materials Chemistry of a Sililcone-Based Replicating Compound

    SciTech Connect

    Kalan, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the performance and chemistry of a siliconebased replicating compound. Some silicone replicating compounds are useful for critical inspection of surface features. Common applications are for examining micro-cracks, surface pitting, scratching, and other surface defects. Materials characterization techniques were used: FTIR, XPS, ToF-SIMS, AFM, and Confocal Microscopy to evaluate the replicating compound. These techniques allowed for the characterization and verification of the resolution capabilities and surface contamination that may be a result of using the compound. FTIR showed the compound is entirely made from silicone constituents. The AFM and Confocal Microscopy results showed the compound does accurately replicate the surface features to the claimed resolution. XPS and ToF-SIMS showed there is a silicone contaminant layer left behind when a cured replica is peeled off a surface. Attempts to clean off the contamination could not completely remove all silicone residues.

  13. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    PubMed Central

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C.; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems. PMID:25003102

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of inorganic arsenic in food and considerations for dietary intake analyses.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather N; Greenberg, Grace I; Pollock, Margaret C; Lewis, Ari S

    2014-10-15

    Arsenic (As) can exist in the environment in several different forms, each having unique chemical characteristics that influence its toxicity and potential for human and ecological exposure. Within the last decade or so, the focus on speciated As (both the inorganic and organic forms) and its potential toxicity has led to an increased availability of data on speciated As in different food types. To gain an understanding of these developments and the current science, we evaluated the state of knowledge regarding As speciation in food and calculated the average levels of several species of As measured in food. Because inorganic arsenic (inAs) is considered the most toxicologically important form of As, we focused our analysis on papers presenting information on total inAs and speciated inAs (inAs(3+) or inAs(5+)). We also evaluated speciated As forms (e.g., monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acid) when presented with inAs information. Publications were drawn from the peer-reviewed literature and reports by authoritative health agencies. While a great deal of speciation data were identified, including over 6500 unique inAs data points, unclear study methodology and inconsistencies between studies introduced uncertainty into the analysis of these data. Despite these limitations, our analysis demonstrates that inAs in foods can vary widely by type and even by sample, with mean inAs concentrations ranging from undetectable (in milk) to 11,000 μg/kg (in seaweed/algae). We found a high percentage of non-measurable As in many food types, suggesting that the limits of detection of speciated As must be considered to accurately estimate dietary As exposure. The applicability of our analysis is limited by the inconsistencies and uncertainties in the available data; calculations of inAs dietary intake should be tailored to the study population of interest and should consider study quality. PMID:25089691

  15. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Steroid Metabolism in Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pařízek, Antonín; Hill, Martin; Dušková, Michaela; Vítek, Libor; Velíková, Marta; Kancheva, Radmila; Šimják, Patrik; Koucký, Michal; Kokrdová, Zuzana; Adamcová, Karolína; Černý, Andrej; Hájek, Zdeněk; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a common liver disorder, mostly occurring in the third trimester. ICP is defined as an elevation of serum bile acids, typically accompanied by pruritus and elevated activities of liver aminotransferases. ICP is caused by impaired biliary lipid secretion, in which endogenous steroids may play a key role. Although ICP is benign for the pregnant woman, it may be harmful for the fetus. We evaluated the differences between maternal circulating steroids measured by RIA (17-hydroxypregnenolone and its sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and cortisol) and GC-MS (additional steroids), hepatic aminotransferases and bilirubin in women with ICP (n = 15, total bile acids (TBA) >8 μM) and corresponding controls (n = 17). An age-adjusted linear model, receiver-operating characteristics (ROC), and multivariate regression (a method of orthogonal projections to latent structure, OPLS) were used for data evaluation. While aminotransferases, conjugates of pregnanediols, 17-hydroxypregnenolone and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol were higher in ICP patients, 20α-dihydropregnenolone, 16α-hydroxy-steroids, sulfated 17-oxo-C19-steroids, and 5β-reduced steroids were lower. The OPLS model including steroids measured by GC-MS and RIA showed 93.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity, while the model including steroids measured by GC-MS in a single sample aliquot showed 93.3% sensitivity and 94.1% specificity. A composite index including ratios of sulfated 3α/β-hydroxy-5α/β-androstane-17-ones to conjugated 5α/β-pregnane-3α/β, 20α-diols discriminated with 93.3% specificity and 81.3% sensitivity (ROC analysis). These new data demonstrating altered steroidogenesis in ICP patients offer more detailed pathophysiological insights into the role of steroids in the development of ICP. PMID:27494119

  16. A comprehensive approach for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T. A.; Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Lomax, A.; Ferulano, M. F.; Vetri, M. L. V.; Barzaghi, L. P.

    2013-02-01

    The accurate determination of locations and magnitudes of seismic events in a monitored region is important for many scientific, industrial and military studies and applications; for these purposes a wide variety of seismic networks are deployed throughout the world. It is crucial to know the performance of these networks not only in detecting and locating seismic events of different sizes throughout a specified source region, but also by evaluating their location errors as a function of the magnitude and source location. In this framework, we have developed a method for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring. For a specified network geometry, station characteristics and a target monitoring volume, the method determines the lowest magnitude of events that the seismic network is able to detect (Mwdetect), and locate (Mwloc) and estimates the expected location and origin time errors for a specified magnitude. Many of the features related to the seismic signal recorded at a single station are considered in this methodology, including characteristics of the seismic source, the instrument response, the ambient noise level, wave propagation in a layered, anelastic medium and uncertainties on waveform measures and the velocity model. We applied this method to two different network typologies: a local earthquake monitoring network, Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), installed along the Campania-Lucania Apennine chain in Southern Italy, and a hypothetic borehole network for monitoring microfractures induced during the hydrocarbon extraction process in an oil field. The method we present may be used to aid in enhancing existing networks and/or understanding their capabilities, such as for the ISNet case study, or to optimally design the network geometry in specific target regions, as for the borehole network example.

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: A case study with a hydrological model

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yanjun; Duan, Qingyun; Gong, Wei; Tong, Charles; Sun, Yunwei; Chu, Wei; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Di, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a commonly used approach for identifying important parameters that dominate model behaviors. We use a newly developed software package, a Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of ten widely used SA methods, including seven qualitative and three quantitative ones. All SA methods are tested using a variety of sampling techniques to screen out the most sensitive (i.e., important) parameters from the insensitive ones. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, which has thirteen tunable parameters, is used for illustration. The South Branch Potomac River basin near Springfield, West Virginia in the U.S. is chosen as the study area. The key findings from this study are: (1) For qualitative SA methods, Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), and Gaussian Process (GP) screening methods are shown to be not effective in this example. Morris One-At-a-Time (MOAT) screening is the most efficient, needing only 280 samples to identify the most important parameters, but it is the least robust method. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Delta Test (DT) and Sum-Of-Trees (SOT) screening methods need about 400–600 samples for the same purpose. Monte Carlo (MC), Orthogonal Array (OA) and Orthogonal Array based Latin Hypercube (OALH) are appropriate sampling techniques for them; (2) For quantitative SA methods, at least 2777 samples are needed for Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to identity parameter main effect. McKay method needs about 360 samples to evaluate the main effect, more than 1000 samples to assess the two-way interaction effect. OALH and LPτ (LPTAU) sampling techniques are more appropriate for McKay method. For the Sobol' method, the minimum samples needed are 1050 to compute the first-order and total sensitivity indices correctly. These comparisons show that qualitative SA methods are more efficient

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: A case study with a hydrological model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gan, Yanjun; Duan, Qingyun; Gong, Wei; Tong, Charles; Sun, Yunwei; Chu, Wei; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Di, Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a commonly used approach for identifying important parameters that dominate model behaviors. We use a newly developed software package, a Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of ten widely used SA methods, including seven qualitative and three quantitative ones. All SA methods are tested using a variety of sampling techniques to screen out the most sensitive (i.e., important) parameters from the insensitive ones. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, which has thirteen tunable parameters, is used for illustration. The South Branch Potomac River basin nearmore » Springfield, West Virginia in the U.S. is chosen as the study area. The key findings from this study are: (1) For qualitative SA methods, Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), and Gaussian Process (GP) screening methods are shown to be not effective in this example. Morris One-At-a-Time (MOAT) screening is the most efficient, needing only 280 samples to identify the most important parameters, but it is the least robust method. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Delta Test (DT) and Sum-Of-Trees (SOT) screening methods need about 400–600 samples for the same purpose. Monte Carlo (MC), Orthogonal Array (OA) and Orthogonal Array based Latin Hypercube (OALH) are appropriate sampling techniques for them; (2) For quantitative SA methods, at least 2777 samples are needed for Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to identity parameter main effect. McKay method needs about 360 samples to evaluate the main effect, more than 1000 samples to assess the two-way interaction effect. OALH and LPτ (LPTAU) sampling techniques are more appropriate for McKay method. For the Sobol' method, the minimum samples needed are 1050 to compute the first-order and total sensitivity indices correctly. These comparisons show that qualitative SA methods are more

  19. The new sun-sky-lunar Cimel CE318-T multiband photometer - a comprehensive performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, África; Cuevas, Emilio; Granados-Muñoz, María-José; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Romero, Pedro M.; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Almansa, Antonio F.; Stone, Tom; Toledano, Carlos; Román, Roberto; Sorokin, Mikhail; Holben, Brent; Canini, Marius; Yela, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and night-time photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light source. Therefore, this new device permits a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapour measurements valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring to be extracted. In this study we have found significantly higher precision of triplets when comparing the CE318-T master instrument and the Cimel AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) master (CE318-AERONET) triplets as a result of the new CE318-T tracking system. Regarding the instrument calibration, two new methodologies to transfer the calibration from a reference instrument using only daytime measurements (Sun Ratio and Sun-Moon gain factor techniques) are presented and discussed. These methods allow the reduction of the previous complexities inherent to nocturnal calibration. A quantitative estimation of CE318-T AOD uncertainty by means of error propagation theory during daytime revealed AOD uncertainties (uDAOD) for Langley-calibrated instruments similar to the expected values for other reference instruments (0.002-0.009). We have also found uDAOD values similar to the values reported in sun photometry for field instruments ( ˜ 0.015). In the case of the night-time period, the CE318-T-estimated standard combined uncertainty (uNAOD) is dependent not only on the calibration technique but also on illumination conditions and the instrumental noise. These values range from 0.011-0.018 for Lunar Langley-calibrated instruments to 0.012-0.021 for instruments calibrated using the Sun Ratio technique. In the case of moon-calibrated instruments using the Sun-Moon gain factor method and sun-calibrated using the Langley technique, we found uNAOD ranging from 0.016 to 0.017 (up to 0.019 in 440 nm channel), not dependent on any lunar irradiance model.A subsequent performance evaluation including CE318-T and collocated measurements from independent reference instruments has served to

  20. The new sun-sky-lunar Cimel CE318-T multiband photometer - a comprehensive performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, A.; Cuevas, E.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Romero, P. M.; Gröbner, J.; Kouremeti, N.; Almansa, A. F.; Stone, T.; Sorokin, M.; Holben, B.; Canini, M.; Yela, M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and nighttime photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light source. Therefore, this new device permits to extract a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapor measurements valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring. In this study we have found significantly higher triplets precision when comparing the CE318-T master and the Cimel AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) master (CE318-AERONET) triplets as a result of the new CE318-T tracking system. Regarding the instrument calibration, a new methodology to transfer the calibration from a master (Sun Ratio technique) is presented and discussed. It allows us to reduce the previous complexities inherent to nocturnal calibration. A quantitative estimation of CE318-T AOD uncertainty by means of error propagation theory during daytime revealed AOD uncertainties (uDAOD) for Langley-calibrated instruments similar to the expected values for other reference instruments (0.002-0.009). We have also found uDAOD values similar to the values reported in sun photometry for field instruments (~ 0.015). In the case of nighttime period, the CE318-T estimated uncertainty (uNAOD) is dependent not only on the calibration technique but also on illumination conditions and the instrumental noise. These values range from 0.011-0.019 for Lunar Langley calibrated instruments to 0.012-0.021 for instruments calibrated using the Sun Ratio technique. A subsequent performance evaluation including CE318-T and collocated measurements from independent reference instruments has served to assess the CE318-T performance as well as to confirm its estimated uncertainty. Daytime AOD evaluation performed at Izaña station from March to June 2014, encompassed measurements from a reference CE318-T, a CE318-AERONET master, a Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR) and a Precision SpectroRadiometer (PSR) prototype, reporting low AOD discrepancies between the four instruments (up to

  1. Comprehensive evaluation and clinical implementation of commercially available Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhen; Wen, Ning; Nurushev, Teamour; Burmeister, Jay; Chetty, Indrin J

    2013-01-01

    A commercial electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm has become available in Eclipse treatment planning system. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the eMC algorithm and investigate the clinical implementation of this system. The beam modeling of the eMC algorithm was performed for beam energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV for a Varian Trilogy and all available applicator sizes in the Eclipse treatment planning system. The accuracy of the eMC algorithm was evaluated in a homogeneous water phantom, solid water phantoms containing lung and bone materials, and an anthropomorphic phantom. In addition, dose calculation accuracy was compared between pencil beam (PB) and eMC algorithms in the same treatment planning system for heterogeneous phantoms. The overall agreement between eMC calculations and measurements was within 3%/2 mm, while the PB algorithm had large errors (up to 25%) in predicting dose distributions in the presence of inhomogeneities such as bone and lung. The clinical implementation of the eMC algorithm was investigated by performing treatment planning for 15 patients with lesions in the head and neck, breast, chest wall, and sternum. The dose distributions were calculated using PB and eMC algorithms with no smoothing and all three levels of 3D Gaussian smoothing for comparison. Based on a routine electron beam therapy prescription method, the number of eMC calculated monitor units (MUs) was found to increase with increased 3D Gaussian smoothing levels. 3D Gaussian smoothing greatly improved the visual usability of dose distributions and produced better target coverage. Differences of calculated MUs and dose distributions between eMC and PB algorithms could be significant when oblique beam incidence, surface irregularities, and heterogeneous tissues were present in the treatment plans. In our patient cases, monitor unit differences of up to 7% were observed between PB and eMC algorithms. Monitor unit calculations were also preformed

  2. Comprehensive evaluation and validation of targeted next-generation sequencing performance in two clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Pedro; Dang, Jennifer; Kim, James Wansoo; Lee, Sharon; Yoon, Jun-Hee; Kim, Thomas; Sailey, Charles J; Jablons, David M; Kim, Il-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to breakthroughs for genetic and genomic analyses and personalized medicine approaches for many diseases. More and more clinical laboratories are using NGS as a genetic screening tool for providing mutation information that is used to select the best treatment regimens for cancer patients. However, several obstacles prevent the routine implementation of NGS technology into the clinical molecular diagnosis setting: the sophisticated sample preparation process, high cost, time-consuming data analyses, as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of interpretation. To systematically evaluate the performance and quality of targeted NGS cancer panel analyses in clinical laboratories, we performed three different tests: i) laboratory-to-laboratory accuracy test, ii) intra-laboratory precision validation, and iii) limit of detection test, using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue specimens, cell lines and mutation positive DNA. A laboratory-to-laboratory accuracy test performed using 51 samples showed 100% sensitivity and 99.97% specificity. For the intra-laboratory precision test, 100% reproducibility was observed. For the limit of detection test, KRAS mutations from samples diluted from 70 to 2% of mutant allele frequencies were detected correctly. We believe that the present study demonstrated the feasibility of clinical implementation of a targeted NGS cancer panel analysis for personalized medicine. PMID:27121194

  3. [Effects of thinning intensity on Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in Huanglong Mountain, Northwest China: a comprehensive evaluation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun-Chang; Zhang, Wen-Hui; He, Jing-Feng; Wang, Jin-Tang

    2013-05-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted on the seedling regeneration, stand growth, species diversity, and soil characteristics in a Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in Huanglong Mountain on the Loess Plateau of Northwest China after 7 years of close-to-natural management thinning 15% (light thinning), 30% (medium thinning), and 45% (heavy thinning), with the effect of different thinning intensities evaluated. With the increase of thinning intensity, the amount and growth indices of 1-7 years old P. tabulaeformis seedlings increased, but the mean annual increments of the growth indices decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum under medium thinning. As compared with the control (un-thinned plantation), the individual volume under light, medium, and heavy thinning was increased by 20.9%, 32.1% and 52.6%, the volume per hm2 decreased by 4.4%, 15.1%, and 25.3%, and the mean annual growth rate of volume increased by 28.6%, 46.2% and 82.0%, respectively. The species diversity and soil characteristics were improved under thinning, with the order of heavy thinning > medium thinning > light thinning > un-thinning. In this study, 45% thinning was most suitable to the management of P. tabulaeformis plantation in Huanglong Mountain. PMID:24015549

  4. A novel comprehensive evaluation platform to assess nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, C.; Kaiser, J.-P.; Wessling, F.; Fischer, K.; Roesslein, M.; Wick, P.; Krug, H. F.

    2011-07-01

    The amount of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is constantly increasing. Their unique properties, compared to their bulk counterparts, render them suitable for various applications in many areas of life. Hence, nanomaterials appear in a variety of different consumer products leading to the exposure of human beings and the environment during their lifecycle. Even though results on biological effects of ENM are available, harmonized and validated test systems are still missing. One major problem concerning the reliable and robust toxicity testing arises from interactions of ENM with different assay systems. Modifications or damage to DNA can have fatal consequences, such as the formation of tumor cells and hence carcinogenesis. Therefore we focused on the re-evaluation of two genotoxicity assays concerning their nanomaterial compatibility; namely the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (MN-assay) and the alkaline single cell gel electorphoresis assay (comet assay). We demonstrate the interference of ENM agglomerates with the read-out of both assays and discuss possibilities how to acquire relevant genotoxicity data.

  5. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E). PMID:25702769

  6. Digital diagnostic imaging with a comprehensive PACS: hypothetical economic evaluation at a large community hospital.

    PubMed

    Warburton, R N; Fisher, P D; Nosil, J; Brauer, G W; Lawrence, W J; Ritchie, G W

    1990-05-01

    Since 1983, the 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have been piloting the implementation of digital medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date has been used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully digital department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labeled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, digital imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly $0.7 million, (Canadian currency) or 11.6%; this is more favorable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of $1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for digital imaging than for conventional imaging. Digital imaging appears likely to offer lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial. PMID:2092808

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of carboxylated nanodiamond as a topical drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Lim, Sun Hee; Ricci, Jeremy; Sung, Si Kwon; Kwon, Myoung Taek; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The best strategy in the development of topical drug delivery systems may be to facilitate the permeation of drugs without any harmful effects, while staying on the skin surface and maintaining stability of the system. Nanodiamonds (NDs) play a key role with their excellent physicochemical properties, including high biocompatibility, physical adsorption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability, and photostabilizing activity. Z-average sizes of carboxylated ND (ND–COOH) agglutinate decreased significantly as the pH increased. Fluorescein-conjugated ND was observed only on the stratum corneum, and no sample diffused into the dermal layer even after 48 hours. Moreover, ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex did not show significant toxic effects on murine macrophage cells. ND improved in vitro skin permeation >50% acting as a “drug reservoir” to maintain a high drug concentration in the donor chamber, which was supported by quartz crystal microbalance results. Moreover, ND–COOH could adsorb a drug amount equivalent to 80% of its own weight. A photostability study showed that ND–COOH increased the photostability ~47% with regard to rate constant of the eugenol itself. A significant decrease in ROS was observed in the ND–COOH and ND–COOH/eugenol complex compared with the negative control during intracellular ROS assay. Moreover, ROS and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity evaluation showed that ND–COOH had synergistic effects of antioxidation with eugenol. Therefore, ND–COOH could be used as an excellent topical drug delivery system with improved permeability, higher stability, and minimized safety issue. PMID:27307736

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S

    1999-02-01

    Middle distillate fuels (MDFs), which include jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel, are a class of hydrocarbons distilled from crude oil at approximately 350-700 degrees F (176-371 degrees C). Although MDFs generally do not contain appreciable levels of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), they have produced weak tumorigenic responses in mouse skin characterized by low tumor yield and long latency. Recent studies demonstrated that the tumorigenic effects of these MDFs were dependent upon chronic dermal irritation. In the absence of skin irritation, tumors did not develop. Mechanistic studies suggest that straight-run MDFs containing low levels of PACs cause skin tumors through a nongenotoxic mechanism. MDFs cause chronic skin irritation and injury with repeated application to the skin. They have been found to have little or no activity in the modified Ames mutagenicity assay, lack tumor initiating activity, and are active skin tumor promoters. It has been hypothesized that the tumorigenic response to MDFs results from the promotion of preexisting, spontaneously initiated cells. Two recent studies, a one-year tumor promotion study and a two-year skin painting study, evaluated the role of skin irritation on the tumorigenic activity of MDFs in mice. MDFs were applied in pure and diluted forms to assess the effect of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating test materials. The tumorigenicity of straight-run MDFs correlated to the level of skin irritation. No significant increase in tumor incidence occurred under conditions that resulted in minimal skin irritation and injury. These studies indicate that the tumorigenic activity of MDFs containing low levels of PACs is secondary to chronic skin irritation. These materials should not present a carcinogenic hazard in the absence of prolonged skin irritation. PMID:10189577

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of alignment algorithms in the context of RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Robert; Friedel, Caroline C

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) overcomes limitations of previously used RNA quantification methods and provides one experimental framework for both high-throughput characterization and quantification of transcripts at the nucleotide level. The first step and a major challenge in the analysis of such experiments is the mapping of sequencing reads to a transcriptomic origin including the identification of splicing events. In recent years, a large number of such mapping algorithms have been developed, all of which have in common that they require algorithms for aligning a vast number of reads to genomic or transcriptomic sequences. Although the FM-index based aligner Bowtie has become a de facto standard within mapping pipelines, a much larger number of possible alignment algorithms have been developed also including other variants of FM-index based aligners. Accordingly, developers and users of RNA-seq mapping pipelines have the choice among a large number of available alignment algorithms. To provide guidance in the choice of alignment algorithms for these purposes, we evaluated the performance of 14 widely used alignment programs from three different algorithmic classes: algorithms using either hashing of the reference transcriptome, hashing of reads, or a compressed FM-index representation of the genome. Here, special emphasis was placed on both precision and recall and the performance for different read lengths and numbers of mismatches and indels in a read. Our results clearly showed the significant reduction in memory footprint and runtime provided by FM-index based aligners at a precision and recall comparable to the best hash table based aligners. Furthermore, the recently developed Bowtie 2 alignment algorithm shows a remarkable tolerance to both sequencing errors and indels, thus, essentially making hash-based aligners obsolete. PMID:23300661

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Repowering Systems for Utilizing Waste Heat from Small Scale Garbage Incineration Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    This paper evaluates two proposed repowering systems together with a conventional repowering system. A power generation system utilizing waste heat produced by a garbage incineration plant (GIP), which treats 45 t/d of garbage, was taken as an objective power generation system to be repowered. As the conventional repowering system (Sys-C), a gas turbine system with waste heat boiler was adopted. In the proposed system 1 (Sys-P1), temperature of the low temperature steam generated at the GIP is raised in the gas combustor by burning fuel, and used to drive a gas turbine generator. Hence, required power for compressing the air becomes remarkably small and expected to be high efficient compared with Sys-C. In the proposed system 2 (Sys-P2), the low temperature steam generated at the GIP is superheated by using regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator, and hence making steam condition optimal becomes easy. Various basic characteristics of the three repowering systems were estimated through computer simulation, such as repowering efficiency, energy saving characteristics, and amount of CO2 reduction. It was shown that Sys-P1 and Sys-P2 were both superior to the conventional repowering system Sys-C in the all characteristics, and Sys-P1 to Sys-P2 in repowering efficiency, and that Sys-P2 to Sys-P1 in energy saving characteristics and CO2 reduction effect. It has also been estimated that all the repowering systems are economically feasible, and that the proposed systems Sys-P1 and Sys-P2 are both superior to the Sys-C in the three economical indices of unit cost of power, annual gross profit and depreciation year.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in Punjab (Northern India)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Kaur, Paramjeet; Singh, Gurmeet; Bansal, Priya; Sidhu, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug addiction is on the rise in Punjab,India. There are 15 DDCs which are supported by the Indian Red Cross Society. There is alleged mushrooming of private Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in the smaller towns, villages and cities of Punjab. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate DDCs in Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 DDCs were included in the study and scheduled visits were made to collect data by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results: The duration of treatment was 1 month at the Red Cross DDCs and it was approximately 6 months at private DDCs. The staff at the private DDCs were inadequate. The major drugs which were abused by patients were Propoxyphene, Alcohol, Bhukki and Cannabis. Patients were usually referred to the DDCs either by family members (35.3%) or social workers (29.8%). About 72.5% of patients were married, 36.3% had passed 10th standard and 54.4% were employed. A majority dropped out of the DDCs due to personal reasons and lack of family support. On comparison, more patients were found to be treated at Red Cross centres (75.3%) than at private centres (65.8%). All DDCs had conducted regular sessions of individual, group and family counseling for patients. Red Cross DDCs ensured that ex-clients received follow-ups and home visits. More patients were satisfied with the services which were provided by the Red Cross DDCs. On the contrary, more patients at the private DDCs complained about harassment fromstaff personnel (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is recommended that all DDCs should be checked regularly, and that the private centres should be provided with additional support from the government, to help run them more efficiently. PMID:24783080

  12. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  13. Definition of a comprehensive set of texture semivariogram features and their evaluation for object-oriented image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer, A.; Ruiz, L. A.; Hermosilla, T.; Recio, J. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of texture features extracted from the experimental semivariogram of specific image objects is proposed and described, and their usefulness for land use classification of high resolution images is evaluated. Fourteen features are defined and categorized into three different groups, according to the location of their respective parameters in the semivariogram curve: (i) features that use parameters close to the origin of the semivariogram, (ii) the parameters employed extend to the first maximum, and (iii) the parameters employed are extracted from the first to the second maximum. A selection of the most relevant features has been performed, combining the analysis and interpretation of redundancies, and using statistical discriminant analysis methods. The suitability of the proposed features for object-based image classification has been evaluated using digital aerial images from an agricultural area on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. The performance of the selected semivariogram features has been compared with two different sets of texture features: those derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix, and the values of raw semivariance directly extracted from the semivariogram at different positions. As a result of the tests, the classification accuracies obtained using the proposed semivariogram features are, in general, higher and more balanced than those obtained using the other two sets of standard texture features.

  14. What measurements are necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of the peripheral arterial circulation? *

    PubMed Central

    Reneman, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    system is adequate and a sufficient number of sample volumes can be obtained, limiting the interpolation between these samples. The on-line recording of velocity profiles can be facilitated by combining the pulsed Doppler device with either a velocity imaging system or a B-mode scan. In systems with a high resolution (sample distance 0.5 mm), one should be able to detect local disturbances in the velocity profile at the site of the lesion (due to local increases in shear stress) and proximal to the lesion (due to reflections), so that lesions with a minor degree of stenosis can be detected. In resistive systems (e.g., internal carotid arteries) in which the relationship between pressure and velocity changes during the cardiac cycle is relatively simple, the elasticity of the arterial wall can be determined by relating the relative diameter changes of the vessel, determined on-line with multichannel pulsed Doppler systems, to the instantaneous velocity pulse. Although the detection of atherosclerotic lesions at an early stage of the disease with sophisticated Doppler devices looks promising, further clinical evaluation is required. PMID:15216202

  15. Histopathological alterations of the heart in fish: proposal for a standardized assessment.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Christoph; Kroupová, Hana Kocour; Wahli, Thomas; Klicnarová, Jana; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2016-03-30

    Histopathological alterations in the heart are often reported in fish as a result of exposure to a variety of chemical compounds. However, researchers presently lack a standardized method for the evaluation of histopathological alterations in the cardiovascular system of fish and the calculation of an 'organ index'. Therefore, we designed a method for a standardized assessment and evaluation of histopathological alterations in the heart of fish. As a model species, we used rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the protocol was also successfully applied to other fish species belonging to different taxonomic orders. To test the protocol, we re-evaluated sections of atenolol-exposed and unexposed rainbow trout obtained in a previous study. The results were in accordance with those previously published, demonstrating the applicability of the protocol. The protocol provides a universal method for the comparative evaluation of histopathological changes in the heart of fish. PMID:27025306

  16. Developing a good practice model to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive primary health care in local communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a model of Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC) applicable to the Australian context. CPHC holds promise as an effective model of health system organization able to improve population health and increase health equity. However, there is little literature that describes and evaluates CPHC as a whole, with most evaluation focusing on specific programs. The lack of a consensus on what constitutes CPHC, and the complex and context-sensitive nature of CPHC are all barriers to evaluation. Methods The research was undertaken in partnership with six Australian primary health care services: four state government funded and managed services, one sexual health non-government organization, and one Aboriginal community controlled health service. A draft model was crafted combining program logic and theory-based approaches, drawing on relevant literature, 68 interviews with primary health care service staff, and researcher experience. The model was then refined through an iterative process involving two to three workshops at each of the six participating primary health care services, engaging health service staff, regional health executives and central health department staff. Results The resultant Southgate Model of CPHC in Australia model articulates the theory of change of how and why CPHC service components and activities, based on the theory, evidence and values which underpin a CPHC approach, are likely to lead to individual and population health outcomes and increased health equity. The model captures the importance of context, the mechanisms of CPHC, and the space for action services have to work within. The process of development engendered and supported collaborative relationships between researchers and stakeholders and the product provided a description of CPHC as a whole and a framework for evaluation. The model was endorsed at a research symposium involving investigators, service staff, and key stakeholders

  17. Likelihood of total resolution in liquid chromatography: evaluation of one-dimensional, comprehensive two-dimensional, and selective comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joe M; Stoll, Dwight R

    2014-09-19

    Computer simulations of three methods of liquid chromatography (LC) are developed to understand better the conditions under which each method is superior to the others. The methods are one-dimensional LC (1D-LC), comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC×LC), and selective comprehensive two-dimensional LC (sLC×LC). The criterion by which superiority is measured in this case is the probability that all peaks in a given sample are separated by a resolution equaling or exceeding unity. A point-process model is developed for the simulation of sLC×LC to complement existing models for 1D-LC and LC×LC. In the sLC×LC model, first-dimension singlet peaks remain in that dimension, and first-dimension multiplets, or clusters of overlapping peaks, are transferred to the second dimension for further separation during the interval of time between successive multiplets. Criteria are developed for the success or failure of multiplet transfer. The three LC methods are simulated for peak numbers ranging from 2 to 50 and analysis times ranging from 10 to 1200s, using peak capacities that reflect the performance of modern instrumentation. The probability computations predict the experimental finding that LC×LC is superior to 1D-LC at long times (over 210 or so seconds) but is inferior at shorter times due to the broadening of first-dimension peaks by sampling. In general, sLC×LC is predicted to be superior to LC×LC for samples with less than 40 peaks separated using three samples or less per multiplet. Conversely, LC×LC is predicted to be superior to sLC×LC for samples containing more than 40 peaks and when sLC×LC separations are carried out with six samples per multiplet. We find that the analysis time required to attain a 50% probability of total resolution is always predicted to be shorter for sLC×LC than for 1D-LC, and 30-75% shorter than for LC×LC when 20 or so peaks are separated. Finally, in light of the substantial predicted time savings for sLC×LC analyses the

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban Sprawl on Ecological Environment Using Multi-Source Data: a Case Study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ning, Xiaogang; Zhu, Weiwei; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    With urban population growing and urban sprawling, urban ecological environment problems appear. Study on spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment is useful for ecological civilization construction. Although a lot of work has been conducted on urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment, resolution of images to extract urban boundary was relatively coarse and most studies only focused on certain indicators of ecological environment, rather than comprehensive evaluation of urban ecological environmental impact. In this study, high-resolution remote sensing images of Beijing from aerial photography in 2002 and 2013 respectively are employed to extract urban boundary with manual interpretation. Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC), Water Density (WD), Impervious Surfaces Coverage (ISC), Net Primary Production (NPP), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are adopted to represent ecological environment. The ecological environment indicators are measured with some general algorithms by combining Landsat images, GIS data and metrological data of 243 day, 2001 and 244 day, 2013. In order to evaluate the impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment, pseudo changes due to metrological variation and other noise in this time period are removed after images calibration. The impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment is evaluated at different scales of urban extent, Beijing ring road and watershed. Results show that Beijing had been undergoing a rapid urbanization from 2002 to 2013, with urban area increase from 600 square kilometres to 987 square kilometres. All ecological environment indicators except LST became terrible in urban sprawl region, with carbon reduction of approximate 40508 tons. The Beiyun River watershed of Beijing degraded seriously since ISC increased to 0.59. Gratifyingly, ecological environment indicators including NDVI, NPP, and LST inside of 4th Ring Road became well.

  19. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Verweij, Wim; van Diest, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8%) and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%). Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6%) were indeed benign and 2 (2.4%) were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology. PMID:17257417

  20. A comprehensive review of observational and site evaluation data of migrant whooping cranes in the United States, 1943-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Richert, Amy L.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive analysis of existing observational data (1943–99) and site evaluation data (1977–99) for locations used by whooping cranes (Grus americana) during migration through the United States portion of the Wood Buffalo–Aransas flyway. The apparent migration path, as outlined by the distribution of whooping crane observations, is very similar to that delineated in earlier reports, following a relatively straight line north-northwest from Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to central North Dakota then curving northwest along the Missouri Coteau to the North Dakota–Saskatchewan border. The distribution of spring and fall observations were relatively similar, except for the higher frequency of fall observations on Quivira NWR and Cheyenne Bottoms State Wildlife Area in Kansas, Salt Plains NWR in Oklahoma, and in Texas. Timing of spring and fall migrations also appears similar to that described earlier and shows no changes over the 57-year period of data collection. Regardless of season, most sightings included 1–3 whooping cranes, but groups with as many as 14 and 19 cranes have been sighted in spring and fall, respectively.

  1. mit-o-matic: a comprehensive computational pipeline for clinical evaluation of mitochondrial variations from next-generation sequencing datasets.

    PubMed

    Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Dhiman, Heena; Joshi, Kandarp; Hasija, Yasha; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-04-01

    The human mitochondrial genome has been reported to have a very high mutation rate as compared with the nuclear genome. A large number of mitochondrial mutations show significant phenotypic association and are involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. In recent years, there has been a remarkable progress in the understanding of mitochondrial genetics. The availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have not only reduced sequencing cost by orders of magnitude but has also provided us good quality mitochondrial genome sequences with high coverage, thereby enabling decoding of a number of human mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we report a computational and experimental pipeline to decipher the human mitochondrial DNA variations and examine them for their clinical correlation. As a proof of principle, we also present a clinical study of a patient with Leigh disease and confirmed maternal inheritance of the causative allele. The pipeline is made available as a user-friendly online tool to annotate variants and find haplogroup, disease association, and heteroplasmic sites. The "mit-o-matic" computational pipeline represents a comprehensive cloud-based tool for clinical evaluation of mitochondrial genomic variations from NGS datasets. The tool is freely available at http://genome.igib.res.in/mitomatic/. PMID:25677119

  2. Measuring the Closeness of Relationships: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the 'Inclusion of the Other in the Self' Scale

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of social relationships is of increasing interest to behavioral economists, and behavioral scientists more generally. In turn, this creates a need for tractable, and reliable, tools for measuring fundamental aspects of social relationships. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the 'Inclusion of the Other in the Self' (IOS) Scale, a handy pictorial tool for measuring the subjectively perceived closeness of a relationship. The tool is highly portable, very easy for subjects to understand and takes less than 1 minute to administer. Across our three online studies with a diverse adult population (n = 772) we show that six different scales designed to measure relationship closeness are all highly significantly positively correlated with the IOS Scale. We then conduct a Principal Component Analysis to construct an Index of Relationship Closeness and find that it correlates very strongly (ρ = 85) with the IOS Scale. We conclude that the IOS Scale is a psychologically meaningful and highly reliable measure of the subjective closeness of relationships. PMID:26068873

  3. SU-E-T-631: Commissioning and Comprehensive Evaluation of the ArcCHECK Cylindrical Diode Array for VMAT QA

    SciTech Connect

    Chaswal, V; Weldon, M; Gupta, N; Rong, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Commissioning and comprehensive evaluation of ArcCHECK phantom for dosimetry of VMAT QA, using 6MV photon beam with and without the flattening filter. Methods: ArcCHECK was evaluated for response dependency on linac dose rate, instantaneous dose rate, radiation field size, beam angle and couch insertion. Scatter dose characterization, consistency and symmetry of response, dosimetric accuracy of fixed aperture arcs and clinical VMAT plans were investigated. Measurements were done using TrueBeam™ STx accelerator (Console version 1.6) with a 6 MV beam with and without flattening filter. Reference dose-grids were calculated using Eclipse TPS Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA version 10.0.39). Planned doses were calculated using symmetric 2mm 3D dose grids with 4 degree angular resolution defaulted to each control point. Gamma evaluations were performed in absolute dose mode, with default normalization to maximum dose in the curved plane and a low dose threshold of 10% to restrict the analysis to clinically relevant areas. Global and local gamma indices at 3mm/3% and 2mm/2% level were computed using SNC software (version 6.0). Results: Results of gamma analysis demonstrated an overall agreement between ArcCHECK measured and TPS calculated reference doses. Field size dependency was within 0.5% of the reference. Dose-rate based dependency was well within 1% of the TPS reference and the angular dependency was ±3% of the reference, as tested for BEV angles. At the level of 3%/3mm, narrow and wide open arcs as well as clinical VMAT cases demonstrated high level of dosimetry accuracy in global gamma passing rates for both 6X and 6F beams. At the level of 2%/2mm two VMAT cases involving the narrow heavily modulated arcs demonstrated lower passing rates. Conclusion: ArcCHECK phantom with latest software and hardware upgrades is suitable for VMAT QA. For higher sensitivity of 2%/2mm gamma analysis, we intend to use it as one of the VMAT QA evaluation metrics.

  4. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  5. The Children's Evaluation of Everyday Social Encounters Questionnaire: Comprehensive Assessment of Children's Social Information Processing and Its Relation to Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Debora J.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Swenson, Lance P.; Allwood, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies describe the development of a comprehensive, vignette-based measure of social information processing (SIP) particularly relevant for children with internalizing problems. Study 1 (N = 219 3rd-6th graders) describes the creation of the Children's Evaluation of Everyday Social Encounters Questionnaire (ChEESE-Q) and evidence for its…

  6. Evaluation of Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for 209 Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Two Chromatographic Runs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research evaluates a recently developed comprehensive 2-D GC coupled with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer for the potential separation of 209 PCB congeners, using a sequence of 1-D and 2-D chromatographic modes. In two consecutive chromatographic runs, using a 40 m,...

  7. A Comprehensive Analysis of Impact of HEP/CAMP Program Participation. HEP/CAMP National Evaluation Project. Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Gary L.

    The report is a comprehensive presentation of High School Equivalency Programs (HEP) and College Assistance for Migrants Programs (CAMP) National Evaluation Project findings with particular emphasis on determining the accumulative educational and career impacts of having participated in a HEP or CAMP program. Part 1 provides an overview of the…

  8. Conducting needs assessment using the Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE)mode to develop nutrition and physical activity interventions in a rural community in the Mississippi Delta.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of a Lower Mississippi Delta community and university partners used the Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) model to assess nutrition and health problems and develop a menu of interventions. Our objectives were: 1) To identify and prioritize nutrition and physical ac...

  9. A Very Different Non-Stressful Comprehensive Final Exam that Achieve Our Goals for Student Evaluation and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu

    2015-08-01

    I will introduce the radical concept of a final exam where the questions are given beforehand, a method I first encountered as a graduate student at Princeton University from an outstanding and well known astrophysicist and exceptional teacher, Lyman Spitzer.Every Instructor aspires for students to master all the material covered. A comprehensive final can assess the breadth and depth of their learning. Students are required to review early material in light of later topics, create connections and integrate understanding, thus retaining knowledge for the long term. Comprehensive finals can therefore be a significant basis for student learning and evaluation, but are especially daunting for non-STEM majors in required GE synthesis STEM classes. The exam format proposed here calmed student fears and encouraged thorough review.Ten days before the exam students received 20-30 challenging, well-crafted, numbered questions that interconnected and spanned the entire range of topics. The key is crafting questions that lead to deeply understanding the subject matter and mastering skills to solve problems. At the final, each student was required to pick a number out of a hat and answer that numbered question in a 5-minute presentation. They also had to critically comment on 10 other presentations of their peers. They are graded equally on both.The exam sets up definite goals for a student. Equally important, it enhances collaborative learning and peer mentoring. The conceptual questions and problems that students are required to answer can be studied together in study groups. The final presentation is theirs and they are not only encouraged but required to be constructively critical of their peer presentations.I will provide examples of some of the conceptual and problem solving questions I used. These were crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. This method requires students to be prepared for all of the multitude of crafted question encouraging

  10. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  11. The Japanese Viewpoint on the Histopathology of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Jansen, Marnix; Kushima, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Japanese histopathologists have traditionally had greater opportunity to study the histology and clinical course of early gastric cancer because of technological developments including double contrast radiography and endoscopy systems, combined with the higher incidence of gastric cancer in the general population in Japan. Endoscopic resection is now considered best practice for treatment of early gastric cancers with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Histopathologic evaluation plays a critical role in assessing the likelihood of lymph node metastasis on endoscopically resected specimens. There remains disparity between Western and Japanese histopathologists in the conceptual approach to the histopathologic evaluation of neoplastic lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, in particular regarding lesions straddling the borderline between noninvasive and invasive disease. Although in routine practice, the clinical impact of these conceptual differences is small, this disparity does complicate international exchange of datasets and the development of globally applicable formal definitions. Here we review the current practice in histological diagnosis of early gastric cancer in Japan and discuss some of the conceptual differences between Japanese and Western histopathological assessment of lesions in the neoplastic stomach. PMID:27573779

  12. Improved Childhood Diarrhea Treatment Practices in Ghana: A Pre-Post Evaluation of a Comprehensive Private-Sector Program

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Banke, Kathryn; Sloane, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of child mortality in Ghana. In 2010, Ghana endorsed guidelines from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund for use of zinc with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. From late 2011 through 2014, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project implemented a comprehensive program in 3 regions of Ghana to increase the availability and use of ORS and zinc and to decrease incorrect use of antibiotics and antidiarrheals. The program included (1) partnering with local pharmaceutical firms to introduce and market locally produced zinc products, (2) collaborating with the Ghanaian Pharmacy Council to provide training and supportive supervision of private-sector providers on diarrhea management, and (3) conducting mass media campaigns to raise caregiver awareness. We evaluated the effect of this program using a baseline survey of 754 caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea at the start of the intervention in 2012 and a follow-up survey of 751 caregivers in 2014. Regression analysis showed that use of ORS with zinc increased from 0.8% in 2012 to 29.2% in 2014 (P<.001), and antibiotic use declined from 66.2% to 38.2% (P<.001) during the same period. The magnitude and statistical significance of these results remained the same after including potential confounding factors as covariates. Inappropriate antibiotic use, however, remained high at follow-up. We conclude that similar programs applied in other settings have the potential to rapidly scale up use of ORS and zinc. Additional efforts are required to reduce persistent incorrect antibiotic use. PMID:27353619

  13. Comprehensively Evaluating cis-Regulatory Variation in the Human Prostate Transcriptome by Using Gene-Level Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J.; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A.; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E−5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate. PMID:25983244

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of the mechanism of skin tumorigenesis by straight-run and cracked petroleum middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S; Priston, R A; McKee, R H; Cruzan, G; Riley, A J; Hagemann, R; Plutnick, R T; Simpson, B J

    1998-07-01

    The role of skin irritation and other factors on the tumorigenic activity of petroleum middle distillates (PMDs) in mice was examined in a comprehensive research program. The program culminated in a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity study which compared the effects of equal weekly doses of irritating and nonirritating PMDs. Modified Ames mutagenicity studies and three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) analyses indicated that the mutagenic activity of PMDs was correlated to PAC content. In subchronic and subacute studies, PMDs produced marked skin irritation which was ameliorated if the test samples were diluted in mineral oil. The reduction in irritation level was not a result of reduced dermal absorption. Straight-run kerosine (SRK), straight-run gas oil (SRGO), and catalytically cracked light cycle oil (LCO) were evaluated in the dermal carcinogenicity study. Test materials were applied either undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.5% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for a total weekly dose of 100 microliters PMD per animal. All three materials produced moderate to marked skin irritation and increased tumor frequency when applied undiluted. When diluted, the irritant effects of SRK and SRGO, which contain low levels of PACs, were ameliorated, and there were no significant increases in tumors relative to controls. LCO, containing 8.7% three- to seven-ring PACs, increased tumor frequency when diluted, even when skin irritation was limited. These data indicate that the tumorigenic activity of straight-run MDs is likely a consequence of a nongenotoxic process, associated with frequent cell damage and repair. PMDs which contain low levels of three- to seven-ring PACs are unlikely to cause tumors in the absence of prolonged skin irritation. In addition, genotoxic mechanisms may also contribute to tumor formation for other PMDs containing higher levels of PACs, e.g., products blended with cracked stocks. PMID:9720137

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation for Substrate Selectivity of Cynomolgus Monkey Cytochrome P450 2C9, a New Efavirenz Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies, because of their evolutionary closeness to humans. In humans, the cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C enzymes are important drug-metabolizing enzymes and highly expressed in livers. The CYP2C enzymes, including CYP2C9, are also expressed abundantly in cynomolgus monkey liver and metabolize some endogenous and exogenous substances like testosterone, S-mephenytoin, and diclofenac. However, comprehensive evaluation regarding substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 has not been conducted. In the present study, 89 commercially available drugs were examined to find potential monkey CYP2C9 substrates. Among the compounds screened, 20 drugs were metabolized by monkey CYP2C9 at a relatively high rates. Seventeen of these compounds were substrates or inhibitors of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, whereas three drugs were not, indicating that substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 resembled those of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, with some differences in substrate specificities. Although efavirenz is known as a marker substrate for human CYP2B6, efavirenz was not oxidized by CYP2B6 but by CYP2C9 in monkeys. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that monkey CYP2C9 and human CYP2B6 formed the same mono- and di-oxidized metabolites of efavirenz at 8 and 14 positions. These results suggest that the efavirenz 8-oxidation could be one of the selective markers for cynomolgus monkey CYP2C9 among the major three CYP2C enzymes tested. Therefore, monkey CYP2C9 has the possibility of contributing to limited specific differences in drug oxidative metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:25948712

  16. Improved Childhood Diarrhea Treatment Practices in Ghana: A Pre-Post Evaluation of a Comprehensive Private-Sector Program.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Banke, Kathryn; Sloane, Phoebe

    2016-06-20

    Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of child mortality in Ghana. In 2010, Ghana endorsed guidelines from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund for use of zinc with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. From late 2011 through 2014, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project implemented a comprehensive program in 3 regions of Ghana to increase the availability and use of ORS and zinc and to decrease incorrect use of antibiotics and antidiarrheals. The program included (1) partnering with local pharmaceutical firms to introduce and market locally produced zinc products, (2) collaborating with the Ghanaian Pharmacy Council to provide training and supportive supervision of private-sector providers on diarrhea management, and (3) conducting mass media campaigns to raise caregiver awareness. We evaluated the effect of this program using a baseline survey of 754 caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea at the start of the intervention in 2012 and a follow-up survey of 751 caregivers in 2014. Regression analysis showed that use of ORS with zinc increased from 0.8% in 2012 to 29.2% in 2014 (P<.001), and antibiotic use declined from 66.2% to 38.2% (P<.001) during the same period. The magnitude and statistical significance of these results remained the same after including potential confounding factors as covariates. Inappropriate antibiotic use, however, remained high at follow-up. We conclude that similar programs applied in other settings have the potential to rapidly scale up use of ORS and zinc. Additional efforts are required to reduce persistent incorrect antibiotic use. PMID:27353619

  17. A Comprehensive Database for the Most Commonly Measured Paleoceanographic Proxies: Evaluating Global Carbon Burial Variations over the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartapanis, O. A.; Galbraith, E. D.; Bianchi, D.

    2014-12-01

    The paleoceanographic community has measured physical and chemical properties of thousands of sediment cores, in order to reconstruct past oceanic conditions across a wide range of timescales. Most of these datasets were archived in online data repositories in order to facilitate later analysis. However, the diversity of proxy types and heterogeneous reporting standards have hindered the analysis of globally distributed paleoceanographic time series, despite the tremendous potential utility of large datasets. In order for the existing archives of paleoceanographic data to contribute towards important unanswered issues, the datasets must be readily accessible in an organized structure, with an appropriate unified age model for each sediment site. Here we present a comprehensive database, built using MATLAB structure, for the most commonly measured proxies in marine sediment cores and surface sediment. These include the concentrations of carbonate, organic matter and opal, density of the sediment, the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of benthic and planktonic foraminifera, sea surface temperature estimates, as well as chronological constrains. The records were downloaded from PANGAEA and NOAA databases and multiple records from the same sediment core were regrouped, allowing age models to be shared between records. The resulting database consists of more than 30,000 sites, facilitating rapid and accurate mapping of sediment composition for selected time periods, and retrieving and plotting time series. The greatest hurdle identified in building a unifi­ed dataproduct of this type is inconsistency in the reporting of depth measurements and chronological information. In our view, standardized reporting practices would greatly assist in developing global quantitative analysis, and requires community-wide action. We propose the development of a unified global sediment core registry, including metadata and chronological information for all marine sediment cores

  18. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  19. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  20. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a Two-Channel Portable Monitor to “Rule in” Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kim L.; McArdle, Nigel; James, Alan; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Simpson, Laila; Cooper, Matthew N.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Fedson, Annette C.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Hillman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    , Fedson AC, Mukherjee S, Hillman DR. A comprehensive evaluation of a two-channel portable monitor to “rule in” obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):433–444. PMID:25580606

  1. How to comprehensively evaluate river corridor conditions? A comparison of different biotic and morphological indices in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfieri, Bruno; Surian, Nicola; Hardersen, Sönke; Maiolini, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    -based indices (i.e. ICMi and STAR_ICMi). This can be probably attributed to the differences in spatial scale (i.e. site scale) at which the BQEs-based indices apply and to the human pressure that they were originally designed to detect (i.e. water quality). These results show that MQI and ORI are useful tools to evaluate the integrity of the river corridor, at reach scale. The ORI provides information on the ecological condition of the river not covered by the other biotic indices, thanks to the sampling strategy that considers also secondary channels and ponds. We underline the importance of integrating the assessment of the lateral dimension of the river corridor in the evaluation and the need to choose appropriate indicators. The choice of the indicators must also consider the spatial and temporal scale of their application, in order to detect pressures operating at various scales (e.g. water quality and hydromorphological alteration). Only the integration of reach-scale indicators, such as MQI and ORI, would allow for a comprehensive evaluation of river corridor conditions and to define sound and appropriate management actions.

  2. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Ansari, Hena A.; Sherwani, Rana K.; Rahman, Khaliqur; Akhtar, Nishat

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified) are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified). A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup. PMID:21436872

  3. Chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A survey of surgical and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Aström, M; Rausing, A

    1995-07-01

    The surgical findings and the histopathology are reported for 163 patients (134 males, 29 females; mean age, 38 years; range, 13-72 years; 75% athletes) with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Biopsy specimens from symptomatic (155 cases) and nonsymptomatic (90 cases) parts of the tendon and from the paratenon (97 cases) were obtained. Surgical reports were reviewed and histopathology was evaluated according to a standardized protocol. Eighteen tendons also were analyzed by immunofluorescence for fibrinogen, immunoglobulins, and complement. Degenerative changes (tendinosis) characterized by abnormal fiber structure, focal hypercellularity, and vascular proliferation were noted in 90% of biopsy specimens from symptomatic parts of the tendons and, to a lesser degree, in 20% from nonsymptomatic parts. Fibrinogen could be identified in most lesion biopsy specimens. Partial tendon ruptures were present in 19% of the patients and always occurred in areas afflicted with tendinosis. The paratenon was mostly normal or revealed only slight changes. Increasing age and male gender were associated with more pronounced histopathologic changes. Tendinosis, sometimes complicated by partial rupture, appears to be the major lesion in chronic Achilles tendinopathy; the paratenon is rarely involved. Important features are a lack of inflammatory cells and a poor healing response. PMID:7634699

  4. Melanoma--clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Buljan, Marija; Kolić, Maja; Vučić, Majda

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant skin tumors with constantly rising incidence worldwide, especially in fair-skinned populations. Melanoma is usually diagnosed at the average age 50, but, nowadays is also diagnosed more frequently in younger adults, and very rarely in childhood. There is no unique or specific clinical presentation of a melanoma. The clinical presentation of melanomas varies depending on the anatomic localization and the type of growth, i.e., the histopathological type of the cancer. There are four major histopathological types of melanoma--superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma. Although dermatoscopy is a very useful tool in early melanoma detection, dermatoscopical features of melanomas are also variable. Therefore, experience and education in dermatoscopy is crucial in the evaluation of skin tumors. Differential diagnosis of melanomas includes a wide range of benign and malignant skin lesions, due to their clinical presentation and resemblance to various dermatological entities. In this review we present the most important aspects of clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological features of melanomas. PMID:24813835

  5. Electrocorticographic–Histopathologic Correlations Implying Epileptogenicity of Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Arihiro, Koji; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Based on intracranial-video electroencephalography (EEG), histopathological features, and postoperative seizure outcome, we elucidated the epileptogenicity in patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Five patients (P1–P5) pathologically diagnosed with DNT underwent intracranial-video EEG to identify the ictal onset zone and irritative zone. We evaluated the correlations of ictal onset zone and irritative zone with the magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion (MRI-lesion) and their histopatho-logical features. Intracranial-video EEG located the ictal onset zone adjacent to the MRI-lesion margin in four patients with complex/simple forms of DNT subcategory, and on the MRI-lesion in P3 with a nonspecific DNT form. The irritative zone extended to surrounding regions of the ictal onset zone in all patients. Histopathologically, MRI-lesions were characterized by specific glioneuronal elements, whereas the ictal onset zone and irritative zone were represented with dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells in four (P1, P2, P4, and P5) of five patients. Cortical dysplasia was identified with typical histopathologic features in the irritative zone remote from the MRI-lesion in P5. P3, with a nonspecific form, indicated prominent component of dysplastic cortex with oligodendroglia-like cells scattered in the MRI-lesion. Lesionectomy of MRI-lesion with additional cortical resections (including the ictal onset zone and irritative zone) yielded postoperative seizure freedom (Engel Class I) in P3, P4, and P5, while P1 and P2 (with only lesionectomy) experienced postoperative residual seizure (Class II and III in each patient). Our results suggest the intrinsic epileptogenicity of DNT. The topographical correlation indicated that the dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells was more epileptogenic than the specific glioneuronal elements itself. Meticulous intracranial-video EEG analysis delineating the MRI nonvisible ictal

  6. Electrocorticographic-histopathologic correlations implying epileptogenicity of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Arihiro, Koji; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Based on intracranial-video electroencephalography (EEG), histopathological features, and postoperative seizure outcome, we elucidated the epileptogenicity in patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Five patients (P1-P5) pathologically diagnosed with DNT underwent intracranial-video EEG to identify the ictal onset zone and irritative zone. We evaluated the correlations of ictal onset zone and irritative zone with the magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion (MRI-lesion) and their histopathological features. Intracranial-video EEG located the ictal onset zone adjacent to the MRI-lesion margin in four patients with complex/simple forms of DNT subcategory, and on the MRI-lesion in P3 with a nonspecific DNT form. The irritative zone extended to surrounding regions of the ictal onset zone in all patients. Histopathologically, MRI-lesions were characterized by specific glioneuronal elements, whereas the ictal onset zone and irritative zone were represented with dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells in four (P1, P2, P4, and P5) of five patients. Cortical dysplasia was identified with typical histopathologic features in the irritative zone remote from the MRI-lesion in P5. P3, with a nonspecific form, indicated prominent component of dysplastic cortex with oligodendroglia-like cells scattered in the MRI-lesion. Lesionectomy of MRI-lesion with additional cortical resections (including the ictal onset zone and irritative zone) yielded postoperative seizure freedom (Engel Class I) in P3, P4, and P5, while P1 and P2 (with only lesionectomy) experienced postoperative residual seizure (Class II and III in each patient). Our results suggest the intrinsic epileptogenicity of DNT. The topographical correlation indicated that the dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells was more epileptogenic than the specific glioneuronal elements itself. Meticulous intracranial-video EEG analysis delineating the MRI nonvisible ictal onset

  7. Multiplatform Observations from DYNAMO and Deployment of a Comprehensive Dataset for Numerical Model Evaluation and other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, N.; Chen, S. S.; Zhang, C.

    2014-12-01

    A large number of observations were collected during the DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) field campaign in the tropical Indian Ocean during 2011. These data ranged from in-situ measurements of individual hydrometeors to regional precipitation distribution to large-scale precipitation and wind fields. Many scientific findings have been reported in the three years since project completion, leading to a better physical understanding of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and providing insight to a roadmap to better predictability. The NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft was deployed from 11 November - 13 December 2011, embarking on 12 flights. This mobile platform provided high resolution, high quality in-situ and remotely sensed observations of the meso-γ to meso-α scale environment and offered coherent cloud dynamic and microphysical data in convective cloud systems where surface-based instruments were unable to reach. Measurements included cloud and precipitation microphysical observations via the Particle Measuring System 2D cloud and precipitation probes, aircraft altitude flux measurements, dropsonde vertical thermodynamic profiles, and 3D precipitation and wind field observations from the tail-mounted Doppler X-band weather radar. Existing satellite (infrared, visible, and water vapor) data allowed the characterization of the large-scale environment. These comprehensive data have been combined into an easily accesible product with special attention paid to comparing observations to future numerical simulations. The P-3 and French Falcon aircraft flew a coordinated mission, above and below the melting level, respectively, near Gan Island on 8 December 2011, acquiring coincident cloud microphysical and dynamics data. The Falcon aircraft is instrumented with vertically pointing W-band radar, with a focus on ice microphysical properties. We present this case in greater detail to show the optimal coincident measurements. Additional

  8. Comprehensive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Victor V.

    Comprehensive planning, defined as the work of those who engage in efforts, within a delimited geographic area, to identify and order the physical, social, and economic relationships of that area, is discussed in the four sections of this paper. Section I, Introduction, describes what "planning" and "comprehensive planning" are. In Section II, Why…

  9. Clinical and Histopathological Investigation of Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Nam Kyung; Hahn, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2016-01-01

    Background Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common epidermal tumors of the skin. However, only a few large-scale clinicohistopathological investigations have been conducted on SK or on the possible correlation between histopathological SK subtype and location. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and histopathological features of a relatively large number of cases of diagnosed SK. Methods Two hundred and seventy-one pathology slides of skin tissue from patients with clinically diagnosed SK and 206 cases of biopsy-proven SK were analyzed. The biopsy-proven cases of SK were assessed for histopathological subclassification. The demographic, clinical, and histopathological data of the patients were collected for analysis of associated factors. Results The most frequent histopathological subtype was the acanthotic type, followed by mixed, hyperkeratotic, melanoacanthoma, clonal, irritated, and adenoid types; an unexpectedly high percentage (9.2%) of the melanoacanthoma variant was observed. The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites than in sun-protected sites (p=0.028). Premalignant and malignant entities together represented almost one-quarter (24.2%) of the clinicopathological mismatch cases (i.e., mismatch between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses). Regarding the location of SK development, the frequency of mismatch for the sun-exposed areas was significantly higher than that for sun-protected areas (p=0.043). Conclusion The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites. Biopsy sampling should be performed for lesions situated in sun-exposed areas to exclude other premalignant or malignant diseases. PMID:27081260

  10. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Ichhpujani, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juxtacanalicular (JXT) trabecular meshwork and endothelial lining of Schlemm’s canal have been cited as the loci of aqueous outflow resistance, both in a normal as well as a glaucomatous eye. In this review, we attempt to understand the currently available surgical modalities in light of the available histopathological evidence, regarding localization of outflow resistance. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P, Shaarawy T. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(2):51-61. PMID:26997835

  11. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  12. Promotion of Syntactical Development and Oral Comprehension: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Small-Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the development and preliminary implementation trials of a modular small-group intervention targeting syntax and vocabulary for children at high risk for reading comprehension difficulties in grades prekindergarten through first. The intervention, delivered by trained paraprofessionals, included 12 weeks of 20-minute…

  13. Evaluating the Impact of an Urban Comprehensive School Reform: An Illustration of the Need for Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of comprehensive school reform (CSR) literature exists illustrating CSRs are effective in improving student outcomes. However, much of this research reports on top-down reforms, focuses on academic outcomes, and uses quantitative methods alone. Many educational researchers have argued for the use of mixed methods for providing a…

  14. A New Comprehensive Educational Group Program for Older Adults with Cognitive Complaints: Background, Content, and Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogenhout, Esther M.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive group intervention for older adults with cognitive complaints. It offers psychoeducation about cognitive aging and contextual factors, focuses on skills and compensatory behavior, and incorporates group discussion. The intervention reduced negative emotional reactions towards cognitive functioning in a…

  15. Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program, Evaluation Findings: Annual Report to Congress 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report to Congress provides critical information about the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program (CMHI), including the characteristics of children, youth, and families as they enter the CMHI; the outcomes attained for children and youth, and their caregivers and families after entry into the…

  16. Evaluating the Efficacy of Using a Digital Reading Environment to Improve Reading Comprehension within a Reading Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortlieb, Evan; Sargent, Stephan; Moreland, Meagan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using the online digital reading environment to increase elementary students' comprehension within a reading clinic. Preservice teachers at a four-year university in the Midwest worked one-on-one with 58 fourth-grade students from three schools who were assigned to one of three conditions: print-based…

  17. Health Care Consumption among Elderly Patients in California: A Comprehensive 10-Year Evaluation of Trends in Hospitalization Rates and Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koziol, James A.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Christiansen, Sandra C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This report examines health care rates, charges, and patterns of consumption from a comprehensive California hospitalization data set covering 1986-1995. An improved understanding of current trends in health care consumption would facilitate the development of future resource allocation models. Design and Methods: We obtained discharge…

  18. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91 %). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22 %) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15 %) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08 %) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  19. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  20. Comprehensive Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Larger Text Print In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis ( ... Your Whole Health, Your Whole Team: Managing Your Complex MS Symptoms Webinar/telelearning presented by Roz Kalb, ...

  1. Contrast improvement of terahertz images of thin histopathologic sections

    PubMed Central

    Formanek, Florian; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Yasuda, Akio

    2011-01-01

    We present terahertz images of 10 μm thick histopathologic sections obtained in reflection geometry with a time-domain spectrometer, and demonstrate improved contrast for sections measured in paraffin with water. Automated segmentation is applied to the complex refractive index data to generate clustered terahertz images distinguishing cancer from healthy tissues. The degree of classification of pixels is then evaluated using registered visible microscope images. Principal component analysis and propagation simulations are employed to investigate the origin and the gain of image contrast. PMID:21326635

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Electronic Medical Record System Use and User Satisfaction at Five Low-Resource Setting Hospitals in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional’s satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. Methods A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Results Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an

  3. Muscle histopathology in today's era of molecular genetics: Role and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Ishita; Chaturvedi, Sujata; Bala, Kiran; Kushwaha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Past few decades have seen an increasing application of techniques like electron microscopy, western blotting, and molecular genetics in the evaluation of muscle diseases. However, due to their limited availability, histopathological interpretation of muscle biopsies still remains an important component of diagnostic approach to muscle diseases. A systematic methodology is required in the evaluation and interpretation of muscle biopsies. This study was undertaken to analyze the histopathological spectrum of 164 muscle biopsies and to assess the diagnostic yield of basic histopathological procedures in the work up of muscle biopsy. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis was done for 164 cases of muscle biopsies. Step-wise approach was adopted to assess the efficacy of routine stains, enzyme histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. Based on hematoxylin and rosin (H and E) appearance, biopsies were broadly categorized into destructive, nondestructive but myopathic, and inflammatory morphology. Role of special stains, enzyme, and immunohistochemical stains in each category was then evaluated. Results: On the basis of histopathological features, 164 muscle biopsies were broadly categorized into biopsies with abnormal histopathological features (115) and biopsies with normal histopathology (49). Abnormal muscle biopsies were further categorized into destructive morphology (56.5%), nondestructive but myopathic morphology (30.5%), and inflammatory pathology (13%). A near definitive diagnosis could be made in 115 cases out of 164 muscle biopsies on the basis of routine histopathology, enzyme histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Though advanced techniques like electron microscopy, western blotting, and molecular genetics are essential for confirmatory diagnosis, a substantive diagnostic yield can be offered with the basic armamentarium of routine (frozen) stains, enzyme histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. PMID:26713009

  4. An evaluation of gender differences in the implementation and impact of a comprehensive approach to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Muftic, Lisa R; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of society's response to domestic violence is the protection of the victim from further abuse. Recently, the coordinated community response (CCR) has been developed as one example of an approach aimed at reaching this goal. Prior research has generally found support for the model, with male offenders recidivating at lower rates. The current study examines whether a comprehensive, community-based approach is capable of reducing recidivism rates among male and female offenders. Comparisons are made between 70 female and 131 male offenders. Specific attention is given to the intervention process, including differences in service or treatment component completion and recidivism by gender. PMID:17179404

  5. One Piece of the Whole: Teacher Evaluation as Part of a Comprehensive System for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2014-01-01

    As a major policy focus, teacher evaluation is currently the primary tool promoted to improve teaching quality. But evaluation alone is not enough. What will most transform teaching quality--and the profession--is the creation of a larger system that supports teaching and learning through on-the-job evaluation and professional development, and…

  6. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:24759275

  7. Prostate cancer progression. Implications of histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This review examines selected areas of contemporary prostate cancer research in terms of the impact of prostatic cellular and histopathological heterogeneity. Prostate tumor progression is accompanied by dysregulation of multiple growth factor networks as well as disruption of normal patterns of cell-cell interactions. Molecular and cytogenetic studies demonstrate that prostate cancer results from the accumulation of several different genetic defects. No single event predominates, but modifications in tumor suppressor genes or functional elimination of the suppressor gene product are more common than activation of known oncogenes. Intratumor heterogeneity is also detectable at the genetic level. This further complicates efforts to correlate modifications at specific loci with progression or outcome. The development of new in vitro and in vivo systems for the study of human prostate cancer should increase our understanding of this complex disease. In each approach, knowledge of the histopathology of the normal and neoplastic prostate is essential. PMID:7977655

  8. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of H2SO4 formation from OH and sCI pathways in high BVOC environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Kuang, C.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The recently highlighted importance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) as an oxidant for atmospheric SO2 triggered a number of studies to assess the atmospheric implications of H2SO4 formation from the sCI reaction pathway. In addition, it has not been clear why new particle formation events are not observed in the Amazon rain forest. The mostly widely speculated reason has been a very low H2SO4 level. We will present quantitative assessments of SO2 oxidation by sCI leading to the H2SO4 production using a comprehensive observational dataset from a tropical rainforest study during the GOAmazon field campaign at the T3 site in Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil. To our best knowledge, this is the first observation of H2SO4 and OH in Amazon and is unique for all tropical sites due to the accompanying comprehensive gas and aerosol observations such as CO, NOX, SO2, VOCs, and physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols. We will discuss observed H2SO4 levels during the GOAmazon field campaigns to demonstrate 1) H2SO4 formation potential from OH and sCI oxidation pathways by contrasting extremely clean and relatively polluted air masses and 2) the Implications of the observed H2SO4 levels in new particle formation and particle growth events.

  10. Regulated cell death in diagnostic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir; Damjanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Regulated cell death (RCD) is a controlled cellular process, essential for normal development, tissue integrity and homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions including developmental and immunological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In this review, we briefly discuss the historical perspective and conceptual development of RCD, we overview recent classifications and some of the key players in RCD; finally we focus on current applications of RCD in diagnostic histopathology. PMID:26009238

  11. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nate; Voznesensky, Maria; VerLee, Graham

    2015-09-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance. PMID:26793536

  12. Association between dynamic contrast enhanced MRI imaging features and WHO histopathological grade in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JUAN; YU, JIANQUN; PENG, YULAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and World Health Organization (WHO) histopathological grade in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. A retrospective analysis on the results of DCE-MRI of 92 patients, who were diagnosed with invasive ductal breast cancer following surgery or biopsy, and these results were correlated with WHO histopathological grade. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the tumor size, shape and characteristics of early enhancement were associated with the WHO histopathological grade: The larger the lesion's long diameter, the higher the WHO histopathological grade; the WHO histopathological grades of round and oval masses were relatively lower, while those of lobulated and irregular masses were higher; and tumors with heterogeneous and ring-like enhancement exhibited higher WHO histopathological grades, while those of homogeneous enhancement were lower. The lesion's margin shape was not associated with the WHO histopathological grade. The present study demonstrates that features of DCE-MRI and WHO histopathological grade in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer are correlated, and these MRI features could be used to evaluate the biological behavior and prognosis of lesions. PMID:27123145

  13. Comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Wendell B.; Austin, Edward E.

    1988-01-01

    The development and application of comprehensive rotorcraft analysis methods in the field of rotorcraft technology are described. These large scale analyses and the resulting computer programs are intended to treat the complex aeromechanical phenomena that describe the behavior of rotorcraft. They may be used to predict rotor aerodynamics, acoustic, performance, stability and control, handling qualities, loads and vibrations, structures, dynamics, and aeroelastic stability characteristics for a variety of applications including research, preliminary and detail design, and evaluation and treatment of field problems. The principal comprehensive methods developed or under development in recent years and generally available to the rotorcraft community because of US Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity (ARTA) sponsorship of all or part of the software systems are the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation (C81), Dynamic System Coupler (DYSCO), Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis Program (SIMVIB), Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD), General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP), and Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS).

  14. Penile dermatoses: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; Walker, M M; Harris, J R; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the spectrum of genital dermatological conditions affecting men and compare the clinical and histopathological diagnoses. DESIGN--Prospective study over a one year period. SETTING--A central London teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Seventy one patients with unresponsive penile dermatoses attending a specific internal referral clinic within the department of genitourinary medicine and 36 patients undergoing penile biopsy following attendance at other departments within the same hospital. METHODS--Full dermatological assessment of patients attending the specific clinic. Standard histopathological methods were used in the diagnosis of biopsy specimens. OUTCOME MEASURED--Clinico-pathological diagnosis of cutaneous penile abnormalities. RESULTS--Description of the range and relative frequency of penile dermatological conditions. The most common histopathological diagnosis was of non specific dermatitis. Twenty seven percent (16 of 61) of patients attending the specific clinic and 33% (12 of 36) of men attending other departments had conditions requiring long term follow up. CONCLUSIONS--The ranges of penile dermatoses presenting to the different departments were broadly similar. Penile biopsy was shown to be a safe and clinically informative procedure. In the genitourinary clinic setting, clinical diagnosis prior to biopsy was found frequently to be inaccurate. Images PMID:1607192

  15. Efficient nucleus detector in histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Vink, J P; Van Leeuwen, M B; Van Deurzen, C H M; De Haan, G

    2013-02-01

    In traditional cancer diagnosis, (histo)pathological images of biopsy samples are visually analysed by pathologists. However, this judgment is subjective and leads to variability among pathologists. Digital scanners may enable automated objective assessment, improved quality and reduced throughput time. Nucleus detection is seen as the corner stone for a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. In this paper, we propose an efficient nucleus detector designed with machine learning. We applied colour deconvolution to reconstruct each applied stain. Next, we constructed a large feature set and modified AdaBoost to create two detectors, focused on different characteristics in appearance of nuclei. The proposed modification of AdaBoost enables inclusion of the computational cost of each feature during selection, thus improving the computational efficiency of the resulting detectors. The outputs of the two detectors are merged by a globally optimal active contour algorithm to refine the border of the detected nuclei. With a detection rate of 95% (on average 58 incorrectly found objects per field-of-view) based on 51 field-of-view images of Her2 immunohistochemistry stained breast tissue and a complete analysis in 1 s per field-of-view, our nucleus detector shows good performance and could enable a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. PMID:23252774

  16. Variants of dermatofibroma - a histopathological study*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, João Vítor Pina; Matos, Diogo Miguel; Barreiros, Hugo Frederico; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Several variants of dermatofibroma have been described. They are essentially distinguished by their clinical and histopathological features. To review the mainfeaturesof these variants, a retrospective study of skin biopsies and tissue excisions of dermatofibromasperformed in the dermatology and venereology service at the Hospital Garcia de Orta between May 2007 and April 2012 was carried out. During that period, 192 dermatofibromas were diagnosed in 181 patients, the lesions being more common in women. Median age of the study population was 48 years. The most common lesion site was the limbs (74% of patients). The histopathological types found were common fibrous histiocytoma (80%) and the aneurysmal (5.7%),hemosiderotic (5.7%), epithelioid (2.6%), cellular (2.1%), lipidized (2.1%), atrophic (1.0) and clear cell (0.5%) variants. Based on these findings, this review focuses on the clinical and histological features of the various variants of dermatofibroma in terms of their clinical presentation, distinct histopathological features, differential diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24937822

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of methods to isolate, quantify, and characterize circulating cell-free DNA from small volumes of plasma.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Florence; Dulary, Cécile; Daviaud, Christian; Deleuze, Jean-François; Tost, Jorg

    2015-09-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) has great potential for non-invasive diagnostics, and prediction and monitoring of treatment response, but its amount is usually limited. Therefore, the choice of methods to extract and characterize ccfDNA is crucial. In the current study, we performed the most comprehensive comparison of methods for ccfDNA extraction (11 methods), quantification (3 methods), and estimation of the integrity index (2 methods) from small quantities of different kinds of plasma. The QIAamp® Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit and the Norgen Plasma/Serum Circulating DNA Purification Mini Kit showed the best accuracy and reproducibility, but the Norgen kit allowed to extract a higher amount of ccfDNA. This workflow provides a reliable protocol for the multiple applications of ccfDNA in biomedicine. PMID:26123439

  18. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary molars by using CBCT and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Dogan, Salih

    2016-05-01

    Objective Knowledge of primary tooth morphology is essential for clinical dentistry, especially for root canal treatment and dental traumatology. However, this has not been well documented to date with a large sample. This study was carried out to investigate the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of the primary molars, to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. Materials and methods A total of 343 primary molars, without any root resorption, were divided into four main groups including the maxillary first molars, maxillary second molars, mandibular first molars and mandibular second molars. All of them were analysed in CBCT images in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, the root canal type, diameter of root and root canal and root canal curvature were studied. Results Primary molars in all four groups showed variability in the number of roots and root canals. As far as length of the roots was concerned, the palatal root of the maxillary molar was found to be longest, while the distobuccal root was shortest. In mandibular molars, the mesial root was longer than the distal root. The length of distobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars and the distolingual canal of the mandibular molars was found to be shortest. The number of roots and root canals varied from two to four and three to four, respectively. The maxillary molars exhibited more one-canal than two-canal roots. Conclusion The present study provides comprehensive information to the existing literature concerning the variation in root canal morphology of the maxillary and mandibular primary molar teeth. These data may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:26523502

  19. Finding the Impact in a Messy Intervention: Using an Integrated Design to Evaluate a Comprehensive Citywide Health Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Beth C.; Mijanovich, Tod; Silver, Diana; Brecher, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's (RWJF) Urban Health Initiative (UHI), a 10-year effort to improve health and safety outcomes in distressed cities, to demonstrate the strength of an evaluation design that integrates theory of change and quasi-experimental approaches, including the use of comparison cities.…

  20. A Cross-sectional Study of Clinical, Histopathological and Direct Immunofluorescence Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    S., Arundhathi; S., Ragunatha; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of skin requires evaluation of clinical, histopathologic and immunofluorescence findings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 68 patients to evaluate the clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) features in the diagnosis of cutaneous vesiculobullous disorders. The patients with vesiculobullous lesions were subjected to clinical examination regarding socio-demographic and clinical data. Two biopsy specimens were taken, one from intact vesicle for histopathological study and another from perilesional normal looking skin or oral mucosa for DIF. Results: Vesiculobullous lesions constituted 22.08% of total number of skin biopsies. The most common clinical diagnosis was pemphigus vulgaris (PV) in 36 cases, followed by bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 8 cases, pemphigus foliaceous (PF) in 6 cases, and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) in 4 cases. Characteristic histopathological features were present in 26 cases of PV, 9 cases of BP and 4 cases of PF, and 17.7% showed non- specific changes. DIF was positive in 24 cases of PV, 9 cases of BP and 3 cases of PF, and negative in 34.92% of cases. Conclusion: Clinical, histopathological and DIF features together or in combination help in the final diagnosis of vesiculobullous disorders. Individually, none of these methods are diagnostic in each and every case. PMID:24551638

  1. Comprehensive laboratory evaluation of a highly specific lateral flow assay for the presumptive identification of ricin in suspicious white powders and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Prentice, Kristin Willner; Ramage, Jason G; Prezioso, Samantha; Gauthier, Cheryl; Swanson, Tanya; Hastings, Rebecca; Basavanna, Uma; Datta, Shomik; Sharma, Shashi K; Garber, Eric A E; Staab, Andrea; Pettit, Denise; Drumgoole, Rahsaan; Swaney, Erin; Estacio, Peter L; Elder, Ian A; Kovacs, Gerald; Morse, Brenda S; Kellogg, Richard B; Stanker, Larry; Morse, Stephen A; Pillai, Segaran P

    2013-12-01

    Ricin, a heterodimeric toxin that is present in the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant, is the biothreat agent most frequently encountered by law enforcement agencies in the United States. Even in untrained hands, the easily obtainable seeds can yield a highly toxic product that has been used in various types of threats, including "white-powder" letters. Although the vast majority of these threats are hoaxes, an impediment to accurate hazard assessments by first responders is the unreliability of rapid detection assays for ricin, such as lateral flow assays (LFAs). One of the complicating factors associated with LFAs is the incorporation of antibodies of poor specificity that cross-react with near-neighbors or with plant lectins that are capable of nonspecifically cross-linking the capture and detector antibodies. Because of the compelling and critical need to promote the interests of public safety and public health, the Department of Homeland Security conducted a comprehensive laboratory evaluation study of a commercial LFA for the rapid detection of ricin. This study was conducted using comprehensive inclusivity and exclusivity panels of ricin and near-neighbor plant materials, along with panels of lectins and "white-powders," to determine the specificity, sensitivity, limits of detection, dynamic range, and repeatability of the assay for the specific intended use of evaluating suspicious white powders and environmental samples in the field. PMID:24320219

  2. Stain Specific Standardization of Whole-Slide Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Litjens, Geert; Timofeeva, Nadya; Otte-Höller, Irene; Homeyer, André; Karssemeijer, Nico; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M

    2016-02-01

    Variations in the color and intensity of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological slides can potentially hamper the effectiveness of quantitative image analysis. This paper presents a fully automated algorithm for standardization of whole-slide histopathological images to reduce the effect of these variations. The proposed algorithm, called whole-slide image color standardizer (WSICS), utilizes color and spatial information to classify the image pixels into different stain components. The chromatic and density distributions for each of the stain components in the hue-saturation-density color model are aligned to match the corresponding distributions from a template whole-slide image (WSI). The performance of the WSICS algorithm was evaluated on two datasets. The first originated from 125 H&E stained WSIs of lymph nodes, sampled from 3 patients, and stained in 5 different laboratories on different days of the week. The second comprised 30 H&E stained WSIs of rat liver sections. The result of qualitative and quantitative evaluations using the first dataset demonstrate that the WSICS algorithm outperforms competing methods in terms of achieving color constancy. The WSICS algorithm consistently yields the smallest standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the normalized median intensity measure. Using the second dataset, we evaluated the impact of our algorithm on the performance of an already published necrosis quantification system. The performance of this system was significantly improved by utilizing the WSICS algorithm. The results of the empirical evaluations collectively demonstrate the potential contribution of the proposed standardization algorithm to improved diagnostic accuracy and consistency in computer-aided diagnosis for histopathology data. PMID:26353368

  3. Vascular leg ulcers: histopathologic study of 293 patients.

    PubMed

    Misciali, Cosimo; Dika, Emi; Baraldi, Carlotta; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Mirelli, Michele; Stella, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:25072681

  4. Oral mucoceles: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Jamile Gomes; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; De Aquino Xavier, Flávia Caló; Schlaepfer-Sales, Caroline Brandi; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of oral mucoceles and the immunohistochemical expression of cellular and extracellular matrix components in these lesions. One hundred cases of oral mucoceles were examined for clinicopathological features. The expression of mast cell tryptase, CD68, MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and CD34 was investigated immunohistochemically in 32 cases. The lesions arose as nodules or blisters of variable color. The mean age was 23.2 years and a higher male frequency was observed. The most common locations were the lower lip (92%), followed by the floor of the mouth (7%), and palate (1%). The lesion size ranged from 0.4 to 3.0cm. Unusual histopathological findings as superficial mucoceles (n=16, 16%), pseudopapillary projections (n=3, 3%), epithelioid histiocytes (n=4, 4%), multinucleated giant cells (n=1, 1%) and myxoglobulosis (n=9, 9%) were also seen. Mast cells and CD68-positive macrophages, MMP-1, MMP-9 and CD34-positive blood vessels were seen in all cases. A significant association was seen between mast cells and MMP-1 (p=0.03) and between macrophages and MMP-1 (p=0.01). This study provided important insight into the demographic and histopathological occurrence of oral mucoceles. The tissue remodeling seen in these lesions mainly involved the migration and interaction of mast cells, macrophages and MMP-1. PMID:23726142

  5. Bag-of-visual-ngrams for histopathology image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Monroy, A. Pastor; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes an extension of the Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) representation for image categorization (IC) of histophatology images. This representation is one of the most used approaches in several high-level computer vision tasks. However, the BoVW representation has an important limitation: the disregarding of spatial information among visual words. This information may be useful to capture discriminative visual-patterns in specific computer vision tasks. In order to overcome this problem we propose the use of visual n-grams. N-grams based-representations are very popular in the field of natural language processing (NLP), in particular within text mining and information retrieval. We propose building a codebook of n-grams and then representing images by histograms of visual n-grams. We evaluate our proposal in the challenging task of classifying histopathology images. The novelty of our proposal lies in the fact that we use n-grams as attributes for a classification model (together with visual-words, i.e., 1-grams). This is common practice within NLP, although, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not been explored yet within computer vision. We report experimental results in a database of histopathology images where our proposed method outperforms the traditional BoVWs formulation.

  6. Hidradenoma Papilliferum With Oncocytic Metaplasia: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Elbendary, Amira; Cochran, Eric; Xie, Qiang; Kabigting, Filamer; Pereira, Leanne; Elston, Dirk M; Heilman, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum is a benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm, commonly occurring in the vulva and perianal region of adult women. It has characteristic histopathological features composed of anastomosing and branching tubules, lined by columnar cells, and a basal layer of myoepithelial cells. A 39-year-old woman was evaluated for 2 asymptomatic labial masses. The histopathological examination revealed a Bartholin's cyst and a hidradenoma papilliferum. The latter contains a distinct area of oncocytic/oxyphilic metaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains revealed positive staining for gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP)-15 and androgen receptor. GATA-3, a protein expressed in sweat glands, highlights a similar positive staining pattern with weaker staining in areas of oncocytic metaplasia. P63 highlighted the myoepithelial differentiation. In situ hybridization for Human Papilloma Virus 6, 11, 16, and 18 was negative. P53 was negative and Ki-67 was low, confirming its benign nature. Oncocytes are enlarged epithelial cells with voluminous eosinophilic granular cytoplasm resulting from staining of nonribosomal cytoplasmic components. Few reports documented it in hidradenoma papilliferum. Our case demonstrated a florid distinct appearance of this metaplasia. The immunoprofiles of this oncocytic metaplasia such as p53 negativity and positivity for androgen receptor and GCDFP-15 demonstrates similarity to apocrine metaplasia in the breast. The authors' case demonstrates the benign nature of oncocytic metaplasia and supports the common origin of oncocytic cells and columnar cells in hidradenoma papilliferum. PMID:27097337

  7. Histopathological and genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in rats.

    PubMed

    Ezzi, Lobna; Belhadj Salah, Imen; Haouas, Zohra; Sakly, Amina; Grissa, Intissar; Chakroun, Sana; Kerkeni, Emna; Hassine, Mohsen; Mehdi, Meriem; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos's sub-acute exposure on male rats. Two groups with six animals each were orally treated, respectively, with 3.1 mg/kg b w and 6.2 mg/kg b w of chlorpyrifos during 4 weeks. The genotoxic effect of chlopyrifos was investigated using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Some hematological and liver's histopathological changes were also evaluated. Results revealed that chlorpyrifos induced histopathological alterations in liver parenchyma. The lymphoid infiltration observed in liver sections and the increase in white blood cells parameter are signs of inflammation. A significant increase in the platelet' count and in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio was observed in chlorpyrifos-treated groups which could be due to the stimulatory effect of chlorpyrifos on cell formation in the bone marrow at lower doses. In addition, the increase of bone marrow micronucleus percentage and the comet tail length revealed a genotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos in vivo. PMID:26545888

  8. Cross-site evaluation of a comprehensive pediatric asthma project: the Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN).

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Meera; Mansfield, Carol; Smith, Lucia Rojas; Woodell, Carol; Darcy, Niamh; Ohadike, Yvonne U; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J

    2011-11-01

    The Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) initiative selected five sites that had high asthma burden and established asthma programs but were ready for greater program integration across schools, health care systems, and communities. MCAN supported a community-based approach that was tailored to the needs of each program site. As a result, each site was unique in its combination of interventions, but all sites served common goals of integration of care, incorporation of evidence-based programs, and improvement in knowledge, self-management, health, and quality of life. This case study of the MCAN cross-site evaluation discusses the challenges associated with evaluating interventions involving multiple stakeholders that have been adjusted to fit the unique needs of specific communities. The evaluation triangulates data from site-specific monitoring and evaluation data; site documents, site visits, and cross-site meetings; qualitative assessments of families, organizational partners, and other stakeholders; and quantitative data from a common instrument on health indicators before and after the intervention. The evaluation employs the RE-AIM framework--reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance--to assess the barriers and facilitators of translation from theory into practice. Our experience suggests trade-offs between rigor of evaluation and burden of assessment that have applicability for other community-based translational efforts. PMID:22068358

  9. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

  10. Unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens from patients with suspected acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Sahin, Nurhan; Arabaci, Ebru; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and implications of unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens from patients with suspected acute appendicitis. METHODS: The demographic and histopathological data of 1621 patients (≥ 16 years-old) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis between January 1999 and November 2011 were retrospectively assessed. Microscopic findings were used to classify the patients under six categories: appendix vermiformis, phlegmonous appendicitis, gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis, supurative appendicitis, and unusual histopathologic findings. The demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with unusual histopathologic findings were evaluated in detail, and re-analysis of archived resected appendix specimens was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 912 males and 709 females, from 16 to 94 years old, were included in the study and comprised 789 cases of suppurative appendicitis, 370 cases of appendix vermiformis, 243 cases of perforated gangrenous appendicitis, 53 cases of flegmaneous appendicitis, 32 cases of gangrenous appendicitis, and 134 (8.3%) cases of unusual histopathological findings. The unusual histopathological findings included fibrous obliteration (n = 62), enterobius vermicularis (n = 31), eosinophilic infiltration (n = 10), mucinous cystadenoma (n = 8), carcinoid tumor (n = 6), granulomatous inflammation (n = 5), adenocarcinoma (n = 4; one of them mucinous), and mucocele (n = 3), adenomatous polyp (n = 1), taenia sup (n = 1), ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1), appendiceal diverticula (n = 1), and B cell non-hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). None of the 11 patients with subsequent diagnosis of tumor were suspected of cancer prior to the appendectomy. CONCLUSION: Even when the macroscopic appearance of appendectomy specimens is normal, histopathological assessment will allow early diagnosis of many unusual diseases. PMID:23840147

  11. Evaluation of a miniaturised single-stage thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of petroleum contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Matthew R; Edwards, Matthew; Górecki, Tadeusz; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Shellie, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    A novel miniaturised single-stage resistively heated thermal modulator was investigated as an alternative to cryogenic modulation for use in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). The single-stage thermal modulator described herein yielded average retention time relative standard deviations (RSD) of ≤0.2% RSD (first-dimension) and ≤3.4% RSD (second-dimension). The average peak widths generated by the modulator were 72±3ms, and the peak area precision was better than 5.3% RSD for a range of polar and non-polar test analytes. GC×GC analysis can be performed using this modulator without the requirement for cryogenic cooling or additional pressure control modules for flow modulation. The modulator and associated electronics are compact and amenable towards field analysis. The modulator was used for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of petroleum-contaminated soils derived from a sub-Antarctic research station at Macquarie Island. The limit of detection compared to standard 1D GC analysis was improved from 64 to 11mgkg(-1). An automated method of analysing and categorising samples using principal component analysis is presented. PMID:27527879

  12. Short-Term Genetic Changes: Evaluating Effective Population Size Estimates in a Comprehensively Described Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Population

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, Dimitar; Jorde, Per Erik; Bernatchez, Louis; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vøllestad, L. Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    The effective population size (Ne) is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate in wild populations as it is influenced by a number of parameters that are difficult to delineate in natural systems. The different methods that are used to estimate Ne are affected variously by different processes at the population level, such as the life-history characteristics of the organism, gene flow, and population substructure, as well as by the frequency patterns of genetic markers used and the sampling design. Here, we compare Ne estimates obtained by different genetic methods and from demographic data and elucidate how the estimates are affected by various factors in an exhaustively sampled and comprehensively described natural brown trout (Salmo trutta) system. In general, the methods yielded rather congruent estimates, and we ascribe that to the adequate genotyping and exhaustive sampling. Effects of violating the assumptions of the different methods were nevertheless apparent. In accordance with theoretical studies, skewed allele frequencies would underestimate temporal allele frequency changes and thereby upwardly bias Ne if not accounted for. Overlapping generations and iteroparity would also upwardly bias Ne when applied to temporal samples taken over short time spans. Gene flow from a genetically not very dissimilar source population decreases temporal allele frequency changes and thereby acts to increase estimates of Ne. Our study reiterates the importance of adequate sampling, quantification of life-history parameters and gene flow, and incorporating these data into the Ne estimation. PMID:22466040

  13. Designs for Evaluating the Community-Level Impact of Comprehensive Prevention Programs: Examples from the CDC Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David; Bradshaw, Catherine; Reischl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of developing research designs to evaluate the impact of community-level prevention efforts. To illustrate examples of evaluation designs, we describe six projects funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate multifaceted approaches to reduce youth violence in high-risk communities. Each of these projects was designed to evaluate the community-level impact of multiple intervention strategies to address individual and contextual factors that place youth at risk for violent behavior. Communities differed across projects in their setting, size, and how their boundaries were defined. Each project is using multiple approaches to compare outcomes in one or more intervention communities to those in comparison communities. Five of the projects are using comparative interrupted time-series designs to compare outcomes in an intervention community to matched comparison communities. A sixth project is using a multiple baseline design in which the order and timing of intervention activities is randomized across three communities. All six projects are also using regression point displacement designs to compare outcomes within intervention communities to those within broader sets of similar communities. Projects are using a variety of approaches to assess outcomes including archival records, surveys, and direct observations. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the designs of these projects and illustrate the challenges of designing high-quality evaluations of comprehensive prevention approaches implemented at the community level. PMID:26957507

  14. Subcutaneous sacral ependymoma--a histopathological challenge.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous myxopapillary or sacral ependymoma are rare tumors mostly developing in children or adolescents. The majority occurs in the sacrococcygeal region. There are numerous clinical and histopathological differential diagnoses. Owing to the fact that there have been rare reported cases that followed an aggressive course and in which the patient succumbed to metastatic disease, long term follow-up is necessary despite complete excision. We describe here a 25-year-old male patient with a histological unusual subcutaneous sacral ependymoma and discuss the differential diagnosis as well as treatment options. PMID:26289839

  15. Medico-legal aspects of histopathology practice.

    PubMed

    Ong, B B; Looi, L M

    2001-06-01

    Medico-legal problems experienced by histopathologists differ from those of other clinicians as they are rarely in direct contact with patients. Nevertheless, the pathologist owes a duty of care to the patient and is liable for medical negligence. In the absence of local guidelines, it is prudent to follow guidelines published by learned Colleges elsewhere. This is also true when delegating duties to non-pathologists, technical and other support staff. Errors in diagnosis and documentation pose the most common problems in histopathology. In this, liability also depends on many factors including the provision of adequate clinical information by clinicians and competence of laboratory staff. Clinicopathological discussions, participation in quality assurance programmes and adherence to standard operating procedures are important audit activities to minimize and detect errors as well as prevent grievous outcome to patients. Issues also arise over the retention of specimens and reports. In general, wet, formalin-fixed tissues should be kept until histopathological assessment is finalized and preferably after clinicopathological sessions, and even longer if there is potential litigation. Reports should be archival. Paraffin blocks should be kept for at least the lifetime of the patient, and histology slides for at least 10 years, to facilitate review and reassessment. Despite adverse publicity in the foreign press over the use of human organs and tissues for research and education, it is accepted that processed tissues can be used for research and educational purposes provided the patient's identity is kept confidential. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to revise consent forms for surgery and autopsies to include the possibility that tissues removed can be stored or used for research and education. Good medical practice in pathology encourages a willingness to consult colleagues when in doubt, but advises that the treating clinician be informed if histopathological

  16. Pachydermodactyly: A Case Report Including Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Rancy, Schneider K; Granstein, Richard D; Bansal, Manjula; Barley, Christopher L; Fields, Theodore R; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-08-01

    Pachydermodactyly (PDD) is a rare form of digital fibromatosis characterized by painless soft tissue swelling, primarily about the proximal interphalangeal joints. The skin at the metacarpophalangeal joints, the palm, and the dorsum of the hand may also be involved. Because swelling can occur over the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, PDD may be confused with juvenile inflammatory arthropathy and may even occur concurrently. We present the clinical and histopathologic findings of a case of PDD characterized by bilateral proximal phalangeal involvement of the index through little fingers. PMID:27180953

  17. Histopathologic patterns associated with external agents.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz

    2012-10-01

    A large number of foreign substances may penetrate the skin for both voluntary and involuntary reasons. The voluntary group includes the particulate materials used in tattoos and cosmetic fillers, whereas the involuntary group is almost always caused by accidental inclusion of external substances secondary to cutaneous trauma. This article focuses on the histopathologic findings seen in cutaneous reactions to exogenous agents, with special emphasis on the microscopic morphology of the external particles in recognizing specifically the involved substance (something that is becoming increasingly important in the event of litigation). PMID:23021056

  18. Methanol optic neuropathy: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, J A; Hostovsky, M; Bilbao, J M; Rewcastle, N B

    1982-10-01

    The histopathologic effects of methanol on the optic nerve were studied in four patients. Circumscribed myelin damage occurred behind the lamina cribrosa in each nerve. Axons were preserved. Demyelination also occurred in cerebral hemispheric white matter in one patient. This selective myelinoclastic effect of methanol metabolism is probably caused by histotoxic anoxia in watershed areas of the cerebral and distal optic nerve circulations. Juxtabulbar demyelination may cause optic disk edema in methanol poisoning by compressive obstruction of orthograde axoplasmic flow. Visual loss may be due to disruption of saltatory conduction. Retrolaminar demyelinating optic neuropathy is an early morphologic correlate of visual loss in methanol intoxication. PMID:6889696

  19. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P.; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  20. Developing and evaluating a wireless speech-and-touch-based interface for intelligent comprehensive triage support systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Polun; Sheng, Yu-Hsiang; Sang, Yiing-Yiing; Wang, Da-Wei; Hsu, Yueh-Shuang; Hou, I-Ching

    2006-01-01

    Continuous speech recognition (CSR) technology appears promising in mobile nursing but is not yet well studied. We developed and evaluated bimodal CSR and touchscreen triage support systems in the Emergency department (ED) of a medical center with 2700 beds in 2004-5. Evaluation results show that the average accuracy rates of systems ranged from 94 to 98%. Results suggest that the ED nurses were significantly more willing to use CSR combined with touchscreen systems than the others, such as PDA and CSR alone. A more flexible interface, not efficiency, might be the main reason for this finding. PMID:17102352

  1. Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Principal Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Principal Evaluation Systems. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Hansen, Ulcca Joshni; Wraight, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Across the country, states and districts are designing principal evaluation systems as a means of improving leadership, learning, and school performance. Principal evaluation systems hold potential for supporting leaders' learning and sense of accountability for instructional excellence and student performance. Principal evaluation also is an…

  2. Evaluating outcomes of patients lost to follow-up in a large comprehensive care treatment program in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Rachlis, B; Ochieng, D; Geng, E; Rotich, E; Ochieng, V; Maritim, B; Ndege, S; Naanyu, V; Martin, J; Keter, A; Ayuo, P; Diero, L; Nyambura, M; Braitstein, P

    2014-01-01

    Background The Academic Model Providing Access To Healthcare (AMPATH) program provides comprehensive HIV care and treatment services. Approximately 30% of patients have become lost to follow-up (LTFU). We sought to actively trace and identify outcomes for a sample of these patients. Methods LTFU was defined as missing a scheduled visit by ≥ 3 months. A randomly selected sample of 17% of patients identified as LTFU between January 2009 and June 2011 was generated, with sample stratification on age, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status at last visit, and facility. Chart reviews were conducted followed by active tracing. Tracing was completed by trained HIV-positive outreach workers July 2011 to February 2012. Outcomes were compared between adults and children and by ART status. Results Of 14,811 LTFU patients, 2,540 were randomly selected for tracing (2,179 adults, 1,071 on ART). The chart reviews indicated that 326 (12.8%) patients were not actually LTFU. Outcomes for 71% of sampled patients were determined including 85% of those physically traced. Of those with known outcomes, 21% had died while 29% had disengaged from care for various reasons. The remaining patients had moved away (n=458, 25%) or were still receiving HIV care (n=443 total, 25%). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of a large scale sampling-based approach. A significant proportion of patients were found not to be LTFU and further, high numbers of patients who were LTFU could not be located. Over a quarter of patients disengaged from care for various reasons including access challenges and familial influences. PMID:25692336

  3. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  4. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  5. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  6. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  8. The Process of an Evaluation in Progress. Measuring the Impact of Teaching with Technology: Comprehensive Interdisciplinary Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinecke, Walter; Blasi, Laura; Skerker, Sarah

    This paper discusses a pilot project in progress at Mantua Elementary School in Fairfax, Virginia begun on September 1, 1999 to develop, improve, and extend the school's current system of evaluating the effects of educational technology on student learning. The following sections are included: Purpose of the Project; Drawing upon the…

  9. More Is Not Always Better: Comprehensive Evaluation of a Summer Institute on Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction for School-Level Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Burns, Rebecca C.

    The Interdisciplinary Teamed Instruction (ITI) project investigated the effects of interdisciplinary, teamed instruction on secondary school teaching and learning. It examined the effectiveness of a professional development model that facilitated the development, implementation, and evaluation of ITI. Through summer institutes and onsite…

  10. Support for comprehensive reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes, and other knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demands. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows comprehensive reuse of all kinds of software-related experience could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. A comprehensive framework of models, model-based characterization schemes, and support mechanisms for better understanding, evaluating, planning, and supporting all aspects of reuse are introduced.

  11. Histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa in active and retired nickel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Torjussen, W.; Solberg, L. A.; Høgetveit, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Histological examinations were made on nasal biopsy specimens from the middle turbinate in 318 active and 15 retired nickel workers and in 57 controls, to study the prevalence of nasal carcinoma or possible precancerous mucosal changes in nickel-exposed individuals. The histopathological changes were evaluated according to a point-score scale, and the results were correlated to age, smoking habits, duration and type of nickel exposure and to nickel concentrations in nasal mucosa, plasma and urine. The explanatory values of these factors on the histopathology were estimated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Two nickel workers from the roasting/smelting department (0.6%), both employed 28 years at the plant, had nasal carcinoma. Epithelial dysplasia was found in about 12% of active and 47% of retired nickel workers. One of the controls, a male carpenter, had dysplasia. These histopathological changes may be precancerous lesions, as they are almost exclusively found in active and retired nickel workers with enhanced risk of nasal carcinoma. Loss of respiratory epithelium and development of squamous epithelium were regarded as unspecific histopathological changes. These changes were seen in all groups, even though in significantly higher incidence in the nickel-exposed groups. Duration of nickel exposure, type of nickel-refining work and tobacco consumption were the independent variable that, taken altogether, had the highest explanatory values for the histopathological changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:497107

  12. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf. PMID:24334611

  13. Automated skin biopsy histopathological image annotation using multi-instance representation and learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Yin, Jian; Li, Ziping; Su, Xiangyang; Li, Guozheng; Zhang, Honglai

    2013-01-01

    With digitisation and the development of computer-aided diagnosis, histopathological image analysis has attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this article, we address the problem of the automated annotation of skin biopsy images, a special type of histopathological image analysis. In contrast to previous well-studied methods in histopathology, we propose a novel annotation method based on a multi-instance learning framework. The proposed framework first represents each skin biopsy image as a multi-instance sample using a graph cutting method, decomposing the image to a set of visually disjoint regions. Then, we construct two classification models using multi-instance learning algorithms, among which one provides determinate results and the other calculates a posterior probability. We evaluate the proposed annotation framework using a real dataset containing 6691 skin biopsy images, with 15 properties as target annotation terms. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective and medically acceptable. PMID:24565115

  14. Registration of In Vivo Prostate Magnetic Resonance Images to Digital Histopathology Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. D.; Crukley, C.; McKenzie, C.; Montreuil, J.; Gibson, E.; Gomez, J. A.; Moussa, M.; Bauman, G.; Fenster, A.

    Early and accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer enables minimally invasive therapies to cure the cancer with less morbidity. The purpose of this work is to non-rigidly register in vivo pre-prostatectomy prostate medical images to regionally-graded histopathology images from post-prostatectomy specimens, seeking a relationship between the multi parametric imaging and cancer distribution and aggressiveness. Our approach uses image-based registration in combination with a magnetically tracked probe to orient the physical slicing of the specimen to be parallel to the in vivo imaging planes, yielding a tractable 2D registration problem. We measured a target registration error of 0.85 mm, a mean slicing plane marking error of 0.7 mm, and a mean slicing error of 0.6 mm; these results compare favourably with our 2.2 mm diagnostic MR image thickness. Qualitative evaluation of in vivo imaging-histopathology fusion reveals excellent anatomic concordance between MR and digital histopathology.

  15. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects. PMID:26743286

  16. A system to evaluate the scientific quality of biological and restoration objectives using National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plans as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that plans for restoration projects should contain specific, measurable, and science-based objectives to guide restoration efforts. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is in the process of developing Comprehensive Conservation Plans (CCPs) for more than 500 units in the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). These plans contain objectives for biological and ecosystem restoration efforts on the refuges. Based on USFWS policy, a system was developed to evaluate the scientific quality of such objectives based on three critical factors: (1) Is the objective specific, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, and time-fixed? (2) What is the extent of the rationale that explains the assumptions, logic, and reasoning for the objective? (3) How well was available science used in the development of the objective? The evaluation system scores each factor on a scale of 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent) according to detailed criteria. The biological and restoration objectives from CCPs published as of September 2004 (60 total) were evaluated. The overall average score for all biological and restoration objectives was 1.73. Average scores for each factor were: Factor 1-1.97; Factor 2-1.86; Factor 3-1.38. The overall scores increased from 1997 to 2004. Future restoration efforts may benefit by using this evaluation system during the process of plan development, to ensure that biological and restoration objectives are of the highest scientific quality possible prior to the implementation of restoration plans, and to allow for improved monitoring and adaptive management.

  17. Controlled trial of a collaborative primary care team model for patients with diabetes and depression: Rationale and design for a comprehensive evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When depression accompanies diabetes, it complicates treatment, portends worse outcomes and increases health care costs. A collaborative care case-management model, previously tested in an urban managed care organization in the US, achieved significant reduction of depressive symptoms, improved diabetes disease control and patient-reported outcomes, and saved money. While impressive, these findings need to be replicated and extended to other healthcare settings. Our objective is to comprehensively evaluate a collaborative care model for comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes within a Canadian primary care setting. Methods/design We initiated the TeamCare model in four Primary Care Networks in Northern Alberta. The intervention involves a nurse care manager guiding patient-centered care with family physicians and consultant physician specialists to monitor progress and develop tailored care plans. Patients eligible for the intervention will be identified using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as a screen for depressive symptoms. Care managers will then guide patients through three phases: 1) improving depressive symptoms, 2) improving blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol, and 3) improving lifestyle behaviors. We will employ the RE-AIM framework for a comprehensive and mixed-methods approach to our evaluation. Effectiveness will be assessed using a controlled “on-off” trial design, whereby eligible patients would be alternately enrolled in the TeamCare intervention or usual care on a monthly basis. All patients will be assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary analyses will be based on changes in two outcomes: depressive symptoms, and a multivariable, scaled marginal model for the combined outcome of global disease control (i.e., A1c, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol). Our planned enrolment of 168 patients will provide greater than 80% power to observe clinically important improvements in all measured outcomes. Direct

  18. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider*: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin A.; Parker, George A.; Regan, Karen S.; Picut, Catherine; Dixon, Darlene; Creasy, Dianne; Giri, Dipak; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program. PMID:25948506

  19. Reading Comprehension Strategy: Rainbow Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Claire; Lo, Lusa

    2008-01-01

    An action research study was conducted using the Rainbow Dots strategy to evaluate its effectiveness on reading comprehension skills in a third-grade class with students both with and without a specific learning disability. Results of the study indicated that students' overall performances in reading comprehension have increased. Students also…

  20. [Histopathologic study of melanoma of the choroid after proton therapy].

    PubMed

    Devouassoux Shishe Boran, M; Grange, J D; Patricot, L M; Adeleine, P; Chauvel, P; Chiquet, C; Vitrey, D; Thivolet Béjui, F

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate irradiation effects on choroidal melanomas, histopathologic findings of 18 eyes whose primary treatment was enucleation were compared to 15 eyes enucleated after proton beam irradiation. Irradiated tumors showed more likely necrosis (p = 0.01) had balloon cells (p = 0.01), and inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.05). In the irradiated group, the prevalence of tumor blood vessel damage was higher (p = 0.0002) and mitotic figures were fewer (p = 0.01). These findings suggest that proton beam irradiation damages tumor cells and alters the tumor's capacity for cellular reproduction. It damages blood vessels leading to tumor necrosis. It induces an inflammatory response of unknown effects. Radiosensitivity of choroidal melanomas cannot be assessed using conventional histologic methods. However, tumor necrosis, mitotic activity and rate of balloon cells can help to establish tumoral sensitivity to irradiation. PMID:9296578

  1. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Neuroprotection Achieved by Extended Selective Brain Cooling Therapy in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Shear, Deborah A; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Wei, Guo; Chen, Zhiyong; Tortella, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    Brain hypothermia has been considered as a promising alternative to whole-body hypothermia in treating acute neurological disease, for example, traumatic brain injury. Previously, we demonstrated that 2-hours selective brain cooling (SBC) effectively mitigated acute (≤24 hours postinjury) neurophysiological dysfunction induced by a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of extended SBC (4 or 8 hours in duration) on sub-acute secondary injuries between 3 and 21 days postinjury (DPI). SBC (34°C) was achieved via extraluminal cooling of rats' bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Depending on the experimental design, SBC was introduced either immediately or with a 2- or 4-hour delay after PBBI and maintained for 4 or 8 hours. Neuroprotective effects of SBC were evaluated by measuring brain lesion volume, axonal injury, neuroinflammation, motor and cognitive functions, and post-traumatic seizures. Compared to untreated PBBI animals, 4 or 8 hours SBC treatment initiated immediately following PBBI produced comparable neuroprotective benefits against PBBI-induced early histopathology at 3 DPI as evidenced by significant reductions in brain lesion volume, axonal pathology (beta-amyloid precursor protein staining), neuroinflammation (glial fibrillary acetic protein stained-activated astrocytes and rat major histocompatibility complex class I stained activated microglial cell), and post-traumatic nonconvulsive seizures. In the later phase of the injury (7-21 DPI), significant improvement on motor function (rotarod test) was observed under most SBC protocols, including the 2-hour delay in SBC initiation. However, SBC treatment failed to improve cognitive performance (Morris water maze test) measured 13-17 DPI. The protective effects of SBC on delayed axonal injury (silver staining) were evident out to 14 DPI. In conclusion, the CCA cooling method of SBC produced neuroprotection measured across multiple

  3. Applying Multiple Methods to Comprehensively Evaluate a Patient Portal’s Effectiveness to Convey Information to Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H; Aycock, Rebecca A; Kreps, Gary L

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient portals have yet to achieve their full potential for enhancing health communication and improving health outcomes. Although the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the United States mandates the utilization of patient portals, and usage continues to rise, their impact has not been as profound as anticipated. Objective The objective of our case study was to evaluate how well portals convey information to patients. To demonstrate how multiple methodologies could be used to evaluate and improve the design of patient-centered portals, we conducted an in-depth evaluation of an exemplar patient-centered portal designed to promote preventive care to consumers. Methods We used 31 critical incident patient interviews, 2 clinician focus groups, and a thematic content analysis to understand patients’ and clinicians’ perspectives, as well as theoretical understandings of the portal’s use. Results We gathered over 140 critical incidents, 71.8% (102/142) negative and 28.2% (40/142) positive. Positive incident categories were (1) instant medical information access, (2) clear health information, and (3) patient vigilance. Negative incident categories were (1) standardized content, (2) desire for direct communication, (3) website functionality, and (4) difficulty interpreting laboratory data. Thematic analysis of the portal’s immediacy resulted in high scores in the attributes enhances understanding (18/23, 78%), personalization (18/24, 75%), and motivates behavior (17/24, 71%), but low levels of interactivity (7/24, 29%) and engagement (2/24, 8%). Two overarching themes emerged to guide portal refinements: (1) communication can be improved with directness and interactivity and (2) perceived personalization must be greater to engage patients. Conclusions Results suggest that simple modifications, such as increased interactivity and personalized messages, can make portals customized, robust, easily accessible, and trusted information sources

  4. Evaluating COSMO's lake module (FLake) for an East-African lake using a comprehensive set of lake temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, W.; Martynov, A.; Darchambeau, F.; Demuzere, M.; van Lipzig, N.

    2012-04-01

    The African great lakes are of utmost importance for the local economy (fishing), as well as being essential to the survival of the local people. During last decades, these lakes have been changing rapidly and their evolution is a major concern. Hence, it is important to correctly represent them in regional climate models for simulations over tropical Africa. However, so far lake models have been developed and tested primarily for boreal conditions. In this study, for the first time the freshwater lake model FLake is evaluated over East-Africa, more specifically over lake Kivu. Meteorological observations from January 2003 to December 2008 from an automatic weather station in Bukavu, DRC, are used to drive the standalone version of FLake. For the evaluation, a unique dataset is used which contains over 200 temperature profiles recorded since 2002. Results show that FLake in its default configuration is very successful at reproducing both the timing and magnitude of the seasonal cycle at 5 m depth. Flake captures that this seasonality is regulated by the water vapour pressure, which constrains evaporation except during summer (JJA). A positive bias of ~1 K is attributed to the driving data, which are collected in the city and are therefore expected to mirror higher temperatures and lower wind speeds compared to the lake surface. The evaluation also showed that driving FLake with Era-Interim from the nearest pixel does only slightly deteriorate the model performance. Using forcing fields from the Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5 (CRCM5) simulation output gives similar performance as Era-Interim. Furthermore, a drawback of FLake is that it does not account for salinity and its effect upon lake stratification, and therefore requires artificial initial conditions for both lake depth and bottom temperature in order to reproduce the correct mixing regime in lake Kivu. Further research will therefore aim at improving FLake's representation of tropical lakes.

  5. Application of Gray Relational Analysis Method in Comprehensive Evaluation on the Customer Satisfaction of Automobile 4S Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenglin, Yao

    The car sales enterprises could continuously boost sales and expand customer groups, an important method is to enhance the customer satisfaction. The customer satisfaction of car sales enterprises (4S enterprises) depends on many factors. By using the grey relational analysis method, we could perfectly combine various factors in terms of customer satisfaction. And through the vertical contrast, car sales enterprises could find specific factors which will improve customer satisfaction, thereby increase sales volume and benefits. Gray relational analysis method has become a kind of good method and means to analyze and evaluate the enterprises.

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2-3, and 0.5-1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of three microfluidic chemiluminescence methods for the determination of the total phenolic contents in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-01-01

    Three recently reported microfluidic chemiluminescence (MF-CL) methods (based on reactions with acidic permanganate enhanced by formaldehyde (KMnO4-COH), acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine B (Ce-RB), and acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine 6G (Ce-R6G) enhanced by SDS) for the determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) in juices were critically evaluated in terms of their selectivity. The evaluation was carried out using 86 analytes, including 22 phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and polyphenols), 6 known non-phenolic antioxidants, 9 amino acids and a number of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotide bases, inorganic salts and other compounds. Each method was sensitive toward phenolic compounds (PCs). However, the KMnO4-COH CL system showed a higher sensitivity toward phenolic acids and also responded to non-phenolic antioxidants. The other two systems showed higher sensitivity toward polyphenolic compounds than to phenolic acids and did not responded to all other compounds including non-phenolic antioxidants. PMID:27507524

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V 100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V 100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  11. 'Sample-in, answer-out'? Evaluation and comprehensive analysis of the Unyvero P50 pneumonia assay.

    PubMed

    Personne, Y; Ozongwu, C; Platt, G; Basurto-Lozada, P; Shamin, M; Gant, V A; Zumla, A; Enne, V I

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Unyvero P50 pneumonia assay, the first 'sample-in, answer-out' system for rapid identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance markers directly from clinical specimens. Overall, Unyvero P50 displayed very good sensitivity (>95%); however, specificity was low (33%) mainly because 40% of the specimens were reported as normal flora. Specifically, one or more pathogens were identified in 28 of them. From a detailed analysis of 42 specimens selected at random, 76% of the additionally reported pathogens were confirmed present in primary specimens. Detection of selected resistance markers was compared to routine phenotypic susceptibility testing, supplemented with Checkpoints microarray system, PCR and sequencing. Concordance was mixed, primarily due to issues with panel's choice of markers and detection of some intrinsic beta-lactamases. Finally, we offer a critical analysis of the assay's microbial panel and resistance markers and provide suggestions for improvement. PMID:27352731

  12. Information and observer disagreement in histopathology.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A

    1994-08-01

    Concepts from information theory are used to assess the process of ordinal classification of histopathological continua such as degree of dysplasia or degree of differentiation. A working model is used to show that reducing the number of categories leads to an increase in inter-observer agreement, as measured by kappa statistics, but a decrease in information transmitted. It is argued that the prime role of histopathologists is to pass information, obtained from visual patterns, to the clinician and therefore more categories, rather than fewer, should be used. It is suggested that judgements of continua should be made on 100 point scales and quoted together with 95% confidence limits; and that the judgements of different observers should be averaged to form a reference range. PMID:7982674

  13. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  14. Histopathological evolution of a cutaneous myxofibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Rhonda A; Kossard, Steven

    2008-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of a tender and swollen plaque appearing as a panniculitis affecting the left pretibial area. The initial histopathology revealed dermal and subcutaneous inflammation with interstitial histiocytes and mucinosis suggestive of either granuloma annulare or necrobiosis lipoidica. Over the subsequent 6 months the plaque grew progressively, despite treatment with topical corticosteroids under occlusion. Distal to the plaque reduced sensation developed in the limb. Biopsies of the nodular areas now revealed a dense dermal infiltrate of atypical spindle cells within a prominent myxoid stroma and a pleomorphic multinucleated epithelioid cell component. These features were those of an intermediate grade myxofibrosarcoma. This soft-tissue sarcoma may initially masquerade clinically as a panniculitis and a granulomatous process on biopsy as in our patient, leading to a delay in surgical therapy. PMID:18638228

  15. [Histopathology of central nervous system cavernomas].

    PubMed

    Mosnier, J-F; Brunon, J; Nuti, C

    2007-06-01

    Central nervous system cavernomas are vascular malformations, which occur in two circumstances: sporadic forms and familial autosomal dominant forms. The lesion consists of enlarged, closely packed vessels without interposition of brain parenchyma, surrounded by hemosiderin and gliosis, calcified in few cases. In 80% of sporadic forms the lesion is unique, multiple lesions are rare (median: 4). In familial forms the lesions are always multiple. Cavernomas are often associated with other vascular malformations, especially with venous developmental anomalies. The size of cavernomas is variable from 1 mm to several centimeters. About 70% of cases are supratentorial and 30% in the posterior fossa, particularly in the brain stem. Macroscopic and histopathological findings are typical and the diagnostic is generally easy. PMID:17498756

  16. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in the Acute Healing Phase Using Tissue Clearing and Optical Microscopy in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Cameron P.; Senthil-Kumar, Prabhu; Zhao, Jie; Randolph, Mark A.; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI), a common injury in both the civilian and military arenas, is usually associated with high healthcare costs and with patients enduring slow recovery times, diminished quality of life, and potential long-term disability. Patients with PNI typically undergo complex interventions but the factors that govern optimal response are not fully characterized. A fundamental understanding of the cellular and tissue-level events in the immediate postoperative period is essential for improving treatment and optimizing repair. Here, we demonstrate a comprehensive imaging approach to evaluate peripheral nerve axonal regeneration in a rodent PNI model using a tissue clearing method to improve depth penetration while preserving neural architecture. Sciatic nerve transaction and end-to-end repair were performed in both wild type and thy-1 GFP rats. The nerves were harvested at time points after repair before undergoing whole mount immunofluorescence staining and tissue clearing. By increasing the optic depth penetration, tissue clearing allowed the visualization and evaluation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regrowth throughout entire sciatic nerves with subcellular resolution. The tissue clearing protocol did not affect immunofluorescence labeling and no observable decrease in the fluorescence signal was observed. Large-area, high-resolution tissue volumes could be quantified to provide structural and connectivity information not available from current gold-standard approaches for evaluating axonal regeneration following PNI. The results are suggestive of observed behavioral recovery in vivo after neurorrhaphy, providing a method of evaluating axonal regeneration following repair that can serve as an adjunct to current standard outcomes measurements. This study demonstrates that tissue clearing following whole mount immunofluorescence staining enables the complete visualization and quantitative evaluation of axons throughout nerves in a PNI model

  18. Comprehensive Planning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jack E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of current planning imperatives, trends, and problems leads to a set of guiding principles. The 12 principles deal with: leadership, clear definitions, coordination, broad participation, financial commitment, clear procedures, written plans, flexibility, comprehensiveness, timely information, and evaluation. (LBH)

  19. Evaluation of a comprehensive Eulerian air quality model with multiple chemical species measurements using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Meng; Anlauf, K. G.; Wiebe, H. A.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Puckett, K. J.

    Using a principal component analysis technique and data on atmospheric gases and aerosols at a rural site in Ontario, Canada from the Eulerian model evaluation field study (EMEFS), the Eulerian acid deposition and oxidant model (ADOM) is evaluated. Seventy-nine and 76% of the variances in the data and model output, respectively, are explained by three principal components. They are a chemically aged/ transported component, a diurnal cycle component, and an area emission component, all characterized by their ratios of gases and temporal variation patterns. The ADOM component contributions to sulphur species are in general agreement with the EMEFS components, but with notable differences for key photochemical species including O 3. The temporal variations of the ADOM components are close to those of the EMEFS components. The EMEFS chemically aged/transported component shows a high degree of photochemical processing, with the ratios [NO x]/[TNO y]=0.3 and [O 3]/([TNO y]-[NO x])=9±1. The corresponding ADOM component predicts lower G[NO x]/[TNO y] and [NO 3]/([TNO y]-[NO x]) ratios, probably caused by a chemical mechanism in the model that is too fast, and lower contributions to O 3, NO 2, TNO 3, PAN, TNO y, and HCHO, probably caused by model grid dilution or lower model emissions. The EMEFS diurnal component owes its variance to the daily photochemistry and nighttime dry deposition of the chemical species. In comparison, the matching ADOM component underpredicts the ratio [O 3]/([TNO y]-[NO x]) and the NO 2 consumption and O 3 production but overpredicts the contributions to the other species. The EMEFS emission component represents emissions from local/regional area sources. The corresponding ADOM component underpredicts TNO y by 44% and the fraction of TNO y as NO x compared to the EMEFS component, suggesting that the model has lower emissions of NO x and a photochemical mechanism that converts NO x faster than indicated by the EMEFS results.

  20. Clinical and Histopathological Diagnosis of Glomus Tumor: An Institutional Experience of 138 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mravic, Marco; LaChaud, Gregory; Nguyen, Alan; Scott, Michelle A.; Dry, Sarah M.; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon subcentimeteric benign perivascular neoplasms usually located on the fingers. With their blue-red color and common subungual location, they are commonly confused for vascular or melanocytic lesions. To date there is no comprehensive review of an institutional experience with glomus tumors. Methods A 14-year retrospective review of all cases within University of California, Los Angeles, with either a clinical or pathological diagnosis of glomus tumor was performed. Data obtained included demographic information, tumor description, pathological diagnoses, immunohistochemical studies, radiographic and treatment information, and clinical course. Rates of concordance between clinical and pathological diagnoses and an evaluation of overlap with other entities were assessed. Results Clinical diagnosis of glomus tumor showed concordance with a histopathological diagnosis (45.4% of cases). The most common alternate clinical diagnoses included lipoma, cyst, or angioma. A pathological diagnosis of glomus tumor was most common in the fourth to seventh decades of life. The most common presentation was a subcentimeter lesion on the digit. Deep-seated tumors had a strikingly increased risk for malignancy (33%). Radiological studies were not relied on frequently (18.2% of cases). Immunohistochemical analysis showed diffuse αSMA and MSA expression in nearly all cases (99% and 95%, respectively), with focal to diffuse CD34 immunostaining in 32% of cases. Discussion Our study illustrates trends in the clinical versus pathologic diagnoses of glomus tumor, common competing diagnoses, a difference in demographics than is commonly reported (older age groups most commonly affected), and important differences in the use adjunctive diagnostic tools including radiology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25614464

  1. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratola, N.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.

    2015-09-01

    Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion) established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  2. Preserving a Comprehensive Vegetation Knowledge Base – An Evaluation of Four Historical Soviet Vegetation Maps of the Western Pamirs (Tajikistan)

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Kim André; Samimi, Cyrus; Breckle, Siegmar-W.

    2016-01-01

    We edited, redrew, and evaluated four unpublished historical vegetation maps of the Western Pamirs (Tajikistan) by the Soviet geobotanist Okmir E. Agakhanjanz. These maps cover an area of 5,188 km2 and date from 1958 to 1960. The purpose of this article is to make the historic vegetation data available to the scientific community and thus preserve a hitherto non available and up to now neglected or forgotten data source with great potential for studies on vegetation and ecosystem response to global change. The original hand-drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced, and digitized and the corresponding land cover class was assigned to each polygon. The partly differing legends were harmonized and plant names updated. Furthermore, a digital elevation model and generalized additive models were used to calculate response curves of the land cover classes and to explore vegetation-topography relationships quantitatively. In total, 2,216 polygons belonging to 13 major land cover classes were included that are characterized by 252 different plant species. As such, the presented maps provide excellent comparison data for studies on vegetation and ecosystem change in an area that is deemed to be an important water tower in Central Asia. PMID:26881428

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of imidazole-based polymers for the enrichment of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Schemeth, Dieter; Kappacher, Christoph; Rainer, Matthias; Thalinger, Ramona; Bonn, Günther K

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the comparison of four manufactured imidazole-based copolymers and two commercially available hydrophilic sorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Different hydrophilic copolymers were obtained by a suspension polymerization using a styrene-based and a methacrylate-based cross-linker and by single step modifications for enhancing the ion-exchange character. SPE protocols were optimized for both non-modified and modified sorbents and applied for the enrichment of selected NSAID using all six copolymers. Comparison and evaluation were carried out by determining recovery rates of standard mixtures at different concentration levels ranging from 0.5mgL(-1) to 10mgL(-1) and by the enrichment of spiked human urine at two concentration levels. In order to gain insight into the complexity of the biological sample and its reduction after solid phase extraction, UHPLC-MS analysis and following database comparison was performed for the three mixed-mode strong anion-exchange sorbents. In order to prove the applicability of the modified imidazole-based polymers for the enrichment of NSAID in surface water, river water or groundwater, solid phase extraction was performed with 10ppb of NSAID which resulted into enhanced enrichment by a hundredfold. PMID:27130106

  4. Preserving a Comprehensive Vegetation Knowledge Base--An Evaluation of Four Historical Soviet Vegetation Maps of the Western Pamirs (Tajikistan).

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Kim André; Samimi, Cyrus; Breckle, Siegmar-W

    2016-01-01

    We edited, redrew, and evaluated four unpublished historical vegetation maps of the Western Pamirs (Tajikistan) by the Soviet geobotanist Okmir E. Agakhanjanz. These maps cover an area of 5,188 km2 and date from 1958 to 1960. The purpose of this article is to make the historic vegetation data available to the scientific community and thus preserve a hitherto non available and up to now neglected or forgotten data source with great potential for studies on vegetation and ecosystem response to global change. The original hand-drawn maps were scanned, georeferenced, and digitized and the corresponding land cover class was assigned to each polygon. The partly differing legends were harmonized and plant names updated. Furthermore, a digital elevation model and generalized additive models were used to calculate response curves of the land cover classes and to explore vegetation-topography relationships quantitatively. In total, 2,216 polygons belonging to 13 major land cover classes were included that are characterized by 252 different plant species. As such, the presented maps provide excellent comparison data for studies on vegetation and ecosystem change in an area that is deemed to be an important water tower in Central Asia. PMID:26881428

  5. Ethylcellulose film coating of guaifenesin-loaded pellets: A comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturing process to prevent drug migration.

    PubMed

    Melegari, Cecilia; Bertoni, Serena; Genovesi, Alberto; Hughes, Kevin; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; Passerini, Nadia; Albertini, Beatrice

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the complete process of pellet production in a Wurster fluidized bed coater in order to determine the main factors affecting the migration phenomenon of a soluble API through the ethycellulose film coating (Surelease®) and hence the long-term stability of the controlled release pellets. Guaifenesin (GFN), as BCS class I model drug, was layered on sugar spheres using a binder-polymer solution containing the dissolved GFN. The drug loaded pellets were then coated with Surelease®. The influence of drug loading (4.5-20.0% w/w), curing conditions (40-60°C and dynamic-static equipment), coating level (12-20% theoretical weight gain) and composition of the binder-layering solution (hypromellose versus Na alginate) on process efficiency (RSDW%), GFN content uniformity (RSDC%), GFN solid state (DSC and XRD) and pellet release profiles was evaluated. The effectiveness of the Surelease film was strongly affected by the ability of GFN to cross the coating layer and to recrystallize on the pellet surface. Results indicated that this behaviour was dependent on the polymer used in the binder-layering solution. Using hypromellose as polymer, GFN recrystallized on the coated pellet surface at both drug loadings. The curing step was necessary to stabilize the film effectiveness at the higher drug loading. Increasing the coating level delayed but did not prevent the GFN diffusion. Replacing hypromellose with Na alginate, reduced the migration of GFN through the film to a negligible amount even after six months of storage and the curing step was not necessary to achieve stable controlled release profiles over storage. PMID:26686647

  6. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Burden of Heat-Related Illness and Death within the Florida Population

    PubMed Central

    Harduar Morano, Laurel; Watkins, Sharon; Kintziger, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The failure of the human body to thermoregulate can lead to severe outcomes (e.g., death) and lasting physiological damage. However, heat-related illness (HRI) is highly preventable via individual- and community-level modification. A thorough understanding of the burden is necessary for effective intervention. This paper describes the burden of severe HRI morbidity and mortality among residents of a humid subtropical climate. Work-related and non-work-related HRI emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among Florida residents during May to October (2005–2012) were examined. Sub-groups susceptible to HRI were identified. The age-adjusted rates/100,000 person-years for non-work-related HRI were 33.1 ED visits, 5.9 hospitalizations, and 0.2 deaths, while for work-related HRI/100,000 worker-years there were 8.5 ED visits, 1.1 hospitalizations, and 0.1 deaths. The rates of HRI varied by county, data source, and work-related status, with the highest rates observed in the panhandle and south central Florida. The sub-groups with the highest relative rates regardless of data source or work-relatedness were males, minorities, and rural residents. Those aged 15–35 years had the highest ED visit rates, while for non-work-related hospitalizations and deaths the rates increased with age. The results of this study can be used for targeted interventions and evaluating changes in the HRI burden over time. PMID:27258296

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Burden of Heat-Related Illness and Death within the Florida Population.

    PubMed

    Harduar Morano, Laurel; Watkins, Sharon; Kintziger, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The failure of the human body to thermoregulate can lead to severe outcomes (e.g., death) and lasting physiological damage. However, heat-related illness (HRI) is highly preventable via individual- and community-level modification. A thorough understanding of the burden is necessary for effective intervention. This paper describes the burden of severe HRI morbidity and mortality among residents of a humid subtropical climate. Work-related and non-work-related HRI emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths among Florida residents during May to October (2005-2012) were examined. Sub-groups susceptible to HRI were identified. The age-adjusted rates/100,000 person-years for non-work-related HRI were 33.1 ED visits, 5.9 hospitalizations, and 0.2 deaths, while for work-related HRI/100,000 worker-years there were 8.5 ED visits, 1.1 hospitalizations, and 0.1 deaths. The rates of HRI varied by county, data source, and work-related status, with the highest rates observed in the panhandle and south central Florida. The sub-groups with the highest relative rates regardless of data source or work-relatedness were males, minorities, and rural residents. Those aged 15-35 years had the highest ED visit rates, while for non-work-related hospitalizations and deaths the rates increased with age. The results of this study can be used for targeted interventions and evaluating changes in the HRI burden over time. PMID:27258296

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of haemostatic function in von Willebrand disease patients using a microchip-based flow chamber system.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, K; Nogami, K; Hosokawa, K; Ohnishi, T; Matsumoto, T; Shima, M

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is difficult due to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with this disorder. We have analysed and characterized haemostatic function in VWD patients using a microchip-based flow chamber system. Microchips coated with either collagen [platelet (PL)-chip] or collagen/thromboplastin [atherome (AR)-chip] were used to evaluate platelet thrombus formation at 1000 s(-1) and fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation at 240 s(-1) respectively. Blood samples from an asymptomatic patient with VWD type 1 [von Willebrand factor (VWF): RCo 3.2%; bleeding score (BS 2] displayed normal thrombus formation in both PL- and AR-chips, whereas blood from a symptomatic type 1 patient (VWF: RCo 14%, BS 9) had significantly delayed capillary occlusion. Nearly complete suppression of the flow pressure increase was observed in symptomatic patients with VWD type 2A (BS 13) and 2N (BS 27), whereas no flow pressure was found for the type 3 patient (BS 6). Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was only weakly increased by the in vitro addition of factor VIII (FVIII) to blood samples from the type 3 patient, but was normalized by the addition of VWF/FVIII. The in vivo effects of treatment with desmopressin or VWF/FVIII for the symptomatic patients were analysed using two types of microchips. The PL-chip was highly sensitive for patients' VWF-mediated platelet functions, whereas the AR-chip allowed assessment of overall haemostatic ability, including sensitivity to both VWF and FVIII. The combined analysis with PL- and AR-chips may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of VWD based on clinical phenotypes, and for monitoring drug effects. PMID:25545301

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women: Correlation with sonographic findings and histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Bharat; Mahela, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequently encountered gynecologic complaint in perimenopausal woman and also the most common cause of hysterectomy in this age group. Objective: Evaluation of various clinical presentations of perimenopausal AUB and it is ultrasonographic and histopathological correlation of hysterectomy specimens. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology among perimenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for AUB. The clinical presentations, ultrasonographic findings, and histopathological reports of hysterectomy specimen were correlated. Results: Among 103 number of hysterectomized cases for AUB, most of the patients were between 40 and 45 years of age (67.97%) and menorrhagia was the dominant clinical presentation. The majority (45.63%) of cases were diagnosed as fibroid uterus by ultrasonography with 89.13% sensitivity and 89.47% specificity. Histopathological reports of myometrium showed 44.66% fibromyoma, followed by 34.95% of the normal myometrium. Histopathology of endometrium revealed hyperplasia in the most cases (56.31%) where simple typical type was the predominant. Conclusion: Uterine fibroid was the leading cause of AUB and radiological, pathological evaluation correlated well to diagnose fibroid. PMID:27499594

  10. Evaluation of modulators and electron-capture detectors for comprehensive two-dimensional GC of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kristenson, E Maria; Korytár, Peter; Danielsson, Conny; Kallio, Minna; Brandt, Menno; Mäkelä, Jani; Vreuls, René J J; Beens, Jan; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2003-11-26

    Different cryogenic and a heated GC x GC modulator(s) were evaluated and compared for the analysis of high-boiling halogenated compounds. The cryogenic modulators investigated were: (i) the longitudinally modulated cryogenic system; (ii) the liquid-nitrogen-cooled jet modulator (KT2001); (iii) a dual-jet CO2 modulator (made in-house); (iv) a semi-rotating cryogenic modulator (made in-house) and (v) a CO2 loop modulator (KT2003); the heated modulator was the slotted heater system (sweeper). Each modulator was optimised with respect to analyte peak widths at half height in the second-dimension. n-Alkanes, chlorinated alkanes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and fluorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (F-PAHs) were used as test analytes. The flow rate of the coolant was found to be an important parameter, i.e. the flow rate of the gaseous nitrogen in the KT2001, and of the liquid CO2 in the other cryogenic modulators. For the slotted heater the stroke velocity and pause time were important parameters. This modulator had a limited application range in terms of temperature due to a necessary 100 degrees C difference between sweeper and oven temperature. All cryogenic modulators were found to be suitable for the GC x GC analysis of high-boiling compounds, but the CO2 modulators are to be preferred to the KT2001 due to a wider application range and slightly narrower peaks. As regards the performance of three commercially available electron-capture detectors (ECDs), the aim was to obtain narrow peak widths in GC x GC, i.e. to avoid band broadening caused by the cell volume. The most important parameters were the flow rate of the make-up gas and the detector temperature which both should be as high as possible. Comparison of analyte peak widths obtained with ECD mode and flame ionisation detection (FID) showed that all ECDs exhibited band broadening compared to the FID. The narrowest peaks were obtained with the Agilent micro-ECD, which has a cell volume of only 150

  11. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  12. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  13. An analytical tool-box for comprehensive biochemical, structural and transcriptome evaluation of oral biofilms mediated by mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marlise I; Xiao, Jin; Heydorn, Arne; Koo, Hyun

    2011-01-01

    specific experimental conditions to demonstrate the usefulness and flexibility of the tool-box. The biofilm model is simple, reproducible and multiple replicates of a single experiment can be done simultaneously (4, 5). Moreover, it allows temporal evaluation, inclusion of various microbial species (5) and assessment of the effects of distinct experimental conditions (e.g. treatments (6); comparison of knockout mutants vs. parental strain (5); carbohydrates availability (7)). Here, we describe two specific components of the tool-box, including (i) new software for microarray data mining/organization (MDV) and fluorescence imaging analysis (DUOSTAT), and (ii) in situ EPS-labeling. We also provide an experimental case showing how the tool-box can assist with biofilms analysis, data organization, integration and interpretation. PMID:21304472

  14. Experimental venous thrombi: MRI characteristics with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Ichiki, M; Sakai, Y; Nango, M; Nakamura, K; Matsui, H; Cho, H; Kitayama, T; Sahara, T; Otani, N; Inoue, Y; Miki, Y

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MRI characteristics of venous thrombus over set time thresholds with histopathological correlation in a porcine model. Methods Inferior vena cava thrombi were induced in 12 pigs. MRI was performed in three pigs 2 h, 1 day, 3 days and 2 weeks after thrombus induction. Results The MRI characteristics were analysed in correlation with histopathological findings. The thrombi after 2 hours, which consisted of red blood cells (RBCs), showed isointensity on T1 weighted images (T1WIs) and hyperintensity on both T2 weighted images (T2WIs) and diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was 1.93×10−3 mm2 s−1. The thrombi after Day 1, which consisted of RBCs and migrating neutrophils at the periphery, showed isointensity on T1WIs, slight hyperintensity on T2WIs and hypointensity on DWIs. The mean ADC value was 1.62×10−3 mm/s−2. The thrombi after Day 3, which consisted of RBCs and peripheral inflammatory cells including macrophages, showed isointensity with peripheral hyperintense regions on T1WIs and hypointensity on both T2WIs and DWIs. The mean ADC value was 1.67×10−3 mm2 s−1. After 2 weeks, the thrombi, which revealed RBC lysis surrounded by granulation tissues, showed isointensity on T1WIs and hyperintensity on T2WIs and DWIs. The mean ADC value was 2.48×10−3 mm2 s−1. Conclusion The temporal MRI characteristics seemed to be related to chemical and physical changes in RBC and organisation of granulation tissues. Free radicals generated by macrophages might also be related to some extent. PMID:22457401

  15. Histopathology of the inner ear in unoperated acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mohd Ridzo; Khan, Aayesha M; Nadol, Joseph B

    2003-11-01

    Although hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acoustic neuroma, the pathophysiology of hearing loss associated with acoustic neuroma is unknown. Although primary dysfunction of the auditory nerve is intuitively logical, available histopathologic and clinical data suggest that although neural degeneration is common, it alone does not adequately account for hearing loss in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 11 cases of unoperated unilateral acoustic neuromas. Temporal bones were identified by means of a search mechanism provided by the National Temporal Bone, Hearing, and Balance Pathology Resource Registry and were prepared for light microscopy by standard techniques. Quantification of spiral ganglion cells, hair cells, stria vascularis, and spiral ligament was accomplished for each specimen. In addition, the maximum diameter and volume of each tumor were calculated from histopathologic sections. Increasing tumor size did predict a reduced spiral ganglion count. However, although there was a tendency for decreasing spiral ganglion cell count and for increasing tumor size to predict a higher pure tone average and lower speech discrimination score, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. In tumor ears in which the speech discrimination score was 50% or less, there was always significant degeneration of other structures of the inner ear in addition to neurons, including hair cells, the stria vascularis, and the spiral ligament. Endolymphatic hydrops and eosinophilic precipitate in the perilymphatic spaces were found in 2 of 3 such cases. It is concluded that acoustic neuromas appear to cause hearing loss, not only by causing degeneration of the auditory nerve, but also by inducing degenerative changes in the inner ear. It is hypothesized that the proteinaceous material seen histologically may represent the products of up-regulated genes in acoustic neuroma, some of which may interfere with normal

  16. Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Danielle L; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Tawa, Gregory J; Baer, Christine E; Permenter, Matthew G; McDyre, Bonna C; Dennis, William E; Boyle, Molly H; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Streicker, Michael A; Snowden, Bobbi S; Lewis, John A; Wallqvist, Anders; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals induce liver injury, which is difficult to diagnose without invasive procedures. Identifying indicators of end organ injury can complement exposure-based assays and improve predictive power. A multiplexed approach was used to experimentally evaluate a panel of 67 genes predicted to be associated with the fibrosis pathology by computationally mining DrugMatrix, a publicly available repository of gene microarray data. Five-day oral gavage studies in male Sprague Dawley rats dosed with varying concentrations of 3 fibrogenic compounds (allyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, and 4,4'-methylenedianiline) and 2 nonfibrogenic compounds (bromobenzene and dexamethasone) were conducted. Fibrosis was definitively diagnosed by histopathology. The 67-plex gene panel accurately diagnosed fibrosis in both microarray and multiplexed-gene expression assays. Necrosis and inflammatory infiltration were comorbid with fibrosis. ANOVA with contrasts identified that 51 of the 67 predicted genes were significantly associated with the fibrosis phenotype, with 24 of these specific to fibrosis alone. The protein product of the gene most strongly correlated with the fibrosis phenotype PCOLCE (Procollagen C-Endopeptidase Enhancer) was dose-dependently elevated in plasma from animals administered fibrogenic chemicals (P < .05). Semiquantitative global mass spectrometry analysis of the plasma identified an additional 5 protein products of the gene panel which increased after fibrogenic toxicant administration: fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, vitronectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, and α2-macroglobulin. These results support the data mining approach for identifying gene and/or protein panels for assessing liver injury and may suggest bridging biomarkers for molecular mediators linked to histopathology. PMID:26396155

  17. Comprehensive genome-wide evaluation of lapatinib-induced liver injury yields a single genetic signal centered on known risk allele HLA-DRB1*07:01.

    PubMed

    Parham, L R; Briley, L P; Li, L; Shen, J; Newcombe, P J; King, K S; Slater, A J; Dilthey, A; Iqbal, Z; McVean, G; Cox, C J; Nelson, M R; Spraggs, C F

    2016-04-01

    Lapatinib is associated with a low incidence of serious liver injury. Previous investigations have identified and confirmed the Class II allele HLA-DRB1*07:01 to be strongly associated with lapatinib-induced liver injury; however, the moderate positive predictive value limits its clinical utility. To assess whether additional genetic variants located within the major histocompatibility complex locus or elsewhere in the genome may influence lapatinib-induced liver injury risk, and potentially lead to a genetic association with improved predictive qualities, we have taken two approaches: a genome-wide association study and a whole-genome sequencing study. This evaluation did not reveal additional associations other than the previously identified association for HLA-DRB1*07:01. The present study represents the most comprehensive genetic evaluation of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) or hypersensitivity, and suggests that investigation of possible human leukocyte antigen associations with DILI and other hypersensitivities represents an important first step in understanding the mechanism of these events. PMID:25987243

  18. Comprehensive genome-wide evaluation of lapatinib-induced liver injury yields a single genetic signal centered on known risk allele HLA-DRB1*07:01

    PubMed Central

    Parham, L R; Briley, L P; Li, L; Shen, J; Newcombe, P J; King, K S; Slater, A J; Dilthey, A; Iqbal, Z; McVean, G; Cox, C J; Nelson, M R; Spraggs, C F

    2016-01-01

    Lapatinib is associated with a low incidence of serious liver injury. Previous investigations have identified and confirmed the Class II allele HLA-DRB1*07:01 to be strongly associated with lapatinib-induced liver injury; however, the moderate positive predictive value limits its clinical utility. To assess whether additional genetic variants located within the major histocompatibility complex locus or elsewhere in the genome may influence lapatinib-induced liver injury risk, and potentially lead to a genetic association with improved predictive qualities, we have taken two approaches: a genome-wide association study and a whole-genome sequencing study. This evaluation did not reveal additional associations other than the previously identified association for HLA-DRB1*07:01. The present study represents the most comprehensive genetic evaluation of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) or hypersensitivity, and suggests that investigation of possible human leukocyte antigen associations with DILI and other hypersensitivities represents an important first step in understanding the mechanism of these events. PMID:25987243

  19. Chemical characteristics combined with bioactivity for comprehensive evaluation of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in different ages and seasons based on HPLC-DAD and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Shan, Si-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Huang, Fang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been known as a valuable traditional Chinese medicines for thousands years of history. Ginsenosides, the main active constituents, exhibit prominent immunoregulation effect. The present study first describes a holistic method based on chemical characteristic and lymphocyte proliferative capacity to evaluate systematically the quality of P. ginseng in thirty samples from different seasons during 2-6 years. The HPLC fingerprints were evaluated using principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The spectrum-efficacy model between HPLC fingerprints and T-lymphocyte proliferative activities was investigated by principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). The results indicated that the growth of the ginsenosides could be grouped into three periods and from August of the fifth year, P. ginseng appeared significant lymphocyte proliferative capacity. Close correlation existed between the spectrum-efficacy relationship and ginsenosides Rb1, Ro, Rc, Rb2 and Re were the main contributive components to the lymphocyte proliferative capacity. This comprehensive strategy, providing reliable and adequate scientific evidence, could be applied to other TCMs to ameliorate their quality control. PMID:24252727

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of fusion transcript detection algorithms and a meta-caller to combine top performing methods in paired-end RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Silvia; Tsai, Wei-Hsiang; Ding, Ying; Chen, Rui; Fang, Zhou; Huo, Zhiguang; Kim, SungHwan; Ma, Tianzhou; Chang, Ting-Yu; Priedigkeit, Nolan Michael; Lee, Adrian V.; Luo, Jianhua; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Chung, I-Fang; Tseng, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fusion transcripts are formed by either fusion genes (DNA level) or trans-splicing events (RNA level). They have been recognized as a promising tool for diagnosing, subtyping and treating cancers. RNA-seq has become a precise and efficient standard for genome-wide screening of such aberration events. Many fusion transcript detection algorithms have been developed for paired-end RNA-seq data but their performance has not been comprehensively evaluated to guide practitioners. In this paper, we evaluated 15 popular algorithms by their precision and recall trade-off, accuracy of supporting reads and computational cost. We further combine top-performing methods for improved ensemble detection. Results: Fifteen fusion transcript detection tools were compared using three synthetic data sets under different coverage, read length, insert size and background noise, and three real data sets with selected experimental validations. No single method dominantly performed the best but SOAPfuse generally performed well, followed by FusionCatcher and JAFFA. We further demonstrated the potential of a meta-caller algorithm by combining top performing methods to re-prioritize candidate fusion transcripts with high confidence that can be followed by experimental validation. Conclusion: Our result provides insightful recommendations when applying individual tool or combining top performers to identify fusion transcript candidates. PMID:26582927

  1. Content-based image retrieval of digitized histopathology in boosted spectrally embedded spaces

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Akshay; Doyle, Scott; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Context: Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems allow for retrieval of images from within a database that are similar in visual content to a query image. This is useful for digital pathology, where text-based descriptors alone might be inadequate to accurately describe image content. By representing images via a set of quantitative image descriptors, the similarity between a query image with respect to archived, annotated images in a database can be computed and the most similar images retrieved. Recently, non-linear dimensionality reduction methods have become popular for embedding high-dimensional data into a reduced-dimensional space while preserving local object adjacencies, thereby allowing for object similarity to be determined more accurately in the reduced-dimensional space. However, most dimensionality reduction methods implicitly assume, in computing the reduced-dimensional representation, that all features are equally important. Aims: In this paper we present boosted spectral embedding(BoSE), which utilizes a boosted distance metric to selectively weight individual features (based on training data) to subsequently map the data into a reduced-dimensional space. Settings and Design: BoSE is evaluated against spectral embedding (SE) (which employs equal feature weighting) in the context of CBIR of digitized prostate and breast cancer histopathology images. Materials and Methods: The following datasets, which were comprised of a total of 154 hematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology images, were used: (1) Prostate cancer histopathology (benign vs. malignant), (2) estrogen receptor (ER) + breast cancer histopathology (low vs. high grade), and (3) HER2+ breast cancer histopathology (low vs. high levels of lymphocytic infiltration). Statistical Analysis Used: We plotted and calculated the area under precision-recall curves (AUPRC) and calculated classification accuracy using the Random Forest classifier. Results: BoSE outperformed SE both in terms of

  2. Histopathological evaluation of thrombus in patients presenting with stent thrombosis. A multicenter European study: a report of the prevention of late stent thrombosis by an interdisciplinary global European effort consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Riegger, Julia; Byrne, Robert A.; Joner, Michael; Chandraratne, Sue; Gershlick, Anthony H.; ten Berg, Jurrien M.; Adriaenssens, Tom; Guagliumi, Giulio; Godschalk, Thea C.; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Trenk, Dietmar; Feldman, Laurent J.; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Desmet, Walter; Alfonso, Fernando; Goodall, Alison H.; Wojdyla, Roman; Dudek, Dariusz; Philippi, Vanessa; Opinaldo, Sheryl; Titova, Anna; Malik, Nikesh; Cotton, James; Jhagroe, Darshni A.; Heestermans, Antonius A.C.M.; Sinnaeve, Peter; Vermeersch, Paul; Valina, Christian; Schulz, Christian; Kastrati, Adnan; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Background Stent thrombosis (ST) is a rare but serious complication following percutaneous coronary intervention. Analysis of thrombus composition from patients undergoing catheter thrombectomy may provide important insights into the pathological processes leading to thrombus formation. We performed a large-scale multicentre study to evaluate thrombus specimens in patients with ST across Europe. Methods Patients presenting with ST and undergoing thrombus aspiration were eligible for inclusion. Thrombus collection was performed according to a standardized protocol and specimens were analysed histologically at a core laboratory. Serial tissue cross sections were stained with haematoxylin–eosin (H&E), Carstairs and Luna. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify leukocyte subsets, prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), erythrocytes, platelets, and fibrinogen. Results Overall 253 thrombus specimens were analysed; 79 (31.2%) from patients presenting with early ST, 174 (68.8%) from late ST; 79 (31.2%) were from bare metal stents, 166 (65.6%) from drug-eluting stents, 8 (3.2%) were from stents of unknown type. Thrombus specimens displayed heterogeneous morphology with platelet-rich thrombus and fibrin/fibrinogen fragments most abundant; mean platelet coverage was 57% of thrombus area. Leukocyte infiltrations were hallmarks of both early and late ST (early: 2260 ± 1550 per mm2 vs. late: 2485 ± 1778 per mm2; P = 0.44); neutrophils represented the most prominent subset (early: 1364 ± 923 per mm2 vs. late: 1428 ± 1023 per mm2; P = 0.81). Leukocyte counts were significantly higher compared with a control group of patients with thrombus aspiration in spontaneous myocardial infarction. Neutrophil extracellular traps were observed in 23% of samples. Eosinophils were present in all stent types, with higher numbers in patients with late ST in sirolimus-and everolimus-eluting stents. Conclusion In a large-scale study of histological thrombus analysis from

  3. The use of histopathology in the practice of necropsy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J O; Goddard, M J; Gresham, G A; Wyatt, B A

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To examine current practice and to establish criteria for the use of histopathology in necropsy practice. METHODS: During an audit of necropsy reporting, consensus could not be reached about the use of routine histopathology. Therefore local guidelines were formulated and current practice was compared with these guidelines. Fifteen consecutive necropsies undertaken by each consultant were reviewed and the use of histopathology noted. RESULTS: In general, the standard of necropsy reporting was reasonably high. Tissue was retained for histopathology in 25% of necropsies and 72% of these necropsy reports included a histopathology report. Using the guidelines, the assessors judged that histopathology might have been valuable in a further 19%. It was felt that routine histopathology would not have been helpful in determining the cause of death in the remaining 56%. The importance of the pathologist's clinical judgement in individual cases was stressed. At reaudit, nearly two years later, there was no significant change in practice, reflecting the lack of consensus. CONCLUSIONS: Even when histopathology might contribute to finding the cause of death, it was not always done. However, the assumption that histology is invariably helpful in determining the cause of death is challenged. PMID:9301557

  4. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology is an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of exposure to stressors at the level of the individual. Even though the histopathological approach is somewhat qualitative, it is very valuable because the observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  5. Histopathology of melanosis coli and determination of its associated genes by comparative analysisof expression microarrays

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAO-AN; ZHOU, YAN; ZHOU, SHU-XIAN; LIU, HAI-RONG; XU, JIN-MEI; GAO, LONG; YU, XIAN-JING; LI, XIAO-HUI

    2015-01-01

    Melanosis coli (MC) refers to the condition characterized by abnormal brown or black pigmentation deposits on the colonic mucosa. However, the histopathological findings and genes associated with the pathogenesis of melanosis coli remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the histopathological features and differentially expressed genes of MC. This involved performing hematoxylin and eosin staining, specific staining and immunohistochemistry on tissues sections, which were isolated from patients diagnosed with MC. DNA expression microarray analysis, western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were performed to analyze the differentially expressed genes of melanosis coli. The results demonstrated that the pigment deposits in MC consisted of lipofuscin. A TUNEL assay revealed that a substantial number of apoptotic cells were present within the macrophages and superficial lamina propria of the colonic epithelium. Expression microarray analysis revealed that the significantly downregulated genes were CYP3A4, CYP3A7, UGT2B11 and UGT2B15 in melanosis coli. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays indicated that the expression of CYP3A4 in the normal tissue was higher than in the MC tissue. The results of the present study provided a comprehensive description of the histopathological characteristics and pathogenesis of MC and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, demonstrated that the cytochrome P450-associated genes were significantly downregulated in melanosis coli. This novel information can be used to assist in further investigations of melanosis coli. PMID:26238215

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF TUMOR HISTOPATHOLOGY VIA SPARSE FEATURE LEARNING.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nandita; Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-04-01

    Our goal is to decompose whole slide images (WSI) of histology sections into distinct patches (e.g., viable tumor, necrosis) so that statistics of distinct histopathology can be linked with the outcome. Such an analysis requires a large cohort of histology sections that may originate from different laboratories, which may not use the same protocol in sample preparation. We have evaluated a method based on a variation of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that learns intrinsic features of the image signature in an unsupervised fashion. Computed code, from the learned representation, is then utilized to classify patches from a curated library of images. The system has been evaluated against a dataset of small image blocks of 1k-by-1k that have been extracted from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and clear cell kidney carcinoma (KIRC) from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) archive. The learned model is then projected on each whole slide image (e.g., of size 20k-by-20k pixels or larger) for characterizing and visualizing tumor architecture. In the case of GBM, each WSI is decomposed into necrotic, transition into necrosis, and viable. In the case of the KIRC, each WSI is decomposed into tumor types, stroma, normal, and others. Evaluation of 1400 and 2500 samples of GBM and KIRC indicates a performance of 84% and 81%, respectively. PMID:24319533

  7. Immature mediastinal teratoma with unusual histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Osama M.; Mohammed, Shamayel F.; Aljubran, Ali; Saleh, Waleed N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a well-recognized group of heterogeneous neoplasms with diverse clinical, histopathological, diagnostic, and prognostic characteristics. We present a rare case of a locally aggressive, chemotherapy-resistant immature mediastinal teratoma with a peculiar histological finding of a multilineage somatic-type malignant degeneration. A 21-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of persistent, blood-tinged productive cough and shortness of breath. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a heterogeneous mass occupying the right hemithorax and abutting on adjacent structures. CT-guided biopsy was consistent with immature teratoma. Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was initiated, albeit without success; the mass showed interval progression in size, and surgical resection through clamshell incision was performed. Histological assessment of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma and revealed an extensive multilineage malignant differentiation into sarcomatous, carcinomatous, and melanomatous components. The patient underwent an uneventful recovery but presented 2 months later with extensive liver and bone melanomatous metastases. In this report, relevant findings from the literature are also highlighted. Despite being exceptionally rare, such tumors carry poor prognosis. Understanding the clinicopathological characteristics and biological behavior of such tumors may provide an insight into interventions tailored to improve the otherwise dismal disease outlook. PMID:27367976

  8. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  9. Histopathological changes in selenium-exposed fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.; Bell, J.S.; Harlan, C.W.

    1983-06-01

    Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) were collected from Martin Lake in east Texas. For at least 8 months, 1 year earlier, aqueous selenium-laden effluent from man-made sources was released into this 5,000-acre reservoir (unpublished data). Redear sunfish from a reference lake, 8 km upstream, were collected for comparison to Martin Lake fish. The hepatopancreas (i.e., liver and associated, disseminated exocrine pancrease), mesonephros (i.e., kidney), gonads, heart, spleen, stomach, and gill arches were preserved for histopathological examination using optical and/or transmission electron microscopy. Livers from Martin Lake redear sunfish (which had accumulated approximately 20 ppm selenium in the liver) showed central necrosis, reduced quantities of rough endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen particles, and increased numbers of lysosome-like structures. Kidneys showed proliferative glomerulonephritis, and exocrine pancreas showed marked hypertrophy at the optical level. Ultrastructurally, architectural disorganization, reduced rough endoplasmic reticulum, increased cisternal space, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum were evident. The stomach, spleen, gill, heart, and gonads showed no abnormalities.

  10. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis. PMID:27151697

  11. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  12. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit

    PubMed Central

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. Methods This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. Results A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Conclusion Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state. PMID:25995790

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    This project sought to develop a set of tests for the assessment of the basic literacy and occupational cognizance of pupils in those public elementary and secondary schools, including vocational schools, receiving services through Federally supported educational programs and projects. The assessment is to produce generalizable average scores for…

  14. Front-end Evaluation as Part of a Comprehensive Approach to Inform the Development of a New Climate Exhibit at NCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvey, J. D., Jr.; Brinkworth, C.; Hatheway, B.; Williams, V.

    2015-12-01

    In an era of discord in public views of climate change, communicating atmospheric and related sciences to the public at a large research facility like the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) can be a daunting challenge yet one that is filled with many possibilities. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Center for Science Education (SciEd) is responsible for education and outreach activities at UCAR, including the exhibits program. Over 90,000 people visit the NCAR Mesa Lab each year to enjoy a number of exhibits that showcase our community's research. The current climate exhibit is twelve years old, and with advances in our understanding of climate science and exhibit design, SciEd staff are developing a new exhibit that is as cutting edge as the research conducted at NCAR. Based on listening sessions with NCAR scientists, the following big ideas for the exhibit emerged: How the climate system works The climate system is changing How scientists study our climate Regional impacts Solutions The goal of the new climate exhibit is to reach people using a variety of learning styles, including offerings for visitors who learn by doing, as well as providing informative text and images (Hatheway, 2014). Developers and evaluators are working together to conduct front-end, formative, and summative evaluations to understand of the needs of our visitors and collect ongoing data to inform development. The purpose of the front-end evaluation, conducted in the summer of 2014 was to develop informed data-driven strategies to move forward with exhibit design. The evaluation results to be shared in this session include: The demographics and behaviors of visitors Trends in visitors' experiences Visitor input on exhibit design (Williams and Tarsi, 2014). In this presentation, we will share the results, significance, and application of the front-end evaluation as part of a comprehensive approach to study both how we convey information about climate

  15. What Parents Should Know About Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerfoot, James F.

    Comprehension is seen as involving meaningful communication between author and reader. Different degrees of comprehension such as literal comprehension, evaluation, reorganization, and reaction are discussed, and experience, intelligence, language development, and decoding skills are noted as important factors which influence reading…

  16. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application. PMID:26540668

  17. Experimental model of myocardial infarction: Histopathology and reperfusion damage revisited.

    PubMed

    Kren, Leos; Meluzin, Jaroslav; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Mayer, Jiri; Kala, Petr; Groch, Ladislav; Hornacek, Ivan; Rauser, Petr; Vlasin, Michal

    2010-09-15

    The goal of this pilot study was to create an experimental model of myocardial infarction (for subsequent evaluation of the effectiveness of an alternative way of stem cell application - intracoronary cell infusion in the management of acute myocardial infarction). Four experimental animals, female pigs weighing between 30 and 40 kg, were used in the initial phase of this study to create an experimental model of acute myocardial infarction. An experimental myocardial infarction was performed via occlusion of the interventricular arm of the left coronary artery for 90 min. The hearts were examined 1 h, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after the procedure. Macroscopically, red infarction characteristic of reperfusion was found. Microscopically, the healing process with granulation tissue production/collagen deposition was remarkably accelerated compared to literature data. Repair processes in reperfused experimental myocardial infarction and/or reperfused autopsy specimens should not be evaluated on the basis of literature data only. Large collections of extracellular calcium were present. This phenomenon is not well described in the literature and probably has the potential for significantly interfering with the repair process. The histopathology of reperfused acute myoardial infarction deserves to be studied in further investigations. PMID:20451332

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  20. Implementing and Evaluating Comprehensive Evidence-Based Approaches to Prevent Youth Violence: Partnering to Create Communities Where Youth Are Safe From Violence.

    PubMed

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Massetti, Greta M; Bacon, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the U.S. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes preventing youth violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths by collaborating with academic and community partners and stakeholders. Since 2000, DVP has funded three rounds of CDC's National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) in 5-year cycles, with the goal of supporting university-community partnerships so that the best science can be utilized in order to prevent youth violence. The current YVPCs focus on: (a) partnering with communities to identify community needs; (b) selecting and implementing the best comprehensive evidence-based programs to meet those needs; and (c) rigorously evaluating whether those efforts have a community-level impact on youth violence rates. The introduction to this special issue on the current YVPCs provides a brief historical overview on the YVPC Program; outlines the YVPCs' accomplishments to date; and describes the current YVPCs, their community partners, and their activities. The introduction concludes with an overview of the special issue. PMID:27017211

  1. Evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-10

    The present research is focused on the use and evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector, defined as barrier discharge ionization detector (BID), within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (FM GC×GC). The performance of the BID device was compared to that of a flame ionization detector (FID), under similar FM GC×GC conditions. Following development and optimization of the FM GC×GC method, the BID was subjected to fine tuning in relation to acquisition frequency and discharge flow. Moreover, the BID performance was measured and compared to that of the FID, in terms of extra-column band broadening, sensitivity and dynamic range. The comparative study was carried out by using standard compounds belonging to different chemical classes, along with a sample of diesel fuel. Advantages and disadvantages of the BID system, also within the context of FM GC×GC, are critically discussed. In general, the BID system was characterized by a more limited dynamic range and increased sensitivity, compared to the FID. Additionally, BID and FID contribution to band broadening was found to be similar under the operational conditions applied. Particular attention was devoted to the behaviour of the FM GC×GC-BID system toward saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, for a possible future use in the field of mineral-oil food contamination research. PMID:26032893

  2. Experimental epiphysiodesis: magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Synder, M; Harcke, H T; Conard, K; Bowen, J R

    2001-01-01

    We performed an experimental epiphysiodesis on the tibia in 16 immature New Zealand white rabbits. The purpose was to study the process of trauma-induced growth plate closure. The animals were killed at weekly intervals over 8 weeks. We correlated the histological findings with serial magnetic resonance images. The undamaged, central part of the growth plate became histologically abnormal within 1 week. Mature bone bridge formation in the area of the epiphysiodesis was seen after 3 to 4 weeks. The study suggests that growth arrest starts before the bone bridge formation. Factors regulating cartilage growth may also play a role. PMID:11820437

  3. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CAPTIVE GAZELLE SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kadie; Garner, Michael; Stedman, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Capturing disease trends among different species has indisputable value to both veterinary clinicians and zoo managers for improving the welfare and management of zoo species. The causes of mortality for eight species of gazelle (addra gazelle, Nanger dama; dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas; Grant's gazelle, Nanger granti; sand gazelle, Gazella leptoceros; Saudi goitered gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa; Soemmerring's gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii; Thomson's gazelle, Eudorcas thomsonii; and Speke's gazelle, Gazella spekei) are presented from an 18-yr period (1996 2014). The leading cause of mortality for all species was trauma, followed by bronchopneumonia, and failure to thrive/maternal neglect. Nephritis and rumenitis/abomasitis/enteritis were common ancillary lesions across all species. On average, female gazelle lived twice as long as male gazelle, with an average overall adult survival time of 9.3 yr. Dorcas, Thomson's and addra gazelle females had the longest average survival time (10-13 yr). Calves up to 6 mo of age died most frequently from failure of passive transfer or maternal neglect. Thyroid carcinoma was frequently identified in Thomson's gazelle. Sand and Speke's gazelle frequently died from systemic amyloidosis, and Saudi goitered gazelle were more likely to have renal amyloidosis. Hematuria syndrome was the second most common cause of death in Grant's gazelle. The majority of lesions identified in this study that cause or contribute to mortality are preventable with appropriate management. Knowledge of disease trends in captive gazelle populations can help guide veterinary care, management decisions, and collection management planning. PMID:27010271

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis. Definition--classification--histopathology--immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Dienes, H P

    1996-09-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a distinct form of acute and chronic inflammatory liver disease in which immune reactions against host antigens are found to be the major pathological mechanism. If left untreated it carries an unfavourable prognosis, and the diagnosis should be made as soon as possible. The diagnostic approach has been greatly facilitated by the establishment of a panel of marker autoantibodies, which do not define distinct therapeutic groups of AIH, but do allow a subgrouping based on differences in patient populations, some clinical features and prognosis. The characterization of organ-specific components of the liver cell surface as targets of cellular and humoral autoimmune reactions give new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease, even though the primary event triggering the disease remains to be defined. The most important disease-promoting factor seems to be a genetically determined background for autoimmunity. Without this different environmental factors, including viruses, toxins, cytokines and drugs, are only able to induce transient autoimmune phenomena and not autoimmune disease. The histopathology of AIH is in keeping with the present pathogenetic concept. Although there is no pathognomonic feature distinguishing this type of hepatitis from virus-induced forms, some distinct morphological lesions are regarded as characteristic. Clinical research on AIH has benefited greatly from observations of experimental AIH in mice. Recognition of the critical role of autoreactive T-lymphocytes in the pathogenesis and the observation of spontaneous recovery from AIH in the animal model associated with antigen-specific and antigen-non-specific T-cell suppression have made basic contributions to our improved understanding of the natural course of AIH in humans. PMID:8865847

  5. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  6. Adrenocortical Oncocytic Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Histopathologic Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Arik, Deniz; Canaz, Funda; Dündar, Emine

    2016-01-01

    Oncocytic tumors are rare in the adrenal gland. The histopathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma is difficult due to the lack of precise diagnostic criteria for malignancy. A 44-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain. Radiologically an adrenal mass was detected. After the excision and histopathologic evaluation of the mass, a diagnosis of adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma was made. At least one of the features of more than 5 mitoses in 50 high power fields, atypical mitotic figures or venous invasion is required for the diagnosis of malignancy in adrenocortical tumors. It has been suggested that tumors that have more than one of the minor criteria of large size ( > 10 cm or > 200 gr), necrosis, capsular or sinusoidal invasion, should be evaluated as having uncertain malignant potential. PMID:27562395

  7. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination. These included enterobiasis, schistosomiasis, mucocele, trichuriasis, tuberculosis, ascariasis, endometriosis, mucinous cystadenoma, granuloma, carcinoid tumour, neuroma, clonorchiasis, primary adenocarcinoma and secondary carcinoma. PMID:3584486

  8. [Histopathological techniques for diagnosing cryptococcosis due to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus: case report].

    PubMed

    Gazzoni, Alexandra Flávia; Pegas, Karla Lais; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2008-01-01

    A case of cryptococcosis due to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus is presented, in which culturing of the clinical specimen and tests for capsular antigen in cerebrospinal fluid and serum were negative. The histopathological techniques evaluated were hematoxylin-eosin, Grocott methenamine silver, Mayers mucicarmine and Fontana-Masson. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis due to capsule-deficient Cryptococcus was confirmed by means of the Fontana-Masson technique and by direct immunofluorescence. The potential of the histochemical techniques is discussed. PMID:18368276

  9. Histopathological review of 667 cases of oral mucoceles with emphasis on uncommon histopathological variations.

    PubMed

    de Brito Monteiro, Bárbara Vanessa; Bezerra, Thâmara Manoela Marinho; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; da Costa Miguel, Márcia Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Mucoceles can occur in the oral cavity, appendix, bladder, paranasal sinuses, and lacrimal sac. In the oral cavity, mucoceles arise from pathological alterations in the minor salivary gland ducts. In this study, we aimed to histologically reevaluate cases of oral mucoceles to identify possible variants. A total of 667 slides containing tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin diagnosed as a phenomenon of mucus extravasation were analyzed under light microscopy by 4 previously trained examiners. In 128 cases (19.1%), 1 or more histopathological changes were identified. Twenty cases (2.9%) exhibited collagenous globular structures compatible with myxoglobulosis. In 30 cases (4.49%), dissociation of collagen fibers after mucin extravasation was observed. Fifty-four cases (8.09%) exhibited papillary synovial metaplasia-like change, and 32 (4.79%) showed a significant reduction in the lumen of the cavity due to large papillae. Twenty cases (2.9%) were compatible with superficial mucoceles, and in 11 cases (1.64%), the foamy macrophages showed an unusual solid arrangement, known as clear cell change. It is essential to recognize the possible histopathological changes in oral mucoceles to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27040930

  10. Mitochondrial gene expression, antioxidant responses, and histopathology after cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Al Kaddissi, Simone; Legeay, Alexia; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Gonzalez, Patrice; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Simon, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cadmium effects on the transcription of mitochondrial genes of Procambarus clarkii after acute (0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg Cd/L; 4-10 days) and chronic exposures (10 μg Cd/L; 30-60 days). Transcriptional responses of cox1, atp6, and 12S using quantitative real-time RT-PCR were assessed in gills and hepatopancreas. Additionally, the expression levels of genes involved in detoxification and/or oxidative stress responses [mt, sod(Mn)] and enzymatic activities of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPX, and GST) were analyzed. The histopathological effects in hepatopancreas of crayfish were evaluated by light microscopy. Relationships between endpoints at different levels of biological organization and Cd bioaccumulation were also examined. Cd induced high levels of bioaccumulation, which was followed by mitochondrial dysfunction and histological alterations in both experiments. Moreover, perturbations in the defence mechanisms against oxidative stress tended to increase with time. Results also showed that molecular responses can vary depending on the intensity and duration of the chemical stress applied to the organisms and that the study of mt gene expression levels seemed to be the best tool to assess Cd intoxication. PMID:23065898

  11. Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpinia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumalatha, Suhani; Pai, K Shridhar R; Kumar, Nitesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity is one of the inevitable side effects of long term use of medicines in many different disorders, chronic use of alcohol and in certain infectious disorders. Even though there are few effective drugs to treat such hepatotoxicity, mortality due to hepatotoxicity is increasing day by day. Therefore, in search of alternative and more effective medicine we found that Caesalpinia bonduc (CB), a shrub grows in hotter places of south Asia has been effectively used to treat such hepatotoxicity in folk medicine. Aim: Aim of the study is to scientifically evaluate the hepatoprotective nature of aqueous extract of CB using Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxic rat model. Materials and Methods and Result: Elevated levels of blood ALT, AST and ALT enzymes were found in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rat models. Treating these animals with CB either prior or after the induction of hepatotoxicity, shows significant decrease in the levels of ALP, AST, and ALT in their blood in comparison with the untreated hepatotoxic group. Additionally, histologically, hepatotoxic rats show necrotic changes & vacuolation in their hepatocytes, altered hepatic architecture and congested hepatic sinusoids. However, such histopathological adverse changes were minimized when these animals treated with CB. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that CB acts as both preventive and curative hepatoprotector PMID:25584245

  12. The role of histochemistry in increasing objectivity in histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques of microscopic histochemistry, successfully applied to problems in histopathology, necessarily result in increased objectivity. Combined with procedures for quantification the increase may be such as to remove subjective judgment altogether. Extended to the ultrastructural level the quality of the information derived is greatly enhanced in terms of localization but there is usually no increase in objectivity. Of all branches of technology capable of conferring on histopathology an increase in objectivity, histochemistry must take first place. PMID:1105505

  13. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  14. The role of comprehensive geriatric assessment and functional status in evaluating the patterns of antithrombotic use among older people with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, A; Bo, M; Lucenti, A; Galimberti, S; Bellelli, G; Annoni, G

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study is to investigate the use of antithrombotic drugs in older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at the time of hospital discharge. We enrolled 399 ≥65 years old patients with AF consecutively admitted to our acute geriatric unit from September 2012 to February 2014. Utilization of antithrombotic drugs, comorbidities, functional, mental and nutritional status were evaluated through a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). A Logistic regression model was used to assess variables associated with antithrombotic use. On admission, 198 patients (49.6%) used oral anticoagulants (OAC), 125 (21.3%) antiplatelets, 32 (8%) low weight molecular heparin (LMWH) and 44 (11%) none of them. At discharge the proportion of patients on OAC increased to 55.7%. Age>90years (OR=2.57, CI=1.28-5.16, p-value=0.008), severe functional impairment (OR=3.38, CI=1.63-7.01, p-value=0.001), polypharmacy (OR=2.07, CI=1.1-3.86, p-value=0.023), HAS-BLED score (OR=1.64, CI=1.09-2.47, p-value=0.019) and ≥1 OAC contraindication (OR=5.01, CI=2.68-9.34, p-value<0.001) were all associated with OAC underuse. In conclusion, OAC is underused in geriatric patients with AF, while antiplatelet, LMWH and no antithrombotic therapy are relatively overused. Factors associated with the decision to not prescribe OAC lie on a mix of clinical and geriatric variables, among which functional status is particularly relevant. PMID:27131228

  15. Selecting score types for longitudinal evaluations: the responsiveness of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers in children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Pei; Tung, Li-Chen; Lee, Ya-Chen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Yen, Yun-Shan; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) in children with developmental disabilities (DD). Methods The responsiveness of a measure is its ability to detect change over time, and it is fundamental to an outcome measure for detecting changes over time. We compared the responsiveness of four types of scores (ie, raw scores, developmental ages [DAs], percentile ranks [PRs], and developmental quotients [DQs]) in the five subtests of the CDIIT. The CDIIT was administrated three times at intervals of 3 months on 32 children with DD aged between 5 months and 64 months (mean =30.6, standard deviation [SD] =17.8). The CDIIT is a pediatric norm-referenced assessment commonly used for clinical diagnosis of developmental delays in five developmental areas: cognition, language, motor, social, and self-care skills. The responsiveness was analyzed using three methods: effect size, standardized response mean, and paired t-test. Results The effect size results showed that at the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups, responsiveness was small or moderate in the raw scores and DAs of most of the subtest scores of the CDIIT, but the level of responsiveness varied in the PRs and DQs. The standardized response mean results of the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups showed that most of the subtest scores of the CDIIT had respectively moderate and large responsiveness in raw scores and DAs, but the responsiveness varied (from no to large) in PRs and DQs. Conclusion The findings generally support the use of the CDIIT as an outcome measure. We also suggest using the raw scores and DAs when using a norm-referenced pediatric developmental assessment to evaluate developmental changes and program effectiveness in children with DD. PMID:27217755

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of cortical structure abnormalities in drug-naïve, adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a surface-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Zutshi, Amit; Jindal, Sachin; Srikanth, Subbamma G; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Kumar, J Keshav; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2012-09-01

    The study objective was to comprehensively evaluate drug-naïve, adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) for cortical structure abnormalities in comparison with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study of case-control design, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1-mm) was performed in drug-naïve OCD patients (N = 50) & age- sex-, education- and handedness-matched healthy controls (N = 40). We examined cortical volume, thickness, surface area & local Gyrification Index (LGI) through a completely automated surface-based morphometric analysis using FreeSurfer software. OCD symptoms and insight were assessed using Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom (Y-BOCS) check-list and severity scale. Illness severity was assessed using Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) Scale. OCD patients had significantly deficient volume, thickness and surface area of right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Right lingual gyrus surface area was found to be significantly decreased in patients. Y-BOCS obsession score had significant negative correlation with left frontal pole volume. Y-BOCS compulsion score had significant negative correlations with right ACG volume and surface area and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex LGI. CGI-Severity score had significant negative correlations with right lingual gyrus volume, thickness and surface area as well as right lateral orbitofrontal area. Y-BOCS insight score showed a significant negative correlation with LGI of left medial OFC and left rostral ACG. Identification of novel deficits involving occipital brain regions and first-time observations of relevant correlations between various illness characteristics and cortical measures in OCD patients supports a network involving anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and occipital brain regions in the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:22770508

  17. Occurrence, source identification and ecological risk evaluation of metal elements in surface sediment: toward a comprehensive understanding of heavy metal pollution in Chaohu Lake, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, surface sediment samples from 48 sites covering the whole water area and three main estuaries of Chaohu Lake were collected to determine the concentrations of 25 metal elements using microwave-assisted digestion combined with ICP-MS. Spatial variation, source appointments, and contamination evaluation were examined using multivariate statistical techniques and pollution indices. The results show that for the elements Cd, Pb, Zr, Hf, U, Sr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sn, Cs, Tl, Bi, and Ba, which had higher coefficients of variation (CV), the concentrations were significantly higher in the eastern lake than in the western lake, but other elements with low CV values did not show spatial differences. The accumulation of Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta, Tl, Pb, Bi, U, and Th in the surface sediments was inferred as long-term agricultural cultivation impact, but that of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni may have been a natural occurrence. The contribution from industrial and municipal impact was negligible, despite the rapid urbanization around the studied area. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) predicted the contribution from agricultural activities to range from 0.45 ± 1.31% for Co to 92.7 ± 17.7% for Cd. The results of the pollution indices indicate that Chaohu Lake was weakly to moderately affected by Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni but was severely contaminated by Hf and Cd. The overall pollution level in the eastern lake was higher than that in the western lake with respect to the pollution level index (PLI). Therefore, our results can help comprehensively understand the sediment contamination by metals in Chaohu Lake. PMID:26304811

  18. Histopathological Differential Diagnosis of Psoriasis and Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Park, Young Joon; Kim, Sue Kyoung; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis can be difficult when both conditions are localized to the scalp without the involvement of other skin sites. Objective We aimed to evaluate the histopathological differences between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp and identify favorable criteria for their differential diagnosis. Methods We evaluated 15 cases of psoriasis and 20 cases of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp that had been clinicopathologically diagnosed. Skin biopsy sections stained with H&E were examined. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed, including Ki-67, keratin 10, caspase-5, and GLUT-1. Results On histopathological examination, mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, and clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges were significantly more frequently observed in psoriasis. Follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis were significantly more common in seborrheic dermatitis. Moreover, significantly higher mitotic figures were observed in psoriatic lesions than in seborrheic dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry did not show any difference between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion Histopathological features favoring psoriasis include mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges, and increased mitotic figures (≥6/high-powered field). Features indicating seborrheic dermatitis are follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis. Immunohistochemistry was not helpful in differentiating psoriasis from seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:27489423

  19. The Shear Wave Velocity on Elastography Correlates with the Clinical Symptoms and Histopathological Features of Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Katayama, Yasuhiro; Enoshiri, Tatsuki; Naitoh, Motoko; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Keloids present as red, painful lesions causing serious functional and cosmetic problems; however, there is no consensus regarding tools for objectively evaluating keloids. To demonstrate the utility of shear wave elastography in keloids, we investigated the correlations between clinical symptoms, ultrasound shear wave velocity, and histopathological findings. Methods: Three patients with keloids containing both red hypertrophic and mature areas were evaluated using the shear wave velocity and histopathological findings. Results: The results indicate that the shear wave velocity is high in active hypertrophic areas and low in mature areas. The areas with high elastography values exhibited numerous fibrillar collagenous matrices forming a whorled pattern with hyalinized tissue on hematoxylin-eosin staining corresponding with metachromasia on toluidine blue staining. In the mature area, the collagen fibers were oriented parallel to each other without metachromasia. Conclusions: Shear wave elastography provides quantitative estimates of tissue stiffness that correlate with the clinical symptoms and histopathological findings of the keloid lesions and can be used to assess the activity of keloids. PMID:26301153

  20. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-12-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707